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Sample records for abnormal white blood

  1. Abnormal White Matter Blood-Oxygen-Level–Dependent Signals in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Metcalf, Nicholas V.; Rengachary, Jennifer; MacDonald, Christine L.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Maruta, Jun; Shimony, Joshua S.; Ghajar, Jamshid; Diwakar, Mithun; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), can cause persistent behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this condition is associated with detectable structural or functional brain changes. At two sites, chronic mTBI human subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms (three months to five years after injury) and age- and education-matched healthy human control subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological and visual tracking eye movement tests. At one site, patients and controls also performed the visual tracking tasks while blood-oxygen-level–dependent (BOLD) signals were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although neither neuropsychological nor visual tracking measures distinguished patients from controls at the level of individual subjects, abnormal BOLD signals were reliably detected in patients. The most consistent changes were localized in white matter regions: anterior internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, BOLD signals were normal in cortical regions, such as the frontal eye field and intraparietal sulcus, that mediate oculomotor and attention functions necessary for visual tracking. The abnormal BOLD signals accurately differentiated chronic mTBI patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, although they did not correlate with symptoms or neuropsychological performance. We conclude that subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms can be identified years after their TBI using fMRI and an eye movement task despite showing normal structural MRI and DTI. PMID:25758167

  2. Abnormal White Matter Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent Signals in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Astafiev, Serguei V; Shulman, Gordon L; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Rengachary, Jennifer; MacDonald, Christine L; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Shimony, Joshua S; Ghajar, Jamshid; Diwakar, Mithun; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), can cause persistent behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this condition is associated with detectable structural or functional brain changes. At two sites, chronic mTBI human subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms (three months to five years after injury) and age- and education-matched healthy human control subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological and visual tracking eye movement tests. At one site, patients and controls also performed the visual tracking tasks while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although neither neuropsychological nor visual tracking measures distinguished patients from controls at the level of individual subjects, abnormal BOLD signals were reliably detected in patients. The most consistent changes were localized in white matter regions: anterior internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, BOLD signals were normal in cortical regions, such as the frontal eye field and intraparietal sulcus, that mediate oculomotor and attention functions necessary for visual tracking. The abnormal BOLD signals accurately differentiated chronic mTBI patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, although they did not correlate with symptoms or neuropsychological performance. We conclude that subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms can be identified years after their TBI using fMRI and an eye movement task despite showing normal structural MRI and DTI.

  3. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  4. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  5. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  6. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  7. Clinical characteristics of children with cerebral white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsdóttir, R; Uvebrant, P; Wiklund, L M

    2000-01-01

    The rapidly expanding use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with neurological impairments of unknown aetiology has revealed a large number of children with abnormalities of the cerebral white matter, some with leukodystrophy-like white matter abnormalities on MRI, but non-progressive in clinical presentation and course. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroradiological characteristics of 26 children with white matter abnormalities of unknown origin and to find diagnostic clues or indicators of progressive versus nonprogressive disease. The typical child with white matter abnormalities was characterized by onset of symptoms within the first year of life, most often presenting as general developmental delay and hypotonia. Later-appearing signs were spasticity and ataxia and as a rule severe learning and motor disabilities. Serious ophthalmological signs were frequently seen. Perinatal adverse events were rare, infectious aetiologies not indicated but prenatal stigmata relatively common. The clinical course was progressive in 11 children and non-progressive in 15. Late onset presentation was associated with a progressive course whereas prenatal stigmata and asymmetrical white matter lesions only were found in children with a non-progressive disorder. The MRI showed three main patterns: a) a generalized increase of the T2 signal of the white matter in 12 children, b) a bilateral, symmetric but not generalized abnormality in nine and c) asymmetric, focal or multifocal pathology in five. Useful information as to clinical entities and course was obtained from the combined clinical and radiological assessment. A precise nosological diagnosis could be made in six cases. The study showed that white matter abnormalities in children constitute a heterogeneous group of rare and 'anonymous' conditions, motivating collaborative studies for further clarification of background and management. PMID:10701100

  8. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality. PMID:25560665

  9. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  10. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  11. Whole exome sequencing in patients with white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vanderver, Adeline; Simons, Cas; Helman, Guy; Crawford, Joanna; Wolf, Nicole I; Bernard, Geneviève; Pizzino, Amy; Schmidt, Johanna L; Takanohashi, Asako; Miller, David; Khouzam, Amirah; Rajan, Vani; Ramos, Erica; Chowdhury, Shimul; Hambuch, Tina; Ru, Kelin; Baillie, Gregory J; Grimmond, Sean M; Caldovic, Ljubica; Devaney, Joseph; Bloom, Miriam; Evans, Sarah H; Murphy, Jennifer L P; McNeill, Nathan; Fogel, Brent L; Schiffmann, Raphael; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Taft, Ryan J

    2016-06-01

    Here we report whole exome sequencing (WES) on a cohort of 71 patients with persistently unresolved white matter abnormalities with a suspected diagnosis of leukodystrophy or genetic leukoencephalopathy. WES analyses were performed on trio, or greater, family groups. Diagnostic pathogenic variants were identified in 35% (25 of 71) of patients. Potentially pathogenic variants were identified in clinically relevant genes in a further 7% (5 of 71) of cases, giving a total yield of clinical diagnoses in 42% of individuals. These findings provide evidence that WES can substantially decrease the number of unresolved white matter cases. Ann Neurol 2016;79:1031-1037.

  12. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  13. White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lener, Marc S; Wong, Edmund; Tang, Cheuk Y; Byne, William; Goldstein, Kim E; Blair, Nicholas J; Haznedar, M Mehmet; New, Antonia S; Chemerinski, Eran; Chu, King-Wai; Rimsky, Liza S; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-01-01

    Prior diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies examining schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia, separately have shown that compared with healthy controls (HCs), patients show frontotemporal white matter (WM) abnormalities. This is the first DTI study to directly compare WM tract coherence with tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) across the schizophrenia spectrum in a large sample of demographically matched HCs (n = 55), medication-naive SPD patients (n = 49), and unmedicated/never-medicated schizophrenia patients (n = 22) to determine whether (a) frontal-striatal-temporal WM tract abnormalities in schizophrenia are similar to, or distinct from those observed in SPD; and (b) WM tract abnormalities are associated with clinical symptom severity indicating a common underlying pathology across the spectrum. Compared with both the HC and SPD groups, schizophrenia patients showed WM abnormalities, as indexed by lower FA in the temporal lobe (inferior longitudinal fasciculus) and cingulum regions. SPD patients showed lower FA in the corpus callosum genu compared with the HC group, but this regional abnormality was more widespread in schizophrenia patients. Across the schizophrenia spectrum, greater WM disruptions were associated with greater symptom severity. Overall, frontal-striatal-temporal WM dysconnectivity is attenuated in SPD compared with schizophrenia patients and may mitigate the emergence of psychosis.

  14. Age exacerbates HIV-associated white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Gongvatana, Assawin; Woods, Adam J; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric C; Cummings, Tiffany; Correia, Stephen; Tashima, Karen; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-04-01

    Both HIV disease and advanced age have been associated with alterations to cerebral white matter, as measured with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and more recently with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study investigates the combined effects of age and HIV serostatus on WMH and DTI measures, as well as the relationships between these white matter measures, in 88 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 49 seronegative (HIV-) individuals aged 23-79 years. A whole-brain volumetric measure of WMH was quantified from FLAIR images using a semi-automated process, while fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for 15 regions of a whole-brain white matter skeleton generated using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). An age by HIV interaction was found indicating a significant association between WMH and older age in HIV+ participants only. Similarly, significant age by HIV interactions were found indicating stronger associations between older age and decreased FA in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules, cerebral peduncles, and anterior corona radiata in HIV+ vs. HIV- participants. The interactive effects of HIV and age were stronger with respect to whole-brain WMH than for any of the FA measures. Among HIV+ participants, greater WMH and lower anterior corona radiata FA were associated with active hepatitis C virus infection, a history of AIDS, and higher current CD4 cell count. Results indicate that age exacerbates HIV-associated abnormalities of whole-brain WMH and fronto-subcortical white matter integrity.

  15. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P < 0.05) and more with D-D (P < 0.01), while age, sex, type of AL, WBC count, Plt count and abnormality of cytogenetics did not correlate with abnormal blood coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated

  16. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  17. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  18. Abnormal rheology of oxygenated blood in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Shu; Usami, Shunichi; Bertles, John F.

    1970-01-01

    The viscosity of oxygenated blood from patients with sickle cell anemia (Hb SS disease) was found to be abnormally increased, a property which contrasts with the well recognized viscous aberration produced by deoxygenation of Hb SS blood. Experiments designed to explain this finding led to considerations of deformation and aggregation, primary determinants of the rheologic behavior of erythrocytes as they traverse the microcirculation. Deformability of erythrocytes is in turn dependent upon internal viscosity (i.e. the state and concentration of hemoglobin in solution) and membrane flexibility. Definition of the contribution made by each of these properties to the abnormal viscosity of oxygenated Hb SS blood was made possible by analysis of viscosity measurements, made over a wide range of shear rates and cell concentrations, on Hb SS erythrocytes and normal erythrocytes suspended in Ringer's solution (where aggregation does not occur) and in plasma. Similar measurements were made on the two cell types separated by ultracentrifugation of Hb SS erythrocytes: high density erythrocytes composed of 50 to 70% irreversibly “sickled” cells (ISC) and low density erythrocytes composed of over 95% non-ISC. Under all experimental conditions (hematocrit, shear rate, and suspending medium) the viscosity of ISC exceeds that of normal erythrocytes. The viscosity of non-ISC is elevated only in the absence of aggregation and over intermediate ranges of hematocrit. Analyses of the data reveal (a) an elevated internal viscosity of ISC: (b) a reduced membrane flexibility of both ISC and non-ISC, particularly at low shear rates; and (c) a reduced tendency for aggregation displayed by both cell types. The abnormal viscosity of oxygenated Hb SS blood can be attributed to the altered rheology of ISC and, to a lesser extent, of non-ISC. These studies assign a role to the abnormal rheology of Hb SS erythrocytes in the pathogenesis of sickle cell anemia, even under conditions of complete

  19. Neonatal White Matter Abnormalities an Important Predictor of Neurocognitive Outcome for Very Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Lianne J.; Clark, Caron A. C.; Bora, Samudragupta; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. Objective Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. Design/Methods The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) infants born from 1998–2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. Results At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white matter abnormalities on

  20. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Golden, Neville H; Feldman, Heidi M; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  1. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Golden, Neville H; Feldman, Heidi M; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  2. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  3. Neonatal White Matter Abnormality Predicts Childhood Motor Impairment in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Alicia J.; Cheong, Jeanie; Doyle, Lex W.; Roberts, Gehan; Lee, Katherine J.; Lim, Jeremy; Hunt, Rod W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children born very preterm are at risk for impaired motor performance ranging from cerebral palsy (CP) to milder abnormalities, such as developmental coordination disorder. White matter abnormalities (WMA) at term have been associated with CP in very preterm children; however, little is known about the impact of WMA on the range of motor…

  4. Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct application of the original algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. The modified algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive estimation algorithm to each initial component. Applying the algorithm to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the modified algorithm on six classes of cells--myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and PolyMorphoNuclear--are very close to the human expert's numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is similar to the deviation of counts produced by human experts. The important technical contributions are that the modified algorithm uses prior statistics for each shape class in place or prior knowledge of the total number of objects in an image, and it allows for more than one primitive from each class.

  5. Prediabetes is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Greenway, F L; Cornelissen, G; Pan, W; Halberg, F

    2008-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) exhibits a circadian variation characterized by a morning increase, followed by a small postprandial valley and a deeper descent during nocturnal rest. Although abnormal 24-h variability (abnormal circadian variability (ACV)) predicts adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, a 7-day automatic ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and subsequent chronobiologic analysis of the gathered data, permits identification of consistency of any abnormal circadian variation. To test whether normal overweight healthy men and women with prediabetes differed from subjects with normoglycemia in having ACV with a 7-day ABPM. Consent for a 7-day ABPM was obtained from subjects with family history of diabetes mellitus, who were participating in the screening phase for a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled weight loss trial in prediabetics to prevent progression to diabetes mellitus. The automatic 7-day ABPM device recorded BP and heart rate every 30 min during the day and every 60 min during the night. Normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects matched for age, sex, race, BP, BMI, waist circumference and glycemic control, differed statistically significantly only in their fasting and/or 2-h postprandial serum glucose concentrations. Chronobiologically-interpreted 7-day ABPM uncovered no abnormalities in normoglycemics, whereas prediabetics had a statistically significantly higher incidence of high mean BP (MESOR-hypertension), excessive pulse pressure and/or circadian hyper-amplitude-tension (CHAT) (P<0.001). ACV detected with 7-day ABPM may account for the enhanced CVD risk in prediabetes. These findings provide a basis for larger-scale studies to assess the predictive value of 7-day ABPM over the long term. PMID:18480832

  6. White Matter Volume Abnormalities and Associations with Symptomatology in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Makris, N.; Seidman, L. J.; Ahern, T.; Kennedy, D. N.; Caviness, V. S.; Tsuang, M. T.; Goldstein, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral white matter (WM) is critically involved in many bio-behavioral functions impaired in schizophrenia. However, the specific neural systems underlying symptomatology in schizophrenia are not well known. By comparing the volume of all brain fiber systems between chronic patients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia (n = 88) and matched healthy community controls (n = 40), we found that a set of a priori WM regions of local and distal associative fiber systems were significantly different in patients with schizophrenia. There were significant positive correlations between volumes (larger) in anterior callosal, cingulate and temporal deep WM regions (related to distal connections) with positive symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions and bizarre behavior, and significant negative correlation between volumes (smaller) in occipital and paralimbic superficial WM (related to local connections) and posterior callosal fiber systems with higher negative symptoms, such as alogia. Furthermore, the temporal sagittal system showed significant rightward asymmetry between patients and controls. These observations suggest a pattern of volume WM alterations associated with symptomatology in schizophrenia that may be related in part to predisposition to schizophrenia. PMID:20538438

  7. Anatomical Abnormalities in Gray and White Matter of the Cortical Surface in Persons with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Colibazzi, Tiziano; Wexler, Bruce E.; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Sanchez-Peña, Juan; Corcoran, Cheryl; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia. Methods We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness. Results We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities. Conclusions Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness. PMID:23418459

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, K.; Damasio, H.; Graff-Radford, N.; Eslinger, P.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-05-01

    In 37 patients (ages 58-81) with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied utilizing a dedicated SPECT system (Tomomatic-64) that produces rCBF images from 4-minute clearance of Xenon-133 in the brain. The authors have modified the device to acquire 5 continuous tomographic slices simultaneously. A consistent pattern of diminished blood flow was seen in 33 patients in the posterior-temporal and lower-parietal brain regions. Computer programs were developed to quantitate the size of the affected brain tissue in the posterolateral brain areas (confined to the posterior 40% and the lateral 25% of the major and minor brain axes respectively). They have previously reported normal rCBF in 25 volunteers to be greater than 45 ml/min/100g with less than 10% regional variation. Hence, an area was considered abnormal if rCBF measured less than 40 ml/min/100g or was less than 70% of the mean rCBF value in the anterior temporal-frontal regions.

  9. Clinical prediction of fall risk and white matter abnormalities: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tinetti scale is a simple clinical tool designed to predict risk of falling by focusing on gait and stance impairment in elderly persons. Gait impairment is also associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elderly subjects at risk for falling, as deter...

  10. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  11. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  12. White Matter Abnormalities in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Genetic Generalized Epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Lee, Seongtaek; Allendorfer, Jane B; Gaston, Tyler E; Knowlton, Robert C; Pati, Sandipan; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W; Deutsch, Georg

    2016-06-10

    BACKGROUND Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) are associated with microstructural brain abnormalities that can be evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Available studies on GGEs have conflicting results. Our primary goal was to compare the white matter structure in a cohort of patients with video/EEG-confirmed GGEs to healthy controls (HCs). Our secondary goal was to assess the potential effect of age at GGE onset on the white matter structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS A convenience sample of 23 patients with well-characterized treatment-resistant GGEs (13 female) was compared to 23 HCs. All participants received MRI at 3T. DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), were compared between groups using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). RESULTS After controlling for differences between groups, abnormalities in DTI parameters were observed in patients with GGEs, including decreases in functional anisotropy (FA) in the hemispheric (left>right) and brain stem white matter. The examination of the effect of age at GGE onset on the white matter integrity revealed a significant negative correlation in the left parietal white matter region FA (R=-0.504; p=0.017); similar trends were observed in the white matter underlying left motor cortex (R=-0.357; p=0.103) and left posterior limb of the internal capsule (R=-0.319; p=0.148). CONCLUSIONS Our study confirms the presence of widespread white matter abnormalities in patients with GGEs and provides evidence that the age at GGE onset may have an important effect on white matter integrity.

  13. White Matter Abnormalities in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Genetic Generalized Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Lee, Seongtaek; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Gaston, Tyler E.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Pati, Sandipan; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W.; Deutsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) are associated with microstructural brain abnormalities that can be evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Available studies on GGEs have conflicting results. Our primary goal was to compare the white matter structure in a cohort of patients with video/EEG-confirmed GGEs to healthy controls (HCs). Our secondary goal was to assess the potential effect of age at GGE onset on the white matter structure. Material/Methods A convenience sample of 23 patients with well-characterized treatment-resistant GGEs (13 female) was compared to 23 HCs. All participants received MRI at 3T. DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), were compared between groups using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Results After controlling for differences between groups, abnormalities in DTI parameters were observed in patients with GGEs, including decreases in functional anisotropy (FA) in the hemispheric (left>right) and brain stem white matter. The examination of the effect of age at GGE onset on the white matter integrity revealed a significant negative correlation in the left parietal white matter region FA (R=−0.504; p=0.017); similar trends were observed in the white matter underlying left motor cortex (R=−0.357; p=0.103) and left posterior limb of the internal capsule (R=−0.319; p=0.148). Conclusions Our study confirms the presence of widespread white matter abnormalities in patients with GGEs and provides evidence that the age at GGE onset may have an important effect on white matter integrity. PMID:27283395

  14. Calcium intake and blood pressure in blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Freudenheim, J L; Russell, M; Trevisan, M; Doemland, M

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on 1790 residents of Erie County, New York, over age 19, who participated in a study of blood pressure in 1986. Subjects were selected using a highly stratified sampling procedure to obtain a sample that included approximately equal numbers of blacks and whites in three educational strata (less than 12 years, 12 years, and more than 12 years of education). Calcium intake was estimated using questions regarding usual frequency of intake of foods high in calcium and of calcium-containing supplements and antacids. Calcium intake by normotensives tended to be higher than intake by hypertensives; differences were significant for females but not for males. Calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with systolic blood pressure for black females and diastolic blood pressure in black and white females after control for age, education, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol. For other sex-race groups, there was generally a trend (although not significant) toward decreased blood pressure with increased calcium intake. Diastolic blood pressure was inversely associated with calcium from milk and yogurt (but not cheese) for white females. A similar association (although not significant) was found for black females; no association was found for males. No differences were found between blacks and whites in response to calcium. This cross-sectional study provides some additional evidence of a protective effect of calcium intake on blood pressure in both black and white females.

  15. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Miller, Danielle R.; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI). The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC) group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC) group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1) a region-specific analysis and 2) a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of having

  16. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Miller, Danielle R; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI). The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC) group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC) group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1) a region-specific analysis and 2) a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of having

  17. Recurring structural chromosome abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, M; Finn, W G; Yelavarthi, K K; Roenigk, H H; Samuelson, E; Peterson, L; Kuzel, T M; Rosen, S T

    1997-05-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from 19 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF)/Sézary syndrome (SS) stimulated with either phytohemagglutinin, a conventional mitogen, or a combination of interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus IL-7. The use of both PHA-stimulated and IL-2 plus IL-7-stimulated cultures enhanced the ability to identify clonal abnormalities. Clonal abnormalities were observed in 11 patients (53%) including one with monosomy for the sex chromosome as the sole abnormality. Five of the 11 patients with clonal abnormalities had normal peripheral white blood cell counts, indicating detectability of clones in the absence of frankly leukemic disease. The presence of clonal abnormalities correlated with advanced stage disease and a significantly reduced survival duration from the time of cytogenetic studies. Clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 1 and 8 were observed in six cases. In five cases with aberrations of chromosome 1, loss of material involved the region between 1p22 and 1p36. In an additional case, a reciprocal translocation involving 1p33 was observed. Clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 10 and 17 were observed in 5 cases, clonal abnormalities involving chromosome 2 in 4 cases, and clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 19, and 20 in 3 cases. In 2 cases a der(8)t(8;17)(p11;q11) was observed. Regions of the genome that encode T-cell receptors were not involved in abnormalities. The region between 1p22 and 1p36 is identified as a region of the genome that requires detailed analysis toward the identification of potential gene(s) involved in the process of malignant transformation and/or progression in MF/SS.

  18. Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-08-30

    Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0 ± 0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls.

  19. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  20. The relationship between white matter abnormalities and cognitive functions in new-onset juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Burcu; Bulut, Hacı Taner; Gümüştaş, Funda; Yıldırım, Adem; Kuştepe, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed evidence of subcortical white matter abnormalities in the frontal area in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD) in the corticothalamic pathway have been detected in adult patients with JME. It has been demonstrated that, in adult patients with JME, frontal dysfunction is related to subcortical white matter damage and decreased volume in frontal cortical gray matter and the thalamus. Many studies have focused on adult patients. Twenty-four patients and 28 controls were evaluated. The group with JME had significantly worse results for the word fluency, trail-B, and Stroop tests that assessed executive functions. A significant decrease in FA values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the supplementary motor area (SMA), the right thalamus, the posterior cingulate, the corpus callosum anterior, the corona radiata, and the middle frontal white matter (MFWM) and an increase in ADC values in patients with JME were detected. The correlation between FA values in DLPFC and the letter fluency test results was positive, and the correlation with the Stroop and trail-B test results was negative. We found a negative correlation between SMA, anterior thalamus, and MFWM FA values and the trail-B test results and a positive correlation between the SMA, anterior thalamus, and MFWM FA values and the letter fluency test results. We detected white matter and gray matter abnormalities in patients with new-onset JME using DTI. In addition, we determined the relationship between cognitive deficit and microstructural abnormalities by evaluating the correlation between the neuropsychological test battery results and DTI parameters. We evaluated newly diagnosed patients with JME in our study. That leads us to believe that microstructural abnormalities exist from the very beginning of the disease and that they result from the genetic basis of the disease.

  1. Behavioural changes observed in demyelination model shares similarities with white matter abnormalities in humans.

    PubMed

    Serra-de-Oliveira, Nathalia; Boilesen, Sabine Nunes; Prado de França Carvalho, Carolina; LeSueur-Maluf, Luciana; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Spadari, Regina Célia; Medalha, Carla Cristina; Monteiro de Castro, Gláucia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Further to the symptoms resulting from demyelination, new studies point to the involvement of neuroinflammation and white matter abnormalities in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Cuprizone, a model of MS, produces consistent demyelination and elicits behavioural, morphological and inflammatory changes in animals that share some similarities with those observed in humans. In this study, we used the cuprizone model in Lewis rats to evaluate clinical signs triggered by the demyelination process which could be comparable with the symptoms seen in white matter abnormalities in human beings. To induce the demyelination process, 0.6% cuprizone was added to the Lewis rats' diet for 4 weeks. We proceeded with behavioural, morphological and immunological analyses. Animals fed with cuprizone exhibited behavioural changes: higher scores in the neurotoxicity test, reduced exploratory and locomotion behaviour, and also an increase of permanency in the closed arm of the elevated plus maze test, were observed. In these analyses, the animals showed motor coordination impairment and anxiety-like behaviour. Demyelination also triggered changes in discrimination of objects identified by an increase in the time spent close to a familiar object. These behavioural alterations were associated with a significant increase in the levels of TNF-alpha and corticosterone, consistent with the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Taken together, the results of this work show the cuprizone/Lewis rat model demyelination as an attractive paradigm for studying the correlation between white matter abnormalities and behaviour.

  2. WATER AND METABOLITE TRANSVERSE T2 RELAXATION TIME ABNORMALITIES IN THE WHITE MATTER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fei; Cooper, Alissa; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Öngür, Dost

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that microstructural abnormalities in the white matter are important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI approaches which can provide evidence on tissue structure have been widely used to probe these abnormalities in vivo, but transverse relaxation times (T2) may provide additional insights since they are determined by molecule-microenvironment interactions not revealed by diffusion MRI. T2 of water – located both intra and extracellularly – and N-acetylaspartate (NAA – located intracellularly) reflect related but distinct processes due to their differential localization and interactions with other molecules. In this study, we collected water and NAA T2 data from 16 healthy subjects (HC), and 16 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) at 4 Tesla in a 9cc voxel in the right prefrontal white matter. The SZ group had longer water but shorter NAA T2 relaxation times when compared with the HC group. This pattern resulted in a statistically significant metabolite x group interaction (F(18,1):4.980, p=0.039). Prolongation of water T2 and shortening of NAA T2 is consistent with an impoverishment of white matter macromolecule structures (including myelin) and abnormal intra-axonal milieu and volume in SZ. PMID:22356802

  3. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  4. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  5. Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C.C.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. RESULTS: Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. PMID:25510999

  6. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities

  7. 'White Coat' High Blood Pressure May Signal Trouble in Older People

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161774.html 'White Coat' High Blood Pressure May Signal Trouble in Older People Researchers found ... suggests. White coat hypertension refers to high blood pressure readings in a doctor's office or other medical ...

  8. Margination of White Blood Cells in Microcapillary Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Fornleitner, Julia; Gompper, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Margination of white blood cells (WBCs) towards vessel walls is an essential precondition for their efficient adhesion to the vascular endothelium. We perform numerical simulations with a two-dimensional blood flow model to investigate the dependence of WBC margination on hydrodynamic interactions of blood cells with the vessel walls, as well as on their collective behavior and deformability. We find WBC margination to be optimal in intermediate ranges of red blood cell (RBC) volume fractions and flow rates, while, beyond these ranges, it is substantially attenuated. RBC aggregation enhances WBC margination, while WBC deformability reduces it. These results are combined in state diagrams, which identify WBC margination for a wide range of flow and cell suspension conditions.

  9. Microstructural abnormalities of the brain white matter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lei, Du; He, Ning; Hu, Xinyu; Chen, Ying; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jinbo; Guo, Lanting; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple behavioural problems and executive dysfunctions for which neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of abnormalities, with inconsistencies partly owing to confounding by medication and concurrent psychiatric disease. We aimed to investigate the microstructural abnormalities of white matter in unmedicated children and adolescents with pure ADHD and to explore the association between these abnormalities and behavioural symptoms and executive functions. Methods We assessed children and adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls using psychiatric interviews. Behavioural problems were rated using the revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale, and executive functions were measured using the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data using a 3 T MRI system, and we compared diffusion parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial and radial diffusivities, between the 2 groups. Results Thirty-three children and adolescents with ADHD and 35 healthy controls were included in our study. In patients compared with controls, FA was increased in the left posterior cingulum bundle as a result of both increased axial diffusivity and decreased radial diffusivity. In addition, the averaged FA of the cluster in this region correlated with behavioural measures as well as executive function in patients with ADHD. Limitations This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and small sample size. The cluster size of the significant result was small. Conclusion Our findings suggest that white matter abnormalities within the limbic network could be part of the neural underpinning of behavioural problems and executive dysfunction in patients with ADHD. PMID:25853285

  10. Brain metabolite abnormalities in the white matter of elderly schizophrenic subjects: implication for glial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Linda; Friedman, Joseph; Ernst, Thomas; Zhong, Kai; Tsopelas, Nicholas D.; Davis, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in the white matter of the brain may occur in individuals with schizophrenia as well as with normal aging. Therefore, elderly schizophrenic patients may suffer further cognitive decline as they age. This study determined whether elderly schizophrenia participants, especially those with declined cognitive function (CDR>1), show white matter metabolite abnormalities on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), and whether there are group differences in age-dependent changes in these brain metabolites. Method 23 elderly schizophrenic and 22 comparison participants fulfilling study criteria were enrolled. Localized, short echo-time 1H MRS at 4 Tesla was used to assess neurometabolite concentrations in several white matter regions. Results Compared to healthy subjects, schizophrenic participants had lower N-acetyl compounds (NA, −12.6%, p=0.0008), lower myoinositol (MI, −16.4%, p=0.026) and higher glutamate+glutamine (GLX, +28.7%, p=0.0016) concentrations across brain regions. Schizophrenic participants with CDR≥1 showed the lowest NA in the frontal and temporal regions compared to controls. Interactions between age and schizophrenia status on total creatine (CR) and choline-containing compounds (CHO) were observed; only schizophrenic participants showed age-related decreases of these two metabolites in the right frontal region. Conclusion Decreased NA in these white matter brain regions likely reflects reduced neuronal content associated with decreased synapses and neuronal cell volumes. The elevated GLX, if reflecting elevated glutamate, could result from excess neuronal glutamate release or glial dysfunction in glutamate re-uptake. The decreased MI in participants with schizophrenia suggests decreased glial content or dysfunctional glia, which might result from glutamate-mediated toxicity. PMID:17693392

  11. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    disrupted end-feet juxtaposed to microvessels. To explore whether this was associated with the disrupted gliovascular interactions or blood-brain barrier damage, we assessed the co-localization of GFAP and AQP4 immunoreactivities in post-mortem brains from adult baboons with cerebral hypoperfusive injury, induced by occlusion of three major vessels supplying blood to the brain. Analysis of the frontal white matter in perfused brains from the animals surviving 1-28 days after occlusion revealed that the highest intensity of fibrinogen immunoreactivity was at 14 days. At this survival time point, we also noted strikingly similar redistribution of AQP4 and GFAP+ astrocytes transformed into clasmatodendrocytes. Our findings suggest novel associations between irreversible astrocyte injury and disruption of gliovascular interactions at the blood-brain barrier in the frontal white matter and cognitive impairment in elderly post-stroke survivors. We propose that clasmatodendrosis is another pathological substrate, linked to white matter hyperintensities and frontal white matter changes, which may contribute to post-stroke or small vessel disease dementia.

  12. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    disrupted end-feet juxtaposed to microvessels. To explore whether this was associated with the disrupted gliovascular interactions or blood-brain barrier damage, we assessed the co-localization of GFAP and AQP4 immunoreactivities in post-mortem brains from adult baboons with cerebral hypoperfusive injury, induced by occlusion of three major vessels supplying blood to the brain. Analysis of the frontal white matter in perfused brains from the animals surviving 1-28 days after occlusion revealed that the highest intensity of fibrinogen immunoreactivity was at 14 days. At this survival time point, we also noted strikingly similar redistribution of AQP4 and GFAP+ astrocytes transformed into clasmatodendrocytes. Our findings suggest novel associations between irreversible astrocyte injury and disruption of gliovascular interactions at the blood-brain barrier in the frontal white matter and cognitive impairment in elderly post-stroke survivors. We propose that clasmatodendrosis is another pathological substrate, linked to white matter hyperintensities and frontal white matter changes, which may contribute to post-stroke or small vessel disease dementia. PMID:26667280

  13. Inferior frontal gyrus white matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Óscar F; Sousa, Sónia; Maia, Liliana; Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Ganho, Ana; Fernandes-Gonçalves, Ana; Frank, Brandon; Pocinho, Fernando; Carracedo, Angel; Sampaio, Adriana

    2015-06-17

    The aim of the present study is to explore obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-related abnormalities in white matter connectivity in OCD for a core region associated with inhibitory control [i.e. inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)]. Fifteen patients with OCD (11 men) and 15 healthy controls (nine men) underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning to study four diffusivity indexes of white matter integrity [fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD)]. The results showed that persons with OCD manifested significantly lower fractional anisotropy levels in the bilateral IFG as well as its parcellations in the pars opercularis, pars triangularis, and pars orbitalis. Significantly higher levels of MD, RD were evident for the OCD group in the IFG as a whole as well as in the bilateral subregions of the pars triangularis and pars opercularis (for MD and RD), the right side of the pars orbitalis (for RD), and the left side of the pars triangularis and right side pars opercularis (for axial diffusivity). Overall, the results suggest significant alterations in structural connectivity, probably associated with myelination and axonal abnormalities in the IFG of OCD patients. PMID:25945482

  14. Longitudinal assessment of white matter abnormalities following sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Bergamino, Maurizio; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Teague, T K; Ling, Josef M; Jeromin, Andreas; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-01

    There is great interest in developing physiological-based biomarkers such as diffusion tensor imaging to aid in the management of concussion, which is currently entirely dependent on clinical judgment. However, the time course for recovery of white matter abnormalities following sports-related concussion (SRC) is unknown. We collected diffusion tensor imaging and behavioral data in forty concussed collegiate athletes on average 1.64 days (T1; n = 33), 8.33 days (T2; n = 30), and 32.15 days post-concussion (T3; n = 26), with healthy collegiate contact-sport athletes (HA) serving as controls (n = 46). We hypothesized that fractional anisotropy (FA) would be increased acutely and partially recovered by one month post-concussion. Mood symptoms were assessed using structured interviews. FA differences were assessed using both traditional and subject-specific analyses. An exploratory analysis of tau plasma levels was conducted in a subset of participants. Results indicated that mood symptoms improved over time post-concussion, but remained elevated at T3 relative to HA. Across both group and subject-specific analyses, concussed athletes exhibited increased FA in several white matter tracts at each visit post-concussion with no longitudinal evidence of recovery. Increased FA at T1 and T3 was significantly associated with an independent, real-world outcome measure for return-to-play. Finally, we observed a nonsignificant trend for reduced tau in plasma of concussed athletes at T1 relative to HA, with tau significantly increasing by T2. These results suggest white matter abnormalities following SRC may persist beyond one month and have potential as an objective biomarker for concussion outcome. Hum Brain Mapp 37:833-845, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cerebellar white matter abnormalities following primary blast injury in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related 'mild' traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation.

  16. Cerebellar White Matter Abnormalities following Primary Blast Injury in US Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related ‘mild’ traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation. PMID:23409052

  17. Multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis of white matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Radua, Joaquim; Grau, Mar; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Stein, Dan J; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Catani, Marco; Mataix-Cols, David

    2014-06-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four data sets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping. Patients with OCD showed widespread WM abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread WM abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, although these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs.

  18. Abnormal DNA content predicts the occurrence of carcinomas in non-dysplastic oral white patches.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, J; Ried, T; Bryne, M; Kildal, W; Danielsen, H; Reith, A

    2001-10-01

    The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are preceded by visible changes in the oral mucosa, most often white patches. Although the histological finding of dysplasia in oral white patches signals increased risk of developing OSCC, this may also occur in non-dysplastic lesions. However, no reliable markers exist to predict the occurrence of OSCC in these patients. From a total of 263 patients diagnosed with oral white patches, biopsies from 45 patients were selected on the criteria that the patients had lesions histologically proven to be non-dysplastic. The lesions were analyzed with respect to their DNA content. The clinical outcome of the patients was known from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and these data were compared to the DNA content of their lesions. Among the 45 patients, five cases (11%) later developed an OSCC. Four of the cases that subsequently developed an OSCC were among the five aneuploid (abnormal) cases (P=0.001). One aneuploid lesion did not develop a carcinoma during a follow-up time of 120 months. The fifth case that subsequently developed an OSCC was diploid (normal), and developed into an OSCC after an observation time of 73 months (P=0.001). In conclusion, aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of OSCC in patients that otherwise would be regarded as at very low risk. Normal DNA content indicates low risk. PMID:11564576

  19. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J.; Ndung’u, Michael N.; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J. L.; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J.; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Allan, Louise M.; Oakley, Arthur E.; O’Brien, John T.; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    disrupted end-feet juxtaposed to microvessels. To explore whether this was associated with the disrupted gliovascular interactions or blood–brain barrier damage, we assessed the co-localization of GFAP and AQP4 immunoreactivities in post-mortem brains from adult baboons with cerebral hypoperfusive injury, induced by occlusion of three major vessels supplying blood to the brain. Analysis of the frontal white matter in perfused brains from the animals surviving 1–28 days after occlusion revealed that the highest intensity of fibrinogen immunoreactivity was at 14 days. At this survival time point, we also noted strikingly similar redistribution of AQP4 and GFAP+ astrocytes transformed into clasmatodendrocytes. Our findings suggest novel associations between irreversible astrocyte injury and disruption of gliovascular interactions at the blood–brain barrier in the frontal white matter and cognitive impairment in elderly post-stroke survivors. We propose that clasmatodendrosis is another pathological substrate, linked to white matter hyperintensities and frontal white matter changes, which may contribute to post-stroke or small vessel disease dementia. PMID:26667280

  20. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-07-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming.

  1. Improved screening test for abnormal hemoglobins from dried blood samples.

    PubMed

    Altland, K; Kaempfer, M; Granda, H

    1979-01-01

    A method is described wherein blood samples taken from adults or newborns and dried on filter paper can be used for hemoglobin analysis within 2 years after sampling. The samples are eluted in 8 M urea in the presence of 5% 2-mercaptoethanol and 2% of the neutral detergent Nonidet P-40. Then the individual alpha, beta, gamma, and epsilon chains are separated by means of electrofocusing in 8 M urea-PAA gels. Up to 96 samples can be applied to a gel using multiple syringes. Several hundred samples can be analyzed daily by one person. This method may be especially useful for preventive programs against sickle cell anemia as well as for human mutation monitoring systems.

  2. Analysis of White Blood Cell Dynamics in Nailfold Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Butterworth, Ian; Sánchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature. PMID:26738019

  3. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  4. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia. PMID:27211239

  5. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia. PMID:27211239

  6. Blood changes in mallards exposed to white phosphorus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Vann, S.; Grove, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    White phosphorus (P4) has been extensively used by the military for various purposes including marking artillery impacts and as an obscurant. Target practice in an Alaskan tidal marsh during the last four decades has deposited large amounts of P4 particles in sediments and water which have resulted in die-offs of several waterfowl species. Because the toxicity of P4 in birds has not been well documented and because it is quickly excreted or metabolized in living animals, we sought to determine the effects of experimental dosing on blood characteristics in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In two experiments, one employing single doses of 5.4 mg P4/kg body weight in corn oil and the other using daily repeated doses of pelletized P4 at either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, there were significant changes in AST, ALT, LDH, inorganic P, hematocrit and hemoglobin. Other indications of exposure included changes in uric acid, creatinine, and total protein which were consistent with reported liver and kidney damage due to this contaminant. Changes in white blood cells included a greater frequency of thrombocytes and fewer lymphocytes in dosed birds compared to controls. A biomarker of exposure based on LDH activity and hemoglobin is proposed.

  7. Blood sample stability at room temperature for counting red and white blood cells and platelets.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, S A; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D; Kluft, C

    2002-08-01

    Blood handling required for different cellular variables is different. In a practical setting of blood sampling approximately 4 h separated from the first analysis, we compared the analysis of blood cell variables at this 4-h point with analysis of blood stored for approximately 48 h (over the weekend) at room temperature. Blood was collected from 304 apparently healthy individuals aged between 17 and 70 years, with a female/male ratio of 1.8, in K3EDTA. Measurement was performed with a Beckman Coulter Counter Maxm. In addition to the comparison of the data and their correlation on the two time points, we investigated agreement between the data using analysis according to Bland and Altman. Counts of white and red blood cells and platelets were found stable over time and agreement of data was excellent. Platelet mean volume increased as expected between the two time points from 8.8 to 10.3 fl. The white blood cell subpopulations, however, changed over time with a decrease in neutrophils and monocytes and increases in lymphocytes and eosinophils. Apparently, ageing of the sample resulted in the alteration of certain cell characteristics leading to a change in automated cell classification without changing the total number of cells. Among the preanalytical variables recorded, only the time of the year and gender were found to be minor determinants (r < .25) of some of the differences between approximately 4 and approximately 48 h analysis delay. It is concluded that after storage at room temperature over approximately 48 h counts of red, total white cells, platelets and analysis of platelet volume can be combined in one assay session.

  8. Use of indium 111-labeled white blood cell scan in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Chinsky, K.; Goodenberger, D.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Opportunistic infections are common in patients after renal transplantation. This report describes a case of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram and normal arterial oxygenation. An abnormal 111In-white blood cell scan led to the discovery of a pulmonary source of his recurrent fevers.

  9. Indium 111-labeled white blood cell scans after vascular prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sedwitz, M.M.; Davies, R.J.; Pretorius, H.T.; Vasquez, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The clinical value of indium 111-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scanning done after vascular graft procedures was investigated to differentiate noninfectious postoperative inflammation associated with graft incorporation from early prosthetic graft infection. Indium 111-labeled WBC scans were initially obtained in 30 patients before discharge from the hospital and during the subsequent follow-up period (334 days). Fourteen of 30 patients (47%) had normal predischarge scans that included all 10 patients who had grafts confined to the abdomen and 4 of 20 patients (20%) who had grafts arising or terminating at the femoral arteries (p less than 0.05). Sixteen of 30 patients (53%) discharged with abnormal initial indium 111 WBC scans underwent serial scanning until the scan normalized or a graft complication developed. All of the 16 patients had grafts involving the groin region. Abnormal indium 111 uptake in the femoral region continued for a mean 114 days without the development of prosthetic graft infections. The sensitivity of indium 111-labeled WBC scans for detecting wound complications was 100%, whereas the specificity was 50%. Thus, the accuracy of the test was only 53%. We conclude that (1) abnormal indium 111 WBC scans are common after graft operations involving the groin region but are unusual after vascular procedures confined to the abdomen, and (2) in the absence of clinical suspicion, the indium 111-labeled WBC scan does not reliably predict prosthetic graft infection because of the low specificity of the test in the early postoperative period.

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Brain Gray and White Matter Abnormalities in a Feline Model of α-Mannosidosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Duda, Jeff T; Yoon, Sea Young; Bagel, Jessica; O'Donnell, Patricia; Vite, Charles; Pickup, Stephen; Gee, James C; Wolfe, John H; Poptani, Harish

    2016-01-01

    α-Mannosidosis (AMD) is an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder affecting brain function and structure. We performed ex vivo and in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on the brains of AMD-affected cats to assess gray and white matter abnormalities. A multi-atlas approach was used to generate a brain template to process the ex vivo DTI data. The probabilistic label method was used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity values from gray and white matter regions from ex vivo DTI. Regional analysis from various regions of the gray matter (frontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus, and occipital cortex), and white matter (corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, cerebral peduncle, external and internal capsule) was also performed on both ex vivo and in vivo DTI. Ex vivo DTI revealed significantly reduced FA from both gray and white matter regions in AMD-affected cats compared to controls. Significantly reduced FA was also observed from in vivo DTI of AMD-affected cats compared to controls, with lower FA values observed in all white matter regions. We also observed significantly increased axial and radial diffusivity values in various gray and white matter regions in AMD cats from both ex vivo and in vivo DTI data. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic analyses suggesting that DTI studies can further aid in the characterization of AMD by assessing the microstructural abnormalities in both white and gray matter.

  11. A color and shape based algorithm for segmentation of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Salim; Ozyurek, Emel; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based imaging systems are becoming important tools for quantitative assessment of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples to help experts diagnose blood disorders such as acute leukemia. These systems generally initiate a segmentation stage where white blood cells are separated from the background and other nonsalient objects. As the success of such imaging systems mainly depends on the accuracy of this stage, studies attach great importance for developing accurate segmentation algorithms. Although previous studies give promising results for segmentation of sparsely distributed normal white blood cells, only a few of them focus on segmenting touching and overlapping cell clusters, which is usually the case when leukemic cells are present. In this article, we present a new algorithm for segmentation of both normal and leukemic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images. In this algorithm, we propose to model color and shape characteristics of white blood cells by defining two transformations and introduce an efficient use of these transformations in a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. Particularly, these domain specific characteristics are used to identify markers and define the marking function of the watershed algorithm as well as to eliminate false white blood cells in a postprocessing step. Working on 650 white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images, our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm improves the segmentation performance compared with its counterparts, leading to high accuracies for both sparsely distributed normal white blood cells and dense leukemic cell clusters.

  12. White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal

  13. Effects of increased white blood cell count on endothelin-induced vasoconstriction in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Told, Reinhard; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard

    2012-04-01

    It is known that administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is followed by an increase of white blood cell count. There is evidence from other vascular beds that an increase in white blood cell count impairs blood flow regulation especially in the microcirculation. Whether this also holds true for the ocular circulation is unknown. In the following study we investigated whether an increase in white blood cell count alters the endothelin-1 induced vasoconstriction in humans. Neither granulocyte-colony stimulating factor nor endothelin-1 had any consistent effect on blood pressure, pulse rate or intraocular pressure. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor induced a pronounced increase in retinal white blood cell density (p < 0.01). Administration of endothelin-1 decreased choroidal (p < 0.01) and retinal blood flow (p < 0.01). The change in choroidal blood flow in response to endothelin-1 was not altered by pre-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. By contrast, the decrease in retinal blood flow was more pronounced during an increase in white blood cell count (p = 0.02) when compared to placebo. Our data indicates that during pronounced vasoconstriction, as induced by administration of endothelin-1, vascular regulation can be altered by the number of circulating white blood cells. Whether this effect is caused by an interaction of red and white blood cells in the microcirculation or a yet unknown mechanism needs further investigation.

  14. Semiautomatic white blood cell segmentation based on multiscale analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorini, L B; Minetto, R; Leite, N J

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches novel methods to segment the nucleus and cytoplasm of white blood cells (WBC). This information is the basis to perform higher level tasks such as automatic differential counting, which plays an important role in the diagnosis of different diseases. We explore the image simplification and contour regularization resulting from the application of the Self-Dual Multiscale Morphological Toggle (SMMT), an operator with scale-space properties. To segment the nucleus, the image preprocessing with SMMT has shown to be essential to ensure the accuracy of two well-known image segmentations techniques, namely, watershed transform and Level Set methods. To identify the cytoplasm region, we propose two different schemes, based on granulometric analysis and on morphological transformations. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to a large number of images, showing promising segmentation and classification results for varying cell appearance and image quality, encouraging future works.

  15. Smoking, allergy, and the differential white blood cell count.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R G; Gross, E; Joyce, H; Holland, F; Pride, N B

    1985-01-01

    Dutch workers have proposed that people with asthma and those smokers who develop chronic airflow obstruction share a common allergic constitution. To study whether smoking itself is associated with indicators of allergy, we have examined 237 men aged 51-61 years (120 smokers, 73 ex-smokers, and 44 non-smokers) who were recruited to a long term study of lung function in 1974, at which time men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were excluded. Smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers did not differ in personal or family history of allergic disease, but the prevalence of positive responses to skinprick tests was greater in ex-smokers (59%) than in the other two groups (33% and 34%). In men with negative responses to skinprick tests total serum IgE was greater in smokers (log10 mean 1.41 IU/ml) and in ex-smokers (log10 mean 1.53 IU/ml) than in non-smokers (log10 mean 1.12 IU/ml). In men with positive skin test responses serum IgE was similar in the three groups (log10 mean ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 IU/ml). Geometric mean total white cell counts in the peripheral blood were higher in smokers (7.34 X 10(9)/l) than in non-smokers (5.82 X 10(9)/l); the value in ex-smokers (6.16 X 10(9)/l) was intermediate. Absolute blood eosinophil counts were increased in smokers disproportionately to the increase in total white cell count. Thus smoking is associated with small increases in some markers of allergy. These changes are probably acquired after the onset of smoking but sequential studies are required to amplify these cross sectional observations. Smokers whose skin test responses are positive appear more likely to give up smoking. PMID:3969651

  16. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  17. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  18. White Matter Signal Abnormality Quality Differentiates MCI that Converts to Alzheimer's Disease from Non-converters

    PubMed Central

    Lindemer, Emily R.; Salat, David H.; Smith, Eric E.; Nguyen, Khoa; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how longitudinal change in the quantity and quality of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) contributes to the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Mahalanobis distance of WMSA from normal-appearing white matter using T1-, T2-, and PD-weighted MRI was defined as a quality measure for WMSA. Cross-sectional analysis of WMSA volume in 104 cognitively healthy older adults, 116 individuals with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD within 3 years (MCI-C), 115 individuals with MCI that did not convert in that time (MCI-NC), and 124 individuals with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) revealed that WMSA volume was substantially greater in AD relative to the other groups, but did not differ between MCI-NC and MCI-C. Longitudinally, MCI-C exhibited faster WMSA quality progression but not volume compared to matched MCI-NC beginning eighteen months prior to MCI-C conversion to AD. The strongest difference in rate of change was seen in the time period starting 6 months before MCI-C conversion to AD and ending 6 months after conversion (p < 0.001). The relatively strong effect in this time period relative to AD conversion in the MCI-C was similar to the relative rate of change in hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging marker of AD pathology. These data demonstrate changes in white matter tissue properties that occur within WMSA in individuals with MCI that will subsequently obtain a clinical diagnosis of AD within 18 months. Individuals with AD have substantially greater WMSA volume than all MCI suggesting that there is a progressive accumulation of WMSA with progressive disease severity, and that quality change predates changes in this total volume. Given the timing of the changes in WMSA tissue quality relative to the clinical diagnosis of AD, these findings suggest that WMSAs are a critical component for this conversion and are a critical

  19. White matter abnormalities are associated with chronic postconcussion symptoms in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are nonspecific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of comorbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no--TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI--LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI + LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI + LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no--TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI + LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS.

  20. Stress, Heredity and Black-White Blood Pressure Differences. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harburg, Ernest; And Others

    The facts that black Americans at all ages have higher blood pressure levels and higher mortality rates from hypertension than whites provided the impetus for this study. In their efforts to discover whether the level of blood pressure within and between black and white groups is related more to stress or to genetic factors, the researchers…

  1. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  2. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-14

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood--without reagents, electricity, or instruments--is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 10(2)/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  3. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Leila; Movahed, Ali; Iranpour, Dariush; Ostovar, Afshin; Raeisi, Alireza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Hajian, Najmeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES). PMID:27622204

  4. Automatic localization and feature extraction of white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

    1995-05-01

    The paper presents a method for automatic localization and feature extraction of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated WBC counting system based on image analysis and recognition. Nucleus blobs extraction consists of five steps: (1) nucleus pixel labeling; (2) filtration of nucleus pixel template; (3) segmentation and extraction of nucleus blobs by region growing; (4) removal of uninterested blobs; and (5) marking of external and internal blob border, and holes pixels. The detection of nucleus pixels is based on the intensity of the G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity. Localized nucleus segments are grouped into a cell nucleus by a hierarchic merging procedure in accordance with their area, shapes and conditions of their spatial occurrence. Cytoplasm segmentation based on the pixel intensity and color parameters is found to be unreliable. We overcome this problem by using an edge improving technique. WBC templates are then calculated and additional cell feature sets are constructed for the recognition. Cell feature sets include description of principal geometric and color properties for each type of WBCs. Finally we evaluate the recognition accuracy of the developed algorithm that is proved to be highly reliable and fast.

  5. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Brunner, M C; Mitchell, R S; Baldwin, J C; James, D R; Olcott, C; Mehigan, J T; McDougall, I R; Miller, D C

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott C 4; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of /sup 111/In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% (11 of 25) if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% (14 of 14)); there were no false negative results.

  7. Cerebral blood flow is an earlier indicator of perfusion abnormalities than cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Mateos-Pérez, José M; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Olazarán, Javier; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Martino, María-Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) can better characterize perfusion abnormalities in predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than cerebral blood volume (CBV) and whether cortical atrophy is more associated with decreased CBV or with decreased CBF. We compared measurements of CBV, CBF, and mean cortical thickness obtained from magnetic resonance images in a group of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD after 2 years of clinical follow-up (MCI-c), and patients with mild AD. A significant decrease in perfusion was detected in the parietal lobes of the MCI-c patients with CBF parametric maps but not with CBV maps. In the MCI-c group, a negative correlation between CBF values and cortical thickness in the right parahippocampal gyrus suggests an increase in CBF that depends on cortical atrophy in predementia stages of AD. Our study also suggests that CBF deficits appear before CBV deficits in the progression of AD, as CBV abnormalities were only detected at the AD stage, whereas CBF changes were already detected in the MCI stage. These results confirm the hypothesis that CBF is a more sensitive parameter than CBV for perfusion abnormalities in MCI-c patients.

  8. Cerebral blood flow is an earlier indicator of perfusion abnormalities than cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Mateos-Pérez, José M; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Olazarán, Javier; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Martino, María-Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) can better characterize perfusion abnormalities in predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than cerebral blood volume (CBV) and whether cortical atrophy is more associated with decreased CBV or with decreased CBF. We compared measurements of CBV, CBF, and mean cortical thickness obtained from magnetic resonance images in a group of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD after 2 years of clinical follow-up (MCI-c), and patients with mild AD. A significant decrease in perfusion was detected in the parietal lobes of the MCI-c patients with CBF parametric maps but not with CBV maps. In the MCI-c group, a negative correlation between CBF values and cortical thickness in the right parahippocampal gyrus suggests an increase in CBF that depends on cortical atrophy in predementia stages of AD. Our study also suggests that CBF deficits appear before CBV deficits in the progression of AD, as CBV abnormalities were only detected at the AD stage, whereas CBF changes were already detected in the MCI stage. These results confirm the hypothesis that CBF is a more sensitive parameter than CBV for perfusion abnormalities in MCI-c patients. PMID:24424381

  9. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries. PMID:26464211

  10. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  11. Children with New Onset Epilepsy Exhibit Diffusion Abnormalities in Cerebral White Matter in the Absence of Volumetric Differences

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Pulsipher, Dalin; Dabbs, Kevin; Myers y Gutierrez, Adan; Sheth, Raj; Jones, Jana; Seidenberg, Michael; Meyerand, Elizabeth; Hermann, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this investigation was to examine the diffusion properties of cerebral white matter in children with recent onset epilepsy (n=19) compared to healthy controls (n=11). Subjects underwent DTI with quantification of mean diffusion (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (Dax) and radial diffusivity (Drad) for regions of interest including anterior and posterior corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum, and internal and external capsules. Quantitative volumetrics were also performed for the corpus callosum and its subregions (anterior, midbody and posterior) and total lobar white and gray matter for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The results demonstrated no group differences in total lobar gray or white matter volumes or volume of the corpus callosum and its subregions, but did show reduced FA and increased Drad in the posterior corpus callosum and cingulum. These results provide the earliest indication of microstructural abnormality in cerebral white matter among children with idiopathic epilepsies. This abnormality occurs in the context of normal volumetrics and suggests disruption in myelination processes. PMID:20044239

  12. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  13. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  14. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population.

  15. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C.; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C.; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

  16. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  17. Magnetization transfer ratio measures in normal-appearing white matter show periventricular gradient abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Pardini, Matteo; Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Muhlert, Nils; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Samson, Rebecca S; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-05-01

    In multiple sclerosis, there is increasing evidence that demyelination, and neuronal damage occurs preferentially in cortical grey matter next to the outer surface of the brain. It has been suggested that this may be due to the effects of pathology outside the brain parenchyma, in particular meningeal inflammation or through cerebrospinal fluid mediated factors. White matter lesions are often located adjacent to the ventricles of the brain, suggesting the possibility of a similar outside-in pathogenesis, but an investigation of the relationship of periventricular normal-appearing white matter abnormalities with distance from the ventricles has not previously been undertaken. The present study investigates this relationship in vivo using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and compares the abnormalities between secondary progressive and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Forty-three patients with relapsing remitting and 28 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, and 38 healthy control subjects were included in this study. T1-weighted volumetric, magnetization transfer and proton density/T2-weighted scans were acquired for all subjects. From the magnetization transfer data, magnetization transfer ratio maps were prepared. White matter tissue masks were derived from SPM8 segmentations of the T1-weighted images. Normal-appearing white matter masks were generated by subtracting white matter lesions identified on the proton density/T2 scan, and a two-voxel perilesional ring, from the SPM8 derived white matter masks. White matter was divided in concentric bands, each ∼1-mm thick, radiating from the ventricles toward the cortex. The first periventricular band was excluded from analysis to mitigate partial volume effects, and normal-appearing white matter and lesion magnetization transfer ratio values were then computed for the 10 bands nearest to the ventricles. Compared with controls, magnetization transfer ratio in the normal-appearing white matter

  18. Microstructural Abnormalities of Short-Distance White Matter Tracts in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Smylie, Daren M.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have suggested atypical functional connectivity and reduced integrity of long-distance white matter fibers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, evidence for short-distance white matter fibers is still limited, despite some speculation of…

  19. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  20. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  1. Higher Blood Pressure Variability in White Coat Hypertension; from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Sungha; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. Results Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed. PMID:27275173

  2. Margination of white blood cells: a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marth, Wieland; Aland, Sebastian; Voigt, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  3. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men Referred to Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Center

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Soleimani, Saeideh; Mantegy, Sanaz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of somatic chromosomal abnormalities in infertile male individuals has been reported to vary in different literatures. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations among infertile men referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Centre (IBTO). Materials and Methods Chromosomal analysis was performed on phytohemag-glutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral lymphocyte cultures of 1052 infertile men using standard cytogenetic methods. The study took place during 1997 to 2007. Results Total chromosome alterations were revealed in 161 (15.30%) infertile men. The most prevalent chromosomal abnormality in the infertile men was 47, XXY, that was seen in 94 (58.38%) men while one of them had a mosaic karyotype: mos 47, XX[54]/47,XXY[18]/46,XY[9]. In 37 (22.98%) cases, structural aberrations were detected. There were 30 (18.63%) cases of sex reversal. Conclusion Cytogenetic studies of these patients showed increased chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men in comparison with that of the normal population, justifying the need for cytogenetic analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. PMID:23926486

  4. Concordance of white matter and gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: a voxel-based meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Palermo, Sara; D'Agata, Federico; Diano, Matteo; Bianco, Francesca; Duca, Sergio; Keller, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    There are at least two fundamental unanswered questions in the literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Are abnormalities in white (WM) and gray matter (GM) consistent with one another? Are WM morphometric alterations consistent with alterations in the GM of regions connected by these abnormal WM bundles and vice versa? The aim of this work is to bridge this gap. After selecting voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing autistic and normally developing groups of subjects, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to estimate consistent brain alterations in ASD. Multidimensional scaling was used to test the similarity of the results. The ALE results were then analyzed to identify the regions of concordance between GM and WM areas. We found statistically significant topological relationships between GM and WM abnormalities in ASD. The most numerous were negative concordances, found bilaterally but with a higher prevalence in the right hemisphere. Positive concordances were found in the left hemisphere. Discordances reflected the spatial distribution of negative concordances. Thus, a different hemispheric contribution emerged, possibly related to pathogenetic factors affecting the right hemisphere during early developmental stages. Besides, WM fiber tracts linking the brain structures involved in social cognition showed abnormalities, and most of them had a negative concordance with the connected GM regions. We interpreted the results in terms of altered brain networks and their role in the pervasive symptoms dramatically impairing communication and social skills in ASD patients.

  5. Emotional and familial determinants of elevated blood pressure in black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E H; Spielberger, C D; Worden, T J; Jacobs, G A

    1987-01-01

    The relationships between blood pressure and several personality and traditional risk factors were examined in a sample of black and white adolescent males who were enrolled in a health science course in Tampa, Florida. Although a number of personality and traditional risk factors significantly predicted elevated blood pressure for both groups of adolescent males, suppressed anger and weight were the major independent predictors. Among black and white males, those who generally harbored grudges and suppressed their anger had higher systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure was higher only for the white males who frequently held in their angry feelings. Weight and excessive salt usage significantly predicted both elevated systolic and diastolic pressures for white males, while these variables significantly predicted systolic pressures for black males. Familial factors were found to be independent predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure only for the white adolescent males. A further examination of the relationship between the frequency that anger is suppressed shows that the shape of the curves relating anger-in scores to blood pressure appears to have a 'threshold'. These findings indicate that adolescent males who are at increased risk for elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure can be identified by how often angry feelings are held-in and suppressed.

  6. A mouse model for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-leucodystrophy reveals abnormal development of brain white matter.

    PubMed

    Geva, Michal; Cabilly, Yuval; Assaf, Yaniv; Mindroul, Nina; Marom, Liraz; Raini, Gali; Pinchasi, Dalia; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. Mutations in any of its five subunits lead to leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease with unknown aetiology, which is among the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders. We generated the first animal model for the disease by introducing a point mutation into the mouse Eif2b5 gene locus, leading to R132H replacement corresponding to the clinically significant human R136H mutation in the catalytic subunit. In contrast to human patients, mice homozygous for the mutant Eif2b5 allele (Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice) enable multiple analyses under a defined genetic background during the pre-symptomatic stages and during recovery from a defined brain insult. Time-course magnetic resonance imaging revealed for the first time the delayed development of the brain white matter due to the mutation. Electron microscopy demonstrated a higher proportion of small-calibre nerve fibres. Immunohistochemistry detected an abnormal abundance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the brain of younger animals, as well as an abnormal level of major myelin proteins. Most importantly, mutant mice failed to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, reflecting an increased sensitivity to brain insults. The anomalous development of white matter in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice underscores the importance of tight translational control to normal myelin formation and maintenance.

  7. Adverse prognostic value of persistent office blood pressure elevation in white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Rita; Grassi, Guido; Bombelli, Michele

    2015-08-01

    Stratification of cardiovascular risk is of fundamental importance in white coat hypertension (WCH) to identify individuals in need of closer follow-up and perhaps antihypertensive drug treatment. In subjects representative of the general population of Monza (Italy), the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality was assessed >16 years in stable and unstable WCH individuals, that is, those in whom ambulatory blood pressure (BP) normality was associated with a persistent or nonpersistent office BP elevation at 2 consecutive visits, respectively. Data were compared with those from an entirely normotensive group, that is, ambulatory and persistent office BP normality. Compared with the normotensive group, the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death was not significantly different in unstable WCH, whereas in stable WCH the risk was increased also when data were adjusted for baseline confounders, including ambulatory BP (hazard ratio, 16; P=0.001 for cardiovascular death and 1.92; P=0.02 for all-cause death). At a multivariable analysis, office BP was among the factors independently predicting death, and results were superimposable with use of Monza population-derived and guidelines-derived cutoff values for ambulatory BP normality (125/79 and 130/80 mm Hg, respectively). Thus, only when office BP is persistently elevated does WCH reflect the existence of an abnormal long-term mortality risk. This means that in WCH office BP is prognostically relevant and that repeated collection of its values is clinically important to better define patient risk.

  8. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  9. Morphological granulometric features of nucleus in automatic bone marrow white blood cell classification.

    PubMed

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Dhompongsa, Sompong

    2007-05-01

    The proportion of counts of different types of white blood cells in the bone marrow, called differential counts, provides invaluable information to doctors for diagnosis. Due to the tedious nature of the differential white blood cell counting process, an automatic system is preferable. In this paper, we investigate whether information about the nucleus alone is adequate to classify white blood cells. This is important because segmentation of nucleus is much easier than the segmentation of the entire cell, especially in the bone marrow where the white blood cell density is very high. In the experiments, a set of manually segmented images of the nucleus are used to decouple segmentation errors. We analyze a set of white-blood-cell-nucleus-based features using mathematical morphology. Fivefold cross validation is used in the experiments in which Bayes' classifiers and artificial neural networks are applied as classifiers. The classification performances are evaluated by two evaluation measures: traditional and classwise classification rates. Furthermore, we compare our results with other classifiers and previously proposed nucleus-based features. The results show that the features using nucleus alone can be utilized to achieve a classification rate of 77% on the test sets. Moreover, the classification performance is better in the classwise sense when the a priori information is suppressed in both the classifiers.

  10. [Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors for treatment of hypertension with abnormal circadian rhythm of blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shusuke; Sata, Masataka

    2014-08-01

    Circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) has recently been focused on because increase in nocturnal BP and morning BP surge have been shown to be risks for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases independent of 24-h BP level. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is involved in BP circadian rhythm, and RAAS inhibitors therefore play an important role in the control of circadian rhythm of BP. Bedtime administration of RAAS inhibitors is more effective than morning administration for reducing nocturnal and morning BP levels in addition to converting the BP profile into a dipper pattern, which is known as chronotherapy. For reducing cardio-cerebro-vascular events, controlling abnormal circadian rhythm of BP in addition to 24-h BP using RAAS inhibitors with optimal time dosing should be considered.

  11. White matter abnormalities and impaired attention abilities in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrea L; Thompson, Deanne K; Pascoe, Leona; Leemans, Alexander; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Jacqueline F I; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    While attention impairments are commonly observed in very preterm (<32weeks' gestational age) children, neuroanatomical correlates of these difficulties are unclear. We aimed to determine whether the microstructural organization of key white matter tracts thought to be involved in attention (cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculi, reticular activating system, and corpus callosum) were altered in very preterm children compared with term-born controls. We also aimed to determine whether alterations in microstructural organization of these tracts were associated with attention functioning in very preterm children. One hundred and forty-nine very preterm children and 36 term-born controls underwent neuroimaging and assessment of their attention abilities at 7years. Constrained spherical deconvolution and probabilistic tractography was used to identify the key white matter tracts. Altered microstructural organization and reduced tract volume within reticular activating system and corpus callosum were found in the very preterm group compared with the control group. Diffusion and volume changes in the cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculi, reticular activating system, and corpus callosum were related to variations in attention functioning in the very preterm children. These findings emphasize that white matter tract integrity is associated with later attentional abilities in very preterm children.

  12. Lipocalin 2 and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in White Matter after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Yusuke; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Iwama, Toru; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    We reported previously that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes acute white matter injury in mice. In this study, we investigated lipocalin 2 (LCN2) mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in white matter, which may lead to subsequent injury. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in wild-type (WT) and LCN2-knockout (LCN2(-/-)) mice. Sham mice underwent the same procedure without perforation. Mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 24 h after SAH to confirm the development of T2-hyperintensity in white matter. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of LCN2-mediated white matter injury and BBB disruption. It was confirmed that LCN2 expression was significantly increased in white matter of WT mice after SAH by Western blotting (versus sham; p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that LCN2 receptor 24p3R was expressed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and pericytes in the white matter. In WT mice with SAH, albumin leakage along the white matter was prominently observed and was consistent with T2-hyperintensity on MRI. As with our previous report, LCN2(-/-) mice scarcely developed T2-hyperintensity on MRI or albumin leakage in white matter. Our results suggest that BBB leakage occurs in white matter after SAH and that LCN2 contributes to SAH-induced BBB disruption.

  13. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J.; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved. PMID:26981581

  14. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-02-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved. PMID:26981581

  15. Cardiovascular abnormalities with normal blood pressure in tissue kallikrein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneton, Pierre; Bloch-Faure, May; Hagege, Albert A.; Ruetten, Hartmut; Huang, Wei; Bergaya, Sonia; Ceiler, Debbie; Gehring, Doris; Martins, Isabelle; Salmon, Georges; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Nussberger, Jürg; Crozatier, Bertrand; Gasc, Jean-Marie; Heudes, Didier; Bruneval, Patrick; Doetschman, Tom; Ménard, Joël; Alhenc-Gelas, François

    2001-02-01

    Tissue kallikrein is a serine protease thought to be involved in the generation of bioactive peptide kinins in many organs like the kidneys, colon, salivary glands, pancreas, and blood vessels. Low renal synthesis and urinary excretion of tissue kallikrein have been repeatedly linked to hypertension in animals and humans, but the exact role of the protease in cardiovascular function has not been established largely because of the lack of specific inhibitors. This study demonstrates that mice lacking tissue kallikrein are unable to generate significant levels of kinins in most tissues and develop cardiovascular abnormalities early in adulthood despite normal blood pressure. The heart exhibits septum and posterior wall thinning and a tendency to dilatation resulting in reduced left ventricular mass. Cardiac function estimated in vivo and in vitro is decreased both under basal conditions and in response to βadrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, flow-induced vasodilatation is impaired in isolated perfused carotid arteries, which express, like the heart, low levels of the protease. These data show that tissue kallikrein is the main kinin-generating enzyme in vivo and that a functional kallikrein-kinin system is necessary for normal cardiac and arterial function in the mouse. They suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system could be involved in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Baró, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; Núñez, M. C.; Jiménez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the values were expressed as relative percentages, cancer patients had significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid than controls. With regard to lipid fractions, cancer patients had higher proportions of oleic acid in plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and lower percentages of linoleic acid and its derivatives. On the other hand, alpha-linolenic acid was significantly lower in triglycerides from cancer patients and tended to be lower in phospholipids. Its derivatives also tended to be lower in phospholipids and triglycerides from cancer patients. Our findings suggest that colorectal cancer patients present abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles characterized by lower amounts of most saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives, especially members of the n-6 series, than their healthy age-matched counterparts. These changes are probably due to metabolic changes caused by the illness per se but not to malnutrition. PMID:9667678

  17. Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; Vasavada, P.J.; Black, R.R.

    1989-02-01

    A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously.

  18. Abnormal gray matter and white matter volume in 'Internet gaming addicts'.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Qiandong; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is usually defined as the inability of an individual to control his/her use of the Internet with serious negative consequences. It is becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. To understand whether Internet gaming addiction contributes to cerebral structural changes, the present study examined the brain gray matter density and white matter density changes in participants suffering IGA using voxel-based morphometric analysis. Compared with the healthy controls (N=36, 22.2 ± 3.13 years), IGA participants (N=35, 22.28 ± 2.54 years) showed significant lower gray matter density in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, insula, right precuneus, and right hippocampus (all p<0.05). IGA participants also showed significant lower white matter density in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate than healthy controls (all p<0.05). Previous studies suggest that these brain regions are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and emotional regulation. Current findings might provide insight in understanding the biological underpinnings of IGA.

  19. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by /sup 111/In oxine white blood cell scans

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-08-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, /sup 111/In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. /sup 111/In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates.

  20. Metabolic inflexibility of white and brown adipose tissues in abnormal fatty acid partitioning of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grenier-Larouche, T; Labbé, S M; Noll, C; Richard, D; Carpentier, A C

    2012-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by a general dysregulation of postprandial energy substrate partitioning. Although classically described in regard to glucose metabolism, it is now evident that metabolic inflexibility of plasma lipid fluxes is also present in T2D. The organ that is most importantly involved in the latter metabolic defect is the white adipose tissue (WAT). Both catecholamine-induced nonesterified fatty acid mobilization and insulin-stimulated storage of meal fatty acids are impaired in many WAT depots of insulin-resistant individuals. Novel molecular imaging techniques now demonstrate that these defects are linked to increased dietary fatty acid fluxes toward lean organs and myocardial dysfunction in humans. Recent findings also demonstrate functional abnormalities of brown adipose tissues in T2D, thus suggesting that a generalized adipose tissue dysregulation of energy storage and dissipation may be at play in the development of lean tissue energy overload and lipotoxicity. PMID:27152152

  1. ["As white as snow, as red as blood..."].

    PubMed

    Petrilli, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the tale of Biancaneve and the seven dwarfs, by Grimm, used by the Author as a background to discuss the metaphorical function performed by blood images into the psychological relationship between parents and children. This allows a description of a feminine character which, already present in Greek mythology, at the origins of the Western civilization, has been apparently lost in the forthcoming Western cultural history, nonetheless strongly surviving in the construction of the consciousness and soul of women.

  2. Monosomy 1p36 - a multifaceted and still enigmatic syndrome: four clinically diverse cases with shared white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Õiglane-Shlik, Eve; Puusepp, Sanna; Talvik, Inga; Vaher, Ulvi; Rein, Reet; Tammur, Pille; Reimand, Tiia; Teek, Rita; Žilina, Olga; Tomberg, Tiiu; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-05-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome seen in humans. Uniform features of the syndrome include early developmental delay and consequent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. The gene-rich nature of the chromosomal band, inconsistent deletion sizes and overlapping clinical features have complicated relevant genotype-phenotype correlations. We describe four patients with isolated chromosome 1p36 deletions. All patients shared white matter abnormalities, allowing us to narrow the critical region for white matter involvement to the deletion size of up to 2.5 Mb from the telomere. We hypothesise that there might be a gene(s) responsible for myelin development in the 1p36 subtelomeric region. Other significant clinical findings were progressive spastic paraparesis, epileptic encephalopathy, various skeletal anomalies, Prader-Willi-like phenotype, neoplastic changes - a haemangioma and a benign skin tumour, and in one case, sleep myoclonus, a clinical entity not previously described in association with 1p36 monosomy. Combined with prior studies, our results suggest that the clinical features seen in monosomy 1p36 have more complex causes than a classical contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

  3. ["As white as snow, as red as blood..."].

    PubMed

    Petrilli, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the tale of Biancaneve and the seven dwarfs, by Grimm, used by the Author as a background to discuss the metaphorical function performed by blood images into the psychological relationship between parents and children. This allows a description of a feminine character which, already present in Greek mythology, at the origins of the Western civilization, has been apparently lost in the forthcoming Western cultural history, nonetheless strongly surviving in the construction of the consciousness and soul of women. PMID:17152589

  4. Gray and white matter volume abnormalities in generalized anxiety disorder by categorical and dimensional characterization.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Kevin; Pine, Daniel S; Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-12-30

    Increasing efforts have been made to investigate the underlying pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but only limited consistent information is available on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume changes in affected adults. Additionally, few studies employed dimensional approaches to GAD pathology. This study compares structural brain imaging data from n=19 GAD subjects and n=24 healthy comparison (HC) subjects, all medication-free and matched on age, sex and education. Separate categorical and dimensional models were employed using voxel-based morphometry for GM and WM. Significantly higher GM volumes were found in GAD subjects mainly in basal ganglia structures and less consistently in the superior temporal pole. For WM, GAD subjects showed significantly lower volumes in the dlPFC. Largely consistent findings in dimensional and categorical models point toward these structural alterations being reliable and of importance for GAD. While lower volume in the dlPFC could reflect impaired emotional processing and control over worry in GAD, basal ganglia alterations may be linked to disturbed gain and loss anticipation as implicated in previous functional GAD studies. As perturbations in anticipation processes are central to GAD, these areas may warrant greater attention in future studies. PMID:26490569

  5. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    PubMed

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (p<0.001). PYGM mRNA levels were also lower in white blood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease.

  6. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma.

  7. Hematology, blood chemistry and selenium values of captive pronghorn antelope, white-tailed deer and American bison.

    PubMed

    Clemens, E T; Meyer, K L; Carlson, M P; Schneider, N R

    1987-01-01

    Pronghorn were observed to have a significantly higher whole blood selenium concentration than either the white-tailed deer or bison. Pronghorn colloid values were significantly less than those of the bison, and approached statistical significance for the white-tailed deer. Differential white blood cell counts for the white-tailed deer were markedly different from those of the pronghorn and bison. The American bison had significantly higher cortisol values and lower T3 values than either the white-tailed deer or pronghorn. PMID:2885128

  8. White matter abnormalities in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Bloemen, Oswald; van der Meer, Johan; Meijer, Julia; Boot, Erik; Nederveen, Aart; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2011-10-01

    Dysfunction of cerebral white matter (WM) is a potential factor underlying the neurobiology of schizophrenia. People with 22q11 deletion syndrome have altered brain morphology and increased risk for schizophrenia, therefore decreased WM integrity may be related to schizophrenia in 22q11DS. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume in 27 adults with 22q11DS with schizophrenia (n=12, 22q11DS SCZ+) and without schizophrenia (n=15, 22q11DS SCZ-), 12 individuals with idiopathic schizophrenia and 31 age-matched healthy controls. We found widespread decreased WM volume in posterior and temporal brain areas and decreased FA in areas of the frontal cortex in the whole 22q11DS group compared to healthy controls. In 22q11DS SCZ+ compromised WM integrity included inferior frontal areas of parietal and occipital lobe. Idiopathic schizophrenia patients showed decreased FA in inferior frontal and insular regions compared to healthy controls. We found no WM alterations in 22q11DS SCZ+ vs. 22q11DS SCZ-. However, there was a negative correlation between FA and PANSS scores (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale) in the whole 22q11DS group in the inferior frontal, cingulate, insular and temporal areas. This is the first study to investigate WM integrity in adults with 22q11DS. Our results suggest that pervasive WM dysfunction is intrinsic to 22q11DS and that psychotic development in adults with 22q11DS involves similar brain areas as seen in schizophrenia in the general population.

  9. Abnormal functional connectivity density in patients with ischemic white matter lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ju-Rong; Ding, Xin; Hua, Bo; Xiong, Xingzhong; Wang, Qingsong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract White matter lesions (WMLs) are frequently detected in elderly people. Previous structural and functional studies have demonstrated that WMLs are associated with cognitive and motor decline. However, the underlying mechanism of how WMLs lead to cognitive decline and motor disturbance remains unclear. We used functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM) to investigate changes in brain functional connectivity in 16 patients with ischemic WMLs and 13 controls. Both short- and long-range FCD maps were computed, and group comparisons were performed between the 2 groups. A correlation analysis was further performed between regions with altered FCD and cognitive test scores (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) in the patient group. We found that patients with ischemic WMLs showed reduced short-range FCD in the temporal cortex, primary motor cortex, and subcortical region, which may account for inadequate top-down attention, impaired motor, memory, and executive function associated with WMLs. The positive correlation between primary motor cortex and MoCA scores may provide evidence for the influences of cognitive function on behavioral performance. The inferior parietal cortex exhibited increased short-range FCD, reflecting a hyper bottom-up attention to compensate for the inadequate top-down attention for language comprehension and information retrieval in patients with WMLs. Moreover, the prefrontal and primary motor cortex showed increased long-range FCD and the former positively correlated with MoCA scores, which may suggest a strategy of cortical functional reorganization to compensate for motor and executive deficits. Our findings provide new insights into how WMLs cause cognitive and motor decline from cortical functional connectivity perspective. PMID:27603353

  10. Abnormal functional connectivity density in patients with ischemic white matter lesions: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ju-Rong; Ding, Xin; Hua, Bo; Xiong, Xingzhong; Wang, Qingsong; Chen, Huafu

    2016-09-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) are frequently detected in elderly people. Previous structural and functional studies have demonstrated that WMLs are associated with cognitive and motor decline. However, the underlying mechanism of how WMLs lead to cognitive decline and motor disturbance remains unclear. We used functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM) to investigate changes in brain functional connectivity in 16 patients with ischemic WMLs and 13 controls. Both short- and long-range FCD maps were computed, and group comparisons were performed between the 2 groups. A correlation analysis was further performed between regions with altered FCD and cognitive test scores (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) in the patient group. We found that patients with ischemic WMLs showed reduced short-range FCD in the temporal cortex, primary motor cortex, and subcortical region, which may account for inadequate top-down attention, impaired motor, memory, and executive function associated with WMLs. The positive correlation between primary motor cortex and MoCA scores may provide evidence for the influences of cognitive function on behavioral performance. The inferior parietal cortex exhibited increased short-range FCD, reflecting a hyper bottom-up attention to compensate for the inadequate top-down attention for language comprehension and information retrieval in patients with WMLs. Moreover, the prefrontal and primary motor cortex showed increased long-range FCD and the former positively correlated with MoCA scores, which may suggest a strategy of cortical functional reorganization to compensate for motor and executive deficits. Our findings provide new insights into how WMLs cause cognitive and motor decline from cortical functional connectivity perspective. PMID:27603353

  11. Semi-automated identification of white blood cell using active contour technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Nurhanis Izzati Binti Che; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Razak, Mohd Azhar Bin Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Manual and automated diagnosis can be used to identify the morphology of blood cells. However, the manual diagnosis of the blood cells is time consuming and need hematologist and pathologist experts in order to diagnose diseases. Recently, the automated diagnosis which is require image processing technique are often been used in this area. This paper focuses on image processing technique to do segmentation on the nucleus of white blood cells (WBC). To identify the nucleus region, there are several image processing techniques applied besides the active contour method. The results obtained show that the detection on the edge of the nucleus is almost same as the original image of the nucleus.

  12. Abnormal expression of A20 and its regulated genes in peripheral blood from patients with lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell-mediated immunity is often suppressed in patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, we found that low T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 signaling was related to abnormal expression of the negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) A20 in acute myeloid leukemia. To investigate the characteristics of T cell immunodeficiency in lymphomas, we analyzed the expression features of A20 and its upstream regulating factor mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) and genes downstream of NF-κB in patients with different lymphoma subtypes, including T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL), B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and NK/T cell lymphoma (NK/T-CL). Methods Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression level of the MALT1, MALT-V1 (variant 1), A20 and NF-κB genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 24 cases with T-NHL, 19 cases with B-NHL and 16 cases with NK/T-CL, and 31 healthy individuals (HI) served as control. Results Significantly lower A20 and NF-κB expression was found in patients with all three lymphoma subtypes compared with the healthy controls. Moreover, the MALT1 expression level was downregulated in all three lymphoma subtypes. A significant positive correlation between the expression level of MALT1 and A20, MALT1-V1 and A20, MALT1-V1 and NF-κB, and A20 and NF-κB was found. Conclusions An abnormal MALT1-A20-NF-κB expression pattern was found in patients with lymphoma, which may result a lack of A20 and dysfunctional MALT1 and may be related to lower T cell activation, which is a common feature in Chinese patients with lymphoma. This finding may at least partially explain the molecular mechanism of T cell immunodeficiency in lymphomas. PMID:24790527

  13. Microstructure and Cerebral Blood Flow within White Matter of the Human Brain: A TBSS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Fisler, Melanie Sarah; Soravia, Leila Maria; Andreotti, Jennifer; Walther, Sebastian; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background White matter (WM) fibers connect different brain regions and are critical for proper brain function. However, little is known about the cerebral blood flow in WM and its relation to WM microstructure. Recent improvements in measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) by means of arterial spin labeling (ASL) suggest that the signal in white matter may be detected. Its implications for physiology needs to be extensively explored. For this purpose, CBF and its relation to anisotropic diffusion was analyzed across subjects on a voxel-wise basis with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and also across white matter tracts within subjects. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging and ASL were acquired in 43 healthy subjects (mean age = 26.3 years). Results CBF in WM was observed to correlate positively with fractional anisotropy across subjects in parts of the splenium of corpus callosum, the right posterior thalamic radiation (including the optic radiation), the forceps major, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Furthermore, radial diffusivity correlated negatively with CBF across subjects in similar regions. Moreover, CBF and FA correlated positively across white matter tracts within subjects. Conclusion The currently observed findings on a macroscopic level might reflect the metabolic demand of white matter on a microscopic level involving myelination processes or axonal function. However, the exact underlying physiological mechanism of this relationship needs further evaluation. PMID:26942763

  14. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p < 0.001) in a community-based health examination survey of adults in China (n = 39 282; aged 18-93 years). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend < 0.001). Body mass index and white blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  15. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716

  16. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironori; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (-) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716

  17. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS.

  18. Content-based white blood cell retrieval on bright-field pathology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Gensure, Rebekah H.; Foran, David J.; Yang, Lin

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a newly developed content-based retrieval approach for characterizing a range of different white blood cells from a database of imaged peripheral blood smears. Specimens were imaged using a 20× magnification to provide adequate resolution and sufficiently large field of view. The resulting database included a test ensemble of 96 images (1000×1000 pixels each). In this work, we propose a four-step content-based retrieval method and evaluate its performance. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method starts from white blood cell identification, followed by three sequential steps including coarse-searching, refined searching, and finally mean-shift clustering using a hierarchical annular histogram (HAH). The prototype system was shown to reliably retrieve those candidate images exhibiting the highest-ranked (most similar) characteristics to the query. The results presented here show that the algorithm was able to parse out subtle staining differences and spatial patterns and distributions for the entire range of white blood cells under study. Central to the design of the system is that it capitalizes on lessons learned by our team while observing human experts when they are asked to carry out these same tasks.

  19. Gene Signature of High White Blood Cell Count in B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dombkowski, Alan A.; Caldwell, J. Timothy; Chu, Roland; Xavier, Ana C.; Thummel, Ryan; Neely, Melody; Matherly, Larry H.; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that expression levels of these genes could accurately categorize high and low WBC count subjects using two independent patient sets, representing positive and negative ETV6-RUNX1 cases. Further studies in leukemia cell line models will better delineate the role of these genes in regulating the white blood cell count and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:27536776

  20. Gene Signature of High White Blood Cell Count in B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Holly; Rubenstein, Mara; Dombkowski, Alan A; Caldwell, J Timothy; Chu, Roland; Xavier, Ana C; Thummel, Ryan; Neely, Melody; Matherly, Larry H; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated that expression levels of these genes could accurately categorize high and low WBC count subjects using two independent patient sets, representing positive and negative ETV6-RUNX1 cases. Further studies in leukemia cell line models will better delineate the role of these genes in regulating the white blood cell count and potentially identify new therapeutic targets.

  1. Red Blood Cells from Individuals with Abdominal Obesity or Metabolic Abnormalities Exhibit Less Deformability upon Entering a Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Nancy F.; Mancuso, Jordan E.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are multifactorial conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Previous work has demonstrated that the hemorheological profile is altered in patients with abdominal obesity and MS, as evidenced for example by increased whole blood viscosity. To date, however, no studies have examined red blood cell (RBC) deformability of blood from individuals with obesity or metabolic abnormalities under typical physiological flow conditions. In this study, we pumped RBCs through a constriction in a microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the mechanical behavior of ~8,000 RBCs obtained from either healthy individuals (n = 5) or obese participants with metabolic abnormalities (OMA) (n = 4). We demonstrate that the OMA+ cells stretched on average about 25% less than the healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ingesting a high-fat meal on RBC mechanical dynamics, and found that the postprandial period has only a weak effect on the stretching dynamics exhibited by OMA+ cells. The results suggest that chronic rigidification of RBCs plays a key role in the increased blood pressure and increased whole blood viscosity observed in OMA individuals and was independent of an acute response triggered by consumption of a high-fat meal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803633 PMID:27258098

  2. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  3. Blood pressure differences in older black and white long-term vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Melby, C L; Goldflies, D G; Toohey, M L

    1993-06-01

    The vegetarian diet has been associated with lower blood pressure (BP) in elderly white Americans. This study was undertaken to determine whether or not long-term adherence (at least 5 years) to a plant-based diet is similarly related to lower BP in older black Americans, a group exhibiting significant risk for hypertension (HT). Anthropometric characteristics, nutrient intake, and resting systolic and diastolic BP were measured in older black vegetarians (n = 27, age = 69.3 +/- 1.7 years), black nonvegetarians (n = 37, age = 65.4 +/- 1.2 years), white vegetarians (n = 85, age = 66.7 +/- 1.0 years), and white nonvegetarians (n = 54, age = 65.2 +/- 0.9 years). Older black vegetarians were significantly leaner and exhibited lower average systolic BP (131.4/76.8 mm Hg) and less hypertension than the black omnivores (141.6/76.2 mm Hg), but had significantly higher average BP than either dietary group of older white adults (vegetarians: 120.9/66.7 mm Hg; nonvegetarians: 122.8/67.6 mm Hg). These data suggest that long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet by older black Americans may afford some protection against hypertension, but in comparison to older white adults, does not completely offset their apparently greater susceptibility to untoward elevation of BP.

  4. Acoustofluidic, label-free separation and simultaneous concentration of rare tumor cells from white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Maria; Magnusson, Cecilia; Augustsson, Per; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Enrichment of rare cells from peripheral blood has emerged as a means to enable noninvasive diagnostics and development of personalized drugs, commonly associated with a prerequisite to concentrate the enriched rare cell population prior to molecular analysis or culture. However, common concentration by centrifugation has important limitations when processing low cell numbers. Here, we report on an integrated acoustophoresis-based rare cell enrichment system combined with integrated concentration. Polystyrene 7 μm microparticles could be separated from 5 μm particles with a recovery of 99.3 ± 0.3% at a contamination of 0.1 ± 0.03%, with an overall 25.7 ± 1.7-fold concentration of the recovered 7 μm particles. At a flow rate of 100 μL/min, breast cancer cells (MCF7) spiked into red blood cell-lysed human blood were separated with an efficiency of 91.8 ± 1.0% with a contamination of 0.6 ± 0.1% from white blood cells with a 23.8 ± 1.3-fold concentration of cancer cells. The recovery of prostate cancer cells (DU145) spiked into whole blood was 84.1 ± 2.1% with 0.2 ± 0.04% contamination of white blood cells with a 9.6 ± 0.4-fold concentration of cancer cells. This simultaneous on-chip separation and concentration shows feasibility of future acoustofluidic systems for rapid label-free enrichment and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells using peripheral venous blood in clinical practice.

  5. Abnormal White Matter Integrity Related to Head Impact Exposure in a Season of High School Varsity Football

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Elizabeth M.; Urban, Jillian E.; Espeland, Mark A.; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Powers, Alexander K.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:24786802

  6. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  7. Patterns of white matter diffusivity abnormalities in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Milesi, Jacopo; Rocca, Maria A; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Petrolini, Melissa; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-09-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell degeneration and optic nerve atrophy, leading to a loss of central vision. The aim of this study was to explore the topographical pattern of damage to the brain white matter (WM) tracts from patients with chronic LHON using diffusion tensor (DT) MRI and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Brain dual-echo and DT MRI scans were acquired from 13 patients with chronic LHON and 25 matched controls using a 3.0 T scanner. TBSS analysis was performed using the FMRIB's Diffusion Toolbox. A complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including standardized automated Humphrey perimetry as well as average and temporal peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (PRNFL) measurements, was obtained in all patients. Mean average and temporal PRNFL thicknesses were decreased significantly in LHON patients. Compared to controls, TBSS analysis revealed significant diffusivity abnormalities in these patients, which were characterized by a decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, affecting exclusively the optic tracts and optic radiations (OR). In patients, a significant correlation was found between optic tract average FA and mean visual acuity (r = 0.57, p = 0.04). In LHON patients, DT MRI reveals a microstructural alteration of the WM along the entire visual pathways, with a sparing of the other main WM tracts of the brain. Damage to the OR may be secondary either to trans-synaptic degeneration, which in turn is due to neuroaxonal loss in the retina and optic nerve, or to local mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. BIANCA (Brain Intensity AbNormality Classification Algorithm): A new tool for automated segmentation of white matter hyperintensities.

    PubMed

    Griffanti, Ludovica; Zamboni, Giovanna; Khan, Aamira; Li, Linxin; Bonifacio, Guendalina; Sundaresan, Vaanathi; Schulz, Ursula G; Kuker, Wilhelm; Battaglini, Marco; Rothwell, Peter M; Jenkinson, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Reliable quantification of white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMHs) is increasingly needed, given the presence of these MRI findings in patients with several neurological and vascular disorders, as well as in elderly healthy subjects. We present BIANCA (Brain Intensity AbNormality Classification Algorithm), a fully automated, supervised method for WMH detection, based on the k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) algorithm. Relative to previous k-NN based segmentation methods, BIANCA offers different options for weighting the spatial information, local spatial intensity averaging, and different options for the choice of the number and location of the training points. BIANCA is multimodal and highly flexible so that the user can adapt the tool to their protocol and specific needs. We optimised and validated BIANCA on two datasets with different MRI protocols and patient populations (a "predominantly neurodegenerative" and a "predominantly vascular" cohort). BIANCA was first optimised on a subset of images for each dataset in terms of overlap and volumetric agreement with a manually segmented WMH mask. The correlation between the volumes extracted with BIANCA (using the optimised set of options), the volumes extracted from the manual masks and visual ratings showed that BIANCA is a valid alternative to manual segmentation. The optimised set of options was then applied to the whole cohorts and the resulting WMH volume estimates showed good correlations with visual ratings and with age. Finally, we performed a reproducibility test, to evaluate the robustness of BIANCA, and compared BIANCA performance against existing methods. Our findings suggest that BIANCA, which will be freely available as part of the FSL package, is a reliable method for automated WMH segmentation in large cross-sectional cohort studies. PMID:27402600

  9. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  10. Everyday Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Black and White Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Cooper, Denise C.; Mills, Paul J.; Nelesen, Richard A.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is closely linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Self-reported experiences of everyday discrimination have also been associated with negative cardiovascular health outcomes. This study investigated whether an association exists between experiences of everyday discrimination and BP dipping in a biracial sample of Black and White adults. Methods Seventy-eight hypertensive and normotensive women and men (30 Black and 48 White) reported on their experiences of everyday discrimination (the Everyday Discrimination Scale) and underwent two separate 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) sessions approximately one week apart. Results Correlation analysis revealed that higher endorsement of everyday discrimination was significantly associated with less diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) dipping (p <0.05). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that everyday discrimination explained 8-11% of the variance in SBP and DBP dipping above and beyond other demographic and lifestyle-related factors including race, age, 24-hour BP, body mass index (BMI), and current socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between discrimination and dipping was significantly stronger on the second night of monitoring. Finally, analyses revealed that everyday discrimination mediated the relationship between race and BP dipping. Conclusions These findings suggest that experiences of everyday discrimination are associated with less nocturnal SBP and DBP dipping above and beyond the effect of known covariates. The use of multiple ABPM sessions may facilitate the detection of relationships between psychological variables and BP dipping. PMID:20124424

  11. White blood cell segmentation by color-space-based k-means clustering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Zhen, Wu; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun; Liu, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood smear images were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The proposed segmentation method achieves 95.7% and 91.3% overall accuracy for nucleus segmentation and cytoplasm segmentation, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can segment WBCs effectively with high accuracy.

  12. Unfair treatment, discrimination, and ambulatory blood pressure in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Karen A; Salomon, Kristen; Kenyon, Karen; Zhou, Fan

    2005-05-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that unfair treatment and its attribution to race, physical appearance, and peer group were related to elevated ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). During 2 school days, 207 Black and White adolescents wore an ABP monitor and answered questions about mood, posture, location, and activity level at the time of the ABP assessment. At a separate session, in-clinic resting blood pressure and perceptions of unfair treatment were measured. Multilevel mixed models showed that unfair treatment and its attribution to race were not associated with ABP. However, adolescents who indicated that the primary reason for unfair treatment was their physical appearance had elevated ABP. Feeling unfairly treated because of physical appearance may impact blood pressure uniquely during the adolescent transition.

  13. Use of home blood pressure measurements to diagnose "white coat hypertension' in general practice.

    PubMed

    Aylett, M

    1996-01-01

    Mercury sphygmomanometers are the gold standard in blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, white coat hypertension can only be diagnosed by using either continuous ambulatory monitoring or home BP recording. Between 10% and 20% of patients under treatment for hypertension have white coat hypertension and most do not need medication. There have been no reports from general practice in the UK of the use of home recording which seems well suited to it. The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of carrying out validation procedures of a UA751 semi-automatic sphygmomanometer and to use it to diagnose white coat hypertension in one practice. Firstly, the validation consisted of tests based on the British Hypertension Societies (BHS) published methods. Simultaneous BP measurements were made with the UA751 and a mercury sphygmomanometer, using a t-tube, of 45 random normotensive and hypertensive patients. Validation readings were mercury instrument means 155/83 (s.d.s 25 and 11), UA751 means 156/85 (s.d.s 25 and 10). The proportion of acceptable differences between the readings placed the UA751 in the BHS Guidelines Grade 'B'. Secondly, to detect white coat hypertension, 52 consecutive new or poorly controlled hypertensive patients took a series of home BP readings. Five patients with white coat hypertension were found. We concluded that it is feasible to use the UA751 to diagnose white coat hypertension in general practice where most hypertensive patients are exclusively managed. Used for this specific purpose, it would be extremely cost effective, precluding many patients from unnecessary medication and saving substantial costs in drugs and other resources. PMID:8642185

  14. Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Abnormalities in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frontiera, Michael; Myers, Adam M.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing the peripheral hematologic manifestations, bone marrow changes and clinical course in 41 consecutive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), frequent findings included anemia (95%), leukopenia (76%), bone marrow hypercellularity (73%) and pancytopenia (41%). These hematologic abnormalities were not clearly associated with specific clinical manifestations of AIDS, but support the conclusion that the hematopoietic system is a target organ in AIDS. The mechanisms of these abnormalities still need to be evaluated. Clinicians should be aware of these commonly encountered changes. Images PMID:3660772

  15. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  16. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  17. Do high blood folate concentrations exacerbate metabolic abnormalities in people with low vitamin B-12 status?123

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798

  18. Abnormal Whole Blood Thrombi in Humans with Inherited Platelet Receptor Defects

    PubMed Central

    Castellino, Francis J.; Liang, Zhong; Davis, Patrick K.; Balsara, Rashna D.; Musunuru, Harsha; Donahue, Deborah L.; Smith, Denise L.; Sandoval-Cooper, Mayra J.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    To delineate the critical features of platelets required for formation and stability of thrombi, thromboelastography and platelet aggregation measurements were employed on whole blood of normal patients and of those with Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS) and Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia (GT). We found that separation of platelet activation, as assessed by platelet aggregation, from that needed to form viscoelastic stable whole blood thrombi, occurred. In normal human blood, ristocetin and collagen aggregated platelets, but did not induce strong viscoelastic thrombi. However, ADP, arachidonic acid, thrombin, and protease-activated-receptor-1 and -4 agonists, stimulated both processes. During this study, we identified the genetic basis of a very rare double heterozygous GP1b deficiency in a BSS patient, along with a new homozygous GP1b inactivating mutation in another BSS patient. In BSS whole blood, ADP responsiveness, as measured by thrombus strength, was diminished, while ADP-induced platelet aggregation was normal. Further, the platelets of 3 additional GT patients showed very weak whole blood platelet aggregation toward the above agonists and provided whole blood thrombi of very low viscoelastic strength. These results indicate that measurements of platelet counts and platelet aggregability do not necessarily correlate with generation of stable thrombi, a potentially significant feature in patient clinical outcomes. PMID:23300803

  19. Segmentation of White Blood Cells through Nucleus Mark Watershed Operations and Mean Shift Clustering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Hui; Li, Xiaomei; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun

    2015-09-08

    This paper presents a novel method for segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) in peripheral blood and bone marrow images under different lights through mean shift clustering, color space conversion and nucleus mark watershed operation (NMWO). The proposed method focuses on obtaining seed points. First, color space transformation and image enhancement techniques are used to obtain nucleus groups as inside seeds. Second, mean shift clustering, selection of the C channel component in the CMYK model, and illumination intensity adjustment are employed to acquire WBCs as outside seeds. Third, the seeds and NMWO are employed to precisely determine WBCs and solve the cell adhesion problem. Morphological operations are further used to improve segmentation accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm exhibits higher segmentation accuracy and robustness compared with traditional methods.

  20. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

  1. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  2. Developmental abnormalities, blood pressure variability and renal disease in Riley Day syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, L; Axelrod, F B; Kaufmann, H

    2013-01-01

    Riley Day syndrome, commonly referred to as familial dysautonomia (FD), is a genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure owing to baroreflex deafferenation. Chronic renal disease is very frequent in these patients and was attributed to recurrent arterial hypotension and renal hypoperfusion. Aggressive treatment of hypotension, however, has not reduced its prevalence. We evaluated the frequency of kidney malformations as well as the impact of hypertension, hypotension and blood pressure variability on the severity of renal impairment. We also investigated the effect of fludrocortisone treatment on the progression of renal disease. Patients with FD appeared to have an increased incidence of hydronephrosis/reflux and patterning defects. Patients <4 years old had hypertension and normal estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Patients with more severe hypertension and greater variability in their blood pressure had worse renal function (both, P<0.01). In contrast, there was no relationship between eGFR and the lowest blood pressure recorded during upright tilt. The progression of renal disease was faster in patients receiving fludrocortisone (P<0.02). Hypertension precedes kidney disease in these patients. Moreover, increased blood pressure variability as well as mineralocorticoid treatment accelerate the progression of renal disease. No association was found between hypotension and renal disease in patients with FD.

  3. Preterm white matter brain injury is prevented by early administration of umbilical cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingang; Yawno, Tamara; Sutherland, Amy; Loose, Jan; Nitsos, Ilias; Bischof, Robert; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; McDonald, Courtney A; Wong, Flora Y; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2016-09-01

    Infants born very preterm are at high risk for neurological deficits including cerebral palsy. In this study we assessed the neuroprotective effects of umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) and optimal administration timing in a fetal sheep model of preterm brain injury. 50 million allogeneic UCBCs were intravenously administered to fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) at 12h or 5d after acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) induced by umbilical cord occlusion. The fetal brains were collected at 10d after HI. HI (n=7) was associated with reduced number of oligodendrocytes (Olig2+) and myelin density (CNPase+), and increased density of activated microglia (Iba-1+) in cerebral white matter compared to control fetuses (P<0.05). UCBCs administered at 12h, but not 5d after HI, significantly protected white matter structures and suppressed cerebral inflammation. Activated microglial density showed a correlation with decreasing oligodendrocyte number (P<0.001). HI caused cell death (TUNEL+) in the internal capsule and cell proliferation (Ki-67+) in the subventricular zone compared to control (P<0.05), while UCBCs at 12h or 5d ameliorated these effects. Additionally, UCBCs at 12h induced a significant systemic increase in interleukin-10 at 10d, and reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) following HI (P<0.05). UCBC administration at 12h after HI reduces preterm white matter injury, via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. PMID:27317990

  4. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  5. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  6. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Nelson, Randy J; Rink, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8-9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC(+) area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  7. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Teplitsky, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8–9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC+ area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  8. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values.

  9. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Nelson, Randy J; Rink, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8-9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC(+) area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals.

  10. The Cryoprotectant Effect of Polysaccharides from Plants and Microalgae on Human White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Khudyakov, Andrey Nikolayevich; Polezhaeva, Tatyana Vitalyevna; Zaitseva, Oksana Olegovna; Gűnter, Elena Aleksandrovna; Solomina, Olga Nurzadinovna; Popeyko, Oksana Viktorovna; Shubakov, Anatolyi Aleksandrovich; Vetoshkin, Konstantin Aleksandrovich

    2015-08-01

    The use of carbohydrates as cryoprotectants is increasing. In this study the effects of incorporating polysaccharides extracted from plants and microalgae originating in northern Russia, into cryoprotectant solutions used to preserve human white blood cells were investigated. Cells in the presence of the polysaccharides were cooled to either -40°C or -80°C, using a two-step cooling process. The morphological and functional indicators of the cryopreserved leukocytes were assessed by light microscopy. When combined with glycerol, the pectin-polysaccharides Lemnan from common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and Comaruman from marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L), were capable of lowering the freezing point of the cryoprotectant solution and helped to preserve the integrity of the human white blood cell membranes at temperatures below zero. In addition, the increase in phagocytic activity of neutrophils was confirmed. In the context of the contemporary search for effective cell cryoprotectants, the results of this research demonstrate that the cryopreservation of biospecimens in a polysaccharide environment is a promising trend in applied medicine, which can be considered an alternative to traditional cryogenic nitrogen techniques. PMID:26186407

  11. A pillar-based microfilter for isolation of white blood cells on elastomeric substrate.

    PubMed

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Bahadorimehr, Alireza; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to design, fabricate, and characterize a pillar-based microfluidic device for size-based separation of human blood cells on an elastomeric substrate with application in the low-cost rapid prototyping of lab-chip devices. The single inlet single outlet device is using parallel U-shape arrays of pillars with cutoff size of 5.5 μm for trapping white blood cells (WBCs) in a pillar chamber with internal dead-volume of less than 1.0 μl. The microstructures are designed to limit the elastomeric deformation against fluid pressures. Numerical analysis showed that at maximum pressure loss of 15 kPa which is lower than the device conformal bonding strength, the pillar elastomeric deformation is less than 5% for flow rates of up to 1.0 ml min(-1). Molding technique was employed for device prototyping using polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) resin and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. Characterization of the dual-layer device with beads and blood samples is performed. Tests with blood injection showed that ∼18%-25% of WBCs are trapped and ∼84%-89% of red blood cells (RBCs) are passed at flow rates of 15-50 μl min(-1) with a slight decrease of WBCs trap and improve of the RBCs pass at higher flow rates. Similar results were obtained by separation of mixed microspheres of different size injected at flow rates of up to 400 μl min(-1). Tests with blood samples stained by fluorescent gel demonstrated that the WBCs are accumulated in the arrays of pillars that later end up to blockage of the device. Filtration results of using elastomeric substrate present a good consistency with the trend of separation efficiencies of the similar silicon-based filters. PMID:24403994

  12. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC.

  13. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  14. Effects of the butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the arylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in rat white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, H F; Wu, H C; Chang, W C; Chung, J G

    1999-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used to determine any effects on the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in rat whole blood and white blood cells as measured by high performance liquid chromatography assay for the amounts of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF) and 2-aminofluorene (AF). Two assay systems were performed, one with cellular cytosols, the other with intact white blood cells. The NAT activity in the whole blood and white blood cell cytosols was suppressed by BHA and BHT in a dose-dependent manner, i.e. the higher the concentrations of BHA and BHT, the higher the inhibition of NAT activity. Time-course experiments showed that NAT activity measured from the intact white blood cells was inhibited by BHA and BHT up to 24 h. The results suggest that BHA and BHT suppressed AF acetylation in rat blood with intact white blood cells.

  15. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  16. EVALUATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY, BLOOD GAS, AND LACTATE VALUES DURING EXTENDED IMMOBILIZATION OF WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    PubMed

    Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Meyer, Leith; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Brüns, Angela; Martin, Laura; Miller, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Ten white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were immobilized for a total of 13 procedures in holding facilities in Kruger National Park using etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase to assess the effect of extended immobilization on serial cardiorespiratory, blood gas, and lactate values. Butorphanol was administered intravenously following initial blood collection and physiologic assessment (t=0). Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters, body temperature, and arterial blood gases were monitored at 10-min intervals for a total of 100 min. Initial parameters at the time of recumbency revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, an increased alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient, and mildly elevated lactate levels. At 10 min and 20 min, there were significant (P<0.05) changes in the following physiologic parameters: heart rate decreased [96 and 80 beats/min, respectively, vs. 120 beats/min], arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) increased [48 and 45 mm Hg, respectively vs. 30 mm Hg], arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation increased [79% and 74%, respectively, vs. 47%], A-a gradient decreased [29.13 and 30.00 mm Hg, respectively, vs. 49.19 mm Hg], and respiratory rate decreased [5 and 5 breaths/min vs. 7 breaths/min]. Blood lactate levels also decreased from 2.54 mM/L to 1.50 and 0.89 mM/L, respectively. Despite initial improvements in blood oxygen levels at t=10 and 20 min, the rhinoceros remained severely hypoxemic for the remainder of the procedure (median PaO2=50.5 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval, 43.8-58.1). Median values for respiratory rate (5 breaths/min) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2; 68.5 mm Hg) did not change significantly for the remaining 80 min. Median lactate, base excess, bicarbonate, and pH values improved between 20 and 100 min despite the persistent hypercapnia, indicating that the animals adequately compensated for respiratory and lactic acidosis. White rhinoceros were immobilized for 100 min with no negative effects

  17. EVALUATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY, BLOOD GAS, AND LACTATE VALUES DURING EXTENDED IMMOBILIZATION OF WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    PubMed

    Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Meyer, Leith; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Brüns, Angela; Martin, Laura; Miller, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Ten white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were immobilized for a total of 13 procedures in holding facilities in Kruger National Park using etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase to assess the effect of extended immobilization on serial cardiorespiratory, blood gas, and lactate values. Butorphanol was administered intravenously following initial blood collection and physiologic assessment (t=0). Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters, body temperature, and arterial blood gases were monitored at 10-min intervals for a total of 100 min. Initial parameters at the time of recumbency revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, an increased alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient, and mildly elevated lactate levels. At 10 min and 20 min, there were significant (P<0.05) changes in the following physiologic parameters: heart rate decreased [96 and 80 beats/min, respectively, vs. 120 beats/min], arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) increased [48 and 45 mm Hg, respectively vs. 30 mm Hg], arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation increased [79% and 74%, respectively, vs. 47%], A-a gradient decreased [29.13 and 30.00 mm Hg, respectively, vs. 49.19 mm Hg], and respiratory rate decreased [5 and 5 breaths/min vs. 7 breaths/min]. Blood lactate levels also decreased from 2.54 mM/L to 1.50 and 0.89 mM/L, respectively. Despite initial improvements in blood oxygen levels at t=10 and 20 min, the rhinoceros remained severely hypoxemic for the remainder of the procedure (median PaO2=50.5 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval, 43.8-58.1). Median values for respiratory rate (5 breaths/min) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2; 68.5 mm Hg) did not change significantly for the remaining 80 min. Median lactate, base excess, bicarbonate, and pH values improved between 20 and 100 min despite the persistent hypercapnia, indicating that the animals adequately compensated for respiratory and lactic acidosis. White rhinoceros were immobilized for 100 min with no negative effects

  18. Prognosis of white-coat and masked hypertension: International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kollias, Anastasios; Niiranen, Teemu J; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-04-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is useful in detecting white-coat and masked hypertension and is recommended for patients with suspected or treated hypertension. The prognostic significance of white-coat and masked hypertension detected by home measurement was investigated in 6458 participants from 5 populations enrolled in the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 714 fatal plus nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. Among untreated subjects (n=5007), cardiovascular risk was higher in those with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI [1.06-1.91]; P=0.02), masked hypertension (1.55; 95% CI [1.12-2.14]; P<0.01) and sustained hypertension (2.13; 95% CI [1.66-2.73]; P<0.0001) compared with normotensive subjects. Among treated patients (n=1451), the cardiovascular risk did not differ between those with high office and low home blood pressure (white-coat) and treated controlled subjects (low office and home blood pressure; 1.16; 95% CI [0.79-1.72]; P=0.45). However, treated subjects with masked hypertension (low office and high home blood pressure; 1.76; 95% CI [1.23-2.53]; P=0.002) and uncontrolled hypertension (high office and home blood pressure; 1.40; 95% CI [1.02-1.94]; P=0.04) had higher cardiovascular risk than treated controlled patients. In conclusion, white-coat hypertension assessed by home measurements is a cardiovascular risk factor in untreated but not in treated subjects probably because the latter receive effective treatment on the basis of their elevated office blood pressure. In contrast, masked uncontrolled hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in both untreated and treated patients, who are probably undertreated because of their low office blood pressure.

  19. A combined spatial-spectral method for automated white blood cells segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Jianbiao; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-12-01

    To overcome the shortcomings in the traditional white blood cells (WBCs) identification methods based on the color or gray images captured by light microscopy, a microscopy hyperspectral imaging system was used to analyze the blood smears. The system was developed by coupling an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) adapter to a microscopy and driven by a SPF Model AOTF controller, which can capture hyperspectral images from 550 nm to 1000 nm with the spectral resolution 2-5 nm. Moreover, a combined spatial-spectral algorithm is proposed to segment the nuclei and cytoplasm of WBCs from the microscopy hyperspectral images. The proposed algorithm is based on the pixel-wise improved spectral angle mapper (ISAM) segmentation, followed by the majority voting within the active contour model regions. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 91.06% (nuclei) and 85.59% (cytoplasm), respectively, which is higher than that of the spectral information divergence (SID) algorithm because the new method can jointly use both the spectral and spatial information of blood cells.

  20. Reduced cerebral blood flow and white matter hyperintensities predict poor sleep in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is common in heart failure (HF), though mechanisms of sleep difficulties are not well understood. Adverse brain changes among regions important for sleep have been demonstrated in patients with HF. Cerebral hypoperfusion, a correlate of sleep quality, is also prevalent in HF and a likely contributor to white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, no study to date has examined the effects of cerebral blood flow, WMH, and brain volume on sleep quality in HF. Methods Fifty-three HF patients completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to quantify brain and WMH volume. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography assessed cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (CBF-V of the MCA). Results 75.5% of HF patients reported impaired sleep. Regression analyses adjusting for medical and demographic factors showed decreased CBF-V of the MCA and greater WMH volume were associated with poor sleep quality. No such pattern emerged on total brain or regional volume indices. Conclusions Decreased cerebral perfusion and greater WMH may contribute to sleep difficulties in HF. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and clarify the effects of cerebral blood flow and WMH on sleep in healthy and patient samples. PMID:24171759

  1. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  2. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection.

  3. Quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells using phase-shifting white light interference microscopy with colour fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Mehta, Dalip; Srivastava, Vishal

    2012-11-01

    We report quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells (RBCs) using phase-shifting interference microscopy. Five phase-shifted white light interferograms are recorded using colour charge coupled device camera. White light interferograms were decomposed into red, green, and blue colour components. The phase-shifted interferograms of each colour were then processed by phase-shifting analysis and phase maps for red, green, and blue colours were reconstructed. Wavelength dependent refractive index profiles of RBCs were computed from the single set of white light interferogram. The present technique has great potential for non-invasive determination of refractive index variation and morphological features of cells and tissues.

  4. Abnormal resting regional cerebral blood flow patterns and their correlates in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Tant, S.R.; Robinson, L.; Prakash, R.

    1988-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured under resting conditions in 108 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients and a matched group of normal controls with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Forty-six patients were free of all medication for two weeks. There were no significant differences in CBF to the two hemispheres. The patients showed a comparatively reduced anteroposterior (AP) gradient for CBF. Though there were no differences in frontal flow, the patients had higher flow to several postcentral brain regions, bilaterally. Cerebral blood flow in the patients correlated inversely with age and positively with carbon dioxide level. Women had higher flow than men. Duration of the illness was the only significant predictor of the reduced AP gradient in patients. Higher left temporal and right parietal flow were found to be the best discriminators between patients and controls. Mean hemispheric flow to both hemispheres and several brain regions correlated with the total score and the item, unusual thought content, of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no differences in regional CBF between medicated and unmedicated patients.

  5. Studies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells of Colossoma macropomum exposed to methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; da Cunha, Lorena Araújo; da Silva Pinheiro, Raul Henrique; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and morphological nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), treated with 2 mg.L−1 methylmercury (MeHg), were analyzed. Two groups (nine specimens in each) were exposed to MeHg for different periods (group A - 24 h; group B - 120 h). A third group served as negative control (group C, untreated; n = 9). Although, when compared to the control group there were no significant differences in MN frequency in the treated groups, for NA, the differences between the frequencies of group B (treated for 120 h) and the control group were extremely significant (p < 0.02), thus demonstrating the potentially adverse effects of MeHg on C. macropomum erythrocytes after prolonged exposure. PMID:22215976

  6. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  7. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes.

  8. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  9. Rapid analysis of white blood cells with diffraction imaging flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin-Hua; Lu, Jun Q.; Feng, Yuanming

    2011-03-01

    From a foundation of cell optics research program we have recently developed a diffraction imaging flow cytometer method which can be used to rapidly acquire and analyze diffraction image data from single flowing cells. Modeling and experimental investigation of light scattering by white blood cells (WBC) have been conducted which suggest a strong correlation between the fringe patterns related to the texture of the diffraction images and 3D morphological features of the cells. In particular, we present results of calculated and measured diffraction images obtained with three cell lines derived from leukemia patients to demonstrate that texture features of the diffraction images extracted with a gray-scale co-occurrence-matrix algorithm can be used for rapid cell classification.

  10. Understanding the patient-provider communication needs and experiences of Latina and non-Latina White women following an abnormal mammogram.

    PubMed

    Molina, Yamile; Hohl, Sarah D; Ko, Linda K; Rodriguez, Edgar A; Thompson, Beti; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2014-12-01

    Latinas are more likely to delay recommended follow-up care than non-Latina White (NLW) women after an abnormal mammogram result. Ethnic differences in communication needs and experiences with health-care staff and providers may contribute to these delays as well as satisfaction with care. Nonetheless, little research has explored the aspects of communication that may contribute to patient comprehension, adherence to follow-up care, and satisfaction across ethnicity. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to identify patients' communication needs and experiences with follow-up care among Latina and NLW women who received an abnormal mammogram. We conducted 41 semi-structured interviews with 19 Latina and 22 NLW women between the ages of 40 and 74 who had received an abnormal mammogram. Communication themes indicated that women's needs and experiences concerning abnormal mammograms and follow-up care varied across ethnicity. Latinas and NLW women appeared to differ in their comprehension of abnormal results and follow-up care as a result of language barriers and health literacy. Both groups of women identified clear, empathic communication as being important in patient-provider communication; however, Latinas underscored the need for warm communicative styles, and NLW women emphasized the importance of providing more information. Women with high levels of satisfaction with patient-provider interactions appeared to have positive perspectives of subsequent screening and cancer treatment. To improve patient satisfaction and adherence to follow-up care among Latinas, educational programs are necessary to counsel health-care professionals with regard to language, health literacy, and empathic communication needs in health-care service delivery.

  11. Chlorinated pollutants in blood of White stork nestlings (Ciconia ciconia) in different colonies in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Hernández-Moreno, David; Castellano, Antonio; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of persistent chlorinated pollutants (POPs) in wild birds. The concentrations of multiple POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in plasma of White stork nestlings. Blood samples were collected from three breeding colonies located in the West of Spain that were exposed to different environmental conditions and human activities. The concentrations of PCBs were below the limit of detection in all samples. The OCPs Heptaclor, 4,4′-DDE, endosulfan and aldrin were detected most frequently in plasma from White stork nestlings. From these four compounds, 4,4′-DDE and Heptaclor were found in high abundance. OCPs could not be detected in the colony breading nearby a landfill and an intensive agricultural area, indicating that these banned compounds are not taken up by crops growing in this area. However, birds from the colony breading next to a landfill exhibited the highest OCPs levels. These high levels might be due to exposure of the mothers to OCPs during their migration to Africa and subsequent transfer to their eggs. PMID:25465955

  12. The white blood cell line: changes induced in mice by hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Orna; Ishay, Jacob S.

    The effect of hypergravity on the white blood cell (WBC) line of mice was investigated by use of horizontal centrifuge. Several sets of experiments were performed, in which the parameters measured were the WBC and differential cell count in the peripheral blood. In another experiment, lymphocyte counts from the spleen, lymph nodes, and the thymus were measured. The needed samples were taken from the mice during a stay of 7-40 days under a hypergravity of 1.6G. The test groups that were placed on the arms of the centrifuge (1.6G) were compared with stationary control groups (1G) and a rotating control group located at the center of the centrifuge (1G). Such a comparison revealed the test animals to be deficient on all counts, to wit, showing a decrease in total number of WBC's, a decrease in lymphocyte number in the peripheral blood and a decrease in the number of lymphocyte in the spleen and thymus. The decrease of lymphocytes in peripheral blood was characterized by two different slopes - an early and temporary decrease at the first days of the experiment evident in both test and rotating control groups followed by a temporary increase, and a later persistent decrease, evident only in the test group, while in the rotating control lymphocyte counts reverted to normal. There were no significant differences in monocyte or neutrophil counts, except for a temporary increase in the number of neutrophils which peaked on the seventh day. In order to evaluate the effect of hypergravity on restoration of hematopoiesis following hematopoietic suppression, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) was administered i.v. to both the experimental and control mice. Suppression of bone marrow was observed in all groups injected with 5-FU, but while there was later an increase in cell counts in the control groups, there was no such increase in the test group subjected to hypergravity.

  13. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  14. Genetic Modifiers of White Blood Cell Count, Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Jonathan M.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Nelson, Stephen C.; Aygun, Banu; Nottage, Kerri A.; George, Alex; Roberts, Carla W.; Piccone, Connie M.; Howard, Thad A.; Davis, Barry R.; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery and validation of genetic variants that influence disease severity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) could lead to early identification of high-risk patients, better screening strategies, and intervention with targeted and preventive therapy. We hypothesized that newly identified genetic risk factors for the general African American population could also impact laboratory biomarkers known to contribute to the clinical disease expression of SCA, including variants influencing the white blood cell count and the development of albuminuria and abnormal glomerular filtration rate. We first investigated candidate genetic polymorphisms in well-characterized SCA pediatric cohorts from three prospective NHLBI-supported clinical trials: HUSTLE, SWiTCH, and TWiTCH. We also performed whole exome sequencing to identify novel genetic variants, using both a discovery and a validation cohort. Among candidate genes, DARC rs2814778 polymorphism regulating Duffy antigen expression had a clear influence with significantly increased WBC and neutrophil counts, but did not affect the maximum tolerated dose of hydroxyurea therapy. The APOL1 G1 polymorphism, an identified risk factor for non-diabetic renal disease, was associated with albuminuria. Whole exome sequencing discovered several novel variants that maintained significance in the validation cohorts, including ZFHX4 polymorphisms affecting both the leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as AGGF1, CYP4B1, CUBN, TOR2A, PKD1L2, and CD163 variants affecting the glomerular filtration rate. The identification of robust, reliable, and reproducible genetic markers for disease severity in SCA remains elusive, but new genetic variants provide avenues for further validation and investigation. PMID:27711207

  15. The effect of hypodynamia on the structure of the intraorganic blood vessels and the capacity of the blood stream in the diaphragm of white rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerus, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypodynamia on the vascular system of white rats with diaphragm deprivation was investigated. Morphological changes in the intraorganic blood stream of the diaphragm were determined. The capacity of the intraorganic vascular flow within the diaphragm muscles was established.

  16. Why continued surveillance? Intermittent blood pressure and heart rate abnormality under treatment

    PubMed Central

    Katinas, G. S.; Cornélissen, G.; Otsuka, K.; Haus, E.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Several opinion leaders have monitored their blood pressure systematically a sufficient number of times a day for chronomic (time structural) analyses, from the time of encountering chronobiology until their death; they set an example for others who also may not wish to base treatment on single spotchecks in a health care office. Such self-measurements, while extremely helpful, were not readily feasible without a noteworthy interruption of activities during waking as well as of sleep. New, relatively unobtrusive instrumentation now makes monitoring possible and cost-effective and will save lives. Illustrative results and problems encountered in an as-one-goes self-survey by GSK, a physician-scientist, are presented herein. Both MESOR-hypertension and CHAT (circadian hyper-amplitude-tension) can be intermittent conditions even under treatment, and treatment is best adjusted based on monitoring, rather than “flying blind”. PMID:16275483

  17. Aspirin insensitive thrombophilia: Transcript profiling of blood identifies platelet abnormalities and HLA restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Payam; Katz, Richard; Toma, Ian; Li, Ranyang; Reiner, Jonathan; VanHouten, Kiersten; Carpio, Larry; Marshall, Lorraine; Lian, Yi; Bupp, Sujata; Fu, Sidney W.; Rickles, Frederick; Leitenberg, David; Lai, Yinglei; Weksler, Babette B.; Rebling, Frederik; Yang, Zhaoqing; McCaffrey, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin is the most widely used antiplatelet agent because it is safe, efficient, and inexpensive. However, a significant subset of patients does not exhibit a full inhibition of platelet aggregation, termed ‘aspirin resistance’ (AR). Several major studies have observed that AR patients have a 4-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and other thrombotic events. Arachidonic acid-stimulated whole blood aggregation was tested in 132 adults at risk for ischemic events, and identified an inadequate response to aspirin therapy in 9 patients (6.8%). Expression profiling of blood RNA by microarray was used to generate new hypotheses about the etiology of AR. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were decreases in several known platelet transcripts, including clusterin (CLU), glycoproteins IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B/3), lipocalin (LCN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and the thrombopoetin receptor (MPL), but with increased mRNA for the T-cell Th1 chemokine CXCL10. There was a strong association of AR with expression of HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DQA1. Similar HLA changes have been linked to autoimmune disorders, particularly antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), in which autoantibodies to phospholipid/protein complexes can trigger platelet activation. Consistent with APS, AR patients exhibited a 30% reduction in platelet counts. Follow-up testing for autoimmune antibodies observed only borderline titers in AR patients. Overall, these results suggest that AR may be related to changes in platelet gene expression creating a hyperreactive platelet, despite antiplatelet therapy. Future studies will focus on determining the protein levels of these differential transcripts in platelets, and the possible involvement of HLA restriction as a contributing factor. PMID:23454623

  18. Office blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and echocardiographic abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of obesity and androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Martí, David; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-03-01

    Whether or not blood pressure (BP) and heart function of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are altered remains unclear, albeit subtle abnormalities in the regulation of BP observed in these women might suggest a mild masculinization of their cardiovascular system. To study the influence of obesity and androgen excess on BP and echocardiographic profiles of women with the syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional case-control study comparing office and ambulatory BP monitoring, as well as echocardiographic assessments, in 63 premenopausal women with the classic phenotype, 33 nonhyperandrogenic women with regular menses, and 25 young men. Forty-nine subjects were lean and 72 had weight excess (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Participants had no previous history of hypertension and were nonsmokers. Men showed the highest BP readings, and the lowest readings were observed in control women, whereas women with PCOS had intermediate values. Undiagnosed hypertension was more common in subjects with weight excess irrespective of sex and hyperandrogenism. Women with PCOS and weight excess showed frequencies of previously undiagnosed hypertension that were similar to those of men with weight excess and higher than those observed in nonhyperandrogenic women. Lastly, male sex, weight excess and hypertension, the latter in men as well as in women with PCOS, increased left ventricular wall thickness. In summary, our results show that patients with classic PCOS and weight excess frequently have undiagnosed BP abnormalities, leading to target organ damage.

  19. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care

    PubMed Central

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2015-01-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange. PMID:26601006

  20. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-11-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange. PMID:26601006

  1. Increasing body mass index, blood pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans abnormalities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A; Rodriguez, Melinda C; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with AN as the dependent variable, with year, gender, BMI, and BP as independent variables. The results indicate that the rate of children in each grade with three positive markers increased 2% during a 3-year period between 2008 and 2010. In the 5-year period between 2005 and 2010, a clear trend of significantly higher numbers of children with both AN and BMI markers was apparent. Gender played a significant role as females were more likely to have the AN marker than males. Further study is indicated based on the increasing trend of school-age children in Texas with positive markers for AN, increased BMI and BP.

  2. Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kim, Hak Hee

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a matrix of fibrin and platelets that releases cytokines that are important in wound healing. PRP is produced from the patient's blood and therefore has less risk of allergic reaction and infection. We have obtained PRP with an enhanced white blood cell component (W-PRP) by optimizing the centrifugal separation of PRP from plasma. Here we show that injection of W-PRP into the auricle of nude mice gave greater tissue augmentation compared to PRP. Further augmentation occurred when bFGF was added to W-PRP, and there was a significant increase in the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in mice treated with W-PRP+bFGF. Our results suggest that W-PRP may have value in cosmetic surgery aimed at rejuvenation of wrinkled and sagging skin. W-PRP injection constitutes a new concept in cell transplantation, in which cells required for tissue regeneration are induced by cytokines released from the transplanted cells. PMID:22793069

  3. Automatic white blood cell segmentation using stepwise merging rules and gradient vector flow snake.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Gim, Ja-Won; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2011-10-01

    This study aims at proposing a new stained WBC (white blood cell) image segmentation method using stepwise merging rules based on mean-shift clustering and boundary removal rules with a GVF (gradient vector flow) snake. This paper proposes two different schemes for segmenting the nuclei and cytoplasm of WBCs, respectively. For nuclei segmentation, a probability map is created using a probability density function estimated from samples of WBC's nuclei and sub-images cropped to include a nucleus based on the fact that nuclei have a salient color against the background and red blood cells. Mean-shift clustering is then performed for region segmentation, and a stepwise merging scheme applied to merge particle clusters with a nucleus. Meanwhile, for cytoplasm segmentation, morphological opening is applied to a green image to boost the intensity of the granules and canny edges detected within the sub-image. The boundary edges and noise edges are then removed using removal rules, while a GVF snake is forced to deform to the cytoplasm boundary edges. When evaluated using five different types of stained WBC, the proposed algorithm produced accurate segmentation results for most WBC types.

  4. Association between hypermethylation of DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell DNA and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Neale, Rachel E; Clark, Paul J; Fawcett, Jonathan; Fritschi, Lin; Nagler, Belinda N; Risch, Harvey A; Walters, Rhiannon J; Crawford, William J; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Methylation of DNA may influence risk or be a marker of early disease. The aim of this study was to measure the association between methylation of three DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell (WBC) DNA and pancreatic cancer. DNA from WBCs of pancreatic cancer cases (n=559) and healthy unrelated controls (n=603) were tested for methylation of the LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 DNA repetitive elements using MethyLight quantitative PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between both continuous measures of percent of methylated sample compared to a reference (PMR) or quintiles of PMR and pancreatic cancer, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol and higher education, were estimated. The PMR for each of the three markers was higher in cases than in controls, although only LINE-1 was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (OR per log unit=1.37, 95%CI=1.16-1.63). The marker methylation score for all three markers combined was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (p-trend=0.0006). There were no associations between measures of PMR and either presence of metastases, or timing of blood collection in relation to diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy or death (all p>0.1). We observed an association between methylation of LINE-1 in WBC DNA and risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

  5. Identification of nine novel loci associated with white blood cell subtypes in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Hosono, Naoya; Nalls, Michael A; Chen, Ming Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Smith, Albert V; Tanaka, Toshiko; Couper, David J; Zakai, Neil A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L; Hernandez, Dena G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Harris, Tamara B; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Ganesh, Santhi K; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tamari, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2011-06-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) mediate immune systems and consist of various subtypes with distinct roles. Elucidation of the mechanism that regulates the counts of the WBC subtypes would provide useful insights into both the etiology of the immune system and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we report results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a replication study for the counts of the 5 main WBC subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) using 14,792 Japanese subjects enrolled in the BioBank Japan Project. We identified 12 significantly associated loci that satisfied the genome-wide significance threshold of P<5.0×10(-8), of which 9 loci were novel (the CDK6 locus for the neutrophil count; the ITGA4, MLZE, STXBP6 loci, and the MHC region for the monocyte count; the SLC45A3-NUCKS1, GATA2, NAALAD2, ERG loci for the basophil count). We further evaluated associations in the identified loci using 15,600 subjects from Caucasian populations. These WBC subtype-related loci demonstrated a variety of patterns of pleiotropic associations within the WBC subtypes, or with total WBC count, platelet count, or red blood cell-related traits (n = 30,454), which suggests unique and common functional roles of these loci in the processes of hematopoiesis. This study should contribute to the understanding of the genetic backgrounds of the WBC subtypes and hematological traits.

  6. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  7. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  8. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  9. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes. PMID:27142715

  10. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  11. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wagner, Erika B; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  12. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  13. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems. PMID:23766550

  14. Melatonin secretion is impaired in women with preeclampsia and an abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm.

    PubMed

    Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Mertens, Peter R; Zintzaras, Elias; Messinis, Ioannis E; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-08-01

    Non-dipping circadian blood pressure (BP) is a common finding in preeclampsia, accompanied by adverse outcomes. Melatonin plays pivotal role in biological circadian rhythms. This study investigated the relationship between melatonin secretion and circadian BP rhythm in preeclampsia. Cases were women with preeclampsia treated between January 2006 and June 2007 in the University Hospital of Larissa. Volunteers with normal pregnancy, matched for chronological and gestational age, served as controls. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring was applied. Serum melatonin and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were determined in day and night time samples by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Measurements were repeated 2 months after delivery. Thirty-one women with preeclampsia and 20 controls were included. Twenty-one of the 31 women with preeclampsia were non-dippers. Compared to normal pregnancy, in preeclampsia there were significantly lower night time melatonin (48.4 ± 24.7 vs. 85.4 ± 26.9 pg/mL, p<0.001) levels. Adjustment for circadian BP rhythm status ascribed this finding exclusively to non-dippers (p<0.01). Two months after delivery, in 11 of the 21 non-dippers both circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm reappeared. In contrast, in cases with retained non-dipping status (n=10) melatonin secretion rhythm remained impaired: daytime versus night time melatonin (33.5 ± 13.0 vs. 28.0 ± 13.8 pg/mL, p=0.386). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were, overall, similar to serum melatonin. Circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm follow parallel course in preeclampsia, both during pregnancy and, at least 2 months after delivery. Our findings may be not sufficient to implicate a putative therapeutic effect of melatonin, however, they clearly emphasize that its involvement in the pathogenesis of a non-dipping BP in preeclampsia needs intensive further investigation.

  15. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. Material and methods We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Results Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and lower values of high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) compared to lean children. Analysis of transcriptional expression data showed a difference for ADRB1 (p = 0.0297), ADIPOR1 (p = 0.0317), GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Conclusions Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011). PMID:27695486

  16. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  17. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight

  18. Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

    2007-03-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight

  19. Inter-arm blood pressure differences compared with ambulatory monitoring: a manifestation of the ‘white-coat’ effect?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Una; Holder, Roger; Hodgkinson, James; McManus, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Inter-arm difference in blood pressure of >10 mmHg is associated with peripheral vascular disease, but it is unclear how much of the difference in sequential right and left arm blood pressure measurements might be due to a ‘white-coat’ effect. Aim To use ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to better understand the clinical significance of inter-arm differences in blood pressure. Design and setting Retrospective study in a teaching hospital in Birmingham. Method Anonymised clinical data collected from 784 patients attending a single hospital-based hypertension clinic were retrospectively analysed. Each participant had blood pressure measured sequentially in both arms, followed by ABPM over the subsequent 24 hours. Result Data were available for 710 (91%) patients, of whom 39.3% (279) had a blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more between each arm. Compared to daytime systolic ABPM, the difference was 25.1 mmHg using the arm with the highest reading, but only 15.5 mmHg if the lower reading was taken (mean difference 9.6 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.0 mmHg to 10.3 mmHg)). However, differences between mean right (20.7 mmHg) or left (19.9 mmHg) arm blood pressure and daytime systolic ABPM were very similar. Conclusion Compared with ABPM, use of the higher of the left and right arm readings measured sequentially appears to overestimate true mean blood pressure. As there is no significant difference in the extent of disparity with ABPM by left or right arm, this is unlikely to be due to arm dominance and may be due to the ‘white-coat’ effect reducing blood pressure on repeated measurement. Where a large inter-arm blood pressure difference is detected with sequential measurement, healthcare professionals should re-measure the blood pressure in the original arm. PMID:23561681

  20. Diagnosing joint infections: synovial fluid differential is more sensitive than white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Baran, Sean; Price, Connie; Hak, David J

    2014-12-01

    In order to identify the predictive value of synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count and differential white blood cell count in identifying nonprosthetic joint infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed populations, we retrospectively reviewed 96 adult patients who underwent hip or knee aspiration because of symptoms suggesting a possible nonprosthetic joint infection. Medical history, including immunosuppressive disease or drugs, was recorded, and synovial fluid cell count, differential, and culture results were compared. There were 44 patients with positive synovial cultures. Of 36 patients who had a synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³, 89% had positive cultures. The sensitivity to synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³ was 0.727 (95% CI 0.570-0.845), and specificity was 0.923 (95% CI 0.806-0.975). There were 12 patients with a synovial WBC <50,000/mm³ that had positive cultures. The sensitivity of percentage polymorphonuclear cells (%PMNs) to predict positive cultures when the %PMNs were at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.932, 0.886, and 0.818, respectively. The specificity when the %PMNs was at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.598, 0.577, and 0.673, respectively. Among the 29% of immunocompromised patients, the sensitivity to synovial WBC ≥50,000/mm³ was 0.714 (95% CI 0.420-0.904), and specificity was 1.000 (95% CI 0.732-1.000). Twenty-nine percent of patients with a synovial WBC <50,000/mm³ had positive cultures. The sensitivity of %PMNs to predict positive cultures when the %PMNs was at least 80, 85, and 90% was 1.000, 0.929, and 0.786, respectively. The specificity when the %PMNs were at least 80, 85, and 90% was 0.500, 0.643, and 0.714, respectively. We found that the synovial WBC differential (percentage synovial fluid PMNs) is a more sensitive predictor for nonprosthetic adult joint infection than the synovial absolute WBC count. This was true in both the general population and the immunosuppressed population.

  1. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001) after age–gender adjustment and 1.71 (SD 1.03) mm Hg higher after multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP (P = 0.10). After multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP, nighttime SBP was 4.83 (SD 1.11) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the African Americans were more likely than Whites to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99–6.05) and nondipping (prevalence ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.39–4.48). The prevalence of masked hypertension among African Americans and Whites was 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, (P = 0.49) and white coat hypertension was 3.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P = 0.99). Twenty-four hour BP variability on ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  2. White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

  3. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Živković, Lada; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena; Milovanović, Ivan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells. PMID:26258163

  4. Flow-Through Electroporation of HL-60 White Blood Cell Suspensions using Nanoporous Membrane Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Akenhead, Michael A; Sun, Xinghua; Sapper, Harrison; Shin, Hainsworth Y; Hinds, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    A flow-through electroporation system, based on a novel nanoporous membrane/electrode design, for the delivery of cell wall-impermeant molecules into model leukocytes, HL-60 promyelocytes, was demonstrated. The ability to apply low voltages to cell populations, with nm-scale concentrated electric field in a periodic array, contributes to high cell viability. With applied biases of 1-4V, delivery of target molecules was achieved with 90% viability and up to 65% transfection efficiency. More importantly, the system allowed electrophoretic pumping of molecules from a microscale reservoir across the membrane/electrode system into a microfluidic flow channel for transfection of cells, a design that can reduce reagent amount by eightfold compared to current strategies. The flow-through system, which forces intimate membrane/electrode contact by using a 10μm channel height, can be easily scaled-up by adjusting the microfluidic channel geometry and/or the applied voltage pulse frequency to control cell residence times at the cell membrane/electrode interface. The demonstrated system shows promise in clinical applications where low-cost, high cell viability and high volume transfection methods are needed without the risk of viral vectors. In particular genetic modification of freely mobile white blood cells to either target disease cells or to express desired protein/enzyme biomolecules is an important target platform enabled by this device system. PMID:27377174

  5. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016.

  6. Segmentation of White Blood Cell from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Images Using Dual-Threshold Method.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Rui; Mi, Lei; Cao, Yihui; Yao, Di

    2016-01-01

    We propose a dual-threshold method based on a strategic combination of RGB and HSV color space for white blood cell (WBC) segmentation. The proposed method consists of three main parts: preprocessing, threshold segmentation, and postprocessing. In the preprocessing part, we get two images for further processing: one contrast-stretched gray image and one H component image from transformed HSV color space. In the threshold segmentation part, a dual-threshold method is proposed for improving the conventional single-threshold approaches and a golden section search method is used for determining the optimal thresholds. For the postprocessing part, mathematical morphology and median filtering are utilized to denoise and remove incomplete WBCs. The proposed method was tested in segmenting the lymphoblasts on a public Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) image dataset. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than single-threshold approach independently performed in RGB and HSV color space and the overall single WBC segmentation accuracy reaches 97.85%, showing a good prospect in subsequent lymphoblast classification and ALL diagnosis. PMID:27313659

  7. Automated white blood cell counting via classification-free granulometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Gader, Paul D.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we describe an application of the granulometric mixing theorem to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, an iterative algorithm based on the mixing theorem can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The algorithm does not converge well for more than two classes. Therefore, a new algorithm based on the theorem is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses prior statistics to initially segment the mixed pattern spectrum and then applies the one-primitive mixing theorem to each initial component. Applying the mixing theorem to one class at a time results in better convergence. The counts produced by the proposed algorithm on 6 classes of cell -- Myeloblast, Promyelocyte, Myelocyte, Metamyelocyte, Band, and PMN -- are very close to the actual numbers; the deviation of the algorithm counts is not larger than deviation of counts produced by human experts. An important technical point is that, unlike previous algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require prior knowledge of the total number of cells in an image.

  8. Effects of white rice containing enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Haramoto, Masafumi; Mizuno, Hidenori; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Kagami-Katsuyama, Hiroyo; Tanaka, Aiko; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Yuji; Nishihira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter with beneficial effects including antihypertension and antistress properties. In this study, we examined the effects of GABA-enriched white rice (GABA rice) on blood pressure (BP) in 39 mildly hypertensive adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group (n = 22) who consumed rice with 11.2 mg GABA/100 g of rice and a placebo group (n = 17) who consumed rice with 2.7 mg GABA/100 g of rice. For 8 weeks, the participants took 150 g of either the GABA rice or the placebo rice. Hematological examinations were performed on both groups at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of rice consumption. Home BP was self-measured two times daily, morning and evening, from 1 weeks before to 2 weeks after the intervention. Although the hospital BP and evening BP measurements of the participants showed no significant change, consumption of the GABA rice improved the morning BP compared with the placebo rice after the 1st week and during the 6th and 8th weeks. These results showed the possibility that the GABA rice improves morning hypertension. PMID:26870683

  9. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  10. Relationship between Age and Peripheral White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Parsa, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Total white blood cells (WBCs) decrease slightly in the elderly. In response to an acute infection, the number of WBCs increases and in sepsis, the increase is very dramatic. There are some reports about the effects of increased number of WBCs as a predisposing factor of bacteremia. An association between neutrophilia and eucopenia and increased mortality rate in the elderly has also been observed. We compared peripheral WBC counts in young and elderly patients with sepsis. Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 130 admitted patients who were divided into two groups based on age, ≥ 65 years (case group) and < 65 years (control group). All patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of sepsis in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran, 2001-2006. Results: Mean WBC counts at admission time were 17061.5 ± 14240.2 /μl in the case group and 13567.7 ± 9888.0 /ml in the control group. There were statistically significant associations between age and history of infection and history of hospitalization during the last month in the case group and also between age and source of infection (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The history of infection and the history of hospitalization during the last month with sepsis are important risk factors in elders. PMID:22174963

  11. Sequential relationships between grey matter and white matter atrophy and brain metabolic abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Villain, Nicolas; Fouquet, Marine; Baron, Jean-Claude; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2010-11-01

    Hippocampal atrophy, posterior cingulate and frontal glucose hypometabolism, and white-matter tract disruption are well described early macroscopic events in Alzheimer's disease. The relationships between these three types of alterations have been documented in previous studies, but their chronology still remains to be established. The present study used multi-modal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging longitudinal data to address this question in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. We found unidirectional, specific sequential relationships between: (i) baseline hippocampal atrophy and both cingulum bundle (r = 0.70; P = 3 × 10⁻³) and uncinate fasciculus (r = 0.75; P = 7 × 10⁻⁴) rate of atrophy; (ii) baseline cingulum bundle atrophy and rate of decline of posterior (r = 0.72; P = 2 × 10⁻³); and anterior (r = 0.74; P = 1 × 10⁻³) cingulate metabolism; and (iii) baseline uncinate white matter atrophy and subgenual metabolism rate of change (r = 0.65; P = 6 × 10⁻³). Baseline local grey matter atrophy was not found to contribute to hypometabolism progression within the posterior and anterior cingulate as well as subgenual cortices. These findings suggest that hippocampal atrophy progressively leads to disruption of the cingulum bundle and uncinate fasciculus, which in turn leads to glucose hypometabolism of the cingulate and subgenual cortices, respectively. This study reinforces the relevance of remote mechanisms above local interactions to account for the pattern of metabolic brain alteration observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and provides new avenues to assess the sequence of events in complex diseases characterized by multiple manifestations.

  12. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

  13. Association of Blood Pressure and Hypertension with Alcohol Consumption in HIV-Infected White and Nonwhite Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nêmora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Brandão, Ajácio B. M.; Fuchs, Flávio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although alcohol abuse is associated with hypertension in whites and nonwhites, it has been scarcely investigated in HIV-infected patients. Objective. To investigate whether the association of alcohol abuse with hypertension is influenced by skin color in HIV-infected individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected individuals aged 18 years or older. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and HIV infection were investigated. Alcohol abuse was defined as ≥15 (women) and ≥30 g/alcohol/day (men), and binge drinking by the intake of ≥5 drinks on a single occasion. Hypertension was defined by blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of blood pressure-lowering agents. Results. We studied 1,240 individuals, with 39.1 ± 10 years, 51% males and 57% whites. Age and body mass index were associated with blood pressure, and there was an independent association of alcohol abuse with hypertension in whites (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3) and nonwhites (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.0). Among nonwhite individuals who were alcohol abusers, systolic (9.3 ± 3.2; P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressures (6.4 ± 2.1; P = 0.008) were higher than in nonabusers. Conclusion. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for hypertension in white and nonwhite HIV-infected individuals. The association of ethanol consumption with blood pressure is not explained by AIDS-related conditions. PMID:24235878

  14. Parametric imaging of experimentally simulated Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome conduction abnormalities in dogs: a concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Weismueller, P.H.; Henze, E.; Adam, W.E.; Roth, J.; Bitter, F.; Stauch, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the diagnostic potential of phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for localizing accessory bundles in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, 24 experimental runs were performed in three open chest instrumented dogs. After a baseline study, WPW syndrome was simulated by stimulation at seven different sites around the base of the ventricles, and RNV's were obtained. Subsequent data processing including Fourier transformation allowed the localization of the site of the first inward motion of the ventricles by an isophasic wave display. In sinus rhythm, the septum contracted first. During ectopic premature ventricular stimulation by triggering the atrial signal, the phase scan was altered only when the stimulus was applied earlier than 20 ms before the expected QRS complex during sinus rhythm. During stimulation with fixed frequency, only the left lateral positions of the premature stimulation were detected by phase analysis with a sensitivity of 86%. Neither the antero- or posteroseptal nor the right ventricular premature contraction pattern could be exactly localized.

  15. Effect of breath-hold on blood gas analysis in captive Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Fumio; Ohizumi, Hiroshi; Ohshita, Isao

    2010-09-01

    The effect of a breath-hold on blood gas was evaluated in captive Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). Serial blood collections were performed from a vessel on the ventral surface of the flukes during breath-hold. In total, 178 blood samples were taken from three dolphins for five trials in each animal. During a breath-hold, partial pressure of oxygen (Po₂) decreased from 152.5 to 21.8 mmHg and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Po₂) conversely increased from 31.8 to 83.6 mmHg. The range of pH was 7.54 to 7.25, suggesting drastic change from alkalemia to acidemia. These wide ranges of blood gas imply a considerable change of oxygen affinity caused by the Bohr effect during breath-hold, which enable effective uptake and distribution of oxygen to metabolizing tissues.

  16. Identification of squalamine in the plasma membrane of white blood cells in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2007-12-01

    It is well established that innate mechanisms play an important role in the immunity of fish. Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from several species of teleosts. Here, we report the isolation of an antimicrobial compound from the blood of bacterially challenged sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. An acetic acid extract from the blood cells of challenged fish was subjected to solid-phase extraction, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the purified fractions assayed for antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, antimicrobial activity in these fractions originated from squalamine, an aminosterol previously identified in the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Further chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the identity of squalamine, an antimicrobial and antiangiogenic agent, in the active fraction from the sea lamprey blood cells. Immunocytochemical analysis localized squalamine to the plasma membrane of white blood cells. Therefore, we postulate that squalamine has an important role in the innate immunity that defends the lamprey against microbial invasion. The full biochemical and immunological roles of squalamine in the white blood cell membrane remain to be investigated. PMID:17726196

  17. White blood cell and hormonal responses to 4300 m altitude before and after intermittent altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Beidleman, Beth A; Muza, Stephen R; Fulco, Charles S; Cymerman, Allen; Staab, Janet E; Sawka, Michael N; Lewis, Steven F; Skrinar, Gary S

    2006-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that brief daily IAE (intermittent altitude exposure) was equally as effective as continuous altitude residence in inducing physiological adaptations consistent with altitude acclimatization. Although the positive benefits of IAE have been clearly defined, the potential negative consequences of IAE on health, specifically the immune system, remain undefined. The present study determined the effects of IAE on WBC (white blood cell) and hormonal responses during rest and exercise at 4300 m altitude. Six lowlanders (age, 23+/-2 years; body weight, 77+/-6 kg; values are means+/-S.E.M.) completed a VO(2)max (maximal O(2) uptake) and submaximal cycle ergometer test during a 30-h SL (sea level) exposure and during a 30 h exposure to 4300 m altitude-equivalent once before (PreIAE) and once after (PostIAE) a 3-week period of IAE (4 hxday(-1), 5 daysxweek(-1), 4300 m). The submaximal cycle ergometer test consisted of two consecutive 15-min work bouts at 40% and 70% of altitude-specific VO(2)max. Blood samples were obtained at rest and during both exercise work bouts for measurements of WBC count, leucocyte subset counts, cortisol, adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during rest and exercise from SL to PreIAE and decreased (P<0.05) during rest and exercise from PreIAE to PostIAE. Monocyte counts decreased (P<0.05) during rest and exercise from PreIAE to PostIAE, but eosinophil and basophil counts did not change. Cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline did not change during rest or exercise from SL to PreIAE or PostIAE, but all increased significantly (P<0.05) from rest during the two work bouts. In conclusion, this type of IAE stimulus did not induce a hormonal stress response and did no harm in terms of activation of the immune system at altitude, as measured by WBC and leucocyte subset counts. This method of pre-acclimatization can therefore be

  18. Blood pressure and cerebral white matter share common genetic factors in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Kochunov, Peter; Glahn, David C; Lancaster, Jack; Winkler, Anderson; Karlsgodt, Kathrin; Olvera, Rene L; Curran, Joanna E; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T; Blangero, John

    2011-02-01

    Elevated arterial pulse pressure and blood pressure (BP) can lead to atrophy of cerebral white matter (WM), potentially attributable to shared genetic factors. We calculated the magnitude of shared genetic variance between BP and fractional anisotropy of water diffusion, a sensitive measurement of WM integrity in a well-characterized population of Mexican Americans. The patterns of whole-brain and regional genetic overlap between BP and fractional anisotropy were interpreted in the context the pulse-wave encephalopathy theory. We also tested whether regional pattern in genetic pleiotropy is modulated by the phylogeny of WM development. BP and high-resolution (1.7 × 1.7 × 3 mm; 55 directions) diffusion tensor imaging data were analyzed for 332 (202 females; mean age 47.9 ± 13.3 years) members of the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Bivariate genetic correlation analysis was used to calculate the genetic overlap between several BP measurements (pulse pressure, systolic BP, and diastolic BP) and fractional anisotropy (whole-brain and regional values). Intersubject variance in pulse pressure and systolic BP exhibited a significant genetic overlap with variance in whole-brain fractional anisotropy values, sharing 36% and 22% of genetic variance, respectively. Regionally, shared genetic variance was significantly influenced by rates of WM development (r=-0.75; P=0.01). The pattern of genetic overlap between BP and WM integrity was generally in agreement with the pulse-wave encephalopathy theory. Our study provides evidence that a set of pleiotropically acting genetic factors jointly influence phenotypic variation in BP and WM integrity. The magnitude of this overlap appears to be influenced by phylogeny of WM development, suggesting a possible role for genotype-by-age interactions.

  19. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of white blood cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Margaux F; Reiner, Alexander P; Okada, Yukinori; van Rooij, Frank J A; Johnson, Andrew D; Chen, Ming-Huei; Smith, Albert V; Morris, Andrew P; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Lettre, Guillaume; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Bandinelli, Stefania; Qayyum, Rehan; Yanek, Lisa R; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Kooperberg, Charles; Keating, Brendan; Reis, Jared; Tang, Hua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Liu, Simin; Dehghan, Abbas; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Franco, Oscar H; Longo, Dan L; Singleton, Andrew B; Psaty, Bruce M; Evans, Michelle K; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rotter, Jerome I; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Takahashi, Atsushi; Wilson, James G; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike A

    2014-12-20

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure used as a predictor of certain aspects of human health, including immunity and infection status. WBC count is also a complex trait that varies among individuals and ancestry groups. Differences in linkage disequilibrium structure and heterogeneity in allelic effects are expected to play a role in the associations observed between populations. Prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified genomic loci associated with WBC and its subtypes, but much of the heritability of these phenotypes remains unexplained. Using GWAS summary statistics for over 50 000 individuals from three diverse populations (Japanese, African-American and European ancestry), a Bayesian model methodology was employed to account for heterogeneity between ancestry groups. This approach was used to perform a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of total WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts. Ten previously known associations were replicated and six new loci were identified, including several regions harboring genes related to inflammation and immune cell function. Ninety-five percent credible interval regions were calculated to narrow the association signals and fine-map the putatively causal variants within loci. Finally, a conditional analysis was performed on the most significant SNPs identified by the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (MA), and nine secondary signals within loci previously associated with WBC or its subtypes were identified. This work illustrates the potential of trans-ethnic analysis and ascribes a critical role to multi-ethnic cohorts and consortia in exploring complex phenotypes with respect to variants that lie outside the European-biased GWAS pool.

  20. The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and blood pressure abnormal dipping in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dan; Guo, Qi; Gao, Ya; Han, Jin; Yan, Bin; Peng, Liyuan; Song, Anqi; Zhou, Fuling; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with the blood pressure (BP) reverse-dipper pattern in patients with hypertension. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Single centre. Participants Patients with essential hypertension were included in our study (n=708). The exclusion criteria included age <18 or >90 years, incomplete clinical data, night workers, diagnosis of secondary hypertension, under antihypertensive treatment, intolerance for the 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and BP reading success rate <70%. Measurement Physical examination and ABPM were performed for all patients in our study. The value of RDW was measured using an automated haematology analyser. Statistical methods The distribution of RDW in patients with hypertension among different circadian BP pattern groups was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to explore the associations of RDW and other relevant variables with ABPM results. Results There was significantly increased RDW in reverse dippers (13.52±1.05) than dippers (13.25±0.85) of hypertension (p=0.012). Moreover, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that RDW (OR 1.325, 95% CI 1.037 to 1.692, p=0.024) and diabetes mellitus (OR 2.286, 95% CI 1.380 to 3.788, p=0.001) were significantly different when comparing the reverse-dipper BP pattern with the dipper pattern. However, there was no difference of RDW between the non-dipper pattern and the reverse-dipper pattern (OR 1.036, 95% CI 0.867 to 1.238, p=0.693). In addition to this, RDW was negatively correlated with the decline rate of nocturnal systolic BP (r=−0.113; p=0.003) and diastolic BP (r=−0.101; p=0.007). Conclusions Our results suggested that RDW might associate with the abnormal dipper BP patterns of either reverse dipping or non-dipping homogeneously examined with 24 h ABPM. PMID:26908530

  1. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006).

  2. Evaluation of the veterinary application of a point-of-care device measuring white blood cell counts.

    PubMed

    Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2012-10-01

    A point-of-care device (POCD) for measuring total white blood cell count was evaluated for feline, canine, equine and bovine blood samples collected into EDTA. Mean biases were -9.2% (range, -12% to -6.3%) for feline samples, 20.2% (range, 15.3-25.1%) for canine samples, -7.1% (range, -8.3% to -5.9%) for equine samples, and 0.7% (range, -1.1% to 2.5%) for bovine samples. The results were influenced by the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The POCD provided precise, reliable data for feline, equine and bovine samples but the values obtained for the canine counts were overestimations. PMID:22503717

  3. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  4. Impact of body mass index levels on lipid abnormalities in Chinese Asians, American Blacks and American Whites: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Studies

    PubMed Central

    Truesdale, Kimberly P; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen

    2011-01-01

    Background Several researchers have reported that Chinese adults may have a greater chronic disease burden than Whites, especially at lower body mass index (BMI) levels. Objectives To compare the incidence of lipid abnormalities in Chinese (n=5,303), White (n=10,752) and Black (n=3,408) middle-aged adults and the effect of BMI on these incidences. Methods Data were from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies. In each ethnic group, we calculated the adjusted cumulative incidence for high total cholesterol (≥240 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), and triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL) and low HDL-cholesterol (≤40 in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women) adjusted for age, gender, education, field site, smoking and drinking status. Risk differences associated with BMI (referent=18.5–22.9 kg/m2) were calculated using weighted linear regression and slopes compared using the Wald test. Results Chinese had lower incidence of abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Whites in most BMI groups and had lower incidence of abnormal HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Blacks. Across the range of 18.5 to <30, BMI was more strongly associated with the incidence of having high total cholesterol in Chinese and Whites than in Blacks. Similar trends were seen for LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but were not always statistically significant. In contrast, BMI was more highly associated with incidence of low HDL-cholesterol in Whites than in Chinese or Blacks. Conclusion Although differences in the incidence of lipid abnormalities and the impact of BMI were identified, results varied by lipid type indicating no consistent ethnic/national pattern. PMID:21802083

  5. The effect of abnormal birth history on ambulatory blood pressure and disease progression in children with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph T; Ng, Derek K; Chan, Grace J; Samuels, Joshua; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley; Greenbaum, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between abnormal birth history (birth weight [BW] <2500 grams, gestational age <36 weeks, or small for gestational age), BP, and renal function among 332 participants (97 with abnormal and 235 with normal birth history) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study, a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study design Casual and 24-hour ambulatory BP were obtained. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by iohexol disappearance. Confounders (birth and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic status) were used to generate predicted probabilities of abnormal birth history for propensity score matching. Weighted linear and logistic regression models with adjustment for quintiles of propensity scores and CKD diagnosis were used to assess the impact of birth history on BP and GFR. Results Age at enrollment, percent with glomerular disease, and baseline GFR were similar between the groups. Those with abnormal birth history were more likely to be female, of Black race or Hispanic ethnicity, to have low household income, or part of a multiple birth. Unadjusted BP measurements, baseline GFR and change in GFR did not differ significantly between the groups; no differences were seen after adjusting for confounders by propensity score matching. Conclusions Abnormal birth history does not appear to have exerted a significant influence on BP or GFR in this cohort of children with CKD. The absence of an observed association is likely secondary to the dominant effects of underlying CKD and its treatment. PMID:24698454

  6. Lack of effect on blood lipid and calcium concentrations of young men on changing from white to wholemeal bread.

    PubMed

    Heaton, K W; Manning, A P; Hartog, M

    1976-01-01

    1. When nineteen "free-living" male students, who normally ate 231 (SEM 14) g white bread/d changed to wholemeal bread for a 19-week period, there was no significant change in body-weight, plasma cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. These values, as well as plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, urate and haemoglobin, remained essentially the same as those for a control group. 2. Increasing the wheat-fibre intake by eating wholemeal bread is not an effective method for reducing blood lipids levels, at least in healthy young men with a moderate bread intake.

  7. Admixture mapping of white cell count: genetic locus responsible for lower white blood cell count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart studies.

    PubMed

    Nalls, Michael A; Wilson, James G; Patterson, Nick J; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A; Patel, Kushang V; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Files, Joe C; Hardy, Cheryl L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Taylor, Herman A; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across >or= 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10(-12)). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained approximately 20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.

  8. Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael A.; Wilson, James G.; Patterson, Nick J.; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A.; Patel, Kushang V.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Files, Joe C.; Hardy, Cheryl L.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across ≥ 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10−12). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained ∼20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications. PMID:18179887

  9. Brain imaging and blood biomarker abnormalities in children with autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: A cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Y.T.; Schultz, A.; Chen, K.; Protas, H.; Brickhouse, M.; Fleisher, A.S.; Langbaum, J.B.; Thiyyagura, P.; Fagan, A.M.; Shah, A.R.; Muniz, M.; Arboleda-Velasquez, JF; Munoz, C.; Garcia, G.; Acosta-Baena, N.; Giraldo, M.; Tirado, V.; Ramirez, D.; Tariot, PN; Dickerson, B.C.; Sperling, R.A.; Lopera, F.; Reiman, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized in children at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation–carrying and noncarrying children with ADAD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional measures of structural and functional MRI and plasma Aβ assays were assessed in 18 PSEN1 E280A carriers and 19 noncarriers aged 9 to 17 years from a Colombian kindred with ADAD. Recruitment and data collection for this study were conducted at the University of Antioquia and the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in Medellin, Colombia, between August 2011 and June 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All participants had blood sampling, structural MRI, and functional MRI during associative memory encoding and resting-state and cognitive assessments. Outcome measures included plasma Aβ1-42 concentrations and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios, memory encoding–dependent activation changes, resting-state connectivity, and regional gray matter volumes. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and search regions related to AD. RESULTS Similar to findings in adult mutation carriers, in the later preclinical and clinical stages of ADAD, mutation-carrying children were distinguished from control individuals by significantly higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels (mean [SD]: carriers, 18.8 [5.1] pg/mL and noncarriers, 13.1 [3.2] pg/mL; P < .001) and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios (mean [SD]: carriers, 0.32 [0.06] and noncarriers, 0.21 [0.03]; P < .001), as well as less memory encoding task–related deactivation in parietal regions (eg, mean [SD] parameter estimates for the right precuneus were −0.590 [0.50] for noncarriers and −0.087 [0.38] for carriers; P < .005 uncorrected). Unlike carriers in the later stages, mutation

  10. Density abnormalities in normal-appearing gray matter in the middle-aged brain with white matter hyperintense lesions: a DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yan; Li, Shenhong; Zhuang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojia; Wu, Lin; Gong, Honghan; Liu, Dewu; Zhou, Fuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about the structural alterations within gray matter (GM) in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. Here, we aimed to examine the anatomical changes within the GM and their relationship to WMH lesion loads in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods Twenty-three middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and 23 demographically matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. A Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Liealgebra-enhanced voxel-based morphometry was used to measure the GM density, and the correlations between WMH lesion volume and extracted GM values in abnormal regions were identified by voxel-based morphometry analysis. Results Compared with the healthy control subjects, the WMH group had a significantly decreased GM density in the left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left and right premotor cortex, and left and right middle cingulate cortex and an increased GM density in the bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right temporoparietal junction, left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC), and left inferior parietal lobule. A relationship was observed between the normalized WMH lesion volume and the decreased GM density, including the left middle frontal gyrus (ρ=−0.629, P=0.002), bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ρ=−0.507, P=0.019), right middle cingulate cortex (ρ=−0.484, P=0.026), and right premotor cortex (ρ=−0.438, P=0.047). The WMH lesion loads also negatively correlated with increased GM density in the right temporoparietal junction (ρ=−0.484, P=0.026), left PFC (ρ=−0.469, P=0.032), and right PFC (ρ=−0.438, P=0.047). Conclusion We observed that lesion load-associated structural plasticity corresponds to bidirectional changes in regional GM density in the WMH group. PMID:27274211

  11. Work Status, Work Satisfaction, and Blood Pressure Among Married Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)

  12. Responses of proenkephalin Peptide F to aerobic exercise stress in the plasma and white blood cell biocompartments.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Fragala, Maren S; van Henegouwen, Wendy R H Beijersbergen; Gordon, Scott E; Bush, Jill A; Volek, Jeff S; Triplett, N Travis; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Hooper, David R; Luk, Hui-Ying; Mastro, Andrea M

    2013-04-01

    Proenkephalin Peptide F [107-140] is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla, co-packaged with epinephrine within the chromaffin granules. In vivo studies indicate that Peptide F has classic opioid analgesia effects; in vitro studies suggest potential immune cell interactions. In this investigation we examined patterns of Peptide F concentrations in different bio-compartments of the blood at rest and following sub-maximal cycle exercise to determine if Peptide F interacts with the white blood cell (WBC) bio-compartment during aerobic exercise. Eight physically active men (n=8) performed sub-maximal (80-85% V˙O2peak) cycle ergometer exercise for 30 min. Plasma Peptide F and WBC Peptide F immunoreactivity were examined pre-exercise, mid-exercise and immediately post-, 5-min post-, 15-min post-, 30-min post- and 60-min post-exercise and at similar time-points during a control condition (30 min rest). Peptide F concentrations significantly (p<0.05) increased at 5 and 60 min post-exercise, compared to pre-exercise concentrations. No significant increases in Peptide F concentrations in the WBC fraction were observed during or after exercise. However, a significant decrease was observed at 30 min post-exercise. An ultradian pattern of Peptide F distribution was apparent during rest. Furthermore, concentrations of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and total WBCs demonstrated significant changes in response to aerobic exercise. Data indicated that Peptide F was bound in significant molar concentrations in the WBC fraction and that this biocompartment may be one of the tissue targets for binding interactions. These data indicate that Peptide F is involved with immune cell modulation in the white blood circulatory biocompartment of blood.

  13. Concentrations of Metals, Metalloids, and Chlorinated Pollutants in Blood and Plasma of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Nestlings From Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, M; De la Casa-Resino, I; Hernández-Moreno, D; Galeano, J; Míguez-Santiyán, M P; de Castro-Lorenzo, A; Otero-Filgueiras, M; Rivas-López, O; Soler, F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of different inorganic elements (lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], and arsenic [As]) and persistent chlorinated pollutants (including polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in blood and plasma of White stork (Ciconia ciconia) nestlings from northwest (NW) Spain. The concentrations of PCBs were lower than the limit of detection in all samples. The OCPs γ-HCH, 4,4'-DDE, HCB, and endosulfan were detected most frequently in plasma from White stork nestlings. These OCPs were detected in 98, 54, 39, and 37 % of all samples, respectively. However, the concentrations of organic pollutants were lower than the risk thresholds for birds. The mean levels of the inorganic elements Pb, Hg, and As were found to be 36.92 ± 33.48, 16.48 ± 12.87, and 9.813 ± 13.84 µg/L, respectively. These levels were also lower than the risk thresholds for birds. This study not only provides a snapshot of the levels of both inorganic and organic contaminants in wild White storks in NW Spain, it also provides a useful baseline for biomonitoring levels of the measured contaminants in this area. PMID:27475645

  14. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Chuengsaman, Piyatida

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion. Three patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  15. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Traitanon, Opas; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tasanarong, Adis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion. Three patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter. PMID:27656294

  16. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Chuengsaman, Piyatida

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion. Three patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter. PMID:27656294

  17. Decreased frequency and activated phenotype of blood CD27 IgD IgM B lymphocytes is a permanent abnormality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by B cell hyper-activation and auto-reactivity resulting in pathogenic auto-antibody generation. The phenotypic analysis of blood B cell subsets can be used to understand these alterations. Methods The combined detection of CD19, CD27 and IgD (or IgM) by flow cytometry (FC) analysis delineates five well-defined blood B cell-subsets: naive, switched (S) memory, double negative (DN) memory and CD27 IgD IgM (non-switched memory) B lymphocytes, and plasma cells (PCs). This phenotypic study was performed in 69 consecutive SLE patients and 31 healthy controls. Results SLE patients exhibited several abnormalities in the distribution of these B cell subsets, including elevated levels of DN memory B cells and PCs, and decreased CD27 IgD IgM B cells. Active SLE patients also showed decreased presence of S memory B cells and increased proportions of naive B lymphocytes. Nevertheless, when the patients in remission who did not require treatment were studied separately, the only remaining abnormality was a reduction of the CD27 IgD IgM B cell-subset detectable in most of these patients. The level of reduction of CD27 IgD IgM B cells was associated with elevated values of serum SLE auto-antibodies. Further analysis of this latter B cell-subset specifically showed increased expression of CD80, CD86, CD95, 9G4 idiotype and functional CXCR3 and CXCR4. Conclusions The presence of a reduced blood CD27 IgD IgM B cell-subset, exhibiting an activated state and enriched for auto-reactivity, is a consistent B cell abnormality in SLE. These findings suggest that CD27 IgD IgM B lymphocytes play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:20525218

  18. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (p<0.05). CSP performed slightly better than FSP at inhibiting salmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. PMID:25624255

  19. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-09-15

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by /sup 125/I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism.

  20. Plasma cortisol and white blood cell responses in different breeds of bulls: a comparison of two methods of castration.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Larsen, R E; Randel, R D; Hammond, A C; Adams, E L

    1995-04-01

    To determine plasma cortisol and white blood cell response to castration, Angus (n = 12, 21.4 mo of age), Hereford (n = 6, 21.2 mo of age), and Brahman (n = 24, 20.3 mo of age) bulls nearing maturity were either left intact as uncastrated controls (CON), surgically castrated (SUR) after lidocaine, or castrated by latex rubber banding (BAN). Before and through 35 d after castration (castration = d 0), animals were weighed and blood samples were collected for analysis of cortisol and total white blood cell (WBC) count at 2-, 3-, or 7-d intervals. There was a treatment x breed interaction for ADG from d 0 to 7 (P < .05). From d 0 to 14, 0 to 21, 0 to 28, and 0 to 35, ADG tended to be lower for SUR and BAN animals than for CON animals (castrated vs CON, P < or = .13). No significant differences in ADG were observed between SUR and BAN animals during these times. On d 0, from just before treatment to just after treatment, plasma cortisol concentration increased 3.2 ng/mL for SUR and .1 ng/mL for BAN (SEM = +/- .5 ng/mL; SUR vs BAN, P < .03). From d 0 pretreatment to d 2 after treatment, plasma cortisol concentration increased 1.5 ng/mL for castrated (SUR = 2.0 and BAN = 1.1 ng/mL) and decreased 1.6 ng/mL for CON (SEM = +/- .7 ng/mL; P < .04). Plasma cortisol concentration was negatively correlated (P < .001) with BW (r = -.17) and BW change (r = -.19).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628975

  1. Assessment of abnormal blood flow and efficacy of treatment in patients with systemic sclerosis using a newly developed microwireless laser Doppler flowmeter and arm-raising test.

    PubMed

    Kido, M; Takeuchi, S; Hayashida, S; Urabe, K; Sawada, R; Furue, M

    2007-10-01

    Background Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) frequently suffer from recalcitrant digital ulceration because of impaired cutaneous blood flow (CBF). A simple and accurate CBF measurement would be helpful to evaluate the disease status and efficacy of treatment in such patients. Objectives To examine the feasibility of a newly developed, micromachined integrated laser blood flowmeter (MILBF) for evaluation of abnormal CBF responses in patients with SSc. Methods CBF of finger pulp was measured in eight patients with SSc and in six healthy controls using MILBF. CBF in the steady state and the responses to the arm-raising test and cold provocation were assessed. The therapeutic efficacy of a single and an intensive prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) infusion treatment was also evaluated in some of the SSc patients. Results The patients with SSc showed significantly lower steady-state CBF than controls. The rate of blood flow with cold provocation and the velocity of blood flow recovery after cold provocation (VR-CP) tended to be lower in patients with SSc. Augmentation of amplitude of the digital pulse wave by arm raising (AA-AR) was observed in controls, but not in patients with SSc. We also found that VR-CP and AA-AR may be good markers for evaluating the efficacy of vasodilatory treatment. It should be noted that the examined patients did not complain of any pain and/or distress during the arm-raising test, as opposed to during cold provocation. Conclusions CBF assessment using MILBF and an arm-raising test is accurate, noninvasive and well tolerated and thus the combination may be a better alternative method to evaluate abnormal CBF and efficacy of treatment in patients with SSc.

  2. Hyperoxia Does Not Extend Critical Thermal Maxima (CTmax) in White- or Red-Blooded Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Devor, Devin P; Kuhn, Donald E; O'Brien, Kristin M; Crockett, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what limits the capacity of organisms to tolerate increasing temperatures is a critical objective in comparative biology. Using an experimental system of Antarctic notothenioid fishes, we sought to determine whether a mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply was responsible for setting thermal tolerance limits. Previous studies have shown that Antarctic icefishes (family Channichthyidae), which lack hemoglobin, have lower critical thermal maxima (CTmax) than red-blooded notothenioids collected from the same region of the Antarctic (Western Antarctic Peninsula). In addition, within the notothenioid fishes there exists a positive correlation between CTmax and hematocrit. We tested the hypothesis that the lower CTmax of icefishes is associated with reduced oxygen supply. We employed an experimental heat ramp (4°C h(-1)) to determine CTmax under both normoxic and hyperoxic conditions and quantified correlates of oxygen limitation (lactate levels and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) in white-blooded Chaenocephalus aceratus and red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps. Hyperoxia, corresponding to a three- to fourfold increase in seawater Po2, did not extend CTmax in either species despite an overall mitigation in the rise of plasma and muscle lactate compared with the normoxic treatment. Our results also indicate that cardiac HIF-1α mRNA levels were insensitive to changes in both temperature and oxygen treatments. The absence of a change in CTmax with hyperoxia is likely to represent the contribution of factors beyond oxygen supply to physiological failure at elevated temperatures.

  3. Cilostazol reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction, white matter lesion formation and motor deficits following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Edrissi, Hamidreza; Schock, Sarah C; Cadonic, Robert; Hakim, Antoine M; Thompson, Charlie S

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a pathological process leading to lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis and cerebral microbleeds. Dysfunction of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression cerebral small vessel disease. A rodent model commonly used to study some aspects of CSVD is bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in the rat. In the present study it was determined that gait impairment, as determined by a tapered beam test, and BBB permeability increased following BCCAO. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to have anti-apoptotic effects and prevent white matter vacuolation and rarefaction induced by BCCAO in rats. In this study the protective effect of cilostazol administration on the increase BBB permeability following BCCAO was determined as well as the effect on plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs), cerebral white matter rarefaction, glial activation and gait disturbance. The effect of cilostazol on in vitro endothelial barriers was also evaluated. Cilostazol treatment improved BBB permeability and reduced gait disturbance, visual impairment and microglial activation in optic tract following BCCAO in vivo. It also reduced the degree of cell death and the reduction in trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in artificial endothelial barriers in vitro induced by MP treatment of in vitro barriers. PMID:27350079

  4. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  5. White Coat Hypertension and Masked Hypertension Among Omani Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Busaidi, Noor; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Abri, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to estimate the rate of white coat hypertension (WCH) and effect, and masked hypertension in patients attending a tertiary care hospital for 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM). Methods A total of 231 adult patients were referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, for ABPM, between January 2010 and June 2012. The following data were gathered and analyzed: demographic data, clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements, and 24-h BP profile from ABPM. Thirty-two patients were excluded and the final analysis included 199 patients. Results There were 105 (52.8%) women and 94 (47.2%) men studied. The mean age of patients was 46±15 years and most patients were overweight with a mean BMI of 29.6±5kg/m2. Around half of patients (53.8%) were on one or more antihypertensive medications. WCH was found in 10.6% and white coat effect was found in 16% of patients. The majority of patients (57%) with WCH were aged 40 years or above. Masked hypertension was present in 6% of patients and masked uncontrolled hypertension in 8.5% of patients. Conclusions Our study showed that WCH and effect, and masked hypertension are common in hypertensive patients. Identifying these patients will have an impact on their management. However, the results of the study should be interpreted within the context of its limitations. Prospective randomized community and hospital-based studies should be conducted to estimate the true prevalence in the general population as well as in hypertensive patients. PMID:25960832

  6. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. Results White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (p<0.0001 for all). Conclusions Both white blood cell counts and NLR can be used as a simple test in the diagnosis of testicular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). PMID:27136467

  7. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  8. The infectious risks in blood transfusion as of today - A no black and white situation.

    PubMed

    Garraud, Olivier; Filho, Luiz Amorim; Laperche, Syria; Tayou-Tagny, Claude; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion has been tainted with the risk of contracting an infection - often severe - and fears about this risk are still prevailing, in sharp contrast with the actual risk in Western countries. Those actual risks are rather immunological, technical (overload) or metabolic. Meanwhile, in developing countries and particularly in Africa, transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) are still frequent, because of both the scarcity of volunteer blood donors and resources and the high incidence and prevalence of infections. Global safety of blood components has been declared as a goal to be attained everywhere by the World Heath Organization (WHO). However, this challenge is difficult to meet because of several intricate factors, of which the emergence of infectious agents, low income and breaches in sanitation and hygiene. This review aims at encompassing the situation of TTIs in different settings and means that can be deployed to improve the situation where this can possibly be. PMID:27476017

  9. Abnormal expansion of naïve B lymphocytes after unrelated cord blood transplantation – a case report

    PubMed Central

    SHONO, Y; TOUBAI, T; OTA, S; IBATA, M; MASHIKO, S; HIRATE, D; MIURA, Y; UMEHARA, S; TOYOSHIMA, N; TANAKA, J; ASAKA, M; IMAMURA, M

    2006-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman underwent unrelated cord blood transplantation (U-CBT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related secondary AML. She showed impressive increases in the number of CD19+ B cells in bone marrow and CD19+27−IgD+ B cells in peripheral blood from about 1 month to 3 months after U-CBT. The serum level of IL-6 temporarily increased after transplantation, and this increase seemed to be correlated with the expansion of CD19+ B cells. Although, compared with BMT, little is known about the kinetics of hematological and immunological reconstitution in U-CBT, there was initial B-cell recovery after CBT as some described. This B cell recovery may be associated with a high number of B-cell precursors present in cord blood (CB). The phenomenon of naïve B lymphocyte expansion that we found might be associated with a high number of B-cell precursors present in CB. PMID:16999729

  10. Image segmentation and classification of white blood cells with the extreme learning machine and the fast relevance vector machine.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, S

    2016-05-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes are an important part of the body's defense against infectious organisms and foreign substances. WBC segmentation is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. The standard ELM classification techniques are used for WBC segmentation. The generalization performance of the ELM classifier has not achieved the maximum nearest accuracy of image segmentation. This paper gives a novel technique for WBC detection based on the fast relevance vector machine (Fast-RVM). Firstly, astonishingly sparse relevance vectors (RVs) are obtained while fitting the histogram by RVM. Next, the relevant required threshold value is directly sifted from these limited RVs. Finally, the entire connective WBC regions are segmented from the original image. The proposed method successfully works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the effects brought about by illumination and staining. To achieve the maximum accuracy of the RVM classifier, we design a search for the best value of the parameters that tune its discriminant function, and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Therefore, this proposed RVM method effectively works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the computational time and preserves the images.

  11. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia.

  12. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts. PMID:27602221

  13. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts.

  14. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway.

  15. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    PubMed

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline. PMID:25666650

  16. Dietary and urinary metabonomic factors possibly accounting for higher blood pressure of black compared with white Americans: results of International Collaborative Study on macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Brown, Ian J; Yap, Ivan K S; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Ebbels, Timothy M D; De Iorio, Maria; Posma, Joram; Daviglus, Martha L; Carnethon, Mercedes; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Elliott, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Black compared with non-Hispanic white Americans have higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and rates of prehypertension/hypertension. Reasons for these adverse findings remain obscure. Analyses here focused on relations of foods/nutrients/urinary metabolites and higher black blood pressure for 369 black compared with 1190 non-Hispanic white Americans aged 40 to 59 years from 8 population samples. Multiple linear regression, standardized data from four 24-hour dietary recalls per person, two 24-hour urine collections, and 8 blood pressure measurements were used to quantitate the role of foods, nutrients, and metabolites in higher black blood pressure. Compared with non-Hispanic white Americans, blacks' average systolic/diastolic pressure was higher by 4.7/3.4 mm Hg (men) and 9.0/4.8 mm Hg (women). Control for higher body mass index of black women reduced excess black systolic/diastolic pressure to 6.8/3.8 mm Hg. Lesser intake of vegetables, fruits, grains, vegetable protein, glutamic acid, starch, fiber, minerals, and potassium, and higher intake of processed meats, pork, eggs, and sugar-sweetened beverages, along with higher cholesterol and higher Na/K ratio, related to in higher black blood pressure. Control for 11 nutrient and 10 non-nutrient correlates reduced higher black systolic/diastolic pressure to 2.3/2.3 mm Hg (52% and 33% reduction in men) and to 5.3/2.8 mm Hg (21% and 27% reduction in women). Control for foods/urinary metabolites had little further influence on higher black blood pressure. Less favorable multiple nutrient intake by blacks than non-Hispanic white Americans accounted, at least in part, for higher black blood pressure. Improved dietary patterns can contribute to prevention/control of more adverse black blood pressure levels.

  17. Carp myogens of white and red muscles. General composition and isolation of low-molecular-weight components of abnormal amino acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Hamoir, G.; Konosu, S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The general composition of the carp myogens of white and red muscles was examined by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. 2. Eight and nine peaks were found in the electrophoretic analysis at pH7·3 and I0·075 of white and red muscle respectively. Lowering of the pH to 5 or 6 did not increase the number of peaks. The electrophoretic pattern of white-muscle myogen was remarkably different from that of red-muscle myogen, though ultracentrifugal analyses of the both types of myogen gave similar diagrams, in which about one-third of the total myogen sedimented slowly. 3. The pH–mobility curves of the myogen of white muscle indicated that the net charges of the components 2, 3 and 5 vary only slightly within the pH range 7·3–5·4, suggesting that their histidine content is very low. 4. The slow-sedimenting fraction of white-muscle myogen was isolated in fairly good yield by ammonium sulphate fractionation, by taking advantage of their high salting-out range, and the fraction was shown to be composed mainly of components 2, 3 and 5. 5. The same method of fractionation was applied to red-muscle myogen and the absence of the three components was confirmed. These results bring to light a new difference between the two types of fish muscle. PMID:14343157

  18. Differential effect of elevated blood pressure on left ventricular geometry types in black and white young adults in a community (from the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Litao; Toprak, Ahmet; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2011-03-01

    Hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are both more common in blacks than in whites. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) has a differential effect on the LV geometry types in black versus white asymptomatic young adults. As a part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, echocardiography and cardiovascular risk factor measurements were performed in 780 white and 343 black subjects (aged 24 to 47 years). Four LV geometry types were identified as normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric, and concentric hypertrophy. Compared to the white subjects, the black subjects had a greater prevalence of eccentric (15.7% vs 9.1%, p <0.001) and concentric (9.3% vs 4.1%, p <0.001) hypertrophy. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, lipids, and glucose, the black subjects showed a significantly stronger association of LV concentric hypertrophy with BP (systolic BP, odds ratio [OR] 3.74, p <0.001; diastolic BP, OR 2.86, p <0.001) than whites (systolic BP, OR 1.50, p = 0.037; and diastolic BP, OR 1.35, p = 0.167), with p values for the race difference of 0.007 for systolic BP and 0.026 for diastolic BP. LV eccentric hypertrophy showed similar trends for the race difference in the ORs; however, the association between eccentric hypertrophy and BP was not significant in the white subjects. With respect to LV concentric remodeling, its association with BP was not significant in either blacks or whites. In conclusion, elevated BP levels have a greater detrimental effect on LV hypertrophy patterns in the black versus white young adults. These findings suggest that blacks might be more susceptible than whites to BP-related adverse cardiac remodeling.

  19. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M; Purdue, Mark P; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H Dean; Bassig, Bryan A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex qPCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis [OR (95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24 (0.90-1.71); 1.27 (0.91-1.78); and 1.86 (1.33-2.62); P trend = 0.000022]. Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length [OR (95% CI)] in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41 (1.28-4.52), 2.16 (1.11-4.23), and 3.02(1.39-6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than 6 years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations.

  20. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, David R; McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C; Crane, Paul K; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B; Carlson, Chris S; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-04-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e-55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy-/-). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn's disease.

  1. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 μg/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  2. NHANES III: influence of race on GFR thresholds and detection of metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert N; Wang, Changchun; Ishani, Areef; Collins, Allan J

    2007-09-01

    Whether the creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) thresholds used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify metabolic abnormalities similarly in minority and nonminority populations is unknown. We addressed this question among adult participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (n = 15,837). GFR was estimated from serum creatinine values and metabolic abnormalities were defined by 5th or 95th percentile values. After adjustment for age, demographic characteristics, and GFR, black participants were significantly more likely than white participants to have abnormal levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, phosphorus, and uric acid. Hispanic subjects were significantly more likely to have abnormal levels of systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, and phosphorus. Among participants with GFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), black participants were significantly more likely to have abnormal levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, and uric acid; Hispanic subjects were significantly more likely to have abnormal systolic blood pressure levels. Metabolic abnormalities were more common in minority populations, and low GFR appeared to have a multiplicative effect. Defining CKD using a single GFR threshold may be disadvantageous for minority populations because metabolic abnormalities are present at higher levels of GFR.

  3. Ecophysiological determinations of antioxidant enzymes and lipoperoxidation in the blood of White Stork Ciconia ciconia from Poland.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Piotr; Kurhalyuk, Nataliya; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Tkachenko, Halyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Koim, Beata; Wiśniewska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks (aged 19-54 days) in Poland in 2006. We took under consideration superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmine (CP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (malondialdehyde) in polluted (copper manufacture), suburban areas, at the Odra meadows, and at swamps near Baltic Sea in the Pomeranian region. We examined the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb and compared ecophysiological determinations for developing storks. Blood samples of wing venous were collected from 91 chicks from 33 nests. The degree of activity of antioxidant enzymes studied has been different in White Stork chicks' blood from Poland regions, as a rule. We have stated a relatively high level of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GR activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in chicks from polluted areas. However, relative value for GR in storks from Odra meadows was considerably higher (about 112 nmol NADPH(2)/min ml) than those in chicks from other environments (56-84 nmol on average). Relatively high levels of CAT, CP, and GPx (2.7 mkM/min l, 22.2 mg/l, and 3.8 nmol GSH/min ml, respectively) were also stated in chicks nested in swamps near Baltic Sea. Simultaneously, we have stated differences (p<0.02-p<0.001) in the level of elements (besides Ca) in blood of young storks from the studied areas. We found a high level of toxic metals, e.g. Cd, either from swamps near Baltic Sea (2.7 mg/kg) or from Głogów smelter (2.2mg/kg), whilst Pb concentration was high in chicks from Głogów (7.2 mg/kg). Cd and Pb levels in blood of chicks were different in individuals from each region (p<0.001). Birds from a smelter have the highest level of these elements, whereas the lowest one was stated in chicks from Odra meadows (Cd: 1.45, Pb: 0.84 mg/kg). Thus, Cd could be a useful marker of

  4. Distribution of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in tissues and white blood cells of cattle during acute infection.

    PubMed

    Bruschke, C J; Weerdmeester, K; Van Oirschot, J T; Van Rijn, P A

    1998-11-01

    This study is performed to gain knowledge about the quantitative distribution of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in tissues and white blood cells (WBC) at different intervals after acute infection. Ten specific pathogen-free calves were intranasally inoculated with 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose of the non-cytopathic BVDV strain 4800. Twelve hours after inoculation tonsil biopsies were taken and WBC were collected daily for virus isolation and titration. Each day one calf was killed and virus isolations and titrations were performed from a range of tissues. The results indicate that BVDV first replicates in nasal mucosa and to high titers in the tonsil. The virus then appeared to spread to the regional lymph nodes and then disseminates throughout the body. The virus titers were highest in tonsil, thymus and ileum and were low in the WBC. Also after in vitro infection virus titers in WBC were very low, whereas, they were high in epithelial cells. Although the WBC might not be as important as other cells for replication of BVDV, they may play a role in the spread of the virus throughout the body.

  5. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone. PMID:27366139

  6. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    PubMed Central

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  7. Does white coat hypertension require treatment over age 80?: Results of the hypertension in the very elderly trial ambulatory blood pressure side project.

    PubMed

    Bulpitt, Christopher J; Beckett, Nigel; Peters, Ruth; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang; Comsa, Marius; Fagard, Robert H; Dumitrascu, Dan; Gergova, Vesselka; Antikainen, Riitta L; Cheek, Elizabeth; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    White coat hypertension is considered to be a benign condition that does not require antihypertensive treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured in 284 participants in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET), a double-blind randomized trial of indapamide sustained release 1.5 mg±perindopril 2 to 4 mg versus matching placebo in hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure 160-199 mm Hg) aged >80 years. ABP recordings (Diasys Integra II) were obtained in 112 participants at baseline and 186 after an average follow-up of 13 months. At baseline, clinic blood pressure (CBP) exceeded the morning ABP by 32/10 mm Hg. Fifty percent of participants fulfilled the established criteria for white coat hypertension. The highest ABP readings were in the morning (average 140/80 mm Hg), the average night-time pressure was low at 124/72 mm Hg, and the average 24-hour blood pressure was 133/77 mm Hg. During follow-up, the systolic/diastolic blood pressure placebo-active differences averaged 6/5 mm Hg for morning ABP, 8/5 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, and 13/5 mm Hg for CBP. The lowering of blood pressure over 24 hours supports the reduction in blood pressure with indapamide sustained release±perindopril as the explanation for the reduction in total mortality and cardiovascular events observed in the main HYVET study. Because we estimate that 50% had white coat hypertension in the main study, this condition may benefit from treatment in the very elderly.

  8. Black-white differences in electrocardiographic left ventricular mass and its association with blood pressure (the ARIC study). Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities.

    PubMed

    Arnett, D K; Rautaharju, P; Crow, R; Folsom, A R; Ekelund, L G; Hutchinson, R; Tyroler, H A; Heiss, G

    1994-08-01

    Black-white differences in the association between antihypertensive therapy, continuous measures of mean arterial and pulse pressures and left ventricular (LV) mass estimated from a multivariable electrocardiographic algorithm were examined in 6,020 men (23% black) and 7,970 women (29% black) participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mean arterial and pulse pressures, weight, the percentage of subjects taking antihypertensive medication, and LV mass were higher in black than in white men (98 vs 89 mm Hg, 47 vs 46 mm Hg, 188 vs 187 pounds, 30% vs 17%, and 243 vs 217 g, respectively). Results of similar direction but greater magnitude were observed in black versus white women (mean arterial pressure, 94 vs 85 mm Hg; pulse pressure, 50 vs 47 mm Hg; weight, 180 vs 153 pounds; percent treated, 42% vs 18%; and LV mass, 203 vs 169 g, respectively). In multivariable regression analyses, blacks had higher levels of LV mass, and LV mass increased more sharply with increasing mean arterial pressure in blacks than in whites after adjusting for age, pulse pressure, and weight. At equal mean arterial and pulse pressures, age, and weight, treated blacks had higher LV mass than treated whites. These data indicate that blacks have higher LV mass than whites, and a more pronounced blood pressure-LV mass relation after controlling for other risk factors and treatment status. Given the prognostic importance of LV hypertrophy,

  9. Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Pilch, Wanda; Pokora, Ilona; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Pałka, Tomasz; Pilch, Paweł; Cisoń, Tomasz; Malik, Lesław; Wiecha, Szczepan

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19-20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects.

  10. COMT Val158Met, but not BDNF Val66Met, is associated with white matter abnormalities of the temporal lobe in patients with first-episode, treatment-naïve major depressive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kenji; Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakeda, Shingo; Kishi, Taro; Abe, Osamu; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Katsuki, Asuka; Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Watanabe, Keita; Ide, Satoru; Ueda, Issei; Moriya, Junji; Iwata, Nakao; Korogi, Yukunori; Kubicki, Marek; Nakamura, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, and white matter changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 30 patients with MDD (17 males and 13 females, with mean age ± standard deviation [SD] =44±12 years) and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (17 males and 13 females, aged 44±13 years). Using DTI analysis with a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach, we investigated the differences in fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity distribution among the three groups (patients with the COMT gene Val158Met, those with the BDNF gene Val66Met, and the healthy subjects). In a voxel-wise-based group comparison, we found significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity within the temporal lobe white matter in the Met-carriers with MDD compared with the controls (P<0.05). No correlations in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, or radial diffusivity were observed between the MDD patients and the controls, either among those with the BDNF Val/Val genotype or among the BDNF Met-carriers. These results suggest an association between the COMT gene Val158Met and the white matter abnormalities found in the temporal lobe of patients with MDD. PMID:25061303

  11. Sexual dimorphic abnormalities in white matter geometry common to schizophrenia and non-psychotic high-risk subjects: Evidence for a neurodevelopmental risk marker?

    PubMed

    Savadjiev, Peter; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi; Keshavan, Matcheri; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Crow, Tim J; Kubicki, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of neurodevelopmental aspects of brain alterations require neuroimaging methods that reflect correlates of neurodevelopment, while being robust to other progressive pathological processes. Newly developed neuroimaging methods for measuring geometrical features of the white matter fall exactly into this category. Our recent work shows that such features, measured in the anterior corpus callosum in diffusion MRI data, correlate with psychosis symptoms in patients with adolescent onset schizophrenia and subside a reversal of normal sexual dimorphism. Here, we test the hypothesis that similar developmental deviations will also be present in nonpsychotic subjects at familial high risk (FHR) for schizophrenia, due to genetic predispositions. Demonstrating such changes would provide a strong indication of neurodevelopmental deviation extant before, and independent of pathological changes occurring after disease onset. We examined the macrostructural geometry of corpus callosum white matter in diffusion MRI data of 35 non-psychotic subjects with genetic (familial) risk for schizophrenia, and 26 control subjects, both male and female. We report a reversal of normal sexual dimorphism in callosal white matter geometry consistent with recent results in adolescent onset schizophrenia. This pattern may be indicative of an error in neurogenesis and a possible trait marker of schizophrenia.

  12. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  13. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice.

  14. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Yun, H. M.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05) and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05) and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05) on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  15. Abnormal activation of calpain and protein kinase Cα promotes a constitutive release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Averna, Monica; Bavestrello, Margherita; Cresta, Federico; Pedrazzi, Marco; De Tullio, Roberta; Minicucci, Laura; Sparatore, Bianca; Salamino, Franca; Pontremoli, Sandro; Melloni, Edon

    2016-08-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is physiologically involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix components but its abnormal release has been observed in several human pathologies. We here report that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients homozygous for F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), express constitutively and release at high rate MMP9 due to the alteration in their intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. This spontaneous and sustained MMP9 secretion may contribute to the accumulation of this protease in fluids of CF patients. Conversely, in PBMCs isolated from healthy donors, expression and secretion of MMP9 are undetectable but can be evoked, after 12 h of culture, by paracrine stimulation which also promotes an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. We also demonstrate that in both CF and control PBMCs the Ca(2+)-dependent MMP9 secretion is mediated by the concomitant activation of calpain and protein kinase Cα (PKCα), and that MMP9 expression involves extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Our results are supported by the fact that either the inhibition of Ca(2+) entry or chelation of [Ca(2+)]i as well as the inhibition of single components of the signaling pathway or the restoration of CFTR activity all promote the reduction of MMP9 secretion. PMID:27349634

  16. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  17. Levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA of white blood cells from workers highly exposed to asbestos in Germany.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, B; Rozynek, P; Kraus, T; Schlösser, S; Raithel, H J; Baur, X

    2000-07-10

    Asbestos fibers have genotoxic effects and are a potential carcinogenic hazard to occupationally exposed workers. The ability of inhaled asbestos fibers to induce the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the DNA of white blood cells (WBC) of workers highly exposed at the workplace has been studied. The 8-OHdG adduct level of asbestos-exposed workers was significantly increased (p<0.001) compared to that in the control group in all three years of the study. Asbestos-exposed individuals showed a mean value of 2.61+/-0.91 8-OHdG/10(5) dG (median 2.49, n=496) in 1994-1995, 2.96+/-1.10 8-OHdG/10(5) dG (median 2.76, n=437) in 1995-1996 and 2.55+/-0.56 8-OHdG/10(5) dG (median 2.53, n=447) in 1996-1997. For the control subjects, a mean of 1.52+/-0.39 (median 1.51, n=214) was determined. The results indicate that human DNA samples from exposed individuals contain between 1.7 times and twice the level of oxidative damage relative to that found in control samples in all 3 years of the study. The studies presented here show that asbestos exposure can result in oxidative DNA damage. Our data confirm that oxidative DNA damage occurs in the WBC of workers highly exposed to asbestos fibers, thus supporting the hypothesis that asbestos fibers damage cells through an oxidative mechanism. These in vivo findings underline the importance of oxidative damage in asbestos-induced carcinogenesis and highlight the need for exploring the molecular basis of asbestos-induced diseases, and for more effective diagnosis, prevention and therapy of mesothelioma, lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, preventive and therapeutic approaches using antioxidants may be relevant.

  18. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults.

  19. Simultaneous determination of CRP and D-dimer in human blood plasma samples with White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koukouvinos, Georgios; Petrou, Panagiota; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Drygiannakis, Dimitris; Raptis, Ioannis; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Martini, Spyridoula; Nikita, Dimitra; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-10-15

    A dual-analyte assay for the simultaneous determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in human blood plasma based on a white light interference spectroscopy sensing platform is presented. Measurement is accomplished in real-time by scanning the sensing surface, on which distinct antibody areas have been created, with a reflection probe used both for illumination of the surface and collection of the reflected interference spectrum. The composition of the transducer, the sensing surface chemical activation and biofunctionalization procedures were optimized with respect to signal magnitude and repeatability. The assay format involved direct detection of CRP whereas for D-dimer a two-site immunoassay employing a biotinylated reporter antibody and reaction with streptavidin was selected. The assays were sensitive with detection limits of 25ng/mL for both analytes, precise with intra- and inter-assay CV values ranging from 3.6% to 7.7%, and from 4.8% to 9.5%, respectively, for both assays, and accurate with recovery values ranging from 88.5% to 108% for both analytes. Moreover, the values determined for the two analytes in 35 human plasma samples were in excellent agreement with those received for the same samples by standard diagnostic laboratory instrumentation employing commercial kits. The excellent agreement of the results supported the validity of the proposed system for clinical application for the detection of multiple analytes since it was demonstrated that up to seven antibody areas can be created on the sensing surface and successfully interrogated with the developed optical set-up. PMID:26675113

  20. White Blood Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

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  1. White blood cell count and incidence of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and mortality from cardiovascular disease in African-American and White men and women: atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    PubMed

    Lee, C D; Folsom, A R; Nieto, F J; Chambless, L E; Shahar, E; Wolfe, D A

    2001-10-15

    The authors examined the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and incidence of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and mortality from cardiovascular disease in 13,555 African-American and White men and women from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Blood was drawn at the ARIC baseline examination, beginning in 1987-1989. During an average of 8 years of follow-up (through December 1996), there were 488 incident coronary heart disease events, 220 incident strokes, and 258 deaths from cardiovascular disease. After adjustment for age, sex, ARIC field center, and multiple risk factors, there was a direct association between WBC count and incidence of coronary heart disease (p < 0.001 for trend) and stroke (p for trend < 0.001) and mortality from cardiovascular disease (p for trend < 0.001) in African Americans. The African Americans in the highest quartile of WBC count (> or =7,000 cells/mm(3)) had 1.9 times the risk of incident coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 3.09), 1.9 times the risk of incident ischemic stroke (95% CI: 1.03, 3.34), and 2.3 times the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (95% CI: 1.38, 3.72) as their counterparts in the lowest quartile of WBC count (<4,800 cells/mm(3)). These associations were similar in Whites and in never smokers. An elevated WBC count is directly associated with increased incidence of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke and mortality from cardiovascular disease in African-American and White men and women.

  2. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=−0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  4. White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar

    2013-03-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

  5. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  6. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=-0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  7. The effect of selenium supplementation in the prevention of DNA damage in white blood cells of hemodialyzed patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zachara, Bronislaw A; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Palus, Jadwiga; Zbrog, Zbigniew; Swiech, Rafal; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2011-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased incidence of cancer. It is well known that long periods of hemodialysis (HD) treatment are linked to DNA damage due to oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation to CKD patients on HD on the prevention of oxidative DNA damage in white blood cells. Blood samples were drawn from 42 CKD patients on HD (at the beginning of the study and after 1 and 3 months) and from 30 healthy controls. Twenty-two patients were supplemented with 200 μg Se (as Se-rich yeast) per day and 20 with placebo (baker's yeast) for 3 months. Se concentration in plasma and DNA damage in white blood cells expressed as the tail moment, including single-strand breaks (SSB) and oxidative bases lesion in DNA, using formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG), were measured. Se concentration in patients was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P < 0.0001) and increased significantly after 3 months of Se supplementation (P < 0.0001). Tail moment (SSB) in patients before the study was three times higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After 3 months of Se supplementation, it decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and was about 16% lower than in healthy subjects. The oxidative bases lesion in DNA (tail moment, FPG) of HD patients at the beginning of the study was significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared with controls, and 3 months after Se supplementation it was 2.6 times lower than in controls (P < 0.01). No changes in tail moment was observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, our study shows that in CKD patients on HD, DNA damage in white blood cells is higher than in healthy controls, and Se supplementation prevents the damage of DNA. PMID:20661660

  8. The effect of ex vivo CDDO-Me activation on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in white blood cells from patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Noel, Sanjeev; Zheng, Laura; Navas-Acien, Ana; Fuchs, Ralph J

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) has been shown to protect against experimental sepsis in mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in ex vivo white blood cells from healthy subjects by upregulating cellular antioxidant genes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that ex vivo methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) activates NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes in white blood cells from patients with septic shock and protects against LPS-induced inflammation and reactive oxidative species production. Peripheral blood was collected from 18 patients with septic shock who were being treated in medical and surgical intensive care units. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of NRF2 target genes (NQO1, HO-1, GCLM, and FTL) and IL-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, and neutrophils after CDDO-Me treatment alone or after subsequent LPS exposure. Superoxide anion (O2) was measured to assess the effect of CDDO-Me pretreatment on subsequent LPS exposure. Treatment with CDDO-Me increased the gene expression of NQO1 (P = 0.04) and decreased the expression of HO-1 (P = 0.03) in PBMCs from patients with septic shock. Purified monocytes exhibited significant increases in the expression of NQO1 (P = 0.01) and GCLM (P = 0.003) after CDDO-Me treatment. Levels of other NRF2 target genes (HO-1 and FTL) remained similar to those of vehicle-treated cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a trend toward increased IL-6 gene expression after CDDO-Me treatment, whereas purified monocytes showed a trend toward decreased IL-6. There was no discernible trend in the IL-6 expression subsequent to LPS treatment in either vehicle-treated or CDDO-Me-treated PBMCs and monocytes. Treatment with CDDO-Me significantly increased O2 production in PBMCs (P = 0.04). Although CDDO-Me pretreatment significantly attenuated O2 production to subsequent LPS exposure (P = 0.03), the

  9. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  10. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  11. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  12. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  13. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  14. Long-Term Effects of Caloric Restriction or Exercise on DNA and RNA Oxidation Levels in White Blood Cells and Urine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Tim; Fontana, Luigi; Weiss, Edward P.; Villareal, Dennis; Malayappan, Bhaskar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Excessive adiposity is associated with increased oxidative stress and accelerated aging. Weight loss induced by negative energy balance reduces markers of oxidation in experimental animals and humans. The long-term effects of weight loss induced by calorie restriction or increased energy expenditure induced by exercise on measures of oxidative stress and damage have not been studied in humans. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of 20% caloric restriction or 20% exercise alone over 1 year on oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, as assessed through white blood cell and urine analyses. Eighteen men and women aged 50 to 60 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 23.5 to 29.9 kg/m2 were assigned to one of two conditions — 20% CR (n = 9) or 20% EX (n = 9) — which was designed to produce an identical energy deficit through increased energy expenditure. Compared to baseline, both interventions significantly reduced oxidative damage to both DNA (48.5% and 49.6% reduction for the CR and EX groups, respectively) and RNA (35.7% and 52.1% reduction for the CR and EX groups, respectively) measured in white blood cells. However, urinary levels of DNA and RNA oxidation products did not differ from baseline values following either 12-month intervention program. Data from the present study provide evidence that negative energy balances induced through either CR or EX result in substantial and similar improvements in markers of DNA and RNA damage to white blood cells, potentially by reducing systemic oxidative stress. PMID:18729811

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Bryan, R. Nick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower odds of having unfavorable brain MRI findings. Methods: We studied 565 healthy, middle-aged, black and white men and women in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study. The fitness measure was symptom-limited maximal treadmill test duration (Maxdur); brain MRI was measured 5 years later. Brain MRI measures were analyzed as means and as proportions below the 15th percentile (above the 85th percentile for white matter abnormal tissue volume). Results: Per 1-minute-higher Maxdur, the odds ratio for having less whole brain volume was 0.85 (p = 0.04) and for having low white matter integrity was 0.80 (p = 0.02), adjusted for age, race, sex, clinic, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, education, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, and lung function (plus intracranial volume for white matter integrity). No significant associations were observed between Maxdur and abnormal tissue volume or blood flow in white matter. Findings were similar for associations with continuous brain MRI measures. Conclusions: Greater physical fitness was associated with more brain volume and greater white matter integrity measured 5 years later in middle-aged adults. PMID:25957331

  16. Differences in the molecular structure of the blood-brain barrier in the cerebral cortex and white matter: an in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nyúl-Tóth, Ádám; Suciu, Maria; Molnár, Judit; Fazakas, Csilla; Haskó, János; Herman, Hildegard; Farkas, Attila E; Kaszaki, József; Hermenean, Anca; Wilhelm, Imola; Krizbai, István A

    2016-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main interface controlling molecular and cellular traffic between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. It consists of cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) interconnected by continuous tight junctions, and closely associated pericytes and astrocytes. Different parts of the CNS have diverse functions and structures and may be subject of different pathologies, in which the BBB is actively involved. It is largely unknown, however, what are the cellular and molecular differences of the BBB in different regions of the brain. Using in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo techniques we compared the expression of BBB-associated genes and proteins (i.e., markers of CECs, brain pericytes, and astrocytes) in the cortical grey matter and white matter. In silico human database analysis (obtained from recalculated data of the Allen Brain Atlas), qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence studies on porcine and mouse brain tissue indicated an increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes in the white matter compared with the grey matter. We have also found increased expression of genes of the junctional complex of CECs (occludin, claudin-5, and α-catenin) in the white matter compared with the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, occludin, claudin-5, and α-catenin proteins showed increased expression in CECs of the white matter compared with endothelial cells of the cortical grey matter. In parallel, barrier properties of white matter CECs were superior as well. These differences might be important in the pathogenesis of diseases differently affecting distinct regions of the brain.

  17. The Contribution of Age and Weight to Blood Pressure Levels Among Blacks and Whites Receiving Care in Community-Based Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Kan, Athena Wing-ga; Hussain, Tanvir; Carson, Kathryn A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Albert, Michael; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether race and age, risk factors for obesity and hypertension, affect the association of obesity with elevated blood pressure (BP). Using electronic medical record data, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients seen at 6 Maryland primary care clinics from September 2011 through June 2012. The risk for higher BP among patients younger than 65 years and in an elevated weight category was greater for both races but was higher for whites than blacks. For patients aged 65 years or older, weight had little impact on systolic BP, suggesting that approaches involving weight loss to address elevated BP should focus on populations younger than 65.

  18. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  19. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  20. Large-Scale Exome-wide Association Analysis Identifies Loci for White Blood Cell Traits and Pleiotropy with Immune-Mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Hill, W David; Kacprowski, Tim; Li, Jin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Manichaikul, Ani; Mihailov, Evelin; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Pankratz, Nathan; Pazoki, Raha; Polfus, Linda M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Schurmann, Claudia; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Waterworth, Dawn M; Evangelou, Evangelos; Yanek, Lisa R; Burt, Amber; Chen, Ming-Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Floyd, James S; Greinacher, Andreas; Harris, Tamara B; Highland, Heather M; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Yongmei; Mägi, Reedik; Nalls, Mike A; Mathias, Rasika A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Nikus, Kjell; Starr, John M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wallentin, Lars; Bartz, Traci M; Becker, Lewis C; Denny, Joshua C; Raffield, Laura M; Rioux, John D; Friedrich, Nele; Fornage, Myriam; Gao, He; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Liewald, David C M; Rich, Stephen S; Uitterlinden, Andre; Bastarache, Lisa; Becker, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Denus, Simon; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Lange, Ethan; Launer, Lenore J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yingchang; Metspalu, Andres; O'Donnell, Chris J; Quarells, Rakale C; Richard, Melissa; Torstenson, Eric S; Taylor, Kent D; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Zonderman, Alan B; Crosslin, David R; Deary, Ian J; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Evans, Michele K; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kähönen, Mika; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Slater, Andrew J; Dehghan, Abbas; White, Harvey D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Loos, Ruth J F; Esko, Tõnu; Faraday, Nauder; Wilson, James G; Cushman, Mary; Johnson, Andrew D; Edwards, Todd L; Zakai, Neil A; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alex P; Auer, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    White blood cells play diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic association analyses of phenotypic variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts from large samples of otherwise healthy individuals can provide insights into genes and biologic pathways involved in production, differentiation, or clearance of particular WBC lineages (myeloid, lymphoid) and also potentially inform the genetic basis of autoimmune, allergic, and blood diseases. We performed an exome array-based meta-analysis of total WBC and subtype counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) in a multi-ancestry discovery and replication sample of ∼157,622 individuals from 25 studies. We identified 16 common variants (8 of which were coding variants) associated with one or more WBC traits, the majority of which are pleiotropically associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on functional annotation, these loci included genes encoding surface markers of myeloid, lymphoid, or hematopoietic stem cell differentiation (CD69, CD33, CD87), transcription factors regulating lineage specification during hematopoiesis (ASXL1, IRF8, IKZF1, JMJD1C, ETS2-PSMG1), and molecules involved in neutrophil clearance/apoptosis (C10orf54, LTA), adhesion (TNXB), or centrosome and microtubule structure/function (KIF9, TUBD1). Together with recent reports of somatic ASXL1 mutations among individuals with idiopathic cytopenias or clonal hematopoiesis of undetermined significance, the identification of a common regulatory 3' UTR variant of ASXL1 suggests that both germline and somatic ASXL1 mutations contribute to lower blood counts in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. These association results shed light on genetic mechanisms that regulate circulating WBC counts and suggest a prominent shared genetic architecture with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  1. Large-Scale Exome-wide Association Analysis Identifies Loci for White Blood Cell Traits and Pleiotropy with Immune-Mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Hill, W David; Kacprowski, Tim; Li, Jin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Manichaikul, Ani; Mihailov, Evelin; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Pankratz, Nathan; Pazoki, Raha; Polfus, Linda M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Schurmann, Claudia; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Waterworth, Dawn M; Evangelou, Evangelos; Yanek, Lisa R; Burt, Amber; Chen, Ming-Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Floyd, James S; Greinacher, Andreas; Harris, Tamara B; Highland, Heather M; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Yongmei; Mägi, Reedik; Nalls, Mike A; Mathias, Rasika A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Nikus, Kjell; Starr, John M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wallentin, Lars; Bartz, Traci M; Becker, Lewis C; Denny, Joshua C; Raffield, Laura M; Rioux, John D; Friedrich, Nele; Fornage, Myriam; Gao, He; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Liewald, David C M; Rich, Stephen S; Uitterlinden, Andre; Bastarache, Lisa; Becker, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Denus, Simon; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Lange, Ethan; Launer, Lenore J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yingchang; Metspalu, Andres; O'Donnell, Chris J; Quarells, Rakale C; Richard, Melissa; Torstenson, Eric S; Taylor, Kent D; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Zonderman, Alan B; Crosslin, David R; Deary, Ian J; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Evans, Michele K; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kähönen, Mika; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Slater, Andrew J; Dehghan, Abbas; White, Harvey D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Loos, Ruth J F; Esko, Tõnu; Faraday, Nauder; Wilson, James G; Cushman, Mary; Johnson, Andrew D; Edwards, Todd L; Zakai, Neil A; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alex P; Auer, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    White blood cells play diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic association analyses of phenotypic variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts from large samples of otherwise healthy individuals can provide insights into genes and biologic pathways involved in production, differentiation, or clearance of particular WBC lineages (myeloid, lymphoid) and also potentially inform the genetic basis of autoimmune, allergic, and blood diseases. We performed an exome array-based meta-analysis of total WBC and subtype counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) in a multi-ancestry discovery and replication sample of ∼157,622 individuals from 25 studies. We identified 16 common variants (8 of which were coding variants) associated with one or more WBC traits, the majority of which are pleiotropically associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on functional annotation, these loci included genes encoding surface markers of myeloid, lymphoid, or hematopoietic stem cell differentiation (CD69, CD33, CD87), transcription factors regulating lineage specification during hematopoiesis (ASXL1, IRF8, IKZF1, JMJD1C, ETS2-PSMG1), and molecules involved in neutrophil clearance/apoptosis (C10orf54, LTA), adhesion (TNXB), or centrosome and microtubule structure/function (KIF9, TUBD1). Together with recent reports of somatic ASXL1 mutations among individuals with idiopathic cytopenias or clonal hematopoiesis of undetermined significance, the identification of a common regulatory 3' UTR variant of ASXL1 suggests that both germline and somatic ASXL1 mutations contribute to lower blood counts in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. These association results shed light on genetic mechanisms that regulate circulating WBC counts and suggest a prominent shared genetic architecture with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27346689

  2. Long-term effects of bleached kraft mill effluents on red and white blood cell status, ion balance, and vertebral structure in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Haerdig, J.A.; Andersson, T.; Bengtsson, B.E.; Foerlin, L.L.; Larsson, A.

    1988-02-01

    In a laboratory investigation fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) were exposed for 5-9 months to wastewater from pine and birch lines from a bleached kraft pulp plant. This long-term exposure to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) affected the hematology, the ion balance, and the vertebral structure. Decreased values for hematocrit and hemoglobin and a reduced red blood cell count, as well as increased levels of methemoglobin, indicated disturbances in the red blood cell status. The white blood cell picture was not significantly affected by the BKME exposure. Decreased levels of potassium and chloride ions in the blood plasma in some of the exposed fish suggest an impaired ability to maintain ion homeostasis. Elevated frequencies of vertebral deformations in fish exposed to BKME confirm previous observations of vertebral damage in feral fourhorn sculpin caught in the receiving body of water of the same bleached kraft pulp industry. Many of the parameters analyzed in this investigation may be used as health indicators in future laboratory and field studies on fish exposed to BKME.

  3. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  4. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals.

  5. Potential Beneficial Effects of Si-Wu-Tang on White Blood Cell Numbers and the Gastrointestinal Tract of γ-Ray Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jin; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT) is a decoction consisting of a mixture of ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix, Angelica Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix. As a traditional Chinese herbal decoction, SWT has been widely used for the treatment of diseases characterized as blood and/or energy deficit. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of SWT on the different populations of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) and gastrointestinal changes in γ-ray irradiated mice. Female mice were treated daily with orally administered SWT seven days before irradiation, until one day before irradiation or until one day before sample collection. WBC counts were determined from peripheral blood samples taken from the mice at different times post-irradiation. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen, were utilized to evaluate the effects of SWT in the intestines of mice after radiation exposure. The results of the present studies demonstrate that SWT has protective effects against radiation damage to circulating WBCs, specifically to lymphocytes, and to the gastrointestinal tract of the irradiated animals. PMID:25324699

  6. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    PubMed

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-05-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion.

  7. Use of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and white blood cell counts in monitoring the treatment and predicting the survival of horses with septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kidd, J A; Barr, A R S; Tarlton, J F

    2007-09-01

    Thirty-nine samples of synovial fluid were collected from the joints of 32 horses with suspected septic arthritis and 39 samples were collected from horses euthanased for non-orthopaedic conditions. The white blood cell counts (WBCC) were determined and the pro and active forms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 were measured by gelatin zymography and image analysis in each sample. The initial measurements of the ratio of proMMP9:proMMp2 and WBCC were good prognostic indicators of the survival of the horses. There was no significant relationship between the interval between the injury and the horse being referred for treatment and either the WBCC or the levels of MMP2 and MMP9 initially, and no evidence that this interval significantly affected the chances of the horses surviving.

  8. Abnormal anti-quenching and controllable multi-transitions of Bi3+ luminescence by temperature in a yellow-emitting LuVO4 :Bi3+ phosphor for UV-converted white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fengwen; Peng, Mingying; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-09-01

    Phosphors with an efficient yellow-emitting color play a crucial role in phosphor-converted white LEDs (pc-WLEDs), but popular yellow phosphors such as YAG:Ce or Eu(2+) -doped (oxy)nitrides cannot smoothly meet this seemingly simple requirement due to their strong absorptions in the visible range. Herein, we report a novel yellow-emitting LuVO(4) :Bi(3+) phosphor that can solve this shortcoming. The emission from LuVO(4) :Bi(3+) shows a peak at 576 nm with a quantum efficiency (QE) of up to 68 %, good resistance to thermal quenching (T(50 %) =573 K), and no severe thermal degradation after heating-cooling cycles upon UV excitation. The yellow emission, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), originates from the ((3)P(0),(3)P(1))→(1) S0 transitions of Bi(3+). Increasing the temperature from 10 to 300 K produces a temperature-dependent energy-transfer process between VO(4)(3-) groups and Bi(3+), and further heating of the samples to 573 K intensifies the emission. However, it subsequently weakens, accompanied by blueshifts of the emission peaks. This abnormal anti-thermal quenching can be ascribed to temperature-dependent energy transfer from VO(4)(3-) groups to Bi(3+), a population redistribution between the excited states of (3)P(0) and (3)P(1) upon thermal stimulation, and discharge of electrons trapped in defects with a trap depth of 359 K. Device fabrication with the as-prepared phosphor LuVO(4) :Bi(3+) has proved that it can act as a good yellow phosphor for pc-WLEDs. PMID:25048156

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition characterized by abnormal ...

  10. Total white blood cell count or neutrophil count predict ischemic stroke events among adult Taiwanese: report from a community-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. Methods The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9 years; we documented 187 new incident cases. Results The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.13–3.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. Conclusions WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese. PMID:23317415

  11. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in utero is associated with DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Castelino, Jovita; Silver, Matt J; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Durand, Geoffroy; Calvez-Kelm, Florence Le; Prentice, Andrew M; Wild, Christopher P; Moore, Sophie E; Hennig, Branwen J; Herceg, Zdenko; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to environmental toxins during embryonic development may lead to epigenetic changes that influence disease risk in later life. Aflatoxin is a contaminant of staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa, is a known human liver carcinogen and has been associated with stunting in infants. Methods: We have measured aflatoxin exposure in 115 pregnant women in The Gambia and examined the DNA methylation status of white blood cells from their infants at 2–8 months old (mean 3.6 ± 0.9). Aflatoxin exposure in women was assessed using an ELISA method to measure aflatoxin albumin (AF-alb) adducts in plasma taken at 1–16 weeks of pregnancy. Genome-wide DNA methylation of infant white blood cells was measured using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450beadchip. Results: AF-alb levels ranged from 3.9 to 458.4 pg/mg albumin. We found that aflatoxin exposure in the mothers was associated to DNA methylation in their infants for 71 CpG sites (false discovery rate < 0.05), with an average effect size of 1.7% change in methylation. Aflatoxin-associated differential methylation was observed in growth factor genes such as FGF12 and IGF1, and immune-related genes such as CCL28, TLR2 and TGFBI. Moreover, one aflatoxin-associated methylation region (corresponding to the miR-4520b locus) was identified. Conclusions: This study shows that maternal exposure to aflatoxin during the early stages of pregnancy is associated with differential DNA methylation patterns of infants, including in genes related to growth and immune function. This reinforces the need for interventions to reduce aflatoxin exposure, especially during critical periods of fetal and infant development. PMID:25855716

  12. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-04-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  13. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-01-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and EROD and GST Biotransformation Activity in the Liver of Red- and White-Blooded Antarctic Fish.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Schmid, Peter; Segner, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic pollution are of increasing concern in remote areas such as Antarctica. The evolutionary adaptation of Antarctic notothenioid fish to the cold and stable Southern Ocean led to a low plasticity of their physiological functions, what may limit their capacity to deal with altered temperature regimes and pollution in the Antarctic environment. Using a biochemical approach, we aimed to assess the hepatic biotransformation capacities of Antarctic fish species by determining (i) the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and (ii) the metabolic clearance of benzo(a)pyrene by hepatic S9 supernatants. In addition, we determined the thermal sensitivity of the xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. We investigated the xenobiotic metabolism of the red-blooded Gobionotothen gibberifrons and Notothenia rossii, the hemoglobin-less Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari, and the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a reference. Our results revealed similar metabolic enzyme activities and metabolic clearance rates between red- and white-blooded Antarctic fish, but significantly lower rates in comparison to rainbow trout. Therefore, bioaccumulation factors for metabolizable lipophilic contaminants may be higher in Antarctic than in temperate fish. Likewise, the thermal adaptive capacities and flexibilities of the EROD and GST activities in Antarctic fish were significantly lower than in rainbow trout. As a consequence, increasing water temperatures in the Southern Ocean will additionally compromise the already low detoxification capacities of Antarctic fish. PMID:25965896

  15. Effects of periodontal therapy on white blood cell count and levels of transforming growth factor beta in serum of subjects with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimarães, M C M

    2015-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF—β) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9—12 months). A well—controlled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF—β levels, accessed by enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF—β levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes.

  16. Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and EROD and GST Biotransformation Activity in the Liver of Red- and White-Blooded Antarctic Fish.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Schmid, Peter; Segner, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic pollution are of increasing concern in remote areas such as Antarctica. The evolutionary adaptation of Antarctic notothenioid fish to the cold and stable Southern Ocean led to a low plasticity of their physiological functions, what may limit their capacity to deal with altered temperature regimes and pollution in the Antarctic environment. Using a biochemical approach, we aimed to assess the hepatic biotransformation capacities of Antarctic fish species by determining (i) the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and (ii) the metabolic clearance of benzo(a)pyrene by hepatic S9 supernatants. In addition, we determined the thermal sensitivity of the xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. We investigated the xenobiotic metabolism of the red-blooded Gobionotothen gibberifrons and Notothenia rossii, the hemoglobin-less Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari, and the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a reference. Our results revealed similar metabolic enzyme activities and metabolic clearance rates between red- and white-blooded Antarctic fish, but significantly lower rates in comparison to rainbow trout. Therefore, bioaccumulation factors for metabolizable lipophilic contaminants may be higher in Antarctic than in temperate fish. Likewise, the thermal adaptive capacities and flexibilities of the EROD and GST activities in Antarctic fish were significantly lower than in rainbow trout. As a consequence, increasing water temperatures in the Southern Ocean will additionally compromise the already low detoxification capacities of Antarctic fish.

  17. Long-Term Stroke Risk Due to Partial White-Coat or Masked Hypertension Based on Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements: The Ohasama Study.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Inoue, Ryusuke; Metoki, Hirohito; Hosaka, Miki; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Obara, Taku; Ishiguro, Aya; Murakami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ayako; Yasui, Daisaku; Murakami, Takahisa; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is controversial, and different findings on self-measured home measurements and 24-h ambulatory monitoring make identifying WCHT difficult. We examined whether individuals with partially or completely defined WCHT, as well as masked hypertension, as determined by different out-of-office blood pressure measurements, have a distinct long-term stroke risk. We followed 1464 participants (31.8% men; mean age, 60.6±10.8 years) in the general population of Ohasama, Japan, for a median of 17.1 years. A first stroke occurred in 212 subjects. Using sustained normal blood pressure (events/n=61/776) as a reference, adjusted hazard ratios for stroke (95% confidence intervals; events/n) were 1.38 (0.82-2.32; 19/137) for complete WCHT (isolated office hypertension), 2.16 (1.36-3.43; 29/117) for partial WCHT (either home or ambulatory normotension with office hypertension), 2.05 (1.24-3.41; 23/100) for complete masked hypertension (both home and ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), 2.08 (1.37-3.16; 38/180) for partial masked hypertension (either home or ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), and 2.46 (1.61-3.77; 42/154) for sustained hypertension. When partial WCHT and partial masked hypertension groups were further divided into participants only with home hypertension and those only with ambulatory hypertension, all subgroups had a significantly higher stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio ≥1.84, P≤0.04). In conclusion, impacts of partial WCHT as well as partial masked hypertension for long-term stroke risk were comparable to those of complete masked hypertension or sustained hypertension. We need both home and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements to evaluate stroke risk accurately.

  18. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    PubMed

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  19. Alzheimer Disease in a Mouse Model: MR Imaging–guided Focused Ultrasound Targeted to the Hippocampus Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improves Pathologic Abnormalities and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease (ADAlzheimer disease), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound–treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Conclusion Repeated MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of ADAlzheimer disease. The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal

  20. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. PMID:23879346

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized.

  2. Temporal Relationship Between Elevated Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffening Among Middle-Aged Black and White Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Zhang, Tao; Bazzano, Lydia; Urbina, Elaine M; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the temporal relationship between elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in a biracial (black-white) cohort of middle-aged adults aged 32-51 years from the semirural community of Bogalusa, Louisiana. Measurements of aortic-femoral pulse wave velocity (afPWV; n = 446) and large- and small-arterial compliance (n = 381) were obtained at 2 time points between 2000 and 2010, with an average follow-up period of 7 years. A cross-lagged path analysis model was used to examine the temporal relationship of elevated BP to arterial stiffness and elasticity. The cross-lagged path coefficients did not differ significantly between blacks and whites. The path coefficient (ρ2) from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV was significantly greater than the path coefficient (ρ1) from baseline afPWV to follow-up BP (ρ2 = 0.20 vs. ρ1 = 0.07 (P = 0.048) for systolic BP; ρ2 = 0.19 vs. ρ1 = 0.05 (P = 0.034) for diastolic BP). The results for this 1-directional path from baseline BP to follow-up afPWV were confirmed, although marginally significant, by using large- and small-artery elasticity measurements. These findings provide strong evidence that elevated BP precedes large-artery stiffening in middle-aged adults. Unlike the case in older adults, the large-arterial wall is not stiff enough in youth to alter BP levels during young adulthood.

  3. Tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomer analysis after hydrolysis of DNA-adducts isolated from rat and human white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Grova, Nathalie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Hardy, Emilie M; Schroeder, Henri; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-10-17

    Since exposure to benzo[a]pyrene is suspected to be associated with several health issues, significant efforts have been made to develop efficient strategies for the assessment of human exposure to this ubiquitous compound. In this context, a method was developed for the analysis of four tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomers resulting from the hydrolysis of their respective diol-epoxide precursors which are involved in DNA-adduct formation. The analytical sensitivity necessary to reach environmental levels of concentration was obtained by using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recovery determined at the four concentration levels were estimated in average at 83% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), 29% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,t-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), and 82% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,C-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The coefficient of determination of the calibration curve was above 0.997 for all the analytes investigated and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.5 to 2 adduct/10(8) nucleotides. The precision was between 5.3% and 22.3%. The suitability of the method was firstly evaluated by the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of rats submitted after controlled exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. The four targeted tetra-OH-benzo[a]pyrenes as well as two unknown isomers were detected in all the treated animals. Benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) appeared as the most abundant isomer in both treated and control animals followed by benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The method was afterwards applied to the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of human volunteers. The results confirmed that this method was sufficiently sensitive to monitor environmental levels of exposure since all the specimens analyzed were above the limit of quantification for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) and two of them were positive for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10

  4. Tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomer analysis after hydrolysis of DNA-adducts isolated from rat and human white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Grova, Nathalie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Hardy, Emilie M; Schroeder, Henri; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-10-17

    Since exposure to benzo[a]pyrene is suspected to be associated with several health issues, significant efforts have been made to develop efficient strategies for the assessment of human exposure to this ubiquitous compound. In this context, a method was developed for the analysis of four tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomers resulting from the hydrolysis of their respective diol-epoxide precursors which are involved in DNA-adduct formation. The analytical sensitivity necessary to reach environmental levels of concentration was obtained by using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recovery determined at the four concentration levels were estimated in average at 83% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), 29% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,t-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), and 82% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,C-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The coefficient of determination of the calibration curve was above 0.997 for all the analytes investigated and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.5 to 2 adduct/10(8) nucleotides. The precision was between 5.3% and 22.3%. The suitability of the method was firstly evaluated by the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of rats submitted after controlled exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. The four targeted tetra-OH-benzo[a]pyrenes as well as two unknown isomers were detected in all the treated animals. Benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) appeared as the most abundant isomer in both treated and control animals followed by benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The method was afterwards applied to the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of human volunteers. The results confirmed that this method was sufficiently sensitive to monitor environmental levels of exposure since all the specimens analyzed were above the limit of quantification for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) and two of them were positive for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10

  5. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as ...

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated White Blood Cell DNA Methylation and Gene Expression are Associated With Within-Pair Differences of Body Adiposity and Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Aileen; Pöllänen, Eija; Ismail, Khadeeja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Mikkola, Tuija M; Berglund, Eva; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Ollikainen, Miina

    2015-12-01

    The loss of estrogen during menopause causes changes in the female body, with wide-ranging effects on health. Estrogen-containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) leads to a relief of typical menopausal symptoms, benefits bone and muscle health, and is associated with tissue-specific gene expression profiles. As gene expression is controlled by epigenetic factors (including DNA methylation), many of which are environmentally sensitive, it is plausible that at least part of the HRT-associated gene expression is due to changes in DNA methylation profile. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of white blood cells (WBCs) and their associations with body composition, including muscle and bone measures of monozygotic (MZ) female twin pairs discordant for HRT. We identified 7,855 nominally significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with 4,044 genes. Of the genes with DMRs, five (ACBA1, CCL5, FASLG, PPP2R2B, and UHRF1) were also differentially expressed. All have been previously associated with HRT or estrogenic regulation, but not with HRT-associated DNA methylation. All five genes were associated with bone mineral content (BMC), and ABCA1, FASLG, and UHRF1 were also associated with body adiposity. Our study is the first to show that HRT associates with genome-wide DNA methylation alterations in WBCs. Moreover, we show that five differentially expressed genes with DMRs associate with clinical measures, including body fat percentage, lean body mass, bone mass, and blood lipids. Our results indicate that at least part of the known beneficial HRT effects on body composition and bone mass may be regulated by DNA methylation associated alterations in gene expression in circulating WBCs.

  7. The transcription of MGAT4A glycosyl transferase is increased in white cells of peripheral blood of Type 2 Diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Orduña, Eduardo; Cruz, Miguel; García-Mena, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Background Human glycosylase IV is involved in GLUT2 transporter regulation in pancreatic β cells. A KO of this gene along with a high fat diet in a mice model has been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of this study were to measure and compare the MGAT4A mRNA levels in white blood cells (WBC) from T2D subjects and healthy subjects (T2NB), and to measure the half-life of the MGAT4A mRNA. Results We studied a sample of 73 individuals, 40 T2D subjects and 33 T2NB subjects. Anthropometrical and biochemical profiles were registered. The MGAT4A mRNA levels in WBC and the transcript half-life in Jurkat T cells were determined by Real-Time PCR. A blood differential cell counting was made for each individual. Cell counting showed T2D subjects exhibited an increased number of WBC compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.0001). Biochemical parameters such as fasting glucose (P = 0.0001), and triglycerides (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. T2D subjects had 4.2-fold more MGAT4A transcript compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.002). The MGAT4A mRNA had a half-life of 2.04 h in Jurkat T cells. Conclusion The results of this work suggest that in T2D subjects, high levels of glucose and triglycerides are accompanied by an increase on MGAT4A mRNA levels and WBC count; condition that suggests a pro-inflammatory state due to a chronic metabolic stress. PMID:17953760

  8. Transcriptome modification of white blood cells after dietary administration of curcumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in osteoarthritic affected dogs.

    PubMed

    Colitti, M; Gaspardo, B; Della Pria, A; Scaini, C; Stefanon, Bruno

    2012-06-30

    The dietary effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or curcumin on the gene expression of peripheral white blood cells in osteoarthritis (OA) affected dogs was investigated using a 44K oligo microarray. Two groups of OA dogs and one group of healthy dogs (6 dogs each) were clinically evaluated and blood was sampled before (T0) and after 20days (T20) of dietary administration of NSAID (NSAID group) or curcumin (CURCUMIN group). Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) in comparison to the control group were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). After 20days of treatment, the differentially expressed transcripts significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 475 to 173 in NSAID group and from 498 to 141 in CURCUMIN group. Genes involved in "inflammatory response" and in "connective tissue development and function" dramatically decreased at T20. Other genes, included in "cellular movement", "cellular compromise" and "immune cell trafficking", were differentially expressed at T0 but not at T20 in both groups. Specific molecular targets of CURCUMIN, not observed for NSAID, were the IkB up regulation in the "TNRF1 signaling pathway" and IL18 down regulation in the "role of cytokines in mediating communication between immune cells". The activity of CURCUMIN was also evidenced from the inhibition of macrophages proliferation (HBEGF), related to a strong down regulation of TNFα and to activation of fibrinolysis (SERPINE1). The results would suggest that curcumin offers a complementary antinflammatory support for OA treatment in dogs. PMID:22591841

  9. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology. PMID:27349086

  10. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in white blood cells of humans exposed to residential wood combustion particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Heussen, G.A.H.; Bouman, H.G.M.; Alink, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in open fireplaces poses a possible health risk because of the emission into the indoor air of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In the present report it was investigated whether this emission leads to enhanced levels of DNA adducts in white blood cells (WBC) of exposed subjects. Under conditions that most likely reflect the Dutch pattern of use of open fireplaces, RWC increased both indoor air mutagenicity and levels of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and pyrene. The indirect mutagenicity showed a stronger increase than the direct mutagenicity. The increase in indirect mutagenicity was not directly correlated with the increase in the levels of B(a)P and pyrene. {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts following nuclease P1 enrichment or butanol extraction revealed low adduct levels. No combustion-related increase in the amount of adducts was observed. Possible explanations for the lack of correlation between air monitoring data and WBC DNA adduct levels are discussed. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Design and synthesis of cationic antibacterial peptide based on Leucrocin I sequence, antibacterial peptide from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Yaraksa, Nualyai; Anunthawan, Thitiporn; Theansungnoen, Tinnakorn; Daduang, Sakda; Araki, Tomohiro; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-03-01

    Leucrocin I is an antibacterial peptide isolated from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts. Based on Leucrocin I sequence, cationic peptide, NY15, was designed, synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus sphaericus TISTR 678, Bacillus megaterium (clinical isolate), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), Salmonella typhi ATCC 5784 and Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The efficacy of the peptide made from all L-amino acids was also compared with all D-amino acids. The peptide made from all D-amino acids was more active than the corresponding L-enantiomer. In our detailed study, the interaction between peptides and the cell membrane of Vibrio cholerae as part of their killing mechanism was studied by fluorescence and electron microscopy. The results show that the membrane was the target of action of the peptides. Finally, the cytotoxicity assays revealed that both L-NY15 and D-NY15 peptides are non-toxic to mammalian cells at bacteriolytic concentrations.

  12. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  13. Comparison of cerebral blood flow and structural penumbras in relation to white matter hyperintensities: A multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Lahna, David L; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Dodge, Hiroko H; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Rooney, William D; Silbert, Lisa C

    2016-01-01

    Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) surrounding WMHs is associated with decreased structural integrity and perfusion, increased risk of WMH growth, and is referred to as the WMH penumbra. Studies comparing structural and cerebral blood flow (CBF) penumbras within the same individuals are lacking, however, and would facilitate our understanding of mechanisms resulting in WM damage. This study aimed to compare both CBF and structural WMH penumbras in non-demented aging. Eighty-two elderly volunteers underwent 3T-MRI including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), pulsed arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A NAWM layer mask was generated for periventricular and deep WMHs. Mean CBF, DTI-fractional anisotropy (DTI-FA), DTI-mean diffusivity (DTI-MD) and FLAIR intensity for WMHs and its corresponding NAWM layer masks were computed and compared against its mean within total brain NAWM using mixed effects models. For both periventricular and deep WMHs, DTI-FA, DTI-MD and FLAIR intensity changes extended 2-9 mm surrounding WMHs (p ≤ 0.05), while CBF changes extended 13-14 mm (p ≤ 0.05). The CBF penumbra is more extensive than structural penumbras in relation to WMHs and includes WM tissue both with and without microstructural changes. Findings implicate CBF as a potential target for the prevention of both micro and macro structural WM damage. PMID:27270266

  14. The acetabulum: A prospective study of three-phase bone and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous-coated hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Anderson, J.H.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Although few studies address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and indium-111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy ({sup 111}In-WBC) in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous-coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen with the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and {sup 111I}n-WBC at approximately 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the acetabulum. All 25 prostheses (144 of 144 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone-phase images. Although this activity decreased with time, 76% had persistent uptake at 24 mo. Twenty-three of 25 prostheses (126 of 140 scans) showed increased uptake on {sup 111}In-WBC scintigraphy, invariably decreasing with time, but with 37% having significant uptake at 24 mo. Scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasty patient appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  15. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement. PMID:26208029

  16. Abnormal Development of Thalamic Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Votava-Smith, Jodie K.; Ceschin, Rafael; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Preterm birth is associated with alteration in cortico-thalamic development, which underlies poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate abnormal thalamic microstructure when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between thalamic microstructural abnormalities and peri-operative clinical variables. Material and Methods We compared thalamic DTI measurements in 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison was made with three other selected white matter regions using ROI manual based measurements. Correlation was made with post-conceptional age and peri-operative clinical variables. Results In preterm neonates with CHD, there were age-related differences in thalamic diffusivity (axial and radial) compared to the preterm and term non-CHD group, in contrast to no differences in anisotropy. Contrary to our hypothesis, abnormal thalamic and optic radiation microstructure was most strongly associated with an elevated first arterial blood gas pO2 and elevated pre-operative arterial blood gas pH (p<0.05). Conclusion Age-related thalamic microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD. Perinatal hyperoxemia and increased peri-operative serum pH was associated with abnormal thalamic microstructure in preterm neonates with CHD. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of thalamo-cortical development in the preterm neonate with CHD. PMID:25608695

  17. Response of the goat mammary gland to infection with Staphylococcus aureus revealed by gene expression profiling in milk somatic and white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens responsible for the intra-mammary infection in dairy ruminants. Although much work has been carried out to understand the complex physiological and cellular events that occur in the mammary gland in response to S. aureus, the protective mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to investigate gene expression during the early response of the goat mammary gland to an experimental challenge with S. aureus, in order to better understand the local and systemic response and to compare them in two divergent lines of goat selected for high and low milk somatic cell scores. Results No differences in gene expression were found between high and low SCS (Somatic Cells Score) selection lines. Analysing the two groups together, an expression of 300 genes were found to change from T0 before infection, and T4 at 24 hours and T5 at 30 hours following challenge. In blood derived white blood cells 8 genes showed increased expression between T0 and T5 and 1 gene has reduced expression. The genes showing the greatest increase in expression following challenge (5.65 to 3.16 fold change) play an important role in (i) immune and inflammatory response (NFKB1, TNFAIP6, BASP1, IRF1, PLEK, BATF3); (ii) the regulation of innate resistance to pathogens (PTX3); and (iii) the regulation of cell metabolism (CYTH4, SLC2A6, ARG2). The genes with reduced expression (−1.5 to −2.5 fold) included genes involved in (i) lipid metabolism (ABCG2, FASN), (ii) chemokine, cytokine and intracellular signalling (SPPI), and (iii) cell cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (KRT19). Conclusions Analysis of genes with differential expression following infection showed an inverse relationship between immune response and lipid metabolism in the early response of the mammary gland to the S. aureus challenge. PTX3 showed a large change in expression in both milk and blood, and is therefore a candidate for further studies on

  18. Increased Number of White Matter Lesions in Patients with Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Michael J.; Morrison, Leslie A.; Kim, Helen; Hart, Blaine L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGKROUND AND PURPOSE Familial cerebral cavernous malformations, an autosomal dominant disorder, result in excess morbidity and mortality in affected patients. The disorder is most prevalent in the Southwest United States, where the affected families are most often carriers of the CCM1-KRIT1 Common Hispanic Mutation. The brain and spinal cord parenchyma in these individuals is usually affected by multiple cavernous malformations. Previous studies have shown abnormalities of endothelial cell junctions and the blood-brain barrier in cerebral cavernous malformations. Endothelial cell abnormalities have also been described in pathologic studies of white matter hyperintensities. We compared the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities in a population with known familial cerebral cavernous malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS We examined 191 subjects with familial cerebral cavernous malformations who were enrolled into an institutional review board-approved study. All carry the same Common Hispanic Mutation in the CCM1 gene. Each subject underwent 3TMR imaging, including gradient recalled-echo, SWI, and FLAIR sequences. The number of cavernous malformations and the number of nonhemorrhagic white matter hyperintensities were counted. Subjects older than 60 yearsof age were excluded due to the high prevalence of white matter lesions in this population, and children younger than 6 were excluded due to potential sedation requirements. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of abnormal white matter hyperintensities in those with familial cerebral cavernous malformations compared with healthy controls or those with sporadic cerebral cavernous malformation within the familial cerebral cavernous malformations group; it was also performed to evaluate the associations between abnormal white matter hyperintensities and age, sex, headaches, thyroid disease, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, seizure history, or modified Rankin Scale score

  19. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  20. Voxel-wise meta-analyses of brain blood flow and local synchrony abnormalities in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Qi; Du, Ming-Ying; Zhao, You-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Jing; Lui, Su; Hu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Jia; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Published meta-analyses of resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have included patients receiving antidepressants, which might affect brain activity and thus bias the results. To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has investigated regional homogeneity changes in medication-free patients with MDD. Moreover, an association between regional homogeneity and rCBF has been demonstrated in some brain regions in healthy controls. We sought to explore to what extent resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Methods Using the effect-size signed differential mapping method, we conducted 2 meta-analyses of rCBF and regional homogeneity studies of medication-free patients with MDD. Results Our systematic search identified 14 rCBF studies and 9 regional homogeneity studies. We identified conjoint decreases in resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus in medication-free patients with MDD compared with controls. Other changes included altered resting-state rCBF in the precuneus and in the frontal–limbic–thalamic–striatal neural circuit as well as altered regional homogeneity in the uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Meta-regression revealed that the percentage of female patients with MDD was negatively associated with resting-state rCBF in the right anterior cingulate cortex and that the age of patients with MDD was negatively associated with rCBF in the left insula and with regional homogeneity in the left uncus. Limitations The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the included studies were heterogeneous. Conclusion The conjoint alterations of rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus may be core neuropathological changes in medication-free patients with MDD and serve as a specific region of interest for further studies

  1. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated

  2. Ability of serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell cout in predicting acute schemic stroke. A short -term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshayesh-Eghbali, Babak; Roudbary, Seyed-Ali; Basir Jafari, Seddigheh; Nabizadeh, Seyedeh-Parand; Naderi-Asrami, Naghmeh; Sohrabnejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and long-term morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of baseline serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) values in predicting the outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: This study consisted of patients with first AIS referred to Poursina Hospital, Rasht, Iran. Severity of stroke was determined according to the National Institute of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale at the time of admission. Serum CRP levels and WBC count were measured at the time of admission. All patients were followed-up for 90 days after discharge and the severity of stroke was assessed using modified Rankin Scale. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used for calculating the most appropriate cutoff point of CRP and WBC count for differentiating patients with and without poor outcome at the end of the study period. Results: A total of 53 out of 102 patients (52%) had poor outcome. The most appropriate cutoff value for CRP in differentiating patients with and without poor outcome was 8.5mg/l (sensitivity: 73.1%, specificity: 69.4%) and for WBC the difference did not reach to a significant level. The cutoff points of CRP > 10.5 mg/ml yielded a predictive ability at sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 63.8% whereas predictive ability of WBC for mortality was at a borderline level. Conclusion: These findings indicate that high levels of serum CRP in AIS at the time of admission is associated with poor prognosis. However, this study found no ability for WBC in predicting AIS outcome. PMID:27757207

  3. Formaldehyde-associated changes in microRNAs: tissue and temporal specificity in the rat nose, white blood cells, and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Rager, Julia E; Moeller, Benjamin C; Miller, Sloane K; Kracko, Dean; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Swenberg, James A; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, yet much remains unknown regarding their changes resulting from environmental exposures as they influence cellular signaling across various tissues. We set out to investigate miRNA responses to formaldehyde, a critical air pollutant and known carcinogen that disrupts miRNA expression profiles. Rats were exposed by inhalation to either 0 or 2 ppm formaldehyde for 7, 28, or 28 days followed by a 7-day recovery. Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles were assessed within the nasal respiratory epithelium, circulating white blood cells (WBC), and bone marrow (BM). miRNAs showed altered expression in the nose and WBC but not in the BM. Notably in the nose, miR-10b and members of the let-7 family, known nasopharyngeal carcinoma players, showed decreased expression. To integrate miRNA responses with transcriptional changes, genome-wide messenger RNA profiles were assessed in the nose and WBC. Although formaldehyde-induced changes in miRNA and transcript expression were largely tissue specific, pathway analyses revealed an enrichment of immune system/inflammation signaling in the nose and WBC. Specific to the nose was enrichment for apoptosis/proliferation signaling, involving let-7a, let-7c, and let-7f. Across all tissues and time points assessed, miRNAs were predicted to regulate between 7% and 35% of the transcriptional responses and were suggested to play a role in signaling processes including immune/inflammation-related pathways. These data inform our current hypothesis that formaldehyde-induced inflammatory signals originating in the nose may drive WBC effects.

  4. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ≤57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores.

  5. White Blood Cell Count to Mean Platelet Volume Ratio Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Fakour, Sanam; Arjmand, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Leukocyte and platelet have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to determine the usefulness of a novel marker named white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) for predicting outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with or without MetS. Subjects and Methods A total of 331 NSTE-ACS individuals (60±12.5 years, 57.4% male) were enrolled and followed for a median of 24 months. MetS was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results Patients were divided into two groups: high WMR (WMR≥720) and low WMR (WMR<720). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MetS rates were significantly greater in the higher WMR group compared to those in the low WMR group (MACE: 14.3% vs. 25%, p=0.014; MetS: 50.9% vs. 75%, p<0.001). MetS was diagnosed in 62.2% of patients. MACE incidence in patients with or without MetS was comparable (p=0.737). Among MetS individuals, patients in the high WMR group had more MACE than the low WMR group (11.2% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). However, MACE was comparable among non-MetS individuals (p=0.681). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) of MACE incidence for high-WMR in MetS individuals was 2.616 (95% confidence interval: 1.282–5.339, p=0.008). However, HR of MACE incidence for high WMR in non-MetS individuals was not significant. Conclusion Among NSTE-ACS patients without revascularization therapy, elevated admission WMR was associated with an increased risk of developing composite MACE in MetS individuals but not in non-MetS patients. PMID:27014354

  6. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue.

  7. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ≤57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores. PMID:25107450

  8. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  9. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  10. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  11. Influence of Vitamin D Status and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Genome Wide Expression of White Blood Cells: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Spira, Avrum; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409). Methods and Findings A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3) or 2000 IUs (n = 5) vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D<20 ng/ml) and subjects with a 25(OH)D>20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the

  12. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT).

    PubMed

    Reiner, Alexander P; Lettre, Guillaume; Nalls, Michael A; Ganesh, Santhi K; Mathias, Rasika; Austin, Melissa A; Dean, Eric; Arepalli, Sampath; Britton, Angela; Chen, Zhao; Couper, David; Curb, J David; Eaton, Charles B; Fornage, Myriam; Grant, Struan F A; Harris, Tamara B; Hernandez, Dena; Kamatini, Naoyuki; Keating, Brendan J; Kubo, Michiaki; LaCroix, Andrea; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Simin; Lohman, Kurt; Meng, Yan; Mohler, Emile R; Musani, Solomon; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Okada, Yukinori; Palmer, Cameron D; Papanicolaou, George J; Patel, Kushang V; Singleton, Andrew B; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Herman A; Taylor, Kent; Thomson, Cynthia; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Lingyao; Ziv, Elad; Zonderman, Alan B; Folsom, Aaron R; Evans, Michele K; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M; Snively, Beverly M; Wilson, James G

    2011-06-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8)). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute

  14. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  15. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  16. SUSPECTED FENBENDAZOLE TOXICITY IN AN AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN (PELECANUS ERYTHRORHYNCHOS).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Eshar, David; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Kim, In Joong

    2016-06-01

    A wild-raised, 5.0-kg male American white pelican ( Pelecanus erythrorhynchos ) of unknown age presented for routine examination at both the start and completion of a 30-day quarantine period at a zoological park. Upon physical examination, the pelican was bright, alert, and responsive and in good body condition. Two complete blood counts and a plasma biochemistry did not reveal any clinically significant abnormalities. Whole-body radiographs were unremarkable. Two fecal flotations (28 days apart) confirmed the presence of ascarid-type eggs. Fenbendazole anthelmintic was prescribed (50 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. for 5 days). The pelican became lethargic and inappetent on day 3 of fenbendazole treatment and was found dead on day 7. Postmortem examination and histopathology revealed intestinal crypt cell necrosis, stomatitis, and splenic lymphoid depletion consistent with fenbendazole toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe fenbendazole toxicity in an American white pelican. PMID:27468051

  17. SUSPECTED FENBENDAZOLE TOXICITY IN AN AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN (PELECANUS ERYTHRORHYNCHOS).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Eshar, David; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Kim, In Joong

    2016-06-01

    A wild-raised, 5.0-kg male American white pelican ( Pelecanus erythrorhynchos ) of unknown age presented for routine examination at both the start and completion of a 30-day quarantine period at a zoological park. Upon physical examination, the pelican was bright, alert, and responsive and in good body condition. Two complete blood counts and a plasma biochemistry did not reveal any clinically significant abnormalities. Whole-body radiographs were unremarkable. Two fecal flotations (28 days apart) confirmed the presence of ascarid-type eggs. Fenbendazole anthelmintic was prescribed (50 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. for 5 days). The pelican became lethargic and inappetent on day 3 of fenbendazole treatment and was found dead on day 7. Postmortem examination and histopathology revealed intestinal crypt cell necrosis, stomatitis, and splenic lymphoid depletion consistent with fenbendazole toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe fenbendazole toxicity in an American white pelican.

  18. Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle, Ed.; Weis, Lois, Ed.; Powell, Linda C., Ed.; Wong, L. Mun, Ed.

    The contributions in this volume analyze the white racialization process in the context of multiculturalism and examine how racism is established in institutional structures. The chapters are: (1) "The Achievement (K)not: Whiteness and 'Black Underachievement'" (Linda C. Powell); (2) "White Experimenters, White Blood, and Other White Conditions:…

  19. Significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes population.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2012-03-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons <18 years of age, the present analysis totaled 7295 persons, of whom 1593 had isolated systolic hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) and subjects with normal BP (CBP <140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) were at similar risk (adjusted hazard rate: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.87-1.57]; P=0.29). Furthermore, in treated subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79-1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43-2.79]; P<0.0001) and treated subjects with normal BP (adjusted hazard rate: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.49-2.62]; P<0.0001) were at higher risk as compared with untreated normotensive subjects. In conclusion, subjects with sustained hypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, "treated normalized hypertension." Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term "white-coat hypertension" to persons

  20. What Is a Blood Transfusion?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells, white blood cells, platelets (PLATE-lets), and plasma. Blood is transfused either as whole blood (with all its parts) or, more often, as individual parts. Blood Types Every person has one of the following blood types: A, B, AB, ...

  1. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  2. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  3. Longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells is associated with risk of lung cancer and the rs2736100 (CLPTM1L-TERT) polymorphism in a prospective cohort study among women in China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Cawthon, Richard; Gao, Yutang; Hu, Wei; Hosgood, H Dean; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Ji, Bu-Tian; Bassig, Bryan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shu, Xiaoou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yongbin; Berndt, Sonja; Kim, Christopher; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study of lung cancer among never-smoking females in Asia demonstrated that the rs2736100 polymorphism in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15.33 was strongly and significantly associated with risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The telomerase gene TERT is a reverse transcriptase that is critical for telomere replication and stabilization by controlling telomere length. We previously found that longer telomere length measured in peripheral white blood cell DNA was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in a prospective cohort study of smoking males in Finland. To follow up on this finding, we carried out a nested case-control study of 215 female lung cancer cases and 215 female controls, 94% of whom were never-smokers, in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. There was a dose-response relationship between tertiles of telomere length and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.4 [0.8-2.5], and 2.2 [1.2-4.0], respectively; P trend = 0.003). Further, the association was unchanged by the length of time from blood collection to case diagnosis. In addition, the rs2736100 G allele, which we previously have shown to be associated with risk of lung cancer in this cohort, was significantly associated with longer telomere length in these same study subjects (P trend = 0.030). Our findings suggest that individuals with longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells may have an increased risk of lung cancer, but require replication in additional prospective cohorts and populations.

  4. Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Bernays, M E; Smith, R I

    1999-03-01

    A white Bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. The tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. A fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. Except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. Electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. Possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically determined abnormal visual pathways related to lack of pigment, abnormalities of the abducent nerves and mechanical restricting conditions of the medial rectus muscles.

  5. Convergent strabismus in a white Bengal tiger.

    PubMed

    Bernays, M E; Smith, R I

    1999-03-01

    A white Bengal tiger was noted to have a convergent strabismus with poor vision since a cub. The tiger and a littermate with normal colouring and apparently normal eyes were anaesthetised for comparative ocular examination. A fundus typical of colour-dilute cats and dogs was noted in the white tiger. Except for strabismus, no abnormalities were observed. Electroretinography showed similar retinal function in both tigers. Possible causes of strabismus considered were an adaptation to genetically determined abnormal visual pathways related to lack of pigment, abnormalities of the abducent nerves and mechanical restricting conditions of the medial rectus muscles. PMID:10197239

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Lower Orbital Frontal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafantaris, Vivian; Kingsley, Peter; Ardekani, Babak; Saito, Ema; Lencz, Todd; Lim, Kelvin; Szeszko, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Patients with bipolar I disorder demonstrated white matter abnormalities in white matter regions as seen through the use of diffusion tensor imaging. The findings suggest that white matter abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder may be useful in constructing neurobiological models of the disorder.

  8. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  9. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  10. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  11. White-coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Martin, Catherine A; McGrath, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    1. Numerous studies have examined whether white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but with definitions of WCHT that were not sufficiently robust, results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present review was to standardize the evidence by only including studies that used a definition of WCHT consistent with international guidelines. 2. Published studies were reviewed for data on vascular dysfunction, target organ damage, risk of future sustained hypertension and cardiovascular events. 3. White-coat hypertension has a population prevalence of approximately 15% and is associated with non-smoking and slightly elevated clinic blood pressure. Compared with normotensives, subjects with WCHT are at increased cardiovascular risk due to a higher prevalence of glucose dysregulation, increased left ventricular mass index and increased risk of future diabetes and hypertension. 4. In conclusion, management of a patient with WCHT should focus on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly glucose intolerance, not blood pressure alone.

  12. Establishment of selected baseline blood chemistry and hematologic parameters in captive and wild-caught African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus).

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Diekmann, M; Wolters, K; Swan, G E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the devastating collapse of three vulture populations on the Asian subcontinent as a result of their exposure to diclofenac, there is little available information on the normal physiology of many vulture species, including the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Such information is needed to fully understand mechanisms for toxicity and to identify and prevent future health problems. The aim of this study was to establish baseline parameters for hematologic and selected serum chemistry parameters for this model species for further studies into the toxicity of diclofenac. Captive nonreleasable and wild African White-backed Vultures were used to determine reference values. For hematology, erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured. Chemical analytes measured included sodium, potassium, calcium, albumin, and globulin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Uric acid and urea concentrations and the urea:uric acid ratio also were evaluated. Values are presented as means, standard deviations, and reference intervals. The serum chemistry parameters selected may provide a starting point for the evaluation of changes in renal and hepatic function; these organ systems are most severely affected by diclofenac. Results were also compared with values reported for G. africanus nestlings, and from these results it is evident that the clinical pathologic parameters are age related. This indicates that the use of nestling values for the evaluation of clinical pathologic findings in adults may be unreliable and could lead to incorrect assumptions. PMID:18689650

  13. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color. ... If the sample does not change color when NBT is added, the white blood cells are missing the substance needed to kill bacteria. This may be due to chronic granulomatous disease.

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  15. Using simplified blood pressure tables to avoid underdiagnosing childhood hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay P; Mohammed, Javed; Thomas, Benson; Singh, Ram N; Filler, Guido

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that hypertension remains underdiagnosed in a significant number of children despite their recorded office blood pressure (OBP) exceeding the recommended fourth report OBP thresholds. Simplified OBP thresholds have been proposed to reduce this underdiagnosis of hypertension in children. In clinical practice, OBP screened as elevated according to the fourth report OBP thresholds are referred for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring to rule out ‘white coat’ hypertension. OBJECTIVES: The present study tested the usefulness of simplified OBP thresholds to screen abnormal OBP for ABP monitoring referral. METHODS: A total of 155 subjects were retrospectively analyzed with paired OBP and ABP recordings obtained from an outpatient referral clinic. OBP recordings were classified as abnormal according to the simplified and fourth report OBP thresholds. ABP measurements were classified as abnormal according to the ABP reference tables. RESULTS: Simplified blood pressure (BP) tables correctly identified all OBP classified as abnormal according to fourth report BP thresholds (kappa [κ] 0.72 [95% CI 0.61 to 0.83]) for systolic OBP; κ 0.92 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.99] for diastolic OBP). OBP classified as abnormal by the simplified BP thresholds and by the fourth report BP thresholds performed similarly for correctly identifying abnormal ABP measurements as per ABP references (overlapping 95% CIs of the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and likelihood ratios). CONCLUSIONS: Simplified BP tables, proposed to reduce the underdiagnosis of hypertension in children, can serve as a useful screening tool to decide a referral for ABP monitoring. Future prospective studies are needed to establish these findings. PMID:26435668

  16. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    PubMed

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P < 0.001) in piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams at d 10 and weaning but not at d 1. In addition, ADG were greater (P < 0.05) from piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams throughout lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P < 0.05) for GE and fat content from MS dams compared to WC dams, illustrating differences in milk quality between the breeds. There were significant MUE × PigG × PA interactions for hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in which greater (P < 0.001) levels were observed in MS piglets, irrespective of MUE, at d 1 of lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0

  17. A follow up study of vibration induced white finger in compensation claimants

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Della, V; Negro, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To follow up vibration induced white finger (VWF) in a selected group of 73 vibration exposed workers who claimed unsuccessfully for VWF compensation at a first examination. Methods: The VWF claimants were sent to our unit by the National Insurance Institute. The basic compensatory criteria included a positive history of VWF and abnormal cold response of the digital arteries. Following the first unsuccessful examination, over a mean time period of 4.1 (range 1–11) years the National Insurance Institute requested a second examination for all 73 claimants and a third examination for 29. During the follow up period, all subjects continued to work with vibratory tools. Results: There were 14 new cases who reported white finger during the follow up period. In the new VWF cases, finger blanching attacks became visible after about 3.5 years since the first examination. All incident cases of anamnestic VWF showed an abnormal cold response in the digital arteries and obtained compensation according to the basic compensatory criteria. In the entire sample of VWF claimants, there was a discrepancy between positive history of VWF symptoms at medical interview (55%) and abnormal cold provocation outcomes (19%). Digital arterial hyperresponsiveness to cold was associated with both VWF symptoms and the duration of vibration exposure since the first examination. Over the follow up period, a significant increase in the vasoconstrictor response to cold was observed in the vibration exposed workers with no symptoms of finger whiteness. Abnormal cold response was not associated with either age or smoking habit. Conclusions: Cold test measuring finger systolic blood pressure may be considered a useful laboratory method to confirm objectively VWF symptoms and to disclose abnormal cold induced vasoconstrictor response in vibration exposed workers with a negative history of VWF. Medical interview outcomes should be interpreted with caution in medicolegal situations involving VWF

  18. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  1. Autonomic correlations with MRI are abnormal in the brainstem vasomotor centre in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barnden, Leighton R.; Kwiatek, Richard; Crouch, Benjamin; Burnet, Richard; Del Fante, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Autonomic changes are often associated with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but their pathogenetic role is unclear and brain imaging investigations are lacking. The vasomotor centre and, through it, nuclei in the midbrain and hypothalamus play a key role in autonomic nervous system regulation of steady state blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In this exploratory cross-sectional study, BP and HR, as indicators of autonomic function, were correlated with volumetric and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (T1w and T2w) brain MRI in 25 CFS subjects and 25 normal controls (NC). Steady state BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) and HR in two postures were extracted from 24 h blood pressure monitoring. We performed (1) MRI versus autonomic score interaction-with-group regressions to detect locations where regression slopes differed in the CFS and NC groups (collectively indicating abnormality in CFS), and (2) MRI regressions in the CFS and NC groups alone to detect additional locations with abnormal correlations in CFS. Significant CFS regressions were repeated controlling for anxiety and depression (A&D). Abnormal regressions were detected in nuclei of the brainstem vasomotor centre, midbrain reticular formation and hypothalamus, but also in limbic nuclei involved in stress responses and in prefrontal white matter. Group comparisons of CFS and NC did not find MRI differences in these locations. We propose therefore that these regulatory nuclei are functioning correctly, but that two-way communication between them is impaired in CFS and this affects signalling to/from peripheral effectors/sensors, culminating in inverted or magnified correlations. This single explanation for the diverse abnormal correlations detected here consolidates the conclusion for a brainstem/midbrain nerve conduction deficit inferred earlier (Barnden et al., 2015). Strong correlations were also detected in isolated NC regressions. PMID:27114901

  2. Growth and Remodeling in Blood Vessels Studied In Vivo With Fractal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Every cell in the human body must reside in close proximity to a blood vessel (within approximately 200 mm) because blood vessels provide the oxygen, metabolite, and fluid exchanges required for cellular existence. The growth and remodeling of blood vessels are required to support the normal physiology of embryonic development, reproductive biology, wound healing and adaptive remodeling to exercise, as well as abnormal tissue change in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic (blood flow dynamics) alterations experienced by astronauts during long-term spaceflight, including orthostatic intolerance, fluid shifts in the body, and reduced numbers of red (erythrocyte) and white (immune) blood cells, are identified as risk factors of very high priority in the NASA task force report on risk reduction for human spaceflight, the "Critical Path Roadmap."

  3. Abnormal Cerebral Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael; Pruetz, Jay D.; Detterich, Jon A.; Del Castillo, Sylvia; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Kim, Richard; Painter, Michael J.; Gilles, Floyd H.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Williams, Roberta G.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abnormal cerebral microstructure has been documented in term neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) portending risk for injury and poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate diffuse cerebral microstructural abnormalities when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between microstructural abnormalities, white matter injury (e.g., punctate white matter lesions, pWMLs) and other clinical variables, including heart lesion. Material and Methods Using Tract-Based-Spatial-Statistics (TBSS), an unbiased, voxel-wise method for analyzing diffusion tensor imaging data, we compared 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Results Compared to term neonates without CHD, preterm neonates with CHD had microstructural abnormalities in widespread regions of the central white matter. However, 42% of the preterm CHD neonates had pWMLs. When neonates with pWMLs were excluded, microstructural abnormalities remained only in the splenium. Preterms with CHD had similar microstructure to preterms without CHD. Conclusion Diffuse microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD, strongly associated with pWMLs. Independently, regional vulnerability of the splenium, a structure associated with visual spatial function, was observed in all preterm CHD neonates. PMID:23703146

  4. Final Report for CRADA Agreement , AL-C-2006-01 with Microsens Biotechnologies: Detection of the Abnormal Prion Protein in Blood by Improving the Extraction of this Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerr, Mary Jo

    2009-03-31

    Several conditions were examined to optimize the extraction protocol using Seprion beads for the abnormal prion protein. Different combinations of water, hexafluro-2-propanol and formic acid were used. The results of these extraction protocols showed that the magnetic beads coated with Seprion reagents were subject to degradation, themselves, when the extraction conditions that would solubilize the abnormal prion protein were used. These compounds caused interference in the immunoassay for the abnormal prion protein and rendered these protocols incompatible with the assay systems. In an attempt to overcome this problem, another approach was then used. The coated beads were used as an integral part of the assay platform. After washing away denaturing agents, the beads with the 'captured' abnormal prion were incubated directly in the immunoassay, followed by analysis by the capillary electrophoresis. When a capillary electrophoresis electro-kinetic separation was attempted, the beads disturbed the analysis making it impossible to interpret. A pressure separation method was then developed for capillary electrophoresis analysis. When 20 samples, 5 of which were positive were analyzed, the assay identified 4 of the 5 positives and had no false positives. When a larger number of samples were analyzed the results were not as good - there were false positives and false negatives. It was then observed that the amount of beads that were loaded was dependent upon how long the beads were allowed to settle before loading them into the capillary. This resulted in unacceptable variations in the results and explained that when large numbers of samples were evaluated the results were not consistent. Because the technical difficulties with using the Seprion beads could not be overcome at this time, another approach is underway that is outside of the scope of this CRADA. No further agreements have been developed. Because the results were not favorable, no manuscripts were written nor

  5. Macro- and microbeam analysis of lithium by the Li(p,α)α7i(p,α)α reaction, and STIM imaging of white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöland, K. A.; Kristiansson, P.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K. G.; Pallon, J.; Utui, R. J.; Yang, C.

    1997-05-01

    Two different experimental arrangements for lithium analysis through the 7Li(p,α)α reaction are described. The minimum detection limit (MDL) was 300 pg/cm 2 for an integrated charge of 60 μC for a macrobeam set-up optimized for high-current applications. For a Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) arrangement the MDL was 6 ng/cm 2 for an integrated charge of 1 μC in a set-up with large solid angles. One type of blood cells, lymphocytes, was analyzed at the NMP in the context of the treatment of patients with affective disorders ("manic-depressive illness") with lithium. The amount of lithium in the lymphocytes was found to be below the detection limit, i.e. less than 150 fg/cell. Separated lymphocytes were found to be well suited for both STIM and off-axis STIM imaging.

  6. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  7. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  8. Pancytopenia in a Patient with Rendu-Osler-Weber Syndrome and Uncommon Vascular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, or hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia (HHT), is a rare autosomal dominant vascular disorder, characterized by multiple mucocutaneous teleangiectases with recurrent nasal and gastrointestinal bleedings and/or solid-organ arteriovenous shunts. We describe the first case to our knowledge of pancytopenia in a 53-year-old patient, with a known history of HHT and recurrent nasal and gastrointestinal bleedings, who was found to have a major splenic artery aneurysm and other uncommon vascular abnormalities. In the absence of other evident causes of pancytopenia, hypersplenism was diagnosed. The patient underwent coil embolization of the splenic artery aneurysm, followed by rapid and sustained increase of white blood cell and platelet count. Splenic artery aneurysms are extremely uncommon in HHT as only anecdotal cases have been reported to date. However, we believe that the aneurysm critically contributed to the progression of splenomegaly and the development of pancytopenia. PMID:27803822

  9. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  10. Intravenous and intramyocardial injection of apoptotic white blood cell suspensions prevents ventricular remodelling by increasing elastin expression in cardiac scar tissue after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Mildner, Michael; Baumgartner, Andrea; Hasun, Matthias; Werba, Gregor; Beer, Lucian; Altmann, Patrick; Roth, Georg; Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Podesser, Bruno Karl; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2011-06-01

    Congestive heart failure developing after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Clinical trials of cell-based therapy after AMI evidenced only a moderate benefit. We could show previously that suspensions of apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are able to reduce myocardial damage in a rat model of AMI. Here we experimentally examined the biochemical mechanisms involved in preventing ventricular remodelling and preserving cardiac function after AMI. Cell suspensions of apoptotic cells were injected intravenously or intramyocardially after experimental AMI induced by coronary artery ligation in rats. Administration of cell culture medium or viable PBMC served as controls. Immunohistological analysis was performed to analyse the cellular infiltrate in the ischaemic myocardium. Cardiac function was quantified by echocardiography. Planimetry of the infarcted hearts showed a significant reduction of infarction size and an improvement of post AMI remodelling in rats treated with suspensions of apoptotic PBMC (injected either intravenously or intramoycardially). Moreover, these hearts evidenced enhanced homing of macrophages and cells staining positive for c-kit, FLK-1, IGF-I and FGF-2 as compared to controls. A major finding in this study further was that the ratio of elastic and collagenous fibres within the scar tissue was altered in a favourable fashion in rats injected with apoptotic cells. Intravenous or intramyocardial injection of apoptotic cell suspensions results in attenuation of myocardial remodelling after experimental AMI, preserves left ventricular function, increases homing of regenerative cells and alters the composition of cardiac scar tissue. The higher expression of elastic fibres provides passive energy to the cardiac scar tissue and results in prevention of ventricular remodelling.

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in White Blood Cells Are Not Valid Biomarkers of Ageing in the Very Old

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Laura; Ashok, Deepthi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Talbot, Duncan C. S.; Collerton, Joanna; Kingston, Andrew; Davies, Karen; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Catt, Michael; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and valid biomarkers of ageing (BoA) are needed to understand mechanisms, test interventions and predict the timing of adverse health events associated with ageing. Since increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction are consequences of cellular senescence and may contribute causally to the ageing of organisms, we focused on these parameters as candidate BoA. Superoxide levels, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subpopulations (lymphocytes and monocytes) were measured in participants from the Newcastle 85+ study, a population-based study of the very old (aged 85 years and older). The intra- and inter-assay precision expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) for all parameters was acceptable (3% to 12% and 5 to 22% respectively). All parameters were stable in the short-term (1 week interval) in a sample of control individuals in the PBMCs and lymphocyte subpopulation, however they were unstable in the monocyte subpopulation; this rendered monocytes unreliable for further analysis. There was a significant association between superoxide levels and mitochondrial mass (positive in lymphocytes, p = 0.01) and between superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (negative in PBMCs, p = 0.01; positive in lymphocytes, p = 0.05). There were also significant associations between superoxide levels and mitochondrial parameters with other markers of oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence (p≤0.04), however some were in the opposite direction to expected. No associations were found between the measured parameters and age-related outcomes, including cognitive impairment, disability, co-morbidity and survival - questioning the validity of these parameters as candidate BoA in the very old. PMID:24614678

  12. Reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction in white blood cells are not valid biomarkers of ageing in the very old.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Laura; Ashok, Deepthi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Talbot, Duncan C S; Collerton, Joanna; Kingston, Andrew; Davies, Karen; Chinnery, Patrick F; Catt, Michael; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and valid biomarkers of ageing (BoA) are needed to understand mechanisms, test interventions and predict the timing of adverse health events associated with ageing. Since increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction are consequences of cellular senescence and may contribute causally to the ageing of organisms, we focused on these parameters as candidate BoA. Superoxide levels, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subpopulations (lymphocytes and monocytes) were measured in participants from the Newcastle 85+ study, a population-based study of the very old (aged 85 years and older). The intra- and inter-assay precision expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) for all parameters was acceptable (3% to 12% and 5 to 22% respectively). All parameters were stable in the short-term (1 week interval) in a sample of control individuals in the PBMCs and lymphocyte subpopulation, however they were unstable in the monocyte subpopulation; this rendered monocytes unreliable for further analysis. There was a significant association between superoxide levels and mitochondrial mass (positive in lymphocytes, p = 0.01) and between superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (negative in PBMCs, p = 0.01; positive in lymphocytes, p = 0.05). There were also significant associations between superoxide levels and mitochondrial parameters with other markers of oxidative stress-induced cellular senescence (p≤0.04), however some were in the opposite direction to expected. No associations were found between the measured parameters and age-related outcomes, including cognitive impairment, disability, co-morbidity and survival - questioning the validity of these parameters as candidate BoA in the very old.

  13. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  14. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/−) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/− mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

  16. Serum S100B Protein is Specifically Related to White Matter Changes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Milleit, Berko; Smesny, Stefan; Rothermundt, Matthias; Preul, Christoph; Schroeter, Matthias L.; von Eiff, Christof; Ponath, Gerald; Milleit, Christine; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia can be conceptualized as a form of dysconnectivity between brain regions.To investigate the neurobiological foundation of dysconnectivity, one approach is to analyze white matter structures, such as the pathology of fiber tracks. S100B is considered a marker protein for glial cells, in particular oligodendrocytes and astroglia, that passes the blood brain barrier and is detectable in peripheral blood. Earlier Studies have consistently reported increased S100B levels in schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to investigate associations between S100B and structural white matter abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed data of 17 unmedicated schizophrenic patients (first and recurrent episode) and 22 controls. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect group differences of white matter structures as obtained from T1-weighted MR-images and considered S100B serum levels as a regressor in an age-corrected interaction analysis. Results: S100B was increased in both patient subgroups. Using VBM, we found clusters indicating significant differences of the association between S100B concentration and white matter. Involved anatomical structures are the posterior cingulate bundle and temporal white matter structures assigned to the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusions: S100B-associated alterations of white matter are shown to be existent already at time of first manifestation of psychosis and are distinct from findings in recurrent episode patients. This suggests involvement of S100B in an ongoing and dynamic process associated with structural brain changes in schizophrenia. However, it remains elusive whether increased S100B serum concentrations in psychotic patients represent a protective response to a continuous pathogenic process or if elevated S100B levels are actively involved in promoting structural brain damage. PMID:27013967

  17. An evidence-based practice case study: white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Mary Ellis

    2015-01-01

    White coat hypertension, also referred to as isolated clinical hypertension, is a condition in which blood pressure rises in the medical setting due to anxiety. White coat hypertension causes no more than 15 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure or 7 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure in normotensive patients, and these increases in blood pressures should return to baseline within 3 visits to the medical provider. In this case, a 77-year-old white man presented to preoperative testing, with a blood pressure of 265/101 mmHg, claiming to have white coat hypertension. This case discusses the interventions implemented for this particular patient and the misdiagnosis and misperceptions of white coat hypertension by both clinicians and patients. This article also addresses recommendations for diagnosis, treatment options, and follow-up for patients with true white coat hypertension.

  18. Microscopy and Microanalysis of Blood in a Snake Head Fish, Channa gachua Exposed to Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pala, Eva M; Dey, Sudip

    2016-02-01

    Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities.

  19. Microscopy and Microanalysis of Blood in a Snake Head Fish, Channa gachua Exposed to Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pala, Eva M; Dey, Sudip

    2016-02-01

    Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities. PMID:26914995

  20. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  1. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  2. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  3. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  9. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  10. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  11. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  12. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  13. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  14. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  15. Use of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count to distinguish between lower limb erysipelas and deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Rast, Anna C; Knobel, Demian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Laukemann, Svenja; Steiner, Deborah; Haubitz, Sebastian; Fux, Christoph A; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Early differentiation of erysipelas from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based solely on clinical signs and symptoms is challenging. There is a lack of data regarding the usefulness of the inflammatory biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count in the diagnosis of localized cutaneous infections. Herein, we investigated the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers in a prospective at-risk patient population. This is an observational quality control study including consecutive patients presenting with a final diagnosis of either erysipelas or DVT. The association of PCT (μg/L) and CRP (mg/L) levels and WBC counts (g/L) with the primary outcome was assessed using logistic regression models with area under the receiver-operator curve. Forty-eight patients (erysipelas, n = 31; DVT, n = 17) were included. Compared with patients with DVT, those with erysipelas had significantly higher PCT concentrations. No significant differences in CRP concentrations and WBC counts were found between the two groups. At a PCT threshold of 0.1 μg/L or more, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) for erysipelas were 82.4% and 85.7%, respectively, and increased to 100% and 100% at a threshold of more than 0.25 μg/L. Levels of PCT also correlated with the severity of erysipelas, with a stepwise increase according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. We found a high discriminatory value of PCT for differentiation between erysipelas and DVT, in contrast to other commonly used inflammatory biomarkers. Whether the use of PCT levels for early differentiation of erysipelas from DVT reduces unnecessary antibiotic exposure needs to be assessed in an interventional trial.

  16. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. The differential count measures the percentages of each type of leukocyte present. WBC's are composed of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, ...

  17. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results of a differential are usually reported as absolute values of the five types of WBCs and/or ... a percent of the total number of WBCs. Absolute values are calculated by multiplying the total number of ...

  18. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  19. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  20. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Identify Trigeminal System Abnormalities in Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    DeSouza, Danielle D.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Davis, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic pain disorder that has been described as one of the most severe pains one can suffer. The most prevalent theory of TN etiology is that the trigeminal nerve is compressed at the root entry zone (REZ) by blood vessels. However, there is significant evidence showing a lack of neurovascular compression (NVC) for many cases of classical TN. Furthermore, a considerable number of patients who are asymptomatic have MR evidence of NVC. Since there is no validated animal model that reproduces the clinical features of TN, our understanding of TN pathology mainly comes from biopsy studies that have limitations. Sophisticated structural MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging provide new opportunities to assess the trigeminal nerves and CNS to provide insight into TN etiology and pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have used high-resolution structural MRI methods to visualize patterns of trigeminal nerve-vessel relationships and to detect subtle pathological features at the trigeminal REZ. Structural MRI has also identified CNS abnormalities in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter and demonstrated that effective neurosurgical treatment for TN is associated with a reversal of specific nerve and brain abnormalities. In conclusion, this review highlights the advanced structural neuroimaging methods that are valuable tools to assess the trigeminal system in TN and may inform our current understanding of TN pathology. These methods may in the future have clinical utility for the development of neuroimaging-based biomarkers of TN. PMID:27807409

  1. Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

  2. Blood Biomarkers for Evaluation of Perinatal Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Ernest M.; Burd, Irina; Everett, Allen D.; Northington, Frances J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products, and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the “liquid brain biopsy.” A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:27468268

  3. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  4. The superficial white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Iorio, Mariangela; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in the large deep fibers of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the late myelinating superficial white matter comprised of intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received much attention. To investigate this area, we extracted a surface corresponding to the superficial white matter beneath the cortex and then applied a cortical pattern-matching approach which allowed us to register and subsequently sample diffusivity along thousands of points at the interface between the gray matter and white matter in 44 patients with Alzheimer's disease (Age: 71.02 ± 5.84, 16M/28F) and 47 healthy controls (Age 69.23 ± 4.45, 19M/28F). In patients we found an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across most of the superficial white matter (P < 0.001) with increases in diffusivity of more than 20% in the bilateral parahippocampal regions and the temporal and frontal lobes. Furthermore, diffusivity correlated with the cognitive deficits measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). The superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and is critical for the integration of multimodal information during brain maturation and aging. Here we show that there are major abnormalities in patients and the deterioration of these fibers relates to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

  5. The superficial white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Iorio, Mariangela; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in the large deep fibers of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the late myelinating superficial white matter comprised of intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received much attention. To investigate this area, we extracted a surface corresponding to the superficial white matter beneath the cortex and then applied a cortical pattern-matching approach which allowed us to register and subsequently sample diffusivity along thousands of points at the interface between the gray matter and white matter in 44 patients with Alzheimer's disease (Age: 71.02 ± 5.84, 16M/28F) and 47 healthy controls (Age 69.23 ± 4.45, 19M/28F). In patients we found an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across most of the superficial white matter (P < 0.001) with increases in diffusivity of more than 20% in the bilateral parahippocampal regions and the temporal and frontal lobes. Furthermore, diffusivity correlated with the cognitive deficits measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). The superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and is critical for the integration of multimodal information during brain maturation and aging. Here we show that there are major abnormalities in patients and the deterioration of these fibers relates to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26801955

  6. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. Evaluation of the Blood Film.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Terry W

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of hemic cell morphology in stained blood film may be the most important part of the hematologic evaluation of exotic animals. The blood film provides important information regarding red blood cell abnormalities, such as changes in cell shape and color, presence of inclusions, and, in the case of lower vertebrates, changes in the position of the cell nucleus. Stained blood film also provides information about changes in leukocyte numbers and morphology, and shows important hemic features of mammalian platelets and the thrombocytes of lower vertebrates. The blood film is needed in the detection and identification of blood parasites.

  12. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  13. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  14. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  15. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  17. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  2. A novel phenotype associated with cutis laxa, abnormal fat distribution, cardiomyopathy and cataract.

    PubMed

    Van Asbeck, Ellyze; Wolthuis, David F G J; Mohamed, Miski; Wevers, Ron A; Korenke, Cristoph G; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Morava, Eva

    2014-04-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) is a connective tissue disorder, characterized by loose, inelastic, sagging skin. Both acquired and inherited (dominant, recessive, and X-linked) forms exist. Here, we describe a new phenotype, which overlaps with other known CL syndromes. Our patient has a unique combination of features in association with sagging, inelastic, wrinkled skin, including cataract, severe cardiomyopathy, abnormal fat distribution, improvement of skin-wrinkling with age, and white matter abnormalities but no significant histologic collagen or elastin abnormalities. Mutation analysis of known CL genes was negative. We suggest that our patient has a novel syndrome, with the main features of CL, intellectual disability, abnormal fat distribution, cardiomyopathy, and cataract.

  3. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response. A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6–115). Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABLIS value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABLIS > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABLIS at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to

  4. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  5. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  8. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia transformed from Fanconi anemia – a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fanconi’s anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome that carries a higher risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when compared with general population. AML is the initial presentation in approximately one third of patients. Case presentation A 17 year old male presented to the emergency room with history of high grade fever since two weeks. Examination revealed pallor, short stature and thumb polydactyly. There was no visceromegaly or lymphadenopathy. Complete blood count showed haemoglobin 3.4 gm/dl, MCV 100 fl and MCH 36 pg, white blood cell count 55.9 × 10 E9/L and platelet count 8 × 10E9/L. Peripheral blood smear revealed 26% blast cells. Bone marrow was hypercellular exhibiting infiltration with 21% blast cells. Auer rods were seen in few blast cells. These findings were consistent with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. These blasts cells expressed CD33, CD13, HLA-DR, CD117, CD34 antigens and cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase on immunophenotyping. Bone marrow cytogenetics revealed 46, XY, t (8:21) (q22; q22) [11] / 46, XY, add (2) (q37), t (8; 21) [4] / 46, XY [5]. Molecular studies showed positivity of FLT 3 D835 variant and negativity of NPM 1 and FLT3 ITD (internal tandem domain) mutation. Peripheral blood analysis for chromosomal breakage exhibited tri-radial and complex figures. He received induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin (3 + 7). Day 14 marrow revealed clearance of blast cells. Conclusion The recognition of specific cytogenetic abnormalities present in FA known to predispose to AML is crucial for early haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) before transformation to leukemia. PMID:23937881

  9. The Teaching of Abnormal Psychology through the Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim-Sabat, Denis

    1979-01-01

    Describes abnormal psychology course centered around films which include "King of Hearts,""A Woman Under the Influence,""David and Lisa,""In Cold Blood," and "The Boys in the Band." Each film deals with a fundamental concept such as psychopathology, neurosis, psychosis, insanity, and sexuality. (KC)

  10. Associated brain abnormalities in patients with corpus callosum anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tekgül, H; Dizdarer, G; Yalman, O; Sener, N; Yünten, N; Tütüncüoğlu, S

    1999-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with corpus callosum (CC) anomalies were evaluated in terms of the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CC anomalies were classified as CC agenesis: 6 (12%), CC hypogenesis: 5 (10%), and CC hypoplasia: 38 (78%). In the CC hypoplasia group the mean value of the genu thickness of the CC was 0.29 +/- 0.1 cm, which was less than the normal value of the age-matched normal children (normal range: 0.6-1.2 cm). The associated brain abnormalities were in five distinct groups: gray matter abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, midline brain structure defects, cortical atrophy, and encephalomalacia. There was no uniformity for the clinical spectrum of CC anomalies. Microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures were the prominent findings in patients. The clinical features were more severe in cases with associated brain anomalies.

  11. The association of white matter volume in psychotic disorders with genotypic variation in NRG1, MOG and CNP: a voxel-based analysis in affected individuals and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Cannon, D M; Walshe, M; Dempster, E; Collier, D A; Marshall, N; Bramon, E; Murray, R M; McDonald, C

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the role of variation in putative psychosis genes coding for elements of the white matter system by examining the contribution of genotypic variation in three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) neuregulin 1 (NRG1) SNP8NRG221533, myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein (MOG) rs2857766 and CNP (rs2070106) and one haplotype HAP(ICE) (deCODE) to white matter volume in patients with psychotic disorder and their unaffected relatives. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and blood samples for genotyping were collected on 189 participants including patients with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar I disorder (BDI), unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers. The association of genotypic variation with white matter volume was assessed using voxel-based morphometry in SPM5. The NRG1 SNP and the HAP(ICE) haplotype were associated with abnormal white matter volume in the BDI group in the fornix, cingulum and parahippocampal gyrus circuit. In SZ the NRG1 SNP risk allele was associated with lower white matter volume in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Healthy G-homozygotes of the MOG SNP had greater white matter volume in areas of the brainstem and cerebellum; this relationship was absent in those with a psychotic disorder and the unaffected relatives groups. The CNP SNP did not contribute to white matter volume variation in the diagnostic groups studied. Variation in the genes coding for structural and protective components of myelin are implicated in abnormal white matter volume in the emotion circuitry of the cingulum, fornix, parahippocampal gyrus and UF in psychotic disorders. PMID:23032943

  12. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters.

  13. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  15. Involvement of pelvic inflammation-related mismatch repair abnormalities and microsatellite instability in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Fuseya, Chiho; Horiuchi, Akiko; Hayashi, Akiko; Suzuki, Akihisa; Miyamoto, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Takuma; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation in the ovary, including ovulation and pelvic inflammatory disease, has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Endometriotic lesions trigger a local inflammatory reaction and have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis are still to be elucidated. To clarify the involvement of mismatch repair (MMR) abnormalities in the inflammation-associated malignant transformation of endometriosis, the immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair proteins (human mutL homolog 1 [hMLH1] and human mutS homolog 2 [hMSH2]) was examined in 27 cases of ovarian endometriosis, 25 cases of ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, and 39 cases of solitary ovarian carcinoma. In addition, the relationship between mismatch repair abnormalities including the microsatellite instability, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) mutation, and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. The expression of mismatch repair proteins was stepwisely decreased in endometriosis, ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, and ovarian carcinoma. Tumors harboring multiple microsatellite instability (high-frequency microsatellite instability [MSI-H]) were detected in 4 (14.8%) of 27 cases of endometriosis and 7 (30.4%) of 23 cases of ovarian carcinomas. The frequency of PTEN mutations was higher in MSI-H cases than in microsatellite instability-stable (MSI-S) cases. In 2 cases of ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, the decreased expression of mismatch repair proteins and MSI-H was observed in both the endometriosis and carcinoma lesions. Clinicopathologically, the MSI-H cases were associated with elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein and higher white blood cell counts. These findings suggest that mismatch repair abnormalities might be involved in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis and that

  16. Oligodendroglial Alterations and the Role of Microglia in White Matter Injury: Relevance to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Li-Jin; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Schmitz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    , recapitulating structural and functional characteristics observed in schizophrenia. In addition, elevated expression of inflammation-related genes in brain tissue and increased production of cytokines by blood cells from patients with schizophrenia indicate immunological dysfunction and abnormal inflammatory responses, which are also important underlying features in experimental models. Microglia, resident immune defenders of the central nervous system, play important roles in the development and protection of neural cells, but can contribute to injury under pathological conditions. This article discusses oligodendroglial changes in schizophrenia and focuses on microglial activity in the context of the disease, in neonatal brain injury and in various experimental models of white matter damage. These include disorders associated with premature birth, and animal models of perinatal bacterial and viral infection, oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) and excess (hyperoxia), and elevated systemic proinflammatory cytokine levels. We briefly review the effects of treatment with antipsychotic and anti-inflammatory agents in models of perinatal brain injury, and comment on the therapeutic potential of these strategies. By understanding the neurobiological basis of oligodendroglial abnormalities in schizophrenia, it is hoped that patients will benefit from the availability of targeted and more efficacious treatment options. PMID:23446060

  17. Oligodendroglial alterations and the role of microglia in white matter injury: relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chew, Li-Jin; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Schmitz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , recapitulating structural and functional characteristics observed in schizophrenia. In addition, elevated expression of inflammation-related genes in brain tissue and increased production of cytokines by blood cells from patients with schizophrenia indicate immunological dysfunction and abnormal inflammatory responses, which are also important underlying features in experimental models. Microglia, resident immune defenders of the central nervous system, play important roles in the development and protection of neural cells, but can contribute to injury under pathological conditions. This article discusses oligodendroglial changes in schizophrenia and focuses on microglial activity in the context of the disease, in neonatal brain injury and in various experimental models of white matter damage. These include disorders associated with premature birth, and animal models of perinatal bacterial and viral infection, oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) and excess (hyperoxia), and elevated systemic proin