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Sample records for abnormalities drug-induced

  1. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  2. Drug-induced Inhibition and Trafficking Disruption of ion Channels: Pathogenesis of QT Abnormalities and Drug-induced Fatal Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Cubeddu, Luigi X.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of severe and fatal ventricular arrhythmias, presenting as Torsade de Pointes (TdP), is increased in congenital and acquired forms of long QT syndromes (LQTS). Drug-induced inhibition of K+ currents, IKs, IKr, IK1, and/or Ito, delay repolarization, prolong QT, and increase the risk of TdP. Drug-induced interference with IKr is the most common cause of acquired LQTS/TdP. Multiple drugs bind to KNCH2-hERG-K+ channels affecting IKr, including antiarrythmics, antibiotics, antivirals, azole-antifungals, antimalarials, anticancer, antiemetics, prokinetics, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Azithromycin has been recently added to this list. In addition to direct channel inhibition, some drugs interfere with the traffic of channels from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing mature channel membrane density; e.g., pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol. Other drugs, such as ketoconazole, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, donepezil, tamoxifen, endoxifen, atazanavir, and roxitromycin, induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Although many drugs prolong the QT interval, TdP is a rare event. The following conditions increase the risk of drug-induced TdP: a) Disease states/electrolyte levels (heart failure, structural cardiac disease, bradycardia, hypokalemia); b) Pharmacogenomic variables (presence of congenital LQTS, subclinical ion-channel mutations, history of or having a relative with history of drug-induced long QT/TdP); c) Pharmacodynamic and kinetic factors (high doses, women, elderly, metabolism inhibitors, combining two or more QT prolonging drugs, drugs that prolong the QT and increase QT dispersion, and drugs with multiple actions on ion channels). Because most of these conditions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drug use associated with repolarization abnormalities are strongly recommended. PMID:26926294

  3. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  4. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  5. [Drug induced diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Morard, Isabelle; Hadengue, Antoine

    2008-09-03

    Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event involving the most frequently antibiotics, laxatives and NSAI. Drug induced diarrhea may be acute or chronic. It may be due to expected, dose dependant properties of the drug, to immuno-allergic or bio-genomic mechanisms. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been described resulting in osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhea, shortened transit time, or malabsorption. Histopathological lesions sometimes associated with drug induced diarrhea are usually non specific and include ulcerations, inflammatory or ischemic lesions, fibrous diaphragms, microscopic colitis and apoptosis. The diagnosis of drug induced diarrhea, sometimes difficult to assess, relies on the absence of other obvious causes and on the rapid disappearance of the symptoms after withdrawal of the suspected drug.

  6. Drug-induced uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates. PMID:23522744

  7. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John D; Kim, Hyunah; Bustamante, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    Drugs account for about 20% of gynecomastia cases in men. As a number of factors can alter the estrogen:androgen ratio, several pathophysiologic mechanisms are associated with drugs causing this disorder. Antiandrogens, protease inhibitors, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are the most common drug causes of gynecomastia, whereas first-generation antipsychotics, spironolactone, verapamil, and cimetidine are less common causes. Other drugs have been reported rarely as causes. Treatment may involve switching to an alternative agent or may require surgery or irradiation if the causative agent cannot be discontinued. We reviewed the literature on drug-induced gynecomastia and provided another perspective by reviewing data from the United States Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System. Epidemiologic studies are needed to provide a more accurate description of the frequency of drug-induced gynecomastia. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  8. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Ari; Dobs, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    Gynecomastia is caused by drugs in 10 - 25% of all cases. The pathophysiologic mechanism for some drugs includes exogenous estrogens exposure, medications that cause hypogonadism, anti-androgenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. This manuscript reviews common examples of drug-induced gynecomastia, discussing the mechanisms and possible treatments. Discontinuing the medication is always the best choice; however, if this is not possible, then testosterone replacement therapy may be needed for hypogonadism. When a man is euogonadal, a trial of the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor may be an option.

  9. [Drug-induced gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    Schirren, U; Hinz, B; Schirren, C

    1986-01-01

    Concerning four own observations by men in the age of 41-69 years it has been reported about the drug-induced gynecomastia. It can be demonstrated that the spironolactone induced gynecomastia disappeared after stopping this drug. The knowledge of such side effects is the condition for a pre-information of the patient at the beginning of therapy. The mode of action of spironolactone is discussed. It is referred about the important role of the disturbance of the relation androgen: estrogens under spironolactone as well as the peripheral antiandrogen effect of this substance.

  10. Drug-induced Brugada syndrome: Clinical characteristics and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Konigstein, Maayan; Rosso, Raphael; Topaz, Guy; Postema, Pieter G; Friedensohn, Limor; Heller, Karin; Zeltser, David; Belhassen, Bernard; Adler, Arnon; Viskin, Sami

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac arrest may result from seemingly innocuous medications that do not necessarily have cardiac indications. The best-known example is the drug-induced long QT syndrome. A less known but not necessarily less important form of drug-induced proarrhythmia is the drug-induced Brugada syndrome. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ECG risk markers for drug-induced Brugada syndrome. Reports of drug-induced Brugada syndrome recounted by an international database (http://www.brugadadrugs.org) were reviewed to define characteristics that identify patients prone to developing this complication. For each patient with drug-induced Brugada syndrome who had an ECG recorded in the absence of drugs, we included 5 healthy controls matched by gender and age. All ECGs were evaluated for Brugada-like abnormalities. Seventy-four cases of drug-induced Brugada syndrome from noncardiac medications were identified: 77% were male, and drug toxicity was involved in 46%. Drug-induced Brugada syndrome from oral medications generally occurred weeks after the initiation of therapy. Mortality was 13%. By definition, all cases had a type I Brugada pattern during drug therapy. Nevertheless, their ECG in the absence of drugs was more frequently abnormal than the ECG of controls (56% vs 33%, P = .04). Drug-induced Brugada syndrome from noncardiac drugs occurs predominantly in adult males, is frequently due to drug toxicity, and occurs late after the onset of therapy. Minor changes are frequently noticeable on baseline ECG, but screening is impractical because of a prohibitive false-positive rate. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thymus function in drug-induced lupus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, R L; Salomon, D R; Guerrero, R S

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmunity develops when a lupus-inducing drug is introduced into the thymus of normal mice, but the relevance of this model to the human disorder is unclear in part because it is widely assumed that the thymus is non-functional in the adult. We compared thymus function in 10 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus to that in 13 asymptomatic patients who only developed drug-induced autoantibodies. T cell output from the thymus was quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction that detects T cell receptor DNA excision circles in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Despite the advanced age of the patient population under study, newly generated T cells were detected in all subjects. Although there was no overall quantitative difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, we found a positive correlation between the level of T cell receptor excision circles in peripheral lymphocytes and serum IgG anti-chromatin antibody activity in patients with drug-induced lupus. The association between autoantibodies and nascent peripheral T cells supports the requirement for T cells in autoantibody production. Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus.

  12. Drug-induced apnea.

    PubMed

    Boutroy, M J

    1994-01-01

    Drugs have been in the past and will in the future still be liable to induce apnea in neonates, infants and older children. At these different stages of development, the child may be abnormally vulnerable to respiratory disorders and apnea, and doses of drugs, without any abnormal side effects in adult patients, can be harmful in younger subjects. Drugs responsible for apnea during development are numerous, but more than half of the problems are induced by sedatives and hypnotics, among which phenothiazines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (included transplacentally acquired) and general anesthetics are a few. Other pharmacological families are apnea inducers in the neonatal period and childhood: analgesics and opioid narcotics, agents acting at the levels of neuromuscular function and autonomic ganglia, and cardiovascular agents. The pathogenesis of these apneas depends on the disturbance of any mechanism responsible for the respiratory activity: medullary centers and brain stem structures, afferent influx to CNS, sleep stages, upper airways, lungs and respiratory muscles. At key stages such as birth and infancy, drugs may emphasize the particular sensitivity of the mechanisms responsible for inducing apnea. This might explain unexpected respiratory disorders during development.

  13. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs’ characteristics. PMID:26918138

  14. Periodic paralysis: An unusual presentation of drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Poonam; Chopra, Deepti; Patra, Surajeet K; Madaan, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a life-threatening electrolyte abnormality. The most common cause of hyperkalemia includes renal disease and ingestion of medications. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may develop in patients with underlying renal impairment, disturbed cellular uptake of potassium load, excessive ingestion or infusion of potassium-containing substances. We report a case of "drug-induced severe hyperkalemia" presenting as periodic paralysis. A 67-year-old diabetic and hypertensive woman presented to emergency department with the complaint of intermittent episode of inability to walk for the past 5 days. Each episode lasted for 15-20 minutes and was associated with breathlessness and restlessness. There was no family history of periodic paralysis and drug history revealed that the patient was onolmesartan 20 mg per day (for past 2 years), perindopril 4 mg per day (for past 16 months), and torsemide 10 mg/day. On examination patient was found to be conscious, alert, and afebrile. Vitals were normal. Examination of cardiovascular and respiratory system did not reveal any significant finding. Blood report of the patient showed serum K+ level 8.6 mmol/l. All other investigations were within normal limits. A diagnosis of drug-induced hyperkalemia was made. Patient responded well to the symptomatic treatment. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first case report of drug-induced hyperkalemia presenting as periodic paralysis.

  15. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  16. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, S A

    1982-01-01

    Commonly used drugs that may cause sexual dysfunction are reviewed. The anatomy and physiology of the normal sexual response are reviewed. The influence of drugs on neurogenic, hormonal, and vascular mechanisms may result in diminished libido, impotence, ejaculatory and orgasmic difficulties, inhibited vaginal lubrication, menstrual irregularities, and gynecomastia in men or painful breast enlargement in women. Parasympatholytic agents, which interfere with cholinergic transmission, may affect erectile potency, while adrenergic inhibiting agents may interfere with ejaculatory control. Central nervous system depressants or sedating drugs, drugs producing hyperprolactinemia, and antiandrogenic drugs also may affect the normal sexual response. Drugs such as antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents may induce sexual dysfunction that can result in patient noncompliance. Usually, drug-induced side effects are reversible with discontinuation of the offending agent.

  17. Drug-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Cock, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon, probably accounting for less than 5% of all SE cases, although limitations in case ascertainment and establishing causation substantially weaken epidemiological estimates. Some antiepileptic drugs, particularly those with sodium channel or GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic properties, frequently exacerbate seizures and may lead to SE if used inadvertently in generalized epilepsies or less frequently in other epilepsies. Tiagabine seems to have a particular propensity for triggering nonconvulsive SE sometimes in patients with no prior history of seizures. In therapeutic practice, SE is most commonly seen in association with antibiotics (cephalosporins, quinolones, and some others) and immunotherapies/chemotherapies, the latter often in the context of a reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Status epilepticus following accidental or intentional overdoses, particularly of antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, has also featured prominently in the literature: whilst there are sometimes fatal consequences, this is more commonly because of cardiorespiratory or metabolic complications than as a result of seizure activity. A high index of suspicion is required in identifying those at risk and in recognizing potential clues from the presentation, but even with a careful analysis of patient and drug factors, establishing causation can be difficult. In addition to eliminating the potential trigger, management should be as for SE in any other circumstances, with the exception that phenobarbitone is recommended as a second-line treatment for suspected toxicity-related SE where the risk of cardiovascular complications is higher anyways and may be exacerbated by phenytoin. There are also specific recommendations/antidotes in some situations. The outcome of drug-induced status epilepticus is mostly good when promptly identified and treated, though less so in the context of overdoses. This article is

  18. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Marzano, A V; Tavecchio, S; Menicanti, C; Crosti, C

    2014-06-01

    Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DI-LE) is defined as an entity characterized by clinical manifestations and immunopathological serum findings similar to those of idiopathic lupus but which is temporally related to drug exposure and resolves after withdrawal of the implicated drug. Similarly to idiopathic lupus, DI-LE can be divided into systemic LE, subacute cutaneous LE (SCLE), chronic cutaneous LE (CCLE) and cutaneous LE tumidus. DI-SCLE is the most frequent variant of drug-induced cutaneous LE and presents mainly with annular-polycyclic lesions; the clinical picture is often widespread, with involvement of the lower legs that are usually spared in idiopathic SCLE. ANA and anti-Ro/SSA antibodies are typically present, whereas antihistone antibodies are uncommonly found. We have recently addressed the question whether DI-SCLE differs significantly from its idiopathic counterpart by virtue of clinical features and, based on our findings, we have suggested that the frequent occurrence of malar rash and bullous, erythema multiforme-like and vasculitic manifestations can be regarded as the hallmark of DI-SCLE. In contrast, the histology is not a useful diagnostic criterion for DI-SCLE, considering that the typical pattern of lichenoid interface dermatitis is seen only in the early stage of disease and tissue eosinophilia does not represent a differentiating histopathological feature. DI-CCLE and DI-LE tumidus, albeit possibly misdiagnosed, are rarely observed and are characterized by classic discoid lesions and erythematous-oedematous plaques on sun exposed areas, respectively. Management of DI-LE is based on the discontinuation of the offending drug; topical and/or systemic corticosteroids and other immunomodulating/immunosuppressive agents should be reserved for resistant cases.

  19. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  20. Drug-induced corneal damage.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Corneal damage can have a variety of causes, including infections, chemical splashes, environmental factors (radiation, trauma, contact lenses, etc.), and systemic diseases (genetic, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, etc.). A wide range of drugs can also damage the cornea. The severity of drug-induced corneal changes can range from simple asymptomatic deposits to irreversible, sight-threatening damage. Several factors can influence the onset of corneal lesions. Some factors, such as the dose, are treatment-related, while others such as contact lenses, are patient-related. A variety of mechanisms may be involved, including corneal dryness, changes in the corneal epithelium, impaired wound healing and deposits. Many drugs can damage the cornea through direct contact, after intraocular injection or instillation, including VEGF inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, local anaesthetics, glaucoma drugs, fluoroquinolones, and preservatives. Some systemically administered drugs can also damage the cornea, notably cancer drugs, amiodarone and isotretinoin. Vulnerable patients should be informed of this risk if they are prescribed a drug with the potential to damage the cornea so that they can identify problems in a timely manner. It may be necessary to discontinue the suspect drug when signs and symptoms of corneal damage occur.

  1. Antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Chen-Hao; Shih, Kuang-Chung

    2009-08-01

    Antithyroid drugs are widely used to treat hyperthyroidism, especially Graves' disease, but they tend to cause agranulocytosis, which increases the mortality rate. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor decreases the duration of recovery from agranulocytosis. We retrospectively studied cases of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis over the past 10 years in a northern Taiwan medical center. A clinical evaluation was conducted, including a review of complete blood cell counts and differential counts. Four cases were included in this analysis. Agranulocytosis persisted in 2 cases despite a change in therapy from propylthiouracil to methimazole. Fever, sore throat, and diarrhea were common symptoms of agranulocytosis. Initial white blood cell counts ranged from 450 to 1,710/microL. Only 1 case had a positive result from a throat swab culture (Staphylococcus aureus). Three of 4 cases received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy, and the recovery time ranged from 3 to 13 days. All of the patients recovered from agranulocytosis. We concluded that: (1) conducting a routine complete blood cell count is beneficial in alerting caregivers to the possibility of agranulocytosis; (2) educating patients about the common symptoms of agranulocytosis may contribute to an early diagnosis; (3) providing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy to patients results in good prognosis; and (4) monitoring for cross-reactions between drugs should be performed to prevent further episodes of agranulocytosis.

  2. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  3. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  4. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani ...

  5. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark R.; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of drug-induced pancreatitis cases are mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Management of drug-induced pancreatitis requires withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Methods This review focuses on differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, drug-mediated effects, treatments, and mechanisms of pancreatitis, with an emphasis on drug-induced pancreatitis. Results Although only a minority of cases associated with acute pancreatitis are linked to drugs, clinical presentation and mechanisms of injury to the pancreas are not well understood by clinicians in terms of individual drug effects in the mediation or modulation of injury to the pancreas. In recent years, a large number of commonly prescribed medications has been linked to drug-induced pancreatitis pathogenesis. Although mechanisms are proposed, the exact cause of injury is either not well understood or controversial. Conclusion Future investigation into the mechanisms of pancreatitis and an appreciation by clinicians of the drugs commonly linked to the condition will help establish earlier diagnosis and quicker cessation of offending drugs in the treatment of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:25829880

  6. Mechanistic review of drug-induced steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Justin D., E-mail: Justin.d.schumacher@rutgers.edu; Guo, Grace L.

    Drug-induced steatohepatitis is a rare form of liver injury known to be caused by only a handful of compounds. These compounds stimulate the development of steatohepatitis through their toxicity to hepatocyte mitochondria; inhibition of beta-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and/or oxidative phosphorylation. Other mechanisms discussed include the disruption of phospholipid metabolism in lysosomes, prevention of lipid egress from hepatocytes, targeting mitochondrial DNA and topoisomerase, decreasing intestinal barrier function, activation of the adenosine pathway, increasing fatty acid synthesis, and sequestration of coenzyme A. It has been found that the majority of compounds that induce steatohepatitis have cationic amphiphilic structures; a lipophilic ring structuremore » with a side chain containing a cationic secondary or tertiary amine. Within the last decade, the ability of many chemotherapeutics to cause steatohepatitis has become more evident coining the term chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis (CASH). The mechanisms behind drug-induced steatohepatitis are discussed with a focus on cationic amphiphilic drugs and chemotherapeutic agents. - Highlights: • Reviewed the mechanisms underlying drug-induced steatohepatitis for many compounds • Mitochondrial dysfunction is critical in the development of drug-induced steatohepatitis. • Majority of drugs that induce steatohepatitis are cationic amphiphilic drugs. • Chemotherapeutics that induce CASH are cationic amphiphilic drugs. • Majority of drugs that induce steatohepatitis are carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I inhibitors.« less

  7. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: The nemesis of gingiva unravelled.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vipin; Bansal, Chhaya

    2013-03-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth or enlargement manifests as abnormal growth of the gingiva due to an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in patients treated with anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. As gingival enlargement develops, it affects the normal oral hygiene practice and may interfere with masticatory functions. It gradually becomes a source of pain and the condition often leads to disfiguration. Within the group of patients that develop this unwanted effect, there appears to be variability in the extent and severity of the gingival changes. It would seem pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors and relating them with the treatment plan. This article throws light on respective drugs and their association with gingival overgrowth and approaches to treatment based on current knowledge and investigative observations.

  8. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity.

    PubMed Central

    Lankisch, P G; Dröge, M; Gottesleben, F

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of drug induced acute pancreatitis, data from 45 German centres of gastroenterology were evaluated. Among 1613 patients treated for acute pancreatitis in 1993, drug induced acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 22 patients (incidence 1.4%). Drugs held responsible were azathioprine, mesalazine/sulfasalazine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), oestrogens, frusemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and rifampicin. Pancreatic necrosis not exceeding 33% of the organ was found on ultrasonography or computed tomography, or both, in three patients (14%). Pancreatic pseudocysts did not occur. A decrease of arterial PO2 reflecting respiratory insufficiency, and an increase of serum creatinine, reflecting renal insufficiency as complications of acute pancreatitis were seen in two (9%) and four (18%) patients, respectively. Artificial ventilation was not needed, and dialysis was necessary in only one (5%) case. Two patients (9%) died of AIDS and tuberculosis, respectively; pancreatitis did not seem to have contributed materially to their death. In conclusion, drugs rarely cause acute pancreatitis, and drug induced acute pancreatitis usually runs a benign course. PMID:7489946

  9. The discovery of drug-induced illness.

    PubMed

    Jick, H

    1977-03-03

    The increased use of drugs (and the concurrent increased risks of drug-induced illness) require definition of relevant research areas and strategy. For established marketed drugs, research needs depend on the magnitudes of risk of an illness from a drug and the base-line risk. With the drug risk high and the base-line risk low, the problem surfaces in premarketing studies or through the epidemic that develops after marketing. If the drug adds slightly to a high base-line risk, the effect is undetectable. When both risks are low, adverse effects can be discovered by chance, but systematic case-referent studies can speed discovery. If both risks are high, clinical trials and nonexperimental studies may be used. With both risks intermediate, systematic evaluations, especially case-referent studies are needed. Newly marketed drugs should be routinely evaluated through compulsory registration and follow-up study of the earliest users.

  10. Nonacetaminophen Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Arul M; Lewis, James H

    2018-05-01

    Acute liver failure of all causes is diagnosed in between 2000 and 2500 patients annually in the United States. Drug-induced acute liver failure is the leading cause of acute liver failure, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Nonacetaminophen drug injury represents 11% of all cases in the latest registry from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Although rare, acute liver failure is clinically dramatic when it occurs, and requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. In contrast with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure has a more ominous prognosis with a lower liver transplant-free survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug-induced cholestasis: mechanisms, models, and markers.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sagnik; Annaert, Pieter

    2018-04-27

    Drug-induced cholestasis is a risk factor in progression of drug candidates, and poses serious health hazard if not detected before going into human. Intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids (BAs) represents a characteristic phenomenon associated with drug-induced cholestasis. The major challenges in obtaining a complete understanding of drug-induced cholestasis lies in the complexity of BA-mediated toxicity mechanisms and the impact of bile acids at different 'targets' such as transporters, enzymes and nuclear receptors. At the same time, it is not trivial to have a relevant in vitro system that recapitulates these features. In addition, lack of sensitive and early preclinical biomarkers, relevant to the clinical situation, complicates proper detection of drug-induced cholestasis. Significant overlap in biomarker signatures between different mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) precludes identification of specific mechanisms. Over the last decade the knowledge gaps in drug-induced cholestasis are closing due to growing mechanistic understanding of BA-mediated toxicity at (patho)physiologically relevant BA concentrations. Significant progress has been made in the mechanistic understanding of drug-induced cholestasis and associated toxicity, biomarkers and susceptibility factors. In addition, novel in vitro models are evolving which provide a holistic understanding of processes underlying drug-induced cholestasis. This review summarizes the challenges and recent understandings about drug-induced cholestasis with a potential path forward. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Drug-induced liver injury due to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Einar S

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with abnormal liver tests and normal hepatobiliary imaging. Of all known liver diseases, the diagnosis of DILI is probably one of the most difficult one to be established. In all major studies on DILI, antibiotics are the most common type of drugs that have been reported. The clinical phenotype of different types of antibiotics associated with liver injury is highly variable. Some widely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate have been shown to have a delayed onset on liver injury and recently cefazolin has been found to lead to liver injury 1-3 weeks after exposure of a single infusion. The other extreme is the nature of nitrofurantoin-induced liver injury, which can occur after a few years of treatment and lead to acute liver failure (ALF) or autoimmune-like reaction. Most patients with liver injury associated with use of antibiotics have a favorable prognosis. However, patients with jaundice have approximately 10% risk of death from liver failure and/or require liver transplantation. In rare instances, the hepatoxicity can lead to chronic injury and vanishing bile duct syndrome. Given, sometimes very severe consequences of the adverse liver reactions, it cannot be over emphasized that the indication for the different antibiotics should be evidence-based and symptoms and signs of liver injury from the drugs should lead to prompt cessation of therapy.

  13. Drug-Induced Hyperglycaemia and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Larif, Sofien; Hmouda, Houssem; Ben Salem, Chaker

    2015-12-01

    Drug-induced hyperglycaemia and diabetes is a global issue. It may be a serious problem, as it increases the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications, infections, metabolic coma and even death. Drugs may induce hyperglycaemia through a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in insulin secretion and sensitivity, direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cells and increases in glucose production. Antihypertensive drugs are not equally implicated in increasing serum glucose levels. Glycaemic adverse events occur more frequently with thiazide diuretics and with certain beta-blocking agents than with calcium-channel blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. Lipid-modifying agents may also induce hyperglycaemia, and the diabetogenic effect seems to differ between the different types and daily doses of statins. Nicotinic acid may also alter glycaemic control. Among the anti-infectives, severe life-threatening events have been reported with fluoroquinolones, especially when high doses are used. Protease inhibitors and, to a lesser extent, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors have been reported to induce alterations in glucose metabolism. Pentamidine-induced hyperglycaemia seems to be related to direct dysfunction in pancreatic cells. Phenytoin and valproic acid may also induce hyperglycaemia. The mechanisms of second-generation antipsychotic-associated hyperglycaemia, diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis are complex and are mainly due to insulin resistance. Antidepressant agents with high daily doses seem to be more frequently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Ketoacidosis may occur in patients receiving beta-adrenergic stimulants, and theophylline may also induce hyperglycaemia. Steroid diabetes is more frequently associated with high doses of glucocorticoids. Some chemotherapeutic agents carry a higher risk of hyperglycaemia, and calcineurin inhibitor-induced hyperglycaemia is mainly due to a decrease in insulin secretion

  14. The VCS parameters: Potential hematological indicators for predicting antituberculosis drug-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tian; Gu, Delin; Zhu, Yihua; Shi, Junwei; Xu, Dongsheng; Cao, Xingjian

    2016-08-01

    The morphological changes in activated neutrophils associated with antituberculosis drugs can be measured by volume, conductivity, and scatter (VCS) technology on the Coulter LH750 hematology analyzer. We conducted the current study to further validate the clinical usefulness of the neutrophil VCS parameters in predicting drug-induced neutropenia. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 52 patients with drug-induced neutropenia, 309 patients without any abnormal CBC, and 237 healthy controls. The mean neutrophil volume (MNV) with its distribution width (NDW) and the mean neutrophil scatter (MNS) were studied. We observed a significant increase in the MNV and NDW as well as a significant decrease in the MNS in neutropenia patients approximately one week prior to development of neutropenia compared to healthy controls as well as to case controls. In addition, the delta MNV and delta MNS were respectively correlated well with delta absolute neutrophil counts when neutropenia occurred. The ROC curve analyses showed that the MNV、NDW and MNS had larger areas under curves compared to conventional parameters. With a cutoff of 150.15 for the MNV, a sensitivity of 84.4% and specificity of 75.7% were achieved prior to neutropenia. The neutrophil VCS parameters may be clinically useful as potential hematological indicators for predicting antituberculosis drug-induced neutropenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. Database URL: http://www.cuilab.cn/drugpath PMID:26130661

  16. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Qiu, Chengxiang; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Contemporary review of drug-induced pancreatitis: A different perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Whitney Y; Abreu Lanfranco, Odaliz

    2014-01-01

    Although gallstone and alcohol use have been considered the most common causes of acute pancreatitis, hundreds of frequently prescribed medications are associated with this disease state. The true incidence is unknown since there are few population based studies available. The knowledge of drug induced acute pancreatitis is limited by the availability and the quality of the evidence as the majority of data is extrapolated from case reports. Establishing a definitive causal relationship between a drug and acute pancreatitis poses a challenge to clinicians. Several causative agent classification systems are often used to identify the suspected agents. They require regular updates since new drug induced acute pancreatitis cases are reported continuously. In addition, infrequently prescribed medications and herbal medications are often omitted. Furthermore, identification of drug induced acute pancreatitis with new medications often requires accumulation of post market case reports. The unrealistic expectation for a comprehensive list of medications and the multifactorial nature of acute pancreatitis call for a different approach. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of drug induced acute pancreatitis and provide the perspective of deductive reasoning in order to allow clinicians to identify potential drug induced acute pancreatitis with limited data. PMID:25400984

  18. Drug-induced Liver Disease in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Iryna, Klyarytskaya; Helen, Maksymova; Elena, Stilidi

    2015-01-01

    The study presented here was accomplished to assess the course of drug-induced liver diseases in patient's rheumatoid arthritis receiving long-term methotrexate therapy. Diabetes mellitus was revealed as the most significant risk factor. The combination of diabetes mellitus with other risk factors (female sex) resulted in increased hepatic fibrosis, degree of hepatic encephalopathy and reduction of hepatic functions. The effectiveness and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid and cytolytic type-with S-Adenosyl methionine was also evaluated. 13C-MBT: 13C-methacetin breath test; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; AP: alkaline phosphatase; AST: aspartic transaminase; DILD: drug-induced liver disease; DM: diabetes mellitus; HE: hepatic encephalopathy; HFM: hepatic functional mass; SAMe: S-Adenosyl methionine; UDCA: ursodeoxycholic acid. Iryna K, Helen M, Elena S. Drug-induced Liver Disease in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):83-86.

  19. Drug-induced acne and rose pearl: similarities*

    PubMed Central

    Pontello Junior, Rubens; Kondo, Rogerio Nabor

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced acne is a common skin condition whose classic symptoms can be similar to a rose pearl, as in the case of a male patient presenting with this condition after excessive use of a cream containing corticosteroids. PMID:24474128

  20. Acute organic brain syndrome due to drug-induced eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Ng, S C; Lee, M K; Teh, A

    1989-11-01

    A 72 year old man developed acute organic brain syndrome associated with marked eosinophilia following self medication with a variety of drugs. Investigations revealed no other known causes of eosinophilia. Withdrawal of drugs resulted in dramatic drop in eosinophil count paralleled by clinical resolution of neurological problems. To our knowledge drug-induced eosinophilia has not previously been associated with acute organic brain syndrome.

  1. DITOP: drug-induced toxicity related protein database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Xian; Huang, Wei-Juan; Zeng, Jing-Hua; Huang, Wen-Hui; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Rui; Han, Bu-Cong; Liu, Qing-Feng; Chen, Yu-Zong; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2007-07-01

    Drug-induced toxicity related proteins (DITRPs) are proteins that mediate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or toxicities through their binding to drugs or reactive metabolites. Collection of these proteins facilitates better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity and the rational drug discovery. Drug-induced toxicity related protein database (DITOP) is such a database that is intending to provide comprehensive information of DITRPs. Currently, DITOP contains 1501 records, covering 618 distinct literature-reported DITRPs, 529 drugs/ligands and 418 distinct toxicity terms. These proteins were confirmed experimentally to interact with drugs or their reactive metabolites, thus directly or indirectly cause adverse effects or toxicities. Five major types of drug-induced toxicities or ADRs are included in DITOP, which are the idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, the dose-dependent toxicities, the drug-drug interactions, the immune-mediated adverse drug effects (IMADEs) and the toxicities caused by genetic susceptibility. Molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity and cross-links to related resources are also provided while available. Moreover, a series of user-friendly interfaces were designed for flexible retrieval of DITRPs-related information. The DITOP can be accessed freely at http://bioinf.xmu.edu.cn/databases/ADR/index.html. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. A review and assessment of drug-induced parotitis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Krista G; Thompson, Dennis F

    2012-12-01

    To review the current literature on drug-induced parotitis. Literature was accessed through MEDLINE/PubMed (1980-May 2012), using the search terms sialadenitis/chemically induced and parotitis/chemically induced. EMBASE (1980-May 2012) was searched using the terms parotitis/diagnosis, sialadenitis/side effect, and parotitis/side effect. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2012) was searched using the search terms parotitis and sialadenitis. All searches were limited to articles on humans written in English. Inclusion criteria were published letters, case reports, reviews, and clinical trials involving drugs that may be associated with parotitis. Articles pertaining to parotitis induced by iodine-containing drugs were excluded. References of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations. Review articles, clinical trials, background data, and case reports of drug-induced parotitis were collected and case reports were assessed for causality. Parotitis is an uncommon adverse effect; however, signs and symptoms of parotitis have been noted in case reports as an adverse drug reaction related to various medications. Assessing causality of an adverse drug reaction such as parotitis is challenging. To help determine the probability of causality for these events, algorithms such as the Naranjo probability scale have been developed. Eighty-four case reports of drug-induced parotitis from 40 different drugs were reviewed using a modified Naranjo probability scale that included criteria specific for parotitis. Medications that met the criteria for establishing causality included l-asparaginase with 7 case reports, clozapine with 13 case reports, and phenylbutazone with 13 case reports. Drug-induced parotitis is a rare adverse drug reaction. Based on the quantitative and qualitative evidence collected from the case reports, medications that are associated with drug-induced parotitis include l-asparaginase, clozapine, and phenylbutazone. Many other

  3. A rare cause of drug-induced hepatitis in an immunocompromised patient and the role of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Senadhi, Viplove; Arora, Deepika; Arora, Manish; Marsh, Franklin

    2012-08-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning on numerous herbal drugs, including many popular products at General Nutrition Centers (GNC), regarding unstudied hepatotoxicity. There have been recent reports of GNC products such as hydroxycut and herbalife, causing drug-induced hepatitis. Herbal medications are over-the-counter products and are not investigated thoroughly by the FDA. Given that the most common outpatient laboratory abnormality is elevated liver transaminases, a sign of hepatocellular toxicity; it is not surprising that some of these products end up causing hepatic dysfunction, especially when taken in large volume. There are numerous herbal supplements that are hepatotoxic, however, these medications have a much more significant effect in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients, which is secondary to depleted glutathione. We present a rare case of drug induced hepatitis secondary to herbal medications used to treat HIV and elucidate the role of glutathione depletion in immunocompromised patients.

  4. A rare cause of drug-induced hepatitis in an immunocompromised patient and the role of glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Senadhi, Viplove; Arora, Deepika; Arora, Manish; Marsh, Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning on numerous herbal drugs, including many popular products at General Nutrition Centers (GNC), regarding unstudied hepatotoxicity. There have been recent reports of GNC products such as hydroxycut and herbalife, causing drug-induced hepatitis. Herbal medications are over-the-counter products and are not investigated thoroughly by the FDA. Given that the most common outpatient laboratory abnormality is elevated liver transaminases, a sign of hepatocellular toxicity; it is not surprising that some of these products end up causing hepatic dysfunction, especially when taken in large volume. There are numerous herbal supplements that are hepatotoxic, however, these medications have a much more significant effect in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients, which is secondary to depleted glutathione. We present a rare case of drug induced hepatitis secondary to herbal medications used to treat HIV and elucidate the role of glutathione depletion in immunocompromised patients. PMID:22993667

  5. Tremor pattern differentiates drug-induced resting tremor from Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Nisticò, R; Fratto, A; Vescio, B; Arabia, G; Sciacca, G; Morelli, M; Labate, A; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Nicoletti, A; Petralia, A; Gambardella, A; Zappia, M; Quattrone, A

    2016-04-01

    DAT-SPECT, is a well-established procedure for distinguishing drug-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the usefulness of blink reflex recovery cycle (BRrc) and of electromyographic parameters of resting tremor for the differentiation of patients with drug-induced parkinsonism with resting tremor (rDIP) from those with resting tremor due to PD. This was a cross-sectional study. In 16 patients with rDIP and 18 patients with PD we analysed electrophysiological parameters (amplitude, duration, burst and pattern) of resting tremor. BRrc at interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 750 msec was also analysed in patients with rDIP, patients with PD and healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent DAT-SPECT. Rest tremor amplitude was higher in PD patients than in rDIP patients (p < 0.001), while frequency and burst duration were higher in rDIP than in PD (p < 0.001, p < 0.003, respectively). Resting tremor showed a synchronous pattern in all patients with rDIP, whereas it had an alternating pattern in all PD patients (p < 0.001). DAT-SPECT was normal in rDIP patients while it was markedly abnormal in patients with PD. In the absence of DAT-SPECT, the pattern of resting tremor can be considered a useful investigation for differentiating rDIP from PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Prospective study of drug-induced interstitial nephritis in eleven French nephrology units].

    PubMed

    Leven, Cyril; Hudier, Laurent; Picard, Sylvie; Longuet, Hélène; Lorcy, Nolwenn; Cam, Gérard; Boukerroucha, Zakaria; Dolley-Hitze, Thibault; Le Cacheux, Philippe; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Cornec Le Gall, Emilie; Hanrotel-Saliou, Catherine; Arreule, Audrey; Massad, Michel; Duveau, Agnès; Couvrat-Desvergnes, Grégoire; Renaudineau, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Certain medications have been associated with drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), but few prospective studies have been published. This prospective observational study aims to record and assess incidents of drug-induced AIN observed over a period of one year in nephrology units in France. The goal is to determine which medications are involved in AIN and to expound the clinical and biological presentation, management, and evolution of AIN. Between April 2012 and April 2013, drug-associated cases of AIN were prospectively recorded in 24 patients registered in 11 nephrology units that belong to the Société de Néphrologie de l'Ouest (SNO). Data sheets, including suspected and concomitant drug(s), kidney function assessment, biological disturbances, clinical signs, histological data, management, and evolution, were collected by the Rennes Regional Pharmacovigilance Center and recorded in the French pharmacovigilance database. In order, the most frequently involved medications in the AIN cases were: vitamin K antagonists (33.3% of the cases, almost exclusively fluindione), antibiotics (20.8% of cases) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (20.8% of cases), and proton pump inhibitors (16.7% of cases). The mean delay of onset to AIN was 8.3 weeks. At the time of diagnosis, mean serum creatinine was 366 μM, higher for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), except in the case of warfarin. During the course of an AIN event, 70% of patients had complete blood count and/or urine analysis abnormalities, 55% had clinical signs of systemic hypersensitivity, and 13% of patients had hepatic disorders. Renal biopsies were performed in 54% of patients; however, only 37% of patients requiring therapeutic anticoagulation underwent a biopsy. Suspected drugs were discontinued in all patients and the majority was treated with oral corticosteroids. Renal function often continued to be impaired after an AIN event. At baseline, 25% of patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD); after

  7. A review of drug-induced liver injury databases.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangwen; Shen, Yiting; Yang, Lizhu; Lu, Aiping; Xiang, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injuries have been a major focus of current research in drug development, and are also one of the major reasons for the failure and withdrawal of drugs in development. Drug-induced liver injuries have been systematically recorded in many public databases, which have become valuable resources in this field. In this study, we provide an overview of these databases, including the liver injury-specific databases LiverTox, LTKB, Open TG-GATEs, LTMap and Hepatox, and the general databases, T3DB, DrugBank, DITOP, DART, CTD and HSDB. The features and limitations of these databases are summarized and discussed in detail. Apart from their powerful functions, we believe that these databases can be improved in several ways: by providing the data about the molecular targets involved in liver toxicity, by incorporating information regarding liver injuries caused by drug interactions, and by regularly updating the data.

  8. Acute organic brain syndrome due to drug-induced eosinophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, S. C.; Lee, M. K.; Teh, A.

    1989-01-01

    A 72 year old man developed acute organic brain syndrome associated with marked eosinophilia following self medication with a variety of drugs. Investigations revealed no other known causes of eosinophilia. Withdrawal of drugs resulted in dramatic drop in eosinophil count paralleled by clinical resolution of neurological problems. To our knowledge drug-induced eosinophilia has not previously been associated with acute organic brain syndrome. PMID:2616421

  9. Clinical presentation and management of drug-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Andrès, Emmanuel; Zimmer, Jacques; Mecili, Mustapha; Weitten, Thierry; Alt, Martine; Maloisel, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we report and discuss the clinical presentation and management of idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis (neutrophil count <0.5 × 10(9)/l). Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis remains a potentially serious adverse event owing to the frequency of severe sepsis with severe deep tissue infections (e.g., pneumonia), septicemia and septic shock in approximately two-thirds of all hospitalized patients. However, several prognostic factors have recently been identified that may be helpful in practice to identify 'susceptible' patients. Old age (>65 years), septicemia or shock, metabolic disorders such as renal failure and a neutrophil count below 0.1 × 10(9)/l are currently consensually accepted as poor prognostic factors. In this potentially life-threatening disorder, modern management with broad-spectrum antibiotics and hematopoietic growth factors (particularly granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) is likely to improve prognosis. Thus, with appropriate management, the mortality rate from idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis is currently approximately 5%.

  10. Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis or acute neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Andrès, Emmanuel; Maloisel, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis or acute neutropenia is an adverse event resulting in a neutrophil count of under 0.5 x 10/l. Patients with such severe neutropenia are likely to experience life-threatening and sometimes fatal infections. Over the last 20 years, the incidence of idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis or acute neutropenia has remained stable at 2.4-15.4 cases per million, despite the emergence of new causative drugs: antibiotics (beta-lactam and cotrimoxazole), antiplatelet agents (ticlopidine), antithyroid drugs, sulfasalazine, neuroleptics (clozapine), antiepileptic agents (carbamazepine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and dipyrone. Drug-induced agranulocytosis remains a serious adverse event due to the occurrence of severe sepsis with severe deep infections (such as pneumonia), septicemia and septic shock in around two thirds of patients. In this setting, old age (>65 years), septicemia or shock, metabolic disorders such as renal failure, and a neutrophil count under 0.1 x 10/l are poor prognostic factors. Nevertheless with appropriate management using preestablished procedures, with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and hematopoietic growth factors, the mortality rate is currently around 5%. Given the increased life expectancy and subsequent longer exposure to drugs, as well as the development of new agents, healthcare professionals should be aware of this adverse event and its management.

  11. In silico modeling to predict drug-induced phospholipidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sydney S.; Kim, Jae S.; Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov

    2013-06-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is a preclinical finding during pharmaceutical drug development that has implications on the course of drug development and regulatory safety review. A principal characteristic of drugs inducing DIPL is known to be a cationic amphiphilic structure. This provides evidence for a structure-based explanation and opportunity to analyze properties and structures of drugs with the histopathologic findings for DIPL. In previous work from the FDA, in silico quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modeling using machine learning approaches has shown promise with a large dataset of drugs but included unconfirmed data as well. In this study, we report the constructionmore » and validation of a battery of complementary in silico QSAR models using the FDA's updated database on phospholipidosis, new algorithms and predictive technologies, and in particular, we address high performance with a high-confidence dataset. The results of our modeling for DIPL include rigorous external validation tests showing 80–81% concordance. Furthermore, the predictive performance characteristics include models with high sensitivity and specificity, in most cases above ≥ 80% leading to desired high negative and positive predictivity. These models are intended to be utilized for regulatory toxicology applied science needs in screening new drugs for DIPL. - Highlights: • New in silico models for predicting drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) are described. • The training set data in the models is derived from the FDA's phospholipidosis database. • We find excellent predictivity values of the models based on external validation. • The models can support drug screening and regulatory decision-making on DIPL.« less

  12. [Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: about 10 cases].

    PubMed

    Maghrebi, Houcine; Rhaeim, Rami; Haddad, Anis; Makni, Amin; Mohamed, Jouini; Montasser, Kacem; Zoubeir, Ben Safta

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) accounts for approximately 2% of acute pancreatitis. Its incidence is increasing, with more than 260 incriminated drugs. However, very few cases have been described in the literature due to accountability problem. We report our experience with 10 cases whose data were collected over a period of 7 years. Clinical presentation of AP was often equivocal. Ranson's score ranged from 0 to 5. We recorded 5 cases of edematous pancreatitis and 5 cases of necro-bleeding pancreatitis. These pancreatitis were often successfully treated without recurrence after discontinuation of the incriminated drug.

  13. The Possible Potential Therapeutic Targets for Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Gingival overgrowth is a side effect of certain medications. The most fibrotic drug-induced lesions develop in response to therapy with phenytoin, the least fibrotic lesions are caused by cyclosporin A, and the intermediate fibrosis occurs in nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. Fibrosis is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy but is believed to occur because of a persistent tissue repair program. During connective tissue repair, activated gingival fibroblasts synthesize and remodel newly created extracellular matrix. Proteins such as transforming growth factor (TGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin II (Ang II), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) appear to act in a network that contributes to the development of gingival fibrosis. Since inflammation is the prerequisite for gingival overgrowth, mast cells and its protease enzymes also play a vital role in the pathogenesis of gingival fibrosis. Drugs targeting these proteins are currently under consideration as antifibrotic treatments. This review summarizes recent observations concerning the contribution of TGF-β, CTGF, IGF, PDGF, ET-1, Ang II, and mast cell chymase and tryptase enzymes to fibroblast activation in gingival fibrosis and the potential utility of agents blocking these proteins in affecting the outcome of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:23690667

  14. Identification of Drugs Inducing Phospholipidosis by Novel in vitro Data

    PubMed Central

    Muehlbacher, Markus; Tripal, Philipp; Roas, Florian; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of phospholipids within the lysosome. This adverse drug effect can occur in various tissues and is suspected to impact cellular viability. Therefore, it is important to test chemical compounds for their potential to induce PLD during the drug design process. PLD has been reported to be a side effect of many commonly used drugs, especially those with cationic amphiphilic properties. To predict drug-induced PLD in silico, we established a high-throughput cell-culture-based method to quantitatively determine the induction of PLD by chemical compounds. Using this assay, we tested 297 drug-like compounds at two different concentrations (2.5 μm and 5.0 μm). We were able to identify 28 previously unknown PLD-inducing agents. Furthermore, our experimental results enabled the development of a binary classification model to predict PLD-inducing agents based on their molecular properties. This random forest prediction system yields a bootstrapped validated accuracy of 86 %. PLD-inducing agents overlap with those that target similar biological processes; a high degree of concordance with PLD-inducing agents was identified for cationic amphiphilic compounds, small molecules that inhibit acid sphingomyelinase, compounds that cross the blood–brain barrier, and compounds that violate Lipinski’s rule of five. Furthermore, we were able to show that PLD-inducing compounds applied in combination additively induce PLD. PMID:22945602

  15. Non-chemotherapy drug-induced neutropenia - an update.

    PubMed

    Andrès, Emmanuel; Mourot-Cottet, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    To date, non-chemotherapy drug-induced severe neutropenia (neutrophil count of ≤0.5 x 10 9 /L) also called idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis is little discussed in the literature. In the present paper, we report and discuss the clinical data and management of this rare disorder. Areas covered: To do this, we carried out a review of the literature using PubMed database of the US National Library of Medicine. We also used data from the American Society of Hematology educational books, textbooks of Hematology and Internal medicine, and information gleaned from international meetings. Expert opinion: Idiosyncratic agranulocytosis remains a potentially serious adverse event due to the frequency of severe sepsis with severe deep tissue infections (e.g., pneumonia), septicemia, and septic shock in approximately two-thirds of all hospitalized patients. In this context, several prognostic factors have been identified that may be helpful when identifying 'susceptible' patients. Old age (>65 years), septicemia or shock, renal failure, and a neutrophil count ≤0.1 × 10 9 /L have been consensually accepted as poor prognostic factors. In our experience, modern management with pre-established procedures, intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics and hematopoietic growth factors (particularly G-CSF) is likely to improve the prognosis. Thus with appropriate management, the mortality rate is currently between 5 to 10%.

  16. Drug-induced liver injury: Do we know everything?

    PubMed Central

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Zec, Simon; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2017-01-01

    Interest in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has dramatically increased over the past decade, and it has become a hot topic for clinicians, academics, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies. By investigating the current state of the art, the latest scientific findings, controversies, and guidelines, this review will attempt to answer the question: Do we know everything? Since the first descriptions of hepatotoxicity over 70 years ago, more than 1000 drugs have been identified to date, however, much of our knowledge of diagnostic and pathophysiologic principles remains unchanged. Clinically ranging from asymptomatic transaminitis and acute or chronic hepatitis, to acute liver failure, DILI remains a leading causes of emergent liver transplant. The consumption of unregulated herbal and dietary supplements has introduced new challenges in epidemiological assessment and clinician management. As such, numerous registries have been created, including the United States Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network, to further our understanding of all aspects of DILI. The launch of LiverTox and other online hepatotoxicity resources has increased our awareness of DILI. In 2013, the first guidelines for the diagnosis and management of DILI, were offered by the Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology, and along with the identification of risk factors and predictors of injury, novel mechanisms of injury, refined causality assessment tools, and targeted treatment options have come to define the current state of the art, however, gaps in our knowledge still undoubtedly remain. PMID:28443154

  17. Drug-induced liver injury: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae

    2012-01-01

    Liver injury due to prescription and nonprescription medications is a growing medical, scientific, and public health problem. Worldwide, the estimated annual incidence rate of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is 13.9-24.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. DILI is one of the leading causes of acute liver failure in the US. In Korea, the annual extrapolated incidence of cases hospitalized at university hospital is 12/100,000 persons/year. Most cases of DILI are the result of idiosyncratic metabolic responses or unexpected reactions to medication. There is marked geographic variation in relevant agents; antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and psychotropic drugs are the most common offending agents in the West, whereas in Asia, 'herbs' and 'health foods or dietary supplements' are more common. Different medical circumstances also cause discrepancy in definition and classification of DILI between West and Asia. In the concern of causality assessment, the application of the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) scale frequently undercounts the cases caused by 'herbs' due to a lack of previous information and incompatible time criteria. Therefore, a more objective and reproducible tool that could be used for the diagnosis of DILI caused by 'herbs' is needed in Asia. In addition, a reporting system similar to the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) in the US should be established as soon as possible in Asia. PMID:23091804

  18. Drug induced hypertension--An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Messerli, Franz H; Grossman, Ehud

    2015-09-15

    Most patients with hypertension have essential hypertension or well-known forms of secondary hypertension, such as renal disease, renal artery stenosis, or common endocrine diseases (hyperaldosteronism or pheochromocytoma). Physicians are less aware of drug induced hypertension. A variety of therapeutic agents or chemical substances may increase blood pressure. When a patient with well controlled hypertension is presented with acute blood pressure elevation, use of drug or chemical substance which increases blood pressure should be suspected. Drug-induced blood pressure increases are usually minor and short-lived, although rare hypertensive emergencies associated with use of certain drugs have been reported. Careful evaluation of prescription and non-prescription medications is crucial in the evaluation of the hypertensive individual and may obviate the need for expensive and unnecessary evaluations. Discontinuation of the offending agent will usually achieve adequate blood pressure control. When use of a chemical agent which increases blood pressure is mandatory, anti-hypertensive therapy may facilitate continued use of this agent. We summarize the therapeutic agents or chemical substances that elevate blood pressure and their mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Pattern Recognition and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Tanvir; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Hayashi, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a significant clinical challenge and is the leading cause of acute liver failure in most countries. An aging population that uses more medications, a constant influx of newly developed drugs and a growing risk from unfamiliar herbal and dietary supplements will make DILI an increasing part of clinical practice. Currently, the most effective strategy for disease management is rapid identification, withholding the inciting agents, supportive care and having a firm understanding of the expected natural history. There are resources available to aid the clinician, including a new online “textbook” as well as causality assessment tools, but a heightened awareness of risk and the disease’s varying phenotypes and good history-taking remain cornerstones to diagnosis. Looking ahead, growing registries of cases, pharmacoepidemiology studies and translational research into the mechanisms of injury may produce better diagnostic tools, markers for risk and disease, and prevention and therapeutics. PMID:26696029

  20. Role of dermatology in pharmacogenomics: drug-induced skin injury.

    PubMed

    Borroni, Riccardo G

    2015-01-01

    Different individuals may respond diversely to the same drug, in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Adverse drug reactions cause about 6% of all hospital admissions and account for up to 9% of hospitalization costs. Drug-induced skin injury (DISI) is the most common presentation of adverse drug reactions, ranging from maculopapular eruptions to severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions (SCARs) with mortality of up to 40%. Specific genetic polymorphisms confer susceptibility to different types of DISI. Identifying patients genetically at risk for SCARs is one of the goals of pharmacogenomics. In this article, the aspects of clinical dermatology relevant to the pharmacogenetics of DISI are reviewed. Many SCARs are now preventable, with consequent reduction of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs.

  1. Drug-induced gynecomastia in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT QUESTION I frequently see adolescent boys in my practice with transient gynecomastia. My management includes reassuring the boys and their families; however, I also understand that specific medication, alcohol, and drugs can cause gynecomastia. How common is this phenomenon, and what medications can induce gynecomastia? ANSWER While gynecomastia is a physiologic phenomenon in most newborns and adolescents, it is important to consider pathologic conditions and medications that can cause breast enlargement. Antibiotics, antiulcer drugs, growth hormones, and chemotherapy have been reported to induce gynecomastia. Adolescents who use anabolic steroids, or who abuse alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or amphetamines, should be alerted to the fact that gynecomastia might develop. Treatment of drug-induced gynecomastia includes discontinuation of the offending drug. Very rarely is surgical intervention required. PMID:20393092

  2. Drug-induced gynecomastia in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ran D

    2010-04-01

    I frequently see adolescent boys in my practice with transient gynecomastia. My management includes reassuring the boys and their families; however, I also understand that specific medication, alcohol, and drugs can cause gynecomastia. How common is this phenomenon, and what medications can induce gynecomastia? While gynecomastia is a physiologic phenomenon in most newborns and adolescents, it is important to consider pathologic conditions and medications that can cause breast enlargement. Antibiotics, antiulcer drugs, growth hormones, and chemotherapy have been reported to induce gynecomastia. Adolescents who use anabolic steroids, or who abuse alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or amphetamines, should be alerted to the fact that gynecomastia might develop. Treatment of drug-induced gynecomastia includes discontinuation of the offending drug. Very rarely is surgical intervention required.

  3. An Update on Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2012-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following drugs taken in therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition in drug development, or withdrawal or restricted use after marketing. No age is exempt although adults and the elderly are at increased risk. DILI spans the entire spectrum ranging from asymptomatic elevation in transaminases to severe disease such as acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure. The liver specific Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is the most validated and extensively used for determining the likelihood that an implicated drug caused DILI. Asymptomatic elevation in liver tests must be differentiated from adaptation. Drugs producing DILI have a signature pattern although no single pattern is characteristic. Antimicrobial and central nervous system agents including antiepileptic drugs are the leading causes of DILI worldwide. In the absence of a diagnostic test or a biomarker, the diagnosis rests on the evidence of absence of competing causes such as acute viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and others. Recent studies show that antituberculosis drugs given for active or latent disease are still a major cause of drug-induced liver injury in India and the West respectively. Presence of jaundice signifies a severe disease and entails a worse outcome. The pathogenesis is unclear and is due to a mix of host, drug metabolite and environmental factors. Research has evolved from incriminating candidate genes to genome wide analysis studies. Immediate cessation of the drug is key to prevent or minimize progressive damage. Treatment is largely supportive. N-acetylcysteine is the antidote for paracetamol toxicity. Carnitine has been tried in valproate injury whereas steroids and ursodeoxycholic acid may be used in DILI associated with hypersensitivity or cholestatic features respectively. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, the patterns of

  4. MicroRNAs and Drug-induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pavkovic, Mira; Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) is a severe complication in hospitalized patients associated with higher probabilities of developing progressive chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal diseases. Furthermore, DIKI is a problem during preclinical and clinical phases of drug development leading to high rates of project terminations. Understanding the molecular perturbations caused by DIKI would pave the way for a new class of therapeutics to mitigate the damage. Yet, another approach to ameliorate DIKI is identifying sensitive and specific translational biomarkers that outperform the current diagnostic analytes like serum creatinine and facilitate early diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs, are increasingly being recognized to have a two-pronged approach towards DIKI management: 1) miRNAs have a regulatory role in gene expression and signaling pathways thereby making them novel interventional targets and 2) miRNAs enable diagnosis and prognosis of DIKI because of their stable presence in biofluids. In this review, apart from summarizing the literature on miRNAs in DIKI, we report small RNA sequencing results showing miRNA expression profiles at baseline in normal kidney samples from mice and humans. Additionally, we also compared the miRNA expression in biopsies of normal human kidneys to patients with acute tubular necrosis, and found 76 miRNAs significantly downregulated and 47 miRNAs upregulated (FDR adjusted p<0.05, +/−2-fold change). In summary, we highlight the transformative potential of miRNAs in therapeutics and translational medicine with a focus on drug-induced kidney damage. PMID:27126472

  5. Drug-induced Epistaxis: An Often-Neglected Adverse Effect.

    PubMed

    Meirinho, Sara; Relvas, Ricardo; Alves, Gilberto

    2018-02-12

    Epistaxis is an active nose bleeding with a population occurrence of approximately 60%. Although epistaxis is a common clinical complaint, the majority of the cases are benign and caused by local induced factors (e.g., trauma and local inflammation). Nevertheless, it is also recognised that epistaxis can be induced after some drugs intake. Due to the increasing use of drugs or drug combinations that potentially may induce epistaxis, this review aims to alert healthcare professionals for this often neglected adverse drug effect and its possible complications. A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar databases, considering the literature published from January 1985 to December 2015, using medical terms related to the scope of drug-induced epistaxis, nosebleeds and nasal blood supply. As expected, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are the main pharmacotherapeutic agents associated with epistaxis, particularly warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and aspirin. However, it was reported that some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, intranasal corticosteroids, certain antibiotics and other drugs or drug associations can also be responsible by nosebleeds. Although most of these epistaxis episodes are mild to moderate, being spontaneously reversed or requiring only minor medical approaches to control it, there are also several case reports, as well as retrospective and prospective studies, documenting severe epistaxis episodes after specific medicines intake. In these cases some invasive medical interventions are demanded to manage the bleeding and avoid life-threatening consequences. This work provides an integrated and comprehensive review on drug-induced epistaxis bridging the gap in the current scientific literature addressing this topic. Therefore, the scientific information gathered and discussed will be valuable to raise awareness of doctors and pharmacists for this drug-related problem, as well as to promote their active

  6. PTTG1 Attenuates Drug-Induced Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yunguang; Zhao, Weijiang; Zhou, Cuiqi; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Melmed, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    As PTTG1 (pituitary tumor transforming gene) abundance correlates with adverse outcomes in cancer treatment, we determined mechanisms underlying this observation by assessing the role of PTTG1 in regulating cell response to anti-neoplastic drugs. HCT116 cells devoid of PTTG1 (PTTG1−/−) exhibited enhanced drug sensitivity as assessed by measuring BrdU incorporation in vitro. Apoptosis, mitosis catastrophe or DNA damage were not detected, but features of senescence were observed using low doses of doxorubicin and TSA. The number of drug-induced PTTG1−/− senescent cells increased ∼4 fold as compared to WT PTTG1-replete cells (p<0.001). p21, an important regulator of cell senescence, was induced ∼3 fold in HCT116 PTTG1−/− cells upon doxorubicin or Trichostatin A treatment. Binding of Sp1, p53 and p300 to the p21 promoter was enhanced in PTTG1−/− cells after treatment, suggesting transcriptional regulation of p21. p21 knock down abrogated the observed senescent effects of these drugs, indicating that PTTG1 likely suppresses p21 to regulate drug-induced senescence. PTTG1 also regulated SW620 colon cancer cells response to doxorubicin and TSA mediated by p21. Subcutaneously xenografted PTTG1−/− HCT116 cells developed smaller tumors and exhibited enhanced responses to doxorubicin. PTTG1−/− tumor tissue derived from excised tumors exhibited increased doxorubicin-induced senescence. As senescence is a determinant of cell responses to anti-neoplastic treatments, these findings suggest PTTG1 as a tumor cell marker to predict anti-neoplastic treatment outcomes. PMID:21858218

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mechanisms of Adaptation and Progression in Idiosyncratic Drug Induced Liver Injury, Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Liu, Zhang-Xu; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade our understanding of idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (IDILI) and the contribution of genetic susceptibility and the adaptive immune system to the pathogenesis of this disease process has grown tremendously. One of the characteristics of IDILI is that it occurs rarely and only in a subset of individuals with a presumed susceptibility to the drug. Despite a clear association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and certain drugs that cause IDILI, not all individuals with susceptible HLA genotypes develop clinically significant liver injury when exposed to drugs. The adaptation hypothesis has been put forth as an explanation for why only a small percentage of susceptible individuals develop overt IDILI and severe injury, while the majority with susceptible genotypes develop only mild abnormalities that resolve spontaneously upon continuation of the drug. This spontaneous resolution is referred to as clinical adaptation. Failure to adapt or defective adaptation leads to clinically significant liver injury. In this review we explore the immuno-tolerant microenvironment of the liver and the mechanisms of clinical adaptation in IDILI with a focus on the role of immune-tolerance and cellular adaptive responses. PMID:26484420

  9. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report.

    PubMed

    Etxagibel, Aitziber; Julià, M Rosa; Brotons, Alvaro; Company, M Margarita; Dolz, Carlos

    2008-01-28

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis.

  10. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Etxagibel, Aitziber; Julià, M Rosa; Brotons, Alvaro; Company, M Margarita; Dolz, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. Case presentation We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusion Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:18226219

  11. Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis in Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Jares, Edgardo José; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Ensina, Luis Felipe C; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos; Monsell, Silvana; Schuhl, Juan; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the clinical features and management of drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) in Latin America is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess implicated medications, demographics, and treatments received for DIA in Latin American patients referred to national specialty centers for evaluation. A database previously used to compile information on drug-induced allergic reactions in 11 Latin American countries was used to identify and characterize patients presenting specifically with a clinical diagnosis of DIA. Information regarding clinical presentation, causative agent(s), diagnostic studies performed, treatment, and contributing factors associated with increased reaction severity was analyzed. There were 1005 patients evaluated for possible drug hypersensitivity reactions during the study interval, and 264 (26.3%) met criteria for DIA. DIA was more frequent in adults and in elderly females (N = 129 [76.6%] and N = 30 [75%], respectively) compared with children and/or adolescents (N = 21 [42.9%], P < .01). Severe DIA was less frequent with underlying asthma (N = 22 vs 35 [38.6% vs 61.4%], P < .05) or atopy (N = 62 vs 71 [43% vs 59% ], P < .01). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (N = 178 [57.8%]), beta-lactam antibiotics (N = 44 [14.3%]), and other antibiotics (N = 16 [5.2%]) were the most frequently implicated drug classes. Anaphylaxis was rated as severe in N = 133 (50.4%) and anaphylactic shock (AS) was present in N = 90 (34.1%). Epinephrine was only used in N = 73 (27.6%) overall, but in N = 70 (77.8%) of patients with AS. In Latin American patients referred for evaluation of DIA, NSAIDs and antibiotics were implicated in approximately 80% of cases. Most of these reactions were treated in the emergency department. Epinephrine was administered in only 27.6% of all cases, although more frequently for anaphylactic shock. Dissemination of anaphylaxis guidelines among emergency department physicians should be encouraged to improve

  12. Drug-induced sarcoidosis-like reactions (DISR).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Amit; Nautiyal, Amit; Kalkanis, Alexander; Judson, Marc A

    2018-04-23

    A drug-induced sarcoidosis-like reaction (DISR) is a systemic granulomatous reaction that is indistinguishable from sarcoidosis and occurs in temporal relationship with initiation of an offending drug. DISRs typically improve or resolve after the withdrawal of offending drug. Four common categories of drugs that have been associated with the development of a DISR are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), interferons (IFNs) and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists (TNF-alpha antagonists). Similar to sarcoidosis, DISRs do not necessarily require treatment, as they may cause no significant symptoms, quality of life impairment or organ dysfunction. When treatment of a DISR is required, standard anti-sarcoidosis regimens seem to be effective. As a DISR tends to improve or resolve when the offending drug is discontinued, this is another effective treatment for a DISR. However, the offending drug need not be discontinued if it is useful, and anti-granulomatous therapy can be added. In some situations, the development of a DISR may suggest a beneficial effect of the inducing drug. Understanding the mechanisms leading to DISRs may yield important insights into the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-06-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well.

  14. HLA Association with Drug-Induced Adverse Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen-Lang; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Hui, Rosaline Chung-Yee; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) remain a common and major problem in healthcare. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with mortality rate ranges from 10% to more than 30%, can be life threatening. A number of recent studies demonstrated that ADRs possess strong genetic predisposition. ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B∗57:01). The incidences of abacavir hypersensitivity are much higher in Caucasians compared to other populations due to various allele frequencies in different ethnic populations. The antithyroid drug- (ATDs- ) induced agranulocytosis are strongly associated with two alleles: HLA-B∗38:02 and HLA-DRB1∗08:03. In addition, HLA-B∗15:02 allele was reported to be related to carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN, and HLA-B∗57:01 in abacavir hypersensitivity and flucloxacillin induced drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs. PMID:29333460

  15. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well. PMID:27209646

  16. [Clinicopathologic features of drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ye, L H; Wang, C K; Zhang, H C; Liu, Z Q; Zheng, H W

    2017-04-20

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) manifests as progressive destruction and disappearance of the intrahepatic bile duct caused by various factors and cholestasis. VBDS associated with drug-induced liver injury (D-VBDS) is an important etiology of VBDS, and immune disorder or immune imbalance may be the main pathogenesis. According to its clinical symptoms, serological markers, and course of the disease, D-VBDS is classified into major form and minor form, and its clinical features are based on various pathomorphological findings. Its prognosis is associated various factors including regeneration of bile duct cells, number of bile duct injuries, level and range of bile duct injury, bile duct proliferation, and compensatory shunt of bile duct branches. This disease has various clinical outcomes; most patients have good prognosis after drug withdrawal, and some patients may experience cholestatic cirrhosis, liver failure, and even death. Due to the clinical manifestation and biochemical changes are similar to the primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), it need to identify by clinical physician.

  17. Drug induced exocytosis of glycogen in Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher T; Fuller, Maria; Hopwood, John J; Meikle, Peter J; Brooks, Doug A

    2016-10-28

    Pompe disease is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase, and this leads to glycogen accumulation in the autolysosomes of patient cells. Glycogen storage material is exocytosed at a basal rate in cultured Pompe cells, with one study showing up to 80% is released under specific culture conditions. Critically, exocytosis induction may reduce glycogen storage in Pompe patients, providing the basis for a therapeutic strategy whereby stored glycogen is redirected to an extracellular location and subsequently degraded by circulating amylases. The focus of the current study was to identify compounds capable of inducing rapid glycogen exocytosis in cultured Pompe cells. Here, calcimycin, lysophosphatidylcholine and α-l-iduronidase each significantly increased glycogen exocytosis compared to vehicle-treated controls. The most effective compound, calcimycin, induced exocytosis through a Ca 2+ -dependent mechanism, although was unable to release a pool of vesicular glycogen larger than the calcimycin-induced exocytic pore. There was reduced glycogen release from Pompe compared to unaffected cells, primarily due to increased granule size in Pompe cells. Drug induced exocytosis therefore shows promise as a therapeutic approach for Pompe patients but strategies are required to enhance the release of large molecular weight glycogen granules. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cardiovascular drugs inducing QT prolongation: facts and evidence.

    PubMed

    Taira, Carlos A; Opezzo, Javier A W; Mayer, Marcos A; Höcht, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acquired QT syndrome is mainly caused by the administration of drugs that prolong ventricular repolarization. On the other hand, the risk of drug-induced torsades de pointes is increased by numerous predisposing factors, such as genetic predisposition, female sex, hypokalemia and cardiac dysfunction. This adverse reaction is induced by different chemical compounds used for the treatment of a variety of pathologies, including arrhythmias. As it is known, antiarrhythmic agents and other cardiovascular drugs can prolong the QT interval, causing this adverse reaction. Of the 20 most commonly reported drugs, 10 were cardiovascular agents and these appeared in 348 of the reports (46%). Class Ia antiarrhythmic agents have frequently been linked to inducing arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes. Sotalol and amiodarone, class III antiarrhythmics, are known to prolong the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Due to the severity of events caused by the therapeutic use of these drugs, in this work of revision the cardiovascular drugs that present this property and the factors and evidence will be mentioned.

  19. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Drug-Induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong-Woo; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Yang-Hyun; Park, Sung-Jin; Jeon, Kipyung; Lee, Jong-Yun; Ho, Seong Hee; So, Jungmin; Im, Jin Hee; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent studies have shown that several nonmotor symptoms differ between Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP). However, there have been no reports on cardiovascular autonomic function in DIP, and so this study investigated whether cardiovascular autonomic function differs between PD and DIP patients. Methods This study consecutively enrolled 20 DIP patients, 99 drug-naïve PD patients, and 25 age-matched healthy controls who underwent head-up tilt-table testing and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Orthostatic hypotension was more frequent in patients with PD or DIP than in healthy controls. In DIP, orthostatic hypotension was associated with the underlying psychiatric diseases and neuroleptics use, whereas prokinetics were not related to orthostatic hypotension. The supine blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure, and nocturnal blood pressure dipping did not differ significantly between the DIP and control groups. Supine hypertension and nocturnal hypertension were more frequent in PD patients than in controls. Conclusions The included DIP patients frequently exhibited orthostatic hypotension that was associated with the underlying diseases as well as the nature of and exposure time to the offending drugs. Clinicians should individualize the manifestations of DIP according to underlying diseases as well as the action mechanism of and exposure time to each offending drug. PMID:27730767

  20. Drug-induced life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death: A clinical perspective of long QT, short QT and Brugada syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Diogo; Freitas, João

    2018-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major public health challenge, which can be caused by genetic or acquired structural or electrophysiological abnormalities. These abnormalities include hereditary channelopathies: long QT, short QT and Brugada syndromes. These syndromes are a notable concern, particularly in young people, due to their high propensity for severe ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Current evidence suggests the involvement of an increasing number of drugs in acquired forms of long QT and Brugada syndromes. However, drug-induced short QT syndrome is still a rarely reported condition. Therefore, there has been speculation on its clinical significance, since few fatal arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death cases have been described so far. Drug-induced proarrhythmia is a growing challenge for physicians, regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Physicians should weigh the risks of potentially fatal outcomes against the therapeutic benefits, when making decisions about drug prescriptions. Growing concerns about its safety and the need for more accurate predictive models for drug-induced fatal outcomes justify further research in these fields. The aim of this article is to comprehensively and critically review the recently published evidence with regard to drug-induced life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This article will take into account the provision of data to physicians that are useful in the identification of the culprit drugs, and thus, contribute to the prompt recognition and management of these serious clinical conditions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytomorphological effects of mitomycin C on urothelial cells: eosinophils may be clue to the drug-induced changes.

    PubMed

    Guler Simsek, Gulcin; Vargol, Erdem; Simsek, Hulya

    2014-01-01

    Cytomorphological changes of mitomycin C on urothelial cells may be misinterpreted as a neoplastic process. A 60-year old male patient who was given an eight-week course of intravesical mitomycin C due to non-invasive low grade transitional cell carcinoma. During his follow-up care, the findings of a urine cytology exam were as follows: nuclear enlargement of cells, wrinkled nuclear membranes, little hyperchromasia, pleomorphism, abnormal nuclear morphology and disordered orientation of the urothelium. Furthermore, there were eosinophils nearby the atypical cells. This report aimed at reminding the cytomorphologic changes of mitomycin C may be misinterpreted as carcinoma, so the presence of eosinophils is required to predict the drug-induced changes.

  2. How to Diagnose and Exclude Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion because, with the possible exception of protein:drug adducts in paracetamol overdose, there are no laboratory, biopsy or imaging tests that alone are capable of establishing an unequivocal diagnosis of DILI. However, it is increasingly appreciated that drugs that cause DILI typically have characteristic clinical presentations or 'signatures' that can be very useful in the diagnosis of DILI. Indeed, knowing a drug's DILI signature (or sometimes signatures) and the incidence rate of DILI during treatment with that drug are perhaps the most useful pieces of historical information in arriving at the diagnosis of DILI. Components of the signature include the typical latency from the onset of treatment, whether there are extrahepatic manifestations, whether the injury is hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed, and sometimes characteristic features on biopsy or serological testing (e.g. liver autoantibodies). A major advance has been the establishment of the LiverTox website (http://livertox.nih.gov/) which provides open access to standardized entries for over 600 different drugs, including the characteristic clinical presentations of DILI when known. LiverTox will also calculate the causality score for individual cases using the RUCAM instrument and case-specific data entered by the site user. However, the problem with standard diagnostic instruments such as the RUCAM is that DILI signatures are not incorporated into the scoring system. The person entering data must therefore subjectively weigh the RUCAM score with the characteristic DILI signature(s) of the drug to arrive at a diagnosis. In the future, it should be possible to construct improved diagnostic instruments that objectively incorporate DILI signatures, data-based estimates of the incidence rates of DILI from each implicated drug, and perhaps genetic variants associated with the risk of DILI. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Predicting Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity Using QSAR and Toxicogenomics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yen; Uehara, Takeki; Minowa, Yohsuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Sedykh, Alexander; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Zhu, Hao; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling and toxicogenomics are used independently as predictive tools in toxicology. In this study, we evaluated the power of several statistical models for predicting drug hepatotoxicity in rats using different descriptors of drug molecules, namely their chemical descriptors and toxicogenomic profiles. The records were taken from the Toxicogenomics Project rat liver microarray database containing information on 127 drugs (http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/datalist.html). The model endpoint was hepatotoxicity in the rat following 28 days of exposure, established by liver histopathology and serum chemistry. First, we developed multiple conventional QSAR classification models using a comprehensive set of chemical descriptors and several classification methods (k nearest neighbor, support vector machines, random forests, and distance weighted discrimination). With chemical descriptors alone, external predictivity (Correct Classification Rate, CCR) from 5-fold external cross-validation was 61%. Next, the same classification methods were employed to build models using only toxicogenomic data (24h after a single exposure) treated as biological descriptors. The optimized models used only 85 selected toxicogenomic descriptors and had CCR as high as 76%. Finally, hybrid models combining both chemical descriptors and transcripts were developed; their CCRs were between 68 and 77%. Although the accuracy of hybrid models did not exceed that of the models based on toxicogenomic data alone, the use of both chemical and biological descriptors enriched the interpretation of the models. In addition to finding 85 transcripts that were predictive and highly relevant to the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury, chemical structural alerts for hepatotoxicity were also identified. These results suggest that concurrent exploration of the chemical features and acute treatment-induced changes in transcript levels will both enrich the

  4. Haematopoietic growth factor in antithyroid-drug-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Andrès, E; Kurtz, J E; Perrin, A E; Dufour, P; Schlienger, J L; Maloisel, F

    2001-08-01

    Drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) is often caused by antithyroid drugs. We retrospectively studied the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy in antithyroid-DIA. Data for 20 patients (10 treated with G-CSF) with antithyroid-DIA (neutrophil count <0.5x10(9)/l) were extracted from a cohort study of DIA patients (n=110). G-CSF (300 microg/day subcutaneously) was used where the neutrophil count was <0.1x10(9)/l, or the patient was aged >70 years, or there were severe features of infection or underlying disease. Mean patient age was 62 years (range 34-87); sex ratio (M/F) was 0.05. Carbimazole (n=19) and benzylthiouracile (n=1) were the causative drugs, at mean doses of 30 mg/day (range 20-60) and 100 mg/day (range 50-150), respectively, for a mean of 37 days (range 31-90). Antithyroid drugs were prescribed for Graves' disease (n=8), thyrotoxicosis related to amiodarone intake (n=6) and multinodular goitre (n=6). Clinical features included isolated fever (n=7), pneumonia (n=5), septicaemia or septic shock (n=5) and acute tonsillitis (n=3). Mean neutrophil count was 0.07+/-0.1x10(9)/l. No patient died. Mean durations of haematological recovery, antibiotic therapy and hospitalization were significantly reduced with G-CSF: 6.8+/-4 days vs. 11.6+/-5; 7.5+/-3.8 days vs. 12+/-4.5; and 7.3+/-4.8 days vs. 13+/-6.1, respectively (all p<0.05). G-CSF induced flu-like symptoms in 30% of patients, but reduced overall costs.

  5. Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: The Genetic Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Noronha Shyam Curtis; Chavan, Rahul; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Nalla, Srinivas; Mali, Jaydeepchandra; Prajapati, Anchal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, the etiology of drug-induced gingival overgrowth is not entirely understood but is clearly multifactorial. Phenytoin, one of the common drugs implicated in gingival enlargement, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and partly by CYP2C19. The CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are polymorphically expressed and most of the variants result in decreased metabolism of the respective substrates. Aims: The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variant genotypes on phenytoin hydroxylation in subjects diagnosed with epilepsy from South India, thus establishing the genetic polymorphisms leading to its defective hydroxylation process. Materials and Methods: Fifteen epileptic subjects, age 9 to 60 years were included in the study. Among the study subjects, 8 were males and 7 were females. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ blood using Phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done for CYP2C9 using customized TaqMan genotyping assays on a real time thermocycler, by allelic discrimination method. The genetic polymorphisms *1, *2 and *3 on CYP2C9 were selected based on their function and respective allele frequencies in Asian subcontinent among the Asian populations. Results: CYP2C9*1*2 and CYP2C9*3/*3 were identified with equal frequency in the study population. There were seven subjects with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype (heterozygous mutant), one subject with CYP2C9*1/*1 (wild type) and seven study subjects with CYP2C9*3/*3 (homozygous mutant). Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study will be helpful in the medical prescription purposes of phenytoin, and a more personalized patient approach with its administration can be advocated. PMID:25317394

  6. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: the genetic dimension.

    PubMed

    Charles, Noronha Shyam Curtis; Chavan, Rahul; Moon, Ninad Joshirao; Nalla, Srinivas; Mali, Jaydeepchandra; Prajapati, Anchal

    2014-09-01

    Currently, the etiology of drug-induced gingival overgrowth is not entirely understood but is clearly multifactorial. Phenytoin, one of the common drugs implicated in gingival enlargement, is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and partly by CYP2C19. The CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genes are polymorphically expressed and most of the variants result in decreased metabolism of the respective substrates. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variant genotypes on phenytoin hydroxylation in subjects diagnosed with epilepsy from South India, thus establishing the genetic polymorphisms leading to its defective hydroxylation process. Fifteen epileptic subjects, age 9 to 60 years were included in the study. Among the study subjects, 8 were males and 7 were females. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients' blood using Phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was done for CYP2C9 using customized TaqMan genotyping assays on a real time thermocycler, by allelic discrimination method. The genetic polymorphisms *1, *2 and *3 on CYP2C9 were selected based on their function and respective allele frequencies in Asian subcontinent among the Asian populations. CYP2C9*1*2 and CYP2C9*3/*3 were identified with equal frequency in the study population. There were seven subjects with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype (heterozygous mutant), one subject with CYP2C9*1/*1 (wild type) and seven study subjects with CYP2C9*3/*3 (homozygous mutant). The results obtained in the present study will be helpful in the medical prescription purposes of phenytoin, and a more personalized patient approach with its administration can be advocated.

  7. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  8. Drug-induced sedation endoscopy in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, A; Verhulst, S; Maris, M; Saldien, V; Van de Heyning, P

    2014-12-01

    To describe the pattern of upper airway (UA) obstruction during drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) and to evaluate the outcome of DISE-directed treatment. Prospective study of DISE in surgically naive obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) children without syndromic comorbidity or craniofacial abnormalities. Treatment was individually tailored according to UA findings during DISE and polysomnographic data. Reported values are median (lower-upper quartile). Thirty-seven children aged 4.1 years (2.1-6.0), with body mass index z-score 0.3 (-0.9 to 0.9), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) 9.0/h (6.1-19.3) were included. Adenotonsillar obstruction was found in 33 cases (89%) as an isolated entity or as part of a multi-level obstruction. These children were treated with adenotonsillectomy (n = 28), adenoidectomy (n = 3), or tonsillectomy (n = 2). The remaining four patients received non-surgical treatment. Pre-postoperative polysomnographic data in 22 patients showed a significant improvement in oAHI from 8.6/h (6.7-20.7) to 1.0/h (0.6-2.0) (P = 0.001). Only two of these 22 children had residual OSAS (oAHI ≥ 5/h), indicating a success rate of 91%. Based on UA findings during DISE, a non-surgical treatment was proposed for 11% of children. A 91% success rate was obtained in those treated with (adeno)tonsillectomy. These data suggest that DISE may be helpful to identify patients most likely to benefit from UA surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic risk factors associated with lipid-lowering drug-induced myopathies.

    PubMed

    Vladutiu, Georgirene D; Simmons, Zachary; Isackson, Paul J; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Peltier, Wendy L; Barboi, Alexandru C; Sripathi, Naganand; Wortmann, Robert L; Phillips, Paul S

    2006-08-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs produce myopathic side effects in up to 7% of treated patients, with severe rhabdomyolysis occurring in as many as 0.5%. Underlying metabolic muscle diseases have not been evaluated extensively. In a cross-sectional study of 136 patients with drug-induced myopathies, we report a higher prevalence of underlying metabolic muscle diseases than expected in the general population. Control groups included 116 patients on therapy with no myopathic symptoms, 100 asymptomatic individuals from the general population never exposed to statins, and 106 patients with non-statin-induced myopathies. Of 110 patients who underwent mutation testing, 10% were heterozygous or homozygous for mutations causing three metabolic myopathies, compared to 3% testing positive among asymptomatic patients on therapy (P = 0.04). The actual number of mutant alleles found in the test group patients was increased fourfold over the control group (P < 0.0001) due to an increased presence of mutation homozygotes. The number of carriers for carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency and for McArdle disease was increased 13- and 20-fold, respectively, over expected general population frequencies. Homozygotes for myoadenylate deaminase deficiency were increased 3.25-fold with no increase in carrier status. In 52% of muscle biopsies from patients, significant biochemical abnormalities were found in mitochondrial or fatty acid metabolism, with 31% having multiple defects. Variable persistent symptoms occurred in 68% of patients despite cessation of therapy. The effect of statins on energy metabolism combined with a genetic susceptibility to triggering of muscle symptoms may account for myopathic outcomes in certain high-risk groups.

  10. Severe drug-induced repetitive behaviors and striatal overexpression of VAChT in ChAT-ChR2-EYFP BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Carolyn J.; Lee, Tyrone; Bowden, Hilary A.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    In drug users, drug-related cues alone can induce dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Instructive cues activate inputs to the striatum from both dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, which are thought to work together to support motor learning and motivated behaviors. Imbalances in these neuromodulatory influences can impair normal action selection and might thus contribute to pathologically repetitive and compulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Dopamine and acetylcholine can have either antagonistic or synergistic effects on behavior, depending on the state of the animal and the receptor signaling systems at play. Semi-synchronized activation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum drives dopamine release via presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on dopamine terminals. Nicotinic receptor blockade is known to diminish abnormal repetitive behaviors (stereotypies) induced by psychomotor stimulants. By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. Although acetylcholine release is known to be altered in animal models of drug addiction, predicting whether these changes will augment or diminish drug-induced behaviors thus remains a challenge. Here, we measured amphetamine-induced stereotypy in BAC transgenic mice that have been shown to overexpress the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) with consequent increased acetylcholine release. We found that drug-induced stereotypies, consisting of confined sniffing and licking behaviors, were greatly increased in the transgenic mice relative to sibling controls, as was striatal VAChT protein. These findings suggest that VAChT-mediated increases in acetylcholine could be critical in exacerbating drug-induced stereotypic behaviors and promoting exaggerated behavioral fixity. PMID:24904300

  11. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  12. Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity and Prevention by Herbal Antioxidants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Cho, William C.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the center for drug and xenobiotic metabolism, which is influenced most with medication/xenobiotic-mediated toxic activity. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is common and its actual frequency is hard to determine due to underreporting, difficulties in detection or diagnosis, and incomplete observation of exposure. The death rate is high, up to about 10% for drug-induced liver damage. Endorsed medications represented >50% of instances of intense liver failure in a study from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of the patients admitted in 17 US healing facilities. Albeit different studies are accessible uncovering the mechanistic aspects of medication prompted hepatotoxicity, we are in the dilemma about the virtual story. The expanding prevalence and effectiveness of Ayurveda and natural products in the treatment of various disorders led the investigators to look into their potential in countering drug-induced liver toxicity. Several natural products have been reported to date to mitigate the drug-induced toxicity. The dietary nature and less adverse reactions of the natural products provide them an extra edge over other candidates of supplementary medication. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism involved in drug-induced liver toxicity and the potential of herbal antioxidants as supplementary medication. PMID:26858648

  13. Antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis complicated by pneumococcal sepsis and upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Naoto; Ohnishi, Hisashi; Nishiuma, Teruaki; Doukuni, Ryota; Umezawa, Kanoko; Oozone, Sachiko; Kuramoto, Emi; Yoshimura, Sho; Kinami, Saori

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare pathogen of sepsis in patients with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. We herein describe a case of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis complicated by pneumococcal sepsis and upper airway obstruction. A 27-year-old woman who was previously prescribed methimazole for nine months presented with a four-day history of a sore throat. She nearly choked and was diagnosed with febrile agranulocytosis. She was successfully treated with intubation, intravenous antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Her blood cultures yielded S. pneumoniae. Emergency airway management, treatment of sepsis and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor can improve the clinical course of antithyroid drug-induced pneumococcal sepsis in patients with airway obstruction.

  14. Cardiovascular safety of prokinetic agents: A focus on drug-induced arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Giudicessi, J R; Ackerman, M J; Camilleri, M

    2018-02-14

    Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to gastroenterologists. As a result, substantial effort has been dedicated toward the development of prokinetic agents intended to augment or restore normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the use of several clinically efficacious gastroprokinetic agents, such as cisapride, domperidone, erythromycin, and tegaserod, is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular safety profiles, leading to restrictions in their use. The purpose of this review is to detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead commonly to drug-induced cardiac arrhythmias, specifically drug-induced long QT syndrome, torsades de pointes, and ventricular fibrillation, to examine the cardiovascular safety profiles of several classes of prokinetic agents currently in clinical use, and to explore potential strategies by which the risk of drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia associated with prokinetic agents and other QT interval prolonging medications can be mitigated successfully. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Eculizumab for drug-induced de novo posttransplantation thrombotic microangiopathy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Safa, Kassem; Logan, Merranda S; Batal, Ibrahim; Gabardi, Steven; Rennke, Helmut G; Abdi, Reza

    2015-02-01

    De novo thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) following renal transplantation is a severe complication associated with high rates of allograft failure. Several immunosuppressive agents are associated with TMA. Conventional approaches to managing this entity, such as withdrawal of the offending agent and/or plasmapheresis, often offer limited help, with high rates of treatment failure and graft loss. We herein report a case of drug induced de novo TMA successfully treated using the C5a inhibitor eculizumab in a renal transplant patient. This report highlights a potentially important role for eculizumab in settings where drug-induced de novo TMA is refractory to conventional therapies.

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of Drug-Induced Therapeutic Hypothermia in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junwei; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Li, Haiying; Wang, Zhimin; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    This review article focuses on the neuroprotective effect of drug-induced hypothermia in cerebrovascular diseases and discusses its related side effects. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for a retrospective analysis. Experimental studies have shown that drug-induced hypothermia alleviates brain damage and plays a neuroprotective role, thereby reducing mortality and ameliorating neurological deficits. Therefore, drug-induced hypothermia has an important research value and is worth further consideration in the clinical setting. However, drug-induced hypothermia is also associated with side effects, such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, suppressed immune function, infection, electrolyte imbalance, glucose metabolism disorders, and skeletal muscle tremor. Existing drugs with cooling effects belong to the following categories: (1) dopamine receptor agonists; (2) cannabis; (3) opioid receptors; (4) vanilloid receptors; (5) vasopressins (potent neurotensin receptor agonists); (6) thyroid drugs; (7) adenosine drugs; and (8) purine drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Investigation of Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Its Remediation Pathway with Reaction-Based Fluorescent Probes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Xu, Wang; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-07-18

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is considered a serious problem related to public health, due to its unpredictability and acute response. The level of peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) generated in liver has long been regarded as a biomarker for the prediction and measurement of DILI. Herein we present two reaction-based fluorescent probes (Naph-ONOO - and Rhod-ONOO - ) for ONOO - through a novel and universally applicable mechanism: ONOO - -mediated deprotection of α-keto caged fluorophores. Among them, Rhod-ONOO - can selectively accumulate and react in mitochondria, one of the main sources of ONOO - , with a substantial lower nanomolar sensitivity of 43 nM. The superior selectivity and sensitivity of two probes enable real-time imaging of peroxynitrite generation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated live cells, with a remarkable difference from cells doped with other interfering reactive oxygen species, in either one- or two-photon imaging modes. More importantly, we elucidated the drug-induced hepatotoxicity pathway with Rhod-ONOO - and revealed that CYP450/CYP2E1-mediated enzymatic metabolism of acetaminophen leads to ONOO - generation in liver cells. This is the first time to showcase the drug-induced hepatotoxicity pathways by use of a small-molecule fluorescent probe. We hence conclude that fluorescent probes can engender a deeper understanding of reactive species and their pathological revelations. The reaction-based fluorescent probes will be a potentially useful chemical tool to assay drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  18. [Assessment on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders: a questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-yu; Zhao, Hai; Tang, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2014-12-01

    To understand the assessment on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders and judicial experts' opinions. The judicial experts from institutes of forensic psychiatry in Shanghai were selected. They were asked to finish a self-made questionnaire of assessment on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders by letters and visits. Most of experts knew the special regulation, "not suitable for evaluation" towards the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders of the guideline promulgated by Ministry of Justice. Before and after the guideline was issued, no expert made a no-responsibility opinion in such cases. After the guideline was issued, some experts made a full-responsibility or limited-responsibility opinion in such cases. There was a little disagreement among the experts in the case that the crime was unrelated with mental symptoms or the criminals used drugs even though he knew it could induced insanity. But there were still many obvious disagreements among experts in the case that crime was related to such symptoms and person was no ability to debate. Most experts agreed to settle the disagreements with improved legislative perfection. Most experts are not strictly complying with the assessment guidelines during their practice, and there is still an obvious disagreement towards the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders.

  19. A case of pulmonary hemorrhage due to drug-induced pneumonitis secondary to ticagrelor therapy.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Timothy J; O'Shea, John P; Starac, Diana; Edwards, Mark G; Waterer, Grant W

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of significant pulmonary hemorrhage developing shortly after commencing ticagrelor and aspirin therapy and requiring coronary artery bypass grafting to safely cease the antiplatelet therapy. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with drug-induced lung injury. Clinicians should be aware of this significant adverse event with this drug class.

  20. In silico prediction of drug-induced myelotoxicity by using Naïve Bayes method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Peng; Zhang, Teng-Guo; Kang, Yan-Li; Zhao, Xiao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; He, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Ji

    2015-11-01

    Drug-induced myelotoxicity usually leads to decrease the production of platelets, red cells, and white cells. Thus, early identification and characterization of myelotoxicity hazard in drug development is very necessary. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a prediction model of drug-induced myelotoxicity by using a Naïve Bayes classifier. For comparison, other prediction models based on support vector machine and single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network  methods were also established. Among all the prediction models, the Naïve Bayes classification model showed the best prediction performance, which offered an average overall prediction accuracy of [Formula: see text] for the training set and [Formula: see text] for the external test set. The significant contributions of this study are that we first developed a Naïve Bayes classification model of drug-induced myelotoxicity adverse effect using a larger scale dataset, which could be employed for the prediction of drug-induced myelotoxicity. In addition, several important molecular descriptors and substructures of myelotoxic compounds have been identified, which should be taken into consideration in the design of new candidate compounds to produce safer and more effective drugs, ultimately reducing the attrition rate in later stages of drug development.

  1. Glucose hypermetabolism in the thalamus of patients with drug-induced blepharospasm.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kiyosawa, M; Wakakura, M; Mochizuki, M; Ishiwata, K; Oda, K; Ishii, K

    2014-03-28

    We examined the difference in cerebral function alterations between drug-induced blepharospasm patients and essential blepharospasm (EB) patients by using positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Cerebral glucose metabolism was examined in 21 patients with drug-induced blepharospasm (5 men and 16 women; mean age, 53.1 [range, 29-78] years), 21 essential EB patients (5 men and 16 women; mean age, 53.0 [range, 33-72] years) and 24 healthy subjects (6 men and 18 women; mean age, 57.9 [range, 22-78] years) with long-term history of benzodiazepines use (drug healthy subjects). Drug-induced blepharospasm patients developed symptoms while taking benzodiazepines or thienodiazepines. Sixty-three normal volunteers (15 men and 48 women; mean age, 53.6 [range, 20-70] years) were examined as controls. Differences between the patient groups and control group were examined by statistical parametric mapping. Additionally, we defined regions of interests on both sides of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, anterior putamen, posterior putamen and primary somatosensory area. The differences between groups were tested using two-sample t-tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Cerebral glucose hypermetabolism on both side of the thalamus was detected in drug-induced blepharospasm, EB patients and drug healthy subjects by statistical parametric mapping. In the analysis of regions of interest, glucose metabolism in both sides of the thalamus in the drug-induced blepharospasm group was significantly lower than that in the EB group. Moreover, we observed glucose hypermetabolism in the anterior and posterior putamen bilaterally in EB group but not in drug-induced blepharospasm group and drug healthy subjects. Long-term regimens of benzodiazepines or thienodiazepines may cause down-regulation of benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. We suggest that the functional brain alteration in drug-induced blepharospasm patients is similar to that in EB patients, and

  2. Drug-induced seizures in children and adolescents presenting for emergency care: current and emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Y; Hutson, J R; Freedman, S B; Wax, P; Brent, J

    2013-01-01

    Seizures may be the presenting manifestation of acute poisoning in children. Knowledge of the etiologic agent, or likely drug-class exposure, is crucial to minimize morbidity and optimize care. To describe the agents most commonly responsible for pediatric drug-induced seizures, whose evaluation included a medical toxicology consultation in the United States. Using the 37 participating sites of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry, a cross-country surveillance tool, we conducted an observational study of a prospectively collected cohort. We identified all pediatric (younger than 18 years) reports originating from an Emergency Department (ED) which included a chemical or drug-induced seizure, and required a medical toxicology consultation between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Results. We identified 142 pediatric drug-induced seizure cases (56% male), which represent nearly 5% of pediatric cases requiring bedside consultation by medical toxicologists. One-hundred and seven cases (75%) occurred in children aged 13-18 years, and 86 (61%) resulted from intentional ingestions. Antidepressants were the most commonly identified agents ingested (n = 61; 42%), of which bupropion was the leading drug (n = 30; 50% of antidepressants), followed by anticholinergics/antihistamines (n = 31; 22%). All antidepressant-induced seizures in teenagers were intentional and represented self-harm behavior. Sympathomimetic agents, including street drugs, represent the most common agents in children younger than 2 years (n = 4/19). Antidepressants, and specifically bupropion, are presently the most common medications responsible for pediatric drug-induced seizures requiring medical toxicology consultation in the United States. In teenagers presenting with new-onset seizures of unknown etiology, the possibility of deliberate self-poisoning should be explored, since most drug-induced seizures in this age group resulted from intentional ingestion.

  3. Hepatocyte-based in vitro model for assessment of drug-induced cholestasis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sagnik, E-mail: Sagnik.Chatterjee@pharm.kuleuven.be; Richert, Lysiane, E-mail: l.richert@kaly-cell.com; Augustijns, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Augustijns@pharm.kuleuven.be

    Early detection of drug-induced cholestasis remains a challenge during drug development. We have developed and validated a biorelevant sandwich-cultured hepatocytes- (SCH) based model that can identify compounds causing cholestasis by altering bile acid disposition. Human and rat SCH were exposed (24–48 h) to known cholestatic and/or hepatotoxic compounds, in the presence or in the absence of a concentrated mixture of bile acids (BAs). Urea assay was used to assess (compromised) hepatocyte functionality at the end of the incubations. The cholestatic potential of the compounds was expressed by calculating a drug-induced cholestasis index (DICI), reflecting the relative residual urea formation bymore » hepatocytes co-incubated with BAs and test compound as compared to hepatocytes treated with test compound alone. Compounds with clinical reports of cholestasis, including cyclosporin A, troglitazone, chlorpromazine, bosentan, ticlopidine, ritonavir, and midecamycin showed enhanced toxicity in the presence of BAs (DICI ≤ 0.8) for at least one of the tested concentrations. In contrast, the in vitro toxicity of compounds causing hepatotoxicity by other mechanisms (including diclofenac, valproic acid, amiodarone and acetaminophen), remained unchanged in the presence of BAs. A safety margin (SM) for drug-induced cholestasis was calculated as the ratio of lowest in vitro concentration for which was DICI ≤ 0.8, to the reported mean peak therapeutic plasma concentration. SM values obtained in human SCH correlated well with reported % incidence of clinical drug-induced cholestasis, while no correlation was observed in rat SCH. This in vitro model enables early identification of drug candidates causing cholestasis by disturbed BA handling. - Highlights: • Novel in vitro assay to detect drug-induced cholestasis • Rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) as in vitro models • Cholestatic compounds sensitize SCH to toxic effects of accumulating bile acids

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  6. Drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus in a child after 3 years of treatment with carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ruiz, Ana María; Lasanta, Begoña; Barcia, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elisa; Requena, Luis

    2017-02-01

    Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) is a less severe variant of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that generally resolves within weeks or months after the withdrawal of the implicated drug. DILE is unusual during childhood, with the most frequent age of presentation being at 50-70 years of age. Among different drugs, most commonly procainamide and hydralazine have been implicated as a cause of DILE. However carbamazepine (CBZ) is considered a low-risk drug and very few cases have been reported in children. We describe the case of CBZ-induced SLE in a 9-year-old girl following 3 years of CBZ therapy. This case report shows that drug-induced SLE is an important side-effect to be considered, even after long-term treatment with CBZ, and also during childhood. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Factors affecting drug-induced liver injury: antithyroid drugs as instances

    PubMed Central

    Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Abdoli, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Methimazole and propylthiouracil have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for more than half a century. However, hepatotoxicity is one of the most deleterious side effects associated with these medications. The mechanism(s) of hepatic injury induced by antithyroid agents is not fully recognized yet. Furthermore, there are no specific tools for predicting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs. The purpose of this article is to give an overview on possible susceptibility factors in liver injury induced by antithyroid agents. Age, gender, metabolism characteristics, alcohol consumption, underlying diseases, immunologic mechanisms, and drug interactions are involved in enhancing antithyroid drugs-induced hepatic damage. An outline on the clinically used treatments for antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity and the potential therapeutic strategies found to be effective against this complication are also discussed. PMID:25320726

  8. Substance-P antagonists: effect on spontaneous and drug-induced locomotor activity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Elliott, P J; Iversen, S D

    1987-05-01

    The substance P (SP) antagonists (D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9, Leu11) SP(4-11), (D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9, Phe11)SP(4-11) and (D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9,10, Leu11) SP (4-11) were infused into the lateral ventricles (i.c.v.) and their effects on spontaneous and drug-induced locomotor activity were investigated. The drug DiMeC7, the stable substance P agonist, was used to stimulate locomotor activity because of its prolonged action. Only (D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9,10) SP (4-11) was found to attenuate the drug-induced increases in motor activity, indicating that it is a substance P antagonist with activity in the CNS.

  9. Student Preferences Regarding Teaching Methods in a Drug-Induced Diseases and Clinical Toxicology Course

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Suzanna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To determine which teaching method in a drug-induced diseases and clinical toxicology course was preferred by students and whether their preference correlated with their learning of drug-induced diseases. Design. Three teaching methods incorporating active-learning exercises were implemented. A survey instrument was developed to analyze students’ perceptions of the active-learning methods used and how they compared to the traditional teaching method (lecture). Examination performance was then correlated to students’ perceptions of various teaching methods. Assessment. The majority of the 107 students who responded to the survey found traditional lecture significantly more helpful than active-learning methods (p=0.01 for all comparisons). None of the 3 active-learning methods were preferred over the others. No significant correlations were found between students’ survey responses and examination performance. Conclusions. Students preferred traditional lecture to other instructional methods. Learning was not influenced by the teaching method or by preference for a teaching method. PMID:23966726

  10. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi, E-mail: ssekine@facult

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and inmore » hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity was evaluated using primary rat hepatocytes. • Galactose and hyperoxia could activate OXPHOS in primary rat hepatocytes. • Cells with enhanced OXPHOS exhibit improved sensitivity to mitochondrial toxins. • Transferrin potentiate mitochondrial toxicity via increased ROS production.« less

  11. Drug-induced Sweet's syndrome secondary to hepatitis C antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Liana; Cotruta, Bogdan; Trifu, Viorel; Cotruta, Cristina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2008-09-01

    Pegylated interferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin currently represents the therapeutic standard for the hepatitis C virus infection. Interferon based therapy may be responsible for many cutaneous side effects. We report a case of drug-induced Sweet's syndrome secondary to hepatitis C antiviral therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Sweet's syndrome in association with pegylated interferon-alpha therapy.

  12. Drug-induced parkinsonism following chronic methamphetamine use by a patient on haloperidol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Binoj J; Gedzior, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    This report attempts to highlight that use of an antipsychotic and concurrent chronic use of methamphetamine can cause drug-induced parkinsonism. Methamphetamine is usually not encountered in the list of agents that induce drug-induced parkinsonism and so its consideration particularly during chronic use by a patient who is also on an antipsychotic is worthwhile because of its popularity as an illegal narcotic. This case report describes just such a case of drug-induced parkinsonism which is a subacute syndrome that mimics Parkinson's disease. Although less alarming than dystonia, it is more common, more difficult to treat and can be the cause of significant disability during maintenance treatment especially in the elderly. In most cases, symptoms are reversible in days or weeks, but occasionally, especially in the elderly, or if long-acting injectable antipsychotics are used-as in this case-symptoms may last for weeks or months. The report also illustrates the neuronal workings due to chronic methamphetamine-use and the additive effects of dopamine blockade by antipsychotics such as haloperidol. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. hERG trafficking inhibition in drug-induced lethal cardiac arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Nogawa, Hisashi; Kawai, Tomoyuki

    2014-10-15

    Acquired long QT syndrome induced by non-cardiovascular drugs can cause lethal cardiac arrhythmia called torsades de points and is a significant problem in drug development. The prolongation of QT interval and cardiac action potential duration are mainly due to reduced physiological function of the rapidly activating voltage-dependent potassium channels encoded by human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). Structurally diverse groups of drugs are known to directly inhibit hERG channel conductance. Therefore, the ability of acute hERG inhibition is routinely assessed at the preclinical stages in pharmaceutical testing. Recent findings indicated that chronic treatment with various drugs not only inhibits hERG channels but also decreases hERG channel expression in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes, which has become another concern in safety pharmacology. The mechanisms involve the disruption of hERG trafficking to the surface membrane or the acceleration of hERG protein degradation. From this perspective, we present a brief overview of mechanisms of drug-induced trafficking inhibition and pathological regulation. Understanding of drug-induced hERG trafficking inhibition may provide new strategies for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation and lethal cardiac arrhythmia in pharmaceutical drug development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Rámiz, Albert; Brunet-LLobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Miranda-Rius, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gingival overgrowth has been linked to multiple factors such as adverse drug effects, inflammation, neoplastic processes, and hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a well-established adverse event. In early stages, this gingival enlargement is usually located in the area of the interdental papilla. Histologically, there is an increase in the different components of the extracellular matrix. Objective: The aim of this manuscript is to describe and analyze the different cellular and molecular agents involved in the pathogenesis of Drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Method: A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted to identify the mechanisms involved in the process of drug-induced gingival overgrowth, with the assistance of a research librarian. We present several causal hypotheses and discuss the advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that trigger this gingival alteration. Results: In vitro studies have revealed phenotypic cellular changes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and an increase of the extracellular matrix with collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth confirms the key role of collagenase and integrins, membrane receptors present in the fibroblasts, due to their involvement in the catabolism of collagen. The three drug categories implicated: calcineuron inhibitors (immunosuppressant drugs), calcium channel blocking agents and anticonvulsant drugs appear to present a multifactorial pathogenesis with a common molecular action: the blockage of the cell membrane in the Ca2+/Na+ ion flow. The alteration of the uptake of cellular folic acid, which depends on the regulated channels of active cationic transport and on passive diffusion, results in a dysfunctional degradation of the connective tissue. Certain intermediate molecules such as cytokines and prostaglandins play a role in this pathological mechanism. The concomitant inflammatory factor encourages the

  15. Causes, Clinical Features, and Outcomes From a Prospective Study of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Naga; Fontana, Robert J.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Watkins, Paul B.; Davern, Timothy; Serrano, Jose; Yang, Hongqiu; Rochon, James

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is among the most common causes of acute liver failure in the United States, accounting for approximately 13% of cases. A prospective study was begun in 2003 to recruit patients with suspected DILI and create a repository of biological samples for analysis. This report summarizes the causes, clinical features, and outcomes from the first 300 patients enrolled. Methods Patients with suspected DILI were enrolled based on predefined criteria and followed up for at least 6 months. Patients with acetaminophen liver injury were excluded. Results DILI was caused by a single prescription medication in 73% of the cases, by dietary supplements in 9%, and by multiple agents in 18%. More than 100 different agents were associated with DILI; antimicrobials (45.5%) and central nervous system agents (15%) were the most common. Causality was considered to be definite in 32%, highly likely in 41%, probable in 14%, possible in 10%, and unlikely in 3%. Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was the final diagnosis in 4 of 9 unlikely cases. Six months after enrollment, 14% of patients had persistent laboratory abnormalities and 8% had died; the cause of death was liver related in 44% Conclusions DILI is caused by a wide array of medications, herbal supplements, and dietary supplements. Antibiotics are the single largest class of agents that cause DILI. Acute HCV infection should be excluded in patients with suspected DILI by HCV RNA testing. The overall 6-month mortality was 8%, but the majority of deaths were not liver related. PMID:18955056

  16. 76 FR 4918 - Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Are We Ready to Look?; Public Conference; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Research Manufacturers of America to discuss and debate issues regarding drug-induced liver injury (DILI... of both basic science and clinical experts, and selecting for specific debate and discussion issues...

  17. Case ascertainment and estimated incidence of drug-induced long-QT syndrome: study in Southwest France

    PubMed Central

    Molokhia, Mariam; Pathak, Atul; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Caturla, Laetitia; Montastruc, Jean Louis; McKeigue, Paul

    2008-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and reporting rate of drug-induced long-QT syndrome (LQTS) in France [defined by evidence of torsades de pointes (TdP), QT prolongation and exposure to a relevant drug] and to assess feasibility of case collection for drug-induced LQTS. METHODS A retrospective population-based study was carried out in Southwest France in five institutions: three main hospitals, one private clinic and one cardiac emergency unit, searched from 1 January 1999 to 1 January 2005 (population coverage of 614 000). The study population consisted of 861 cases with International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic codes for ventricular tachycardia (I147.2), ventricular fibrillation (I149.0) and sudden cardiac death (I146.1) from hospital discharge summaries, supplemented by cases reported to national or regional pharmacovigilance systems, and voluntary reporting by physicians, validated according to internationally defined criteria for drug-induced LQTS. RESULTS Of 861 patients coded with arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death, there were 40 confirmed surviving acquired cases of drug-induced LQTS. We estimated that the incidence of those who survive to reach hospital drug-induced LQTS is approximately 10.9 per million annually in France (95% confidence interval 7.8, 14.8). CONCLUSIONS Many cases of drug-induced LQTS may not survive before they reach hospital, as the reporting rate for drug-induced LQTS identified through the cardiology records and also reported to pharmacovigilance systems for the Midi-Pyrenees area is 3/40 (7.5%). Using the methods outlined it is possible to assemble cases to study genetic susceptibility to drug-induced LQTS and adapt these methods more widely. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially fatal condition that has led to a number of postmarketing withdrawals in recent years. However, many cases may not survive long enough to reach hospital, and

  18. A prediction model of drug-induced ototoxicity developed by an optimal support vector machine (SVM) method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu; Li, Guo-Bo; Huang, Lu-Yi; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Chen, Yu-Zong; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2014-08-01

    Drug-induced ototoxicity, as a toxic side effect, is an important issue needed to be considered in drug discovery. Nevertheless, current experimental methods used to evaluate drug-induced ototoxicity are often time-consuming and expensive, indicating that they are not suitable for a large-scale evaluation of drug-induced ototoxicity in the early stage of drug discovery. We thus, in this investigation, established an effective computational prediction model of drug-induced ototoxicity using an optimal support vector machine (SVM) method, GA-CG-SVM. Three GA-CG-SVM models were developed based on three training sets containing agents bearing different risk levels of drug-induced ototoxicity. For comparison, models based on naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods were also used on the same training sets. Among all the prediction models, the GA-CG-SVM model II showed the best performance, which offered prediction accuracies of 85.33% and 83.05% for two independent test sets, respectively. Overall, the good performance of the GA-CG-SVM model II indicates that it could be used for the prediction of drug-induced ototoxicity in the early stage of drug discovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of snoring sounds between natural and drug-induced sleep recorded using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Kwon, Soon Bok; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Ho Byung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-08-01

    Snoring is an important clinical feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and recent studies suggest that the acoustic quality of snoring sounds is markedly different in drug-induced sleep compared with natural sleep. However, considering differences in sound recording methods and analysis parameters, further studies are required. This study explored whether acoustic analysis of drug-induced sleep is useful as a screening test that reflects the characteristics of natural sleep in snoring patients. The snoring sounds of 30 male subjects (mean age=41.8years) were recorded using a smartphone during natural and induced sleep, with the site of vibration noted during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE); then, we compared the sound intensity (dB), formant frequencies, and spectrograms of snoring sounds. Regarding the intensity of snoring sounds, there were minor differences within the retrolingual level obstruction group, but there was no significant difference between natural and induced sleep at either obstruction site. There was no significant difference in the F 1 and F 2 formant frequencies of snoring sounds between natural sleep and induced sleep at either obstruction site. Compared with natural sleep, induced sleep was slightly more irregular, with a stronger intensity on the spectrogram, but the spectrograms showed the same pattern at both obstruction sites. Although further studies are required, the spectrograms and formant frequencies of the snoring sounds of induced sleep did not differ significantly from those of natural sleep, and may be used as a screening test that reflects the characteristics of natural sleep according to the obstruction site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Massart, Julie; Begriche, Karima; Moreau, Caroline; Fromenty, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which refers to a large spectrum of hepatic lesions including fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Different investigations showed or suggested that obesity and NAFLD are able to increase the risk of hepatotoxicity of different drugs. Some of these drugs could induce more frequently an acute hepatitis in obese individuals whereas others could worsen pre-existing NAFLD. Aim The main objective of the present review was to collect the available information regarding the role of NAFLD as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, we performed a data-mining analysis using different queries including drug-induced liver injury (or DILI), drug-induced hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (or NAFLD), steatosis and obesity. The main data from the collected articles are reported in this review and when available, some pathophysiological hypotheses are put forward. Relevance for patients Drugs that could pose a potential risk in obese patients include compounds belonging to different pharmacological classes such as acetaminophen, halothane, methotrexate, rosiglitazone, stavudine and tamoxifen. For some of these drugs, experimental investigations in obese rodents confirmed the clinical observations and unveiled different pathophysiological mechanisms which could explain why these pharmaceuticals are particularly hepatotoxic in obesity and NAFLD. Other drugs such as pentoxifylline, phenobarbital and omeprazole might also pose a risk but more investigations are required to determine whether this risk is significant or not. Because obese people often take several drugs for the treatment of different obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease, it is urgent to identify the main pharmaceuticals that can cause acute hepatitis on a fatty liver background or induce NAFLD worsening

  1. Glucosylceramide and Lysophosphatidylcholines as Potential Blood Biomarkers for Drug-Induced Hepatic Phospholipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kosuke; Maekawa, Keiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is one of the major concerns in drug development and clinical treatment. The present study involved the use of a nontargeting lipidomic analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to explore noninvasive blood biomarkers for hepatic phospholipidosis from rat plasma. We used three tricyclic antidepressants (clomipramine [CPM], imipramine [IMI], and amitriptyline [AMT]) for the model of phospholipidosis in hepatocytes and ketoconazole (KC) for the model of phospholipidosis in cholangiocytes and administered treatment for 3 and 28 days each. Total plasma lipids were extracted and measured. Lipid molecules contributing to the separation of control and drug-treated rat plasma in a multivariate orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were identified. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) (16:1, 18:1, 18:2, and 20:4) and 42:1 hexosylceramide (HexCer) were identified as molecules separating control and drug-treated rats in all models of phospholipidosis in hepatocytes. In addition, 16:1, 18:2, and 20:4 LPCs and 42:1 HexCer were identified in a model of hepatic phospholipidosis in cholangiocytes, although LPCs were identified only in the case of 3-day treatment with KC. The levels of LPCs were decreased by drug-induced phospholipidosis, whereas those of 42:1 HexCer were increased. The increase in 42:1 HexCer was much higher in the case of IMI and AMT than in the case of CPM; moreover, the increase induced by IMI was dose-dependent. Structural characterization determining long-chain base and hexose delineated that 42:1 HexCer was d18:1/24:0 glucosylceramide (GluCer). In summary, our study demonstrated that d18:1/24:0 GluCer and LPCs are potential novel biomarkers for drug-induced hepatic phospholipidosis. PMID:24980264

  2. Mechanism of drug-induced gingival overgrowth revisited: a unifying hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, RS; Arany, PR

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a disfiguring side effect of anti-convulsants, calcineurin inhibitors, and calcium channel blocking agents. A unifying hypothesis has been constructed which begins with cation flux inhibition induced by all three of these drug categories. Decreased cation influx of folic acid active transport within gingival fibroblasts leads to decreased cellular folate uptake, which in turn leads to changes in matrix metalloproteinases metabolism and the failure to activate collagenase. Decreased availability of activated collagenase results in decreased degradation of accumulated connective tissue which presents as DIGO. Studies supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:24893951

  3. Potential candidate genomic biomarkers of drug induced vascular injury in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmas, Deidre A., E-mail: Deidre.A.Dalmas@gsk.com; Scicchitano, Marshall S., E-mail: Marshall.S.Scicchitano@gsk.com; Mullins, David, E-mail: David.R.Mullins@gsk.com

    2011-12-15

    Drug-induced vascular injury is frequently observed in rats but the relevance and translation to humans present a hurdle for drug development. Numerous structurally diverse pharmacologic agents have been shown to induce mesenteric arterial medial necrosis in rats, but no consistent biomarkers have been identified. To address this need, a novel strategy was developed in rats to identify genes associated with the development of drug-induced mesenteric arterial medial necrosis. Separate groups (n = 6/group) of male rats were given 28 different toxicants (30 different treatments) for 1 or 4 days with each toxicant given at 3 different doses (low, mid andmore » high) plus corresponding vehicle (912 total rats). Mesentery was collected, frozen and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells were microdissected from each artery. RNA was isolated, amplified and Affymetrix GeneChip Registered-Sign analysis was performed on selectively enriched samples and a novel panel of genes representing those which showed a dose responsive pattern for all treatments in which mesenteric arterial medial necrosis was histologically observed, was developed and verified in individual endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell-enriched samples. Data were confirmed in samples containing mesentery using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan Trade-Mark-Sign ) gene expression profiling. In addition, the performance of the panel was also confirmed using similarly collected samples obtained from a timecourse study in rats given a well established vascular toxicant (Fenoldopam). Although further validation is still required, a novel gene panel has been developed that represents a strategic opportunity that can potentially be used to help predict the occurrence of drug-induced mesenteric arterial medial necrosis in rats at an early stage in drug development. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gene panel was developed to help predict rat drug-induced mesenteric MAN. Black

  4. A novel mixed phospholipid functionalized monolithic column for early screening of drug induced phospholipidosis risk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, XiangLong; Chen, WeiJia; Liu, ZhengHua; Guo, JiaLiang; Zhou, ZhengYin; Crommen, Jacques; Moaddel, Ruin; Jiang, ZhengJin

    2014-11-07

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is characterized by the excessive accumulation of phospholipids, resulting in multilamellar vesicle structure within lysosomes. In the present study, a novel mixed phospholipid functionalized monolithic column was developed for the first time through a facile one-step co-polymerization approach. The phospholipid composition of the monolith can be adjusted quantitatively and accurately to mimic the mixed phospholipid environment of different biomembranes on a solid matrix. The mixed phospholipid functionalized monolith as a promising immobilized artificial membrane technique was used to study drug-phospholipid interaction. Scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectra, ζ-potential analysis and micro-HPLC were carried out to characterize the physicochemical properties and separation performance of the monolith. Mechanism studies revealed that both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play an important role in the retention of analytes. The ratio of their contributions to retention can be easily manipulated by adjusting the composition of the mixed phospholipids, in order to better mimic the interaction between drugs and cell membrane. The obtained mixed phospholipid functionalized monolithic columns were applied to the screening of drug-induced PLD potency. Data from 79 drugs on the market demonstrated that the chromatographic hydrophobicity index referring to the mixed phospholipid functionalized monolith at pH 7.4 (CHI IAM7.4) for the selected drugs were highly correlated with the drug-induced PLD potency data obtained from other in vivo or in vitro assays. Moreover, the effect of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylserine proportion on prediction accuracy was also investigated. The monolith containing 20% phosphatidylserine and 80% phosphatidylcholine exhibited the best prediction ability for the drug-induced PLD potency of the tested compounds. This research has led to the successful development of a

  5. Organization and logistics of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in a training hospital.

    PubMed

    Benoist, L B L; de Vries, N

    2015-09-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a rapidly growing method to evaluate airway collapse in patients receiving non-CPAP therapies for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The growing number of DISEs has consequences for the organization of clinical protocols. In this paper we present our recent experiences with DISE, performed by an ENT resident, with sedation given by a nurse anesthetist, in an outpatient endoscopy setting, while the staff member/sleep surgeon discusses the findings and the recommended treatment proposal on the same day.

  6. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease. PMID:28100990

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in a patient with drug-induced aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T K; Band, P R; Pabst, H; Goldsand, G; Armstrong, W D; Brown, J; Hill, J R; Dossetor, J B

    1972-09-09

    A 23-year-old woman gravely ill with Pseudomonas septicemia secondary to presumed drug-induced bone marrow aplasia received marrow transplantation from two male HL-A identical sibling donors. She had a successful engraftment with excellent but temporary clinical improvement. Subsequently she succumbed to graft-versus-host disease manifested by Pseudomonas and Candida albicans septicemia, cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, three phases of dermatitis, nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, diarrhea, fever, edema and bone pain, with gradual but complete graft suppression by the 74th day after the transplantation. A second marrow transplant on the 70th day was unsuccessful.

  8. Effect of drug-induced hyperuricaemia on renal function in Nigerians with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Adebisi, S A; Oluboyo, P O; Okesina, A B

    2000-01-01

    Some anti-tuberculosis chemotherapeutic agents have been established as causing hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia in turn causes renal damage. This study therefore aims at establishing the effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs-induced hyperuricaemia on renal function of the patients. Fifty patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis with mean age of 36.8 years (SD 13.69) consisting of 14 females and 17 males were longitudinally studied each for 6 months to determine the effect of drug-induced hyperuricaemia on their renal function. The Biochemical indices determined included serum urate level, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance of newly diagnosed patient with tuberculosis, before and during treatment with anti-tuberculosis therapy. Serum urate level revealed that 16 (51.6%) and 15 (48.4%) of the patients were hyperuricaemic at the end of the first and second months of anti-tuberculosis therapy. There was no significant difference in the mean serum creatinine level of the control group 96 micromol/L when compared with both the pre-treat value 89 micromol/L (P > 0.25) as well as the value at the end of the sixth month of treatment 91 micromol/L (P > 0.40). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean creatinine clearance of the control group 102 ml/min/1.73 m2 when compared with the patient's mean pre-treatment value (89 ml/min/1.73 m2) P < 0.05. Also the mean creatinine clearance increased to (103 ml/min/1.73 m2) by the end of the 6th month of treatment, a value that is statistically significant when compared with the pretreatment value of (89 ml/min/1.73 m2) P < 0.05. We submit as follows: that pulmonary tuberculosis as a disease with significant impairment of renal function; despite the associated drug-induced hyperuricaemia recorded during the treatment, renal function steadily improved with the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis to the extent that comparable values with control was obtained at the end of treatment. We

  9. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  10. Pharmacogenetic aspects of drug-induced torsade de pointes: potential tool for improving clinical drug development and prescribing.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2004-01-01

    Drug-induced torsade de pointes (TdP) has proved to be a significant iatro-genic cause of morbidity and mortality and a major reason for the withdrawal of a number of drugs from the market in recent times. Enzymes that metabolise many of these drugs and the potassium channels that are responsible for cardiac repolarisation display genetic polymorphisms. Anecdotal reports have suggested that in many cases of drug-induced TdP, there may be a concealed genetic defect of either these enzymes or the potassium channels, giving rise to either high plasma drug concentrations or diminished cardiac repolarisation reserve, respectively. The presence of either of these genetic defects may predispose a patient to TdP, a potentially fatal adverse reaction, even at therapeutic dosages of QT-prolonging drugs and in the absence of other risk factors. Advances in pharmacogenetics of drug metabolising enzymes and pharmacological targets, together with the prospects of rapid and inexpensive genotyping procedures, promise to individualise and improve the benefit/risk ratio of therapy with drugs that have the potential to cause TdP. The qualitative and the quantitative contributions of these genetic defects in clinical cases of TdP are unclear because not all of the patients with TdP are routinely genotyped and some relevant genetic mutations still remain to be discovered. There are regulatory guidelines that recommend strategies aimed at uncovering the risk of TdP associated with new chemical entities during their development. There are also a number of guidelines that recommend integrating pharmacogenetics in this process. This paper proposes a strategy for integrating pharmacogenetics into drug development programmes to optimise association studies correlating genetic traits and endpoints of clinical interest, namely failure of efficacy or development of repolarisation abnormalities. Until pharmacogenetics is carefully integrated into all phases of development of QT-prolonging drugs

  11. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Descamps, V; Mahe, E; Houhou, N; Abramowitz, L; Rozenberg, F; Ranger-Rogez, S; Crickx, B

    2003-05-01

    Association of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with viral infection is debated. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation has been the most frequently reported infection associated with this syndrome. However, a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was recently described associated with anticonvulsant-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. We report a case of severe allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with pancreatitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Active EBV infection was demonstrated in two consecutive serum samples by the presence of anti-EBV early antigen (EA) IgM antibodies and an increase in anti-EBV EA IgG antibodies, whereas no anti-EBV nuclear antigen IgG antibodies were detected. EBV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reactivation of HHV-6 was suggested only by the presence of anti-HHV-6 IgM antibodies, but HHV-6 DNA was not detected by PCR in the serum. Other viral investigations showed previous infection (CMV, rubella, measles, parvovirus B19), immunization after vaccination (hepatitis B virus), or absence of previous infection (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). We suggest that EBV infection may participate in some cases, as do the other herpesviruses HHV-6 or CMV, in the development of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

  12. Characterization of drug-induced transcriptional modules: towards drug repositioning and functional understanding

    PubMed Central

    Iskar, Murat; Zeller, Georg; Blattmann, Peter; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Kaminska, Katarzyna H; Runz, Heiko; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pepperkok, Rainer; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

    2013-01-01

    In pharmacology, it is crucial to understand the complex biological responses that drugs elicit in the human organism and how well they can be inferred from model organisms. We therefore identified a large set of drug-induced transcriptional modules from genome-wide microarray data of drug-treated human cell lines and rat liver, and first characterized their conservation. Over 70% of these modules were common for multiple cell lines and 15% were conserved between the human in vitro and the rat in vivo system. We then illustrate the utility of conserved and cell-type-specific drug-induced modules by predicting and experimentally validating (i) gene functions, e.g., 10 novel regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and (ii) new mechanisms of action for existing drugs, thereby providing a starting point for drug repositioning, e.g., novel cell cycle inhibitors and new modulators of α-adrenergic receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and estrogen receptor. Taken together, the identified modules reveal the conservation of transcriptional responses towards drugs across cell types and organisms, and improve our understanding of both the molecular basis of drug action and human biology. PMID:23632384

  13. [Viral and drug-induced liver damage in children with tuberculosis: prevalence, clinical features].

    PubMed

    Borzakova, S N; Aksenova, V A; Reĭzis, A R

    2013-01-01

    THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH: Improving the effectiveness of diagnostics and treatment of viral and drug-induced lesions of the liver (DILL) at a tuberculosis in children by identifying the frequency of their distribution, peculiarities of diagnostics and clinics. We examined 242 children in the age from 2 months to 17 years, the patients with different forms of tuberculosis. The prevalence of hepatitis in children with tuberculosis: B - 1,2%, C-0.4%, G - 4,6%, TT - 8,7%. DILL was diagnosed in 67.5% of children - TB patients, in 48% of the children with DILL an asymptomatic course of the disease was noted, however, in 54.4% of the children with DILL cytolitic syndrome was expressed (ALT> standards). The prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C among children with TB is low. The infection with viruses of hepatitis G and TT is more often, but has no significant impact as on the course of tuberculosis, and on the severity of the liver damage. Drug-induced liver damage is a dominant view of pathology of the liver in children - TB patients and is mostly asymptomatic, but with a pronounced cytolitic syndrome.

  14. Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  15. A Case Report of Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia after Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    ARAI, KEISUKE; KURAMITSU, KAORI; FUKUMOTO, TAKUMI; KIDO, MASAHIRO; TAKEBE, ATSUSHI; TANAKA, MOTOFUMI; KINOSHITA, HISOKA; AJIKI, TETSUO; TOYAMA, HIROCHIKA; ASARI, SADAKI; GOTO, TADAHIRO; KU, YONSON

    2016-01-01

    There are few descriptions of severe thrombocytopenia during the early postoperative period after liver transplantation, and these have not been fully documented in the literature. Here, we report a case of drug-induced thrombocytopenia requiring transfusion of blood products after living donor liver transplantation. We determined that this was not caused by the interferon-free anti-viral therapy but by tacrolimus A 61-year-old woman with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft from her son. After transplantation, immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroid. Seven weeks after transplantation, interferon-free therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir was started. Thirteen days thereafter, hepatitis C virus tested negative. However, the platelet count had begun to gradually decrease just before starting anti-viral therapy. Daclatasvir and asunaprevir were stopped because this was suspected to be a side-effect of these drugs, but the patient nonetheless went on to develop severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count 17,000/μL), which needed transfusions. Now suspecting tacrolimus as the inducer of this side effect, we changed to cyclosporin, after which the platelet count gradually recovered. Viral markers were still not detectable up to 2 months after discontinuation of the antiviral drugs. We conclude that when severe thrombocytopenia occurs, possible drug-induced thrombocytopenia as well as other disorders must be investigated. PMID:27492209

  16. Complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies distinguish drug-induced lupus from systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, R L; Teodorescu, M; Beutner, E H; Plunkett, R W

    2004-01-01

    The immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody (ANA) test has been widely used to monitor autoimmune disease, but its value for diagnostic purposes is compromised by low specificity and high prevalence in disease-free individuals. The capacity of autoantibodies to fix serum complement proteins when bound to antigen is an important effector function because this property is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. The current study evaluates the complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies (CANA) in three well-defined and clinically-related patient groups: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), drug-induced lupus (DIL) and drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA). Of 20 patients diagnosed with SLE, 90% displayed complement-fixing ANA while this feature was present in only two of 18 patients with DIL and no patients with DIA without associated disease even though the mean ANA titres were similar among these patient groups. CANA was significantly correlated with anti-Sm activity. Because SLE but not DIL or DIA can be a life-threatening disease associated with complement consumption in vivo, these results demonstrate that measurement of CANA is a diagnostically useful tool and may have immunopathologic implications.

  17. Unraveling cellular pathways contributing to drug-induced liver injury by dynamical modeling.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Isoude A; Yang, Huan; Van De Water, Bob; Beltman, Joost B

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant threat to human health and a major problem in drug development. It is hard to predict due to its idiosyncratic nature and which does not show up in animal trials. Hepatic adaptive stress response pathway activation is generally observed in drug-induced liver injury. Dynamical pathway modeling has the potential to foresee adverse effects of drugs before they go in trial. Ordinary differential equation modeling can offer mechanistic insight, and allows us to study the dynamical behavior of stress pathways involved in DILI. Areas covered: This review provides an overview on the progress of the dynamical modeling of stress and death pathways pertinent to DILI, i.e. pathways relevant for oxidative stress, inflammatory stress, DNA damage, unfolded proteins, heat shock and apoptosis. We also discuss the required steps for applying such modeling to the liver. Expert opinion: Despite the strong progress made since the turn of the century, models of stress pathways have only rarely been specifically applied to describe pathway dynamics for DILI. We argue that with minor changes, in some cases only to parameter values, many of these models can be repurposed for application in DILI research. Combining both dynamical models with in vitro testing might offer novel screening methods for the harmful side-effects of drugs.

  18. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  19. Glucuronidation of Drugs and Drug-Induced Toxicity in Humanized UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze glucuronidation of various drugs. Although experimental rodents are used in preclinical studies to predict glucuronidation and toxicity of drugs in humans, species differences in glucuronidation and drug-induced toxicity have been reported. Humanized UGT1 mice in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus (hUGT1 mice) were recently developed. In this study, acyl-glucuronidations of etodolac, diclofenac, and ibuprofen in liver microsomes of hUGT1 mice were examined and compared with those of humans and regular mice. The kinetics of etodolac, diclofenac, and ibuprofen acyl-glucuronidation in hUGT1 mice were almost comparable to those in humans, rather than in mice. We further investigated the hepatotoxicity of ibuprofen in hUGT1 mice and regular mice by measuring serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels. Because ALT levels were increased at 6 hours after dosing in hUGT1 mice and at 24 hours after dosing in regular mice, the onset pattern of ibuprofen-induced liver toxicity in hUGT1 mice was different from that in regular mice. These data suggest that hUGT1 mice can be valuable tools for understanding glucuronidations of drugs and drug-induced toxicity in humans. PMID:24764149

  20. Drug-Induced by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Recurrent Pericardial Effusion After Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Haydari, Aghigh; Sabzi, Feridoun; Dabiri, Samsam; Poormotaabed, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    We report a patient presented with recurrent pericardial effusion caused by drug-induced systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE) following mitral valve repair. The surgery was complicated by hemiparesis and convulsion in early postoperative period. The patient had been received carbamazepine for a paroxysmal seizure that occurred following mitral valve repair. The post operative computed tomography showed embolic stroke and its sequel (seizure) that treated with carbamazepine. In the 3rd month of follow-up, however, hemiparesis recovered by physiotherapy but carbamazepine was not discontinued as by request of neurologist. In the 6th month of surgery, the patient admitted by dyspnea and massive pericardial effusion that treated by subxiphoid drainage. This event was re occurred in two times in a short time frame and each event treated by surgical approach. The serologic exam in the last admission revealed drug-induced lupus erythematosus. The carbamazepine as an anti convulsive drug has been described to cause LE like disease in multiple case reports. Laboratory exam exhibited the possibility of carbamazepine-induced lupus in our case, with the extremely rare presentation of recurrent massive pericardial effusion.

  1. Drug-induced Fanconi syndrome associated with fumaric acid esters treatment for psoriasis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Balak, Deepak M W; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; de Vries, Aiko P J; Hartman, Jenny; Neumann, Hendrik A Martino; Zietse, Robert; Thio, Hok Bing

    2016-02-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAEs), an oral immunomodulating treatment for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, have been anecdotally associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction due to a drug-induced Fanconi syndrome. Few data are available on clinical outcomes of FAE-induced Fanconi syndrome. Descriptive case series with two cases of Fanconi syndrome associated with FAE treatment diagnosed at two Dutch university nephrology departments, three cases reported at the Dutch and German national pharmacovigilance databases and six previously reported cases. All 11 cases involved female patients with psoriasis. The median age at the time of onset was 38 years [interquartile range (IQR) 37-46]. Patients received long-term FAEs treatment with a median treatment duration of 60 months (IQR 28-111). Laboratory tests were typically significant for low serum levels of phosphate and uric acid, while urinalysis showed glycosuria and proteinuria. Eight (73%) patients had developed a hypophosphataemic osteomalacia and three (27%) had pathological bone fractures. All patients discontinued FAEs, while four (36%) patients were treated with supplementation of phosphate and/or vitamin D. Five (45%) patients had persisting symptoms despite FAEs discontinuation. FAEs treatment can cause drug-induced Fanconi syndrome, but the association has been reported infrequently. Female patients with psoriasis treated long term with FAEs seem to be particularly at risk. Physicians treating patients with FAEs should be vigilant and monitor for the potential occurrence of Fanconi syndrome. Measurement of the urinary albumin:total protein ratio is a suggested screening tool for tubular proteinuria in Fanconi syndrome.

  2. Spontaneous and Drug-induced Arteritis/Polyarteritis in the Göttingen Minipig-Review.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Zuhal; Piccicuto, Virginie; Walker, Ursula Junker; Mahl, Andreas; McKeag, Sean

    2018-02-01

    Arteritis/polyarteritis occurs spontaneously in many species used in preclinical toxicology studies. In Göttingen minipigs, arteritis/polyarteritis is an occasionally observed background change. In the minipig, this finding differs in frequency and nature from age-related polyarteritis nodosa in rats or monkeys, and Beagle pain syndrome in dogs. In minipigs, it can be present in a single small- or medium-sized artery of an organ or a few organs and is most commonly recorded in the cardiac and extracardiac blood vessels, vagina, oviduct, rectum, epididymis, spinal cord, pancreas, urinary bladder, kidneys, and stomach. The etiology is unknown although it has been considered in minipigs as well as in rats, dogs, and monkeys to be possibly immune mediated. This background change is important with respect to its nature and distribution in the minipig in order to distinguish it from drug-induced vascular changes, which might occur in similar locations and have similar morphologic features. This review summarizes the morphology, incidence, and predilection sites of arteritis as a spontaneously occurring background change and as a drug-induced vasculopathy in the minipig, and also describes the main aspects to consider when evaluating vascular changes in Göttingen minipig toxicity studies and their human relevance.

  3. AgHalo: A Facile Fluorogenic Sensor to Detect Drug-Induced Proteome Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Fares, Matthew; Dunham, Noah P; Gao, Zi; Miao, Kun; Jiang, Xueyuan; Bollinger, Samuel S; Boal, Amie K; Zhang, Xin

    2017-07-17

    Drug-induced proteome stress that involves protein aggregation may cause adverse effects and undermine the safety profile of a drug. Safety of drugs is regularly evaluated using cytotoxicity assays that measure cell death. However, these assays provide limited insights into the presence of proteome stress in live cells. A fluorogenic protein sensor is reported to detect drug-induced proteome stress prior to cell death. An aggregation prone Halo-tag mutant (AgHalo) was evolved to sense proteome stress through its aggregation. Detection of such conformational changes was enabled by a fluorogenic ligand that fluoresces upon AgHalo forming soluble aggregates. Using 5 common anticancer drugs, we exemplified detection of differential proteome stress before any cell death was observed. Thus, this sensor can be used to evaluate drug safety in a regime that the current cytotoxicity assays cannot cover and be generally applied to detect proteome stress induced by other toxins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. One patient with schizophrenia showed reduced drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms as a result of an alternative regimen of treatment with paliperidone 3 and 6 mg every other day.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Hibino, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo; Mikami, Katsunaka

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that requires long-term management with antipsychotics. Antipsychotic drugs are given by tapering their dose, extending the dosing interval, and so on, as part of a treatment strategy to minimize the adverse effects while at the same time maintaining efficacy. We report the case of one patient with schizophrenia in whom the clinical symptoms were alleviated after treatment with 6 mg paliperidone. However, the patient developed extrapyramidal syndrome, for which 3 and 6 mg paliperidone were administered alternately every other day. Extrapyramidal syndrome was assessed using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, or Barnes Akathisia Scale. There was improvement in Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale score and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale score. However, there was almost no change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, positive score, negative score, or general score. The results indicate the possibility of lessened adverse effects as a result of an alternative regimen of treatment with paliperidone 3 and 6 mg every other day in the maintenance phase.

  5. Epidemiology of symptomatic drug-induced long QT syndrome and Torsade de Pointes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sarganas, Giselle; Garbe, Edeltraut; Klimpel, Andreas; Hering, Rolf C; Bronder, Elisabeth; Haverkamp, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS) leading to Torsade de Pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal condition, which has led to several post-marketing drug withdrawals in the past decade. The true incidence of diLQTS/TdP is largely unknown. One explanation is under-reporting of this potentially life-threatening adverse event by physicians and other medical staff to pharmacovigilance agencies. To gain more insight into the incidence of diLQTS and TdP, the Berlin Pharmacovigilance Center (PVZ-FAKOS) has actively and prospectively identified patients who developed this particular type of drug-induced adverse event. Here, the basic characteristics of the affected patients are summarized and suspected drugs are discussed. Furthermore, an extrapolation of the Berlin incidence rates to the German Standard Population is presented. Using a Berlin-wide network of 51 collaborating hospitals (>180 clinical departments), adult patients presenting with long QT syndrome (LQTS/TdP) between 2008 and 2011 were identified by active surveillance of these hospitals. Drug exposures as well as other possible risk factors were obtained from the patient's files and in a face-to-face interview with the patient. One-hundred and seventy patients of possible LQTS/TdP were reported to the Pharmacovigilance Center of whom 58 cases were confirmed in a thorough validation process. The majority (66%) of these cases were female and 60% had developed LQTS/TdP in the outpatient setting. Thirty-five (60%) of 58 confirmed cases were assessed as drug-related based on a standardized causality assessment applying the criteria of the World Health Organization. Drugs assessed as related in more than two cases were metoclopramide, amiodarone, melperone, citalopram, and levomethadone. The age-standardized incidence of diLQTS/TdP in Berlin was estimated to be 2.5 per million per year for males and 4.0 per million per year for females. While European annual reporting rates based on spontaneous reports suggest an

  6. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cros, C., E-mail: caroline.cros@hotmail.co.uk; Skinner, M., E-mail: Matthew.Skinner@astrazeneca.com; Moors, J.

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau ofmore » each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects

  7. Drug-induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency-related hemolysis risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Zuofeng; Nan, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an essential enzyme that protects human red blood cells from premature destruction caused by oxidative damage. People suffering from G6PD deficiency would be vulnerable to various oxidative substances, such as fava beans and oxidant drugs. Until now, many institutes, organizations or domain experts have compiled low-risk or high-risk drugs collection for patients with G6PD deficiency, mainly from the case report or clinical trails. Recently, we have explored a classification system to predict drug-induced hemolytic potential. In this paper, we screen the normally used over-the-counter (OTC) drugs for "high-risk" and "low-risk" ones to G6PD deficient patients by this system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Advances in Mechanistic Understanding that will Inform Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Mosedale, Merrie; Watkins, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major public health problem. Intrinsic (dose-dependent) DILI associated with acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure in the US. However the most problematic type of DILI impacting drug development is idiosyncratic, occurring only very rarely among treated patients and often only after several weeks or months of treatment with the offending drug. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of DILI suggest that three mechanisms may underlie most hepatocyte effects in response to both intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI drugs: mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and alterations in bile acid homeostasis. However, in some cases, hepatocyte stress promotes an immune response that results in clinically important idiosyncratic DILI. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of both intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI as well as emerging tools and techniques that will likely improve DILI risk identification and management. PMID:27861792

  9. Alleviation by garlic of antitumor drug-induced damage to the intestine.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Awazu, S; Itakura, Y; Fuwa, T

    2001-03-01

    Antitumour drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induce intestinal damage. This is a serious side effect of cancer chemotherapy. The present studies examined whether or not aged garlic extract (AGE) protects against damage from these antitumor drugs. Both drugs were administered orally for 4 or 5 d to rats fed a standard laboratory diet with and without 2% AGE. The small intestinal absorption of the poorly absorbable compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate--labeled dextran (FD-4; average molecular weight, 4400) was used to evaluate the damage to the intestine using the in vitro everted intestine technique and the in situ intestinal loop technique. FD-4 absorption increased in the antitumour drug-treated rats fed the diet without garlic. Interestingly, FD-4 absorption was depressed in rats fed the diet containing AGE. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from antitumour drug-induced damage.

  10. Improvement in Hemodynamics After Methylene Blue Administration in Drug-Induced Vasodilatory Shock: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Laes, JoAn R; Williams, David M; Cole, Jon B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a case where methylene blue improved hemodynamics in a poisoned patient. This is a single case report where a poisoned patient developed vasodilatory shock following ingestion of atenolol, amlodipine, and valsartan. Shock persisted after multiple therapies including vasopressors, high-dose insulin, hemodialysis, and 20% intravenous fat emulsion. Methylene blue (2 mg/kg IV over 30 min) was administered in the ICU with temporal improvement as measured by pulmonary artery catheter hemodynamic data pre- and post-methylene blue administration. Within 1 h of methylene blue administration, systemic vascular resistance improved (240 dyn s/cm5 increased to 1204 dyn s/cm5), and vasopressor requirements decreased with maintenance of mean arterial pressure 60 mmHg. Methylene blue may improve hemodynamics in drug-induced vasodilatory shock and should be considered in critically ill patients poisoned with vasodilatory medications refractory to standard therapies.

  11. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Causality Assessment: Criteria and Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Paul H

    2016-02-04

    Hepatotoxicity due to drugs, herbal or dietary supplements remains largely a clinical diagnosis based on meticulous history taking and exclusion of other causes of liver injury. In 2004, the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) was created under the auspices of the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with the aims of establishing a large registry of cases for clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic study. From inception, the DILIN has used an expert opinion process that incorporates consensus amongst three different DILIN hepatologists assigned to each case. It is the most well-established, well-described and vigorous expert opinion process for DILI to date, and yet it is an imperfect standard. This review will discuss the DILIN expert opinion process, its strengths and weaknesses, psychometric performance and future.

  12. Mechanistic Modelling of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Investigating the Role of Innate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Lisl Km; Battista, Christina; Siler, Scott Q; Pisetsky, David S; Watkins, Paul B; Howell, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains an adverse event of significant concern for drug development and marketed drugs, and the field would benefit from better tools to identify liver liabilities early in development and/or to mitigate potential DILI risk in otherwise promising drugs. DILIsym software takes a quantitative systems toxicology approach to represent DILI in pre-clinical species and in humans for the mechanistic investigation of liver toxicity. In addition to multiple intrinsic mechanisms of hepatocyte toxicity (ie, oxidative stress, bile acid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction), DILIsym includes the interaction between hepatocytes and cells of the innate immune response in the amplification of liver injury and in liver regeneration. The representation of innate immune responses, detailed here, consolidates much of the available data on the innate immune response in DILI within a single framework and affords the opportunity to systematically investigate the contribution of the innate response to DILI.

  13. Gap Junction Inhibition Prevents Drug-induced Liver Toxicity and Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suraj J; Milwid, Jack M; King, Kevin R; Bohr, Stefan; Iracheta, Arvin; Li, Matthew; Vitalo, Antonia; Parekkadan, Biju; Jindal, Rohit; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) limits the development and utilization of numerous therapeutic compounds, and consequently presents major challenges to the pharmaceutical industry and clinical medicine1, 2. Acetaminophen (APAP) containing compounds are among the most frequently prescribed drugs, and also the most common cause of DILI3. Here we describe a pharmacological strategy that targets gap junction communication to prevent amplification of fulminant hepatic failure and APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We report that connexin 32 (Cx32), a key hepatic gap junction protein, is an essential mediator of DILI by showing that mice deficient in Cx32 are protected against liver damage, acute inflammation, and death. We identified a small molecule inhibitor of Cx32 as a novel hepatoprotectant that achieves the same result in wildtype mice when coadministered with known hepatotoxic drugs. These findings demonstrate that gap junction inhibition is an effective therapy for limiting DILI, and suggest a novel pharmaceutical strategy to improve drug safety. PMID:22252509

  14. Pathophysiology of drug-induce peripheral neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Luczkowska, K; Litwinska, Z; Paczkowska, E; Machalinski, B

    2018-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease of unknown, complex etiology that affects primarily older adults. The course of the disease and the patients' survival time are very heterogeneous, but over the last decade, clear progress in the treatment of this incurable disease has been observed. Therapeutics that have proven to be highly effective include the immunomodulatory drug thalidomide and its newer analogs, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, as well as the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib. However, the administration of some of the treatments, e.g., thalidomide or bortezomib, has also been associated with the occurrence of a serious and common adverse effect, drug-induced peripheral neuropathy. The mechanism of the development of the peripheral neuropathy is poorly understood. Nevertheless, one of its potential causes could be inadequate concentrations of crucial trophic factors, including neurotrophic and/or angiogenic factors, which are responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of neuronal and nonneuronal cells.

  15. The drug-induced degradation of oncoproteins: an unexpected Achilles' heel of cancer cells?

    PubMed

    Ablain, Julien; Nasr, Rihab; Bazarbachi, Ali; de Thé, Hugues

    2011-07-01

    Many targeted therapies against cancer are aimed at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of kinases. Thus far, this approach has undoubtedly yielded significant clinical improvements, but has only rarely achieved cures. Other drugs, which selectively elicit proteasome-dependent degradation of oncoproteins, induce the loss of cancer cell self-renewal and promote cell differentiation and/or apoptosis. In acute promyelocytic leukemia, the cooperative degradation of PML/RARA by arsenic and retinoic acid cures most patients. In this condition and others, drug-induced proteolysis of oncoproteins is feasible and underlies improved clinical outcome. Several transcription factors, nuclear receptors, or fusion proteins driving cancer growth could be candidates for proteolysis-based drug-discovery programs.

  16. In Silico QT and APD Prolongation Assay for Early Screening of Drug-Induced Proarrhythmic Risk.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucia; Cano, Jordi; Gomis-Tena, Julio; Trenor, Beatriz; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Saiz, Javier

    2018-04-23

    Drug-induced proarrhythmicity is a major concern for regulators and pharmaceutical companies. For novel drug candidates, the standard assessment involves the evaluation of the potassium hERG channels block and the in vivo prolongation of the QT interval. However, this method is known to be too restrictive and to stop the development of potentially valuable therapeutic drugs. The aim of this work is to create an in silico tool for early detection of drug-induced proarrhythmic risk. The system is based on simulations of how different compounds affect the action potential duration (APD) of isolated endocardial, midmyocardial, and epicardial cells as well as the QT prolongation in a virtual tissue. Multiple channel-drug interactions and state-of-the-art human ventricular action potential models ( O'Hara , T. , PLos Comput. Biol. 2011 , 7 , e1002061 ) were used in our simulations. Specifically, 206.766 cellular and 7072 tissue simulations were performed by blocking the slow and the fast components of the delayed rectifier current ( I Ks and I Kr , respectively) and the L-type calcium current ( I CaL ) at different levels. The performance of our system was validated by classifying the proarrhythmic risk of 84 compounds, 40 of which present torsadogenic properties. On the basis of these results, we propose the use of a new index (Tx) for discriminating torsadogenic compounds, defined as the ratio of the drug concentrations producing 10% prolongation of the cellular endocardial, midmyocardial, and epicardial APDs and the QT interval, over the maximum effective free therapeutic plasma concentration (EFTPC). Our results show that the Tx index outperforms standard methods for early identification of torsadogenic compounds. Indeed, for the analyzed compounds, the Tx tests accuracy was in the range of 87-88% compared with a 73% accuracy of the hERG IC 50 based test.

  17. Hepatic Histological Findings in Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Systematic Evaluation and Clinical Associations

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, David E; Chalasani, Naga P; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Watkins, Paul B; Hayashi, Paul H; Davern, Timothy J; Navarro, Victor; Reddy, Rajender; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Stolz, Andrew; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion. Liver biopsy may contribute to diagnostic accuracy, but the histological features of DILI and their relationship to biochemical parameters and outcomes are not well defined. We have classified the pathological pattern of liver injury and systematically evaluated histological changes in liver biopsies obtained from 249 patients with suspected DILI enrolled in the prospective, observational study conducted by the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network. Histological features were analyzed for their frequency within different clinical phenotypes of liver injury and to identify associations between clinical and laboratory findings and histological features. The most common histological patterns were acute (21%) and chronic hepatitis (14%), acute (9%) and chronic cholestasis (10%), and cholestatic hepatitis (29%). Liver histology from 128 patients presenting with hepatocellular injury had more severe inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis and more frequently demonstrated lobular disarray, rosette formation, and hemorrhage than those with cholestasis. Conversely, histology of the 73 patients with cholestatic injury more often demonstrated bile plugs and duct paucity. Severe or fatal hepatic injury in 46 patients was associated with higher degrees of necrosis, fibrosis stage, microvesicular steatosis, and ductular reaction among other findings, whereas eosinophils and granulomas were found more often in those with milder injury. Conclusion: We describe an approach for evaluating liver histology in DILI and demonstrate numerous associations between pathological findings and clinical presentations that may serve as a foundation for future studies correlating DILI pathology with its causality and outcome. (Hepatology 2014;59:661–670) PMID:24037963

  18. Dynamic imaging of adaptive stress response pathway activation for prediction of drug induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wink, Steven; Hiemstra, Steven W; Huppelschoten, Suzanne; Klip, Janna E; van de Water, Bob

    2018-05-01

    Drug-induced liver injury remains a concern during drug treatment and development. There is an urgent need for improved mechanistic understanding and prediction of DILI liabilities using in vitro approaches. We have established and characterized a panel of liver cell models containing mechanism-based fluorescent protein toxicity pathway reporters to quantitatively assess the dynamics of cellular stress response pathway activation at the single cell level using automated live cell imaging. We have systematically evaluated the application of four key adaptive stress pathway reporters for the prediction of DILI liability: SRXN1-GFP (oxidative stress), CHOP-GFP (ER stress/UPR response), p21 (p53-mediated DNA damage-related response) and ICAM1 (NF-κB-mediated inflammatory signaling). 118 FDA-labeled drugs in five human exposure relevant concentrations were evaluated for reporter activation using live cell confocal imaging. Quantitative data analysis revealed activation of single or multiple reporters by most drugs in a concentration and time dependent manner. Hierarchical clustering of time course dynamics and refined single cell analysis allowed the allusion of key events in DILI liability. Concentration response modeling was performed to calculate benchmark concentrations (BMCs). Extracted temporal dynamic parameters and BMCs were used to assess the predictive power of sub-lethal adaptive stress pathway activation. Although cellular adaptive responses were activated by non-DILI and severe-DILI compounds alike, dynamic behavior and lower BMCs of pathway activation were sufficiently distinct between these compound classes. The high-level detailed temporal- and concentration-dependent evaluation of the dynamics of adaptive stress pathway activation adds to the overall understanding and prediction of drug-induced liver liabilities.

  19. Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jarzabek, Monika A; Proctor, William R; Vogt, Jennifer; Desai, Rupal; Dicker, Patrick; Cain, Gary; Raja, Rajiv; Brodbeck, Jens; Stevens, Dale; van der Stok, Eric P; Martens, John W M; Verhoef, Cornelis; Hegde, Priti S; Byrne, Annette T; Tarrant, Jacqueline M

    2018-01-01

    Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

  20. Enolate-Forming Phloretin Pharmacophores: Hepatoprotection in an Experimental Model of Drug-Induced Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Geohagen, Brian C; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Shaparin, Naum; Gavin, Terrence; LoPachin, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is often mediated by electrophilic metabolites, such as bioactivation of acetaminophen (APAP) to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). We have shown that APAP hepatotoxicity can be prevented by 2-acetylcyclopentanone (2-ACP). This 1,3-dicarbonyl compound ionizes to form an enolate nucleophile that scavenges NAPQI and other electrophilic intermediates. In this study, we expanded our investigation of enolate-forming compounds to include analyses of the phloretin pharmacophores, 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA) and phloroglucinol (PG). Studies in a mouse model of APAP overdose showed that THA provided hepatoprotection when given either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, whereas PG was hepatoprotective only when given intraperitoneally. Corroborative research characterized the molecular pharmacology (efficacy, potency) of 2-ACP, THA, and PG in APAP-exposed isolated mouse hepatocytes. For comparative purposes, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection was also evaluated. Measurements of multiple cell parameters (e.g., cell viability, mitochondrial membrane depolarization) indicated that THA and, to a lesser extent, PG provided concentration-dependent protection against APAP toxicity, which exceeded that of 2-ACP or NAC. The enolate-forming compounds and NAC truncated ongoing APAP exposure and thereby returned intoxicated hepatocytes toward normal viability. The superior ability of THA to protect is related to multifaceted modes of action that include metal ion chelation, free radical trapping, and scavenging of NAPQI and other soft electrophiles involved in oxidative stress. The rank order of potency for the tested cytoprotectants was consistent with that determined in a parallel mouse model. These data suggest that THA or a derivative might be useful in treating drug-induced toxicities and other conditions that involve electrophile-mediated pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  1. Enolate-Forming Phloretin Pharmacophores: Hepatoprotection in an Experimental Model of Drug-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geohagen, Brian C.; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Shaparin, Naum; Gavin, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is often mediated by electrophilic metabolites, such as bioactivation of acetaminophen (APAP) to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). We have shown that APAP hepatotoxicity can be prevented by 2-acetylcyclopentanone (2-ACP). This 1,3-dicarbonyl compound ionizes to form an enolate nucleophile that scavenges NAPQI and other electrophilic intermediates. In this study, we expanded our investigation of enolate-forming compounds to include analyses of the phloretin pharmacophores, 2′,4′,6′-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA) and phloroglucinol (PG). Studies in a mouse model of APAP overdose showed that THA provided hepatoprotection when given either by intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, whereas PG was hepatoprotective only when given intraperitoneally. Corroborative research characterized the molecular pharmacology (efficacy, potency) of 2-ACP, THA, and PG in APAP-exposed isolated mouse hepatocytes. For comparative purposes, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection was also evaluated. Measurements of multiple cell parameters (e.g., cell viability, mitochondrial membrane depolarization) indicated that THA and, to a lesser extent, PG provided concentration-dependent protection against APAP toxicity, which exceeded that of 2-ACP or NAC. The enolate-forming compounds and NAC truncated ongoing APAP exposure and thereby returned intoxicated hepatocytes toward normal viability. The superior ability of THA to protect is related to multifaceted modes of action that include metal ion chelation, free radical trapping, and scavenging of NAPQI and other soft electrophiles involved in oxidative stress. The rank order of potency for the tested cytoprotectants was consistent with that determined in a parallel mouse model. These data suggest that THA or a derivative might be useful in treating drug-induced toxicities and other conditions that involve electrophile-mediated pathogenesis. PMID:27029584

  2. Drug-induced Fanconi syndrome associated with fumaric acid esters treatment for psoriasis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Balak, Deepak M.W.; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; de Vries, Aiko P.J.; Hartman, Jenny; Neumann, Hendrik A. Martino; Zietse, Robert; Thio, Hok Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid esters (FAEs), an oral immunomodulating treatment for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, have been anecdotally associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction due to a drug-induced Fanconi syndrome. Few data are available on clinical outcomes of FAE-induced Fanconi syndrome. Methods Descriptive case series with two cases of Fanconi syndrome associated with FAE treatment diagnosed at two Dutch university nephrology departments, three cases reported at the Dutch and German national pharmacovigilance databases and six previously reported cases. Results All 11 cases involved female patients with psoriasis. The median age at the time of onset was 38 years [interquartile range (IQR) 37–46]. Patients received long-term FAEs treatment with a median treatment duration of 60 months (IQR 28–111). Laboratory tests were typically significant for low serum levels of phosphate and uric acid, while urinalysis showed glycosuria and proteinuria. Eight (73%) patients had developed a hypophosphataemic osteomalacia and three (27%) had pathological bone fractures. All patients discontinued FAEs, while four (36%) patients were treated with supplementation of phosphate and/or vitamin D. Five (45%) patients had persisting symptoms despite FAEs discontinuation. Conclusions FAEs treatment can cause drug-induced Fanconi syndrome, but the association has been reported infrequently. Female patients with psoriasis treated long term with FAEs seem to be particularly at risk. Physicians treating patients with FAEs should be vigilant and monitor for the potential occurrence of Fanconi syndrome. Measurement of the urinary albumin:total protein ratio is a suggested screening tool for tubular proteinuria in Fanconi syndrome. PMID:26798466

  3. Drug induced liver injury with analysis of alternative causes as confounding variables.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Danan, Gaby

    2018-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare compared to the worldwide frequent acute or chronic liver diseases. Therefore, patients included in series of suspected DILI are at high risk of not having DILI, whereby alternative causes may confound the DILI diagnosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate published case series of DILI for alternative causes. Relevant studies were identified using a computerized search of the Medline database for publications from 1993 through 30 October 2017. We used the following terms: drug hepatotoxicity, drug induced liver injury, hepatotoxic drugs combined with diagnosis, causality assessment and alternative causes. Alternative causes as variables confounding the DILI diagnosis emerged in 22 published DILI case series, ranging from 4 to 47%. Among 13 335 cases of suspected DILI, alternative causes were found to be more likely in 4555 patients (34.2%), suggesting that the suspected DILI was probably not DILI. Biliary diseases such as biliary obstruction, cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis were among the most missed diagnoses. Alternative causes included hepatitis B, C and E, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, ischemic hepatitis, cardiac hepatopathy, autoimmune hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. In more than one-third of published global DILI case series, alternative causes as published in these reports confounded the DILI diagnosis. In the future, published DILI case series should include only patients with secured DILI diagnosis, preferentially established by prospective use of scored items provided by robust diagnostic algorithms such as the updated Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  5. Test systems in drug discovery for hazard identification and risk assessment of human drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Richard J; Betts, Catherine; Blomme, Eric A G; Gerets, Helga H J; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Hewitt, Philip G; Juhila, Satu; Labbe, Gilles; Liguori, Michael J; Mesens, Natalie; Ogese, Monday O; Persson, Mikael; Snoeys, Jan; Stevens, James L; Walker, Tracy; Park, B Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The liver is an important target for drug-induced toxicities. Early detection of hepatotoxic drugs requires use of well-characterized test systems, yet current knowledge, gaps and limitations of tests employed remains an important issue for drug development. Areas Covered: The current state of the science, understanding and application of test systems in use for the detection of drug-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, cholestasis and inflammation is summarized. The test systems highlighted herein cover mostly in vitro and some in vivo models and endpoint measurements used in the assessment of small molecule toxic liabilities. Opportunities for research efforts in areas necessitating the development of specific tests and improved mechanistic understanding are highlighted. Expert Opinion: Use of in vitro test systems for safety optimization will remain a core activity in drug discovery. Substantial inroads have been made with a number of assays established for human Drug-induced Liver Injury. There nevertheless remain significant gaps with a need for improved in vitro tools and novel tests to address specific mechanisms of human Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Progress in these areas will necessitate not only models fit for application, but also mechanistic understanding of how chemical insult on the liver occurs in order to identify translational and quantifiable readouts for decision-making.

  6. Nephron segment specific microRNA biomarkers of pre-clinical drug-induced renal toxicity: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Nassirpour, Rounak, E-mail: Rounak.nassirpour@pfiz

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a common drug development complication for pharmaceutical companies. Sensitive, specific, translatable and non-invasive biomarkers of renal toxicity are urgently needed to diagnose nephron segment specific injury. The currently available gold standard biomarkers for nephrotoxicity are not kidney-specific, lack sensitivity for early detection, and are not suitable for renal damage localization (glomerular vs tubulointerstitial injury). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly gaining momentum as promising biomarkers of various organ toxicities, including drug induced renal injury. This is mostly due to their stability in easily accessible biofluids, ease of developing nucleic acids detection compared to protein detection assays, as well asmore » their interspecies translatability. Increasing concordance of miRNA findings by standardizing methodology most suitable for their detection and quantitation, as well as characterization of their expression pattern in a cell type specific manner, will accelerate progress toward validation of these miRNAs as biomarkers in pre-clinical, and clinical settings. This review aims to highlight the current pre-clinical findings surrounding miRNAs as biomarkers in two important segments of the nephron, the glomerulus and tubules. - Highlights: • miRNAs are promising biomarkers of drug-induced kidney injury. • Summarized pre-clinical miRNA biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. • Described the strengths and challenges associated with miRNAs as biomarkers.« less

  7. Drug-induced parkinsonism in relation to choline-containing compounds measured by 1H-MR spectroscopy in putamen of chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukui, Tsunehiro; Fukuda, Rin; Kasai, Kiyoto; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Kato, Tadafumi

    2003-12-01

    Extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS), the most frequent and severe side-effects of antipsychotics, sometimes become irreversible and cause severe psychosocial disturbance in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis of EPS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, neurochemical correlates of EPS were examined by 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Sixteen medicated patients with schizophrenia and 15 age-, gender- and parental-socioeconomic-status-matched normal controls were examined using single-voxel 1H-MRS. Absolute concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine/phosphocreatine, myo-inositol, and Glx (glutamate and glutamine) in the left putamen were evaluated. The patient group showed mild EPS and no significant metabolic abnormalities in this region. The more severe drug-induced parkinsonism assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale, however, significantly correlated with the higher Cho concentration and tended to be correlated with the higher NAA concentration in the patient group. These results suggest a potential of 1H-MRS as a non-invasive monitoring method of neurobiological correlates of EPS associated with neuroleptic treatments in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  9. Primary psychosis with comorbid drug abuse and drug-induced psychosis: Diagnostic and clinical evolution at follow up.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M C; Di Pace, C; Reggiori, A; Paletta, S; Colasanti, A

    2017-10-01

    The study reports a follow-up assessment of 48 patients with concomitant drug abuse at the first admission for psychosis. We focused on the diagnostic distinction between primary psychosis with concomitant drug abuse and drug induced psychosis, to observe whether the diagnoses are stable over time and whether the clinical course significantly differs. The study examined 25 primary psychotic disorder with comorbid drug abuse and 23 drug-induced psychotic disorder patients. Diagnostic and psychopathological assessments were made at baseline and at follow-up. Mean follow-up period was 4.96 years. Patients with comorbid Drug Abuse exhibited higher scores in the item Unusual Content of Thought at baseline than drug-induced psychotic disorder patients: 5.48 vs 4.39 while the two patients groups did not differ in any of the BPRS items evaluated at follow-up. The primary psychosis with comorbid drug abuse and the substance induced psychosis groups were similar regarding diagnostic stability, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia at follow-up occurred similarly. There was no evidence that Drug Induced psychotic patients' symptoms tend to improve more after cessation of drug abuse. An earlier age of onset was found in primary psychotic patients, particularly for patients diagnosed as affected by schizophrenia at follow up. These results might reflect the uncertainty of the distinction between Primary and Drug Induced Psychosis and the difficulties in applying the DSM IV-TR criteria for diagnosing comorbid drug use disorders and psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advantageous use of HepaRG cells for the screening and mechanistic study of drug-induced steatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tolosa, Laia

    Only a few in vitro assays have been proposed to evaluate the steatotic potential of new drugs. The present study examines the utility of HepaRG cells as a cell-based assay system for screening drug-induced liver steatosis. A high-content screening assay was run to evaluate multiple toxicity-related cell parameters in HepaRG cells exposed to 28 compounds, including drugs reported to cause steatosis through different mechanisms and non-steatotic compounds. Lipid content was the most sensitive parameter for all the steatotic drugs, whereas no effects on lipid levels were produced by non-steatotic compounds. Apart from fat accumulation, increased ROS production and altered mitochondrialmore » membrane potential were also found in the cells exposed to steatotic drugs, which indicates that all these cellular events contributed to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. These findings are of clinical relevance as most effects were observed at drug concentrations under 100-fold of the therapeutic peak plasmatic concentration. HepaRG cells showed increased lipid overaccumulation vs. HepG2 cells, which suggests greater sensitivity to drug-induced steatosis. An altered expression profile of transcription factors and the genes that code key proteins in lipid metabolism was also found in the cells exposed to drugs capable of inducing liver steatosis. Our results generally indicate the value of HepaRG cells for assessing the risk of liver damage associated with steatogenic compounds and for investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced steatosis. - Highlights: • HepaRG cells were explored as an in vitro model to detect steatogenic potential. • Multiple toxicity-related endpoints were analysed by HCS. • HepaRG showed a greater sensitivity to drug-induced steatosis than HepG2 cells. • Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism were revealed. • HepaRG allow mechanistic understanding of liver damage induced by steatogenic drugs.« less

  11. Nonclinical safety biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury: current status and blueprint for the future.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, Igor; Cameron, Mark; Dalmas, Deidre A; Enerson, Bradley E; Gonzalez, Raymond J; Guionaud, Silvia; Hoffmann, Peter K; King, Nicholas M P; Lawton, Michael P; Scicchitano, Marshall S; Smith, Holly W; Thomas, Roberta A; Weaver, James L; Zabka, Tanja S

    2014-06-01

    Better biomarkers are needed to identify, characterize, and/or monitor drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) in nonclinical species and patients. The Predictive Safety Testing Consortium (PSTC), a precompetitive collaboration of pharmaceutical companies and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), formed the Vascular Injury Working Group (VIWG) to develop and qualify translatable biomarkers of DIVI. The VIWG focused its research on acute DIVI because early detection for clinical and nonclinical safety monitoring is desirable. The VIWG developed a strategy based on the premise that biomarkers of DIVI in rat would be translatable to humans due to the morphologic similarity of vascular injury between species regardless of mechanism. The histomorphologic lexicon for DIVI in rat defines degenerative and adaptive findings of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscles, and characterizes inflammatory components. We describe the mechanisms of these changes and their associations with candidate biomarkers for which advanced analytical method validation was completed. Further development is recommended for circulating microRNAs, endothelial microparticles, and imaging techniques. Recommendations for sample collection and processing, analytical methods, and confirmation of target localization using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization are described. The methods described are anticipated to aid in the identification and qualification of translational biomarkers for DIVI. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  12. Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ponnaiyan, Deepa; Jegadeesan, Visakan

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities. PMID:26759584

  13. In vitro cytokine expression by peripheral mononuclear cells in herbal drug-induced skin eruption.

    PubMed

    Norisugi, Osamu; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used worldwide and is associated with side-effects such as skin eruptions. Herbal drugs are often produced by combining multiple crude drugs, mostly of plant origin. Determining which medi-cinal plants are associated with the herbal drugs that induce skin eruptions can therefore be difficult. This study investigated mRNA expression of several cytokines in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from two patients with herbal drug-induced skin eruptions; one reacted to keishi-bukuryo-gan (KBG), composed of 5 medicinal plants, and the other patient reacted to senna. PBMCs (1×106) from the 2 patients were cultured for 24 h with the supernatant from the medicinal plants from KBG or senna in various concentrations, and a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. A high mRNA level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 was detected in PBMCs stimulated by KBG and two of its components. Senna stimulated a high level of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA levels in PBMCs from patient with senna-induced drug reaction.

  14. Integrated analysis of drug-induced gene expression profiles predicts novel hERG inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Joseph J; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Wheelan, Sarah J; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that drugs interact with diverse molecular targets mediating both therapeutic and toxic effects. Prediction of these complex interactions from chemical structures alone remains challenging, as compounds with different structures may possess similar toxicity profiles. In contrast, predictions based on systems-level measurements of drug effect may reveal pharmacologic similarities not evident from structure or known therapeutic indications. Here we utilized drug-induced transcriptional responses in the Connectivity Map (CMap) to discover such similarities among diverse antagonists of the human ether-à-go-go related (hERG) potassium channel, a common target of promiscuous inhibition by small molecules. Analysis of transcriptional profiles generated in three independent cell lines revealed clusters enriched for hERG inhibitors annotated using a database of experimental measurements (hERGcentral) and clinical indications. As a validation, we experimentally identified novel hERG inhibitors among the unannotated drugs in these enriched clusters, suggesting transcriptional responses may serve as predictive surrogates of cardiotoxicity complementing existing functional assays.

  15. Drug-induced exanthems: correlation of allergy testing with histologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Rose, Christian; Kerstan, Andreas; Trautmann, Axel

    2013-11-01

    Skin biopsies are commonly performed to confirm drug-induced exanthem (DIE). However, the relevance of histologic examination in discriminating between DIE and non-DIE (NDIE) is controversial. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability of histologic diagnosis of DIE. In all, 91 patients with a skin biopsy specimen of an acute exanthem temporally related to a single identifiable drug underwent complete allergy testing. Their biopsy specimens were retrospectively re-evaluated by 2 dermatopathologists blinded to the original reports to test for discrimination between DIE versus NDIE. In 35 patients, non-IgE-mediated drug allergy was confirmed by allergy testing, whereas in 56 patients drug hypersensitivity could be excluded. Sensitivity of pathology reports for diagnosis of DIE reached 62.9% with a positive predictive value of 40.7%. Specificity was 41.1% with a negative predictive value of 69.7%. No significant difference in tissue eosinophilia was detected between DIE and NDIE. This was a retrospective study. Dermatopathologic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens is of limited use in differentiating between DIE and NDIE. All efforts should be made to subject these patients to thorough allergy testing for definitely confirming or ruling out drug hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2015-09-09

    : Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX(®), UpToDate(®), Medscape(®) and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss' kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211-0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292-0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Clinically Relevant Situations

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Christoph; Cordes, Henrik; Fabbri, Lorenzo; Aschmann, Hélène Eloise; Baier, Vanessa; Atkinson, Francis; Blank, Lars Mathias; Kuepfer, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is a significant problem in clinical care. A key problem here is a general understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying the transition from desired drug effects to adverse events following administration of either therapeutic or toxic doses, in particular within a patient context. Here, a comparative toxicity analysis was performed for fifteen hepatotoxic drugs by evaluating toxic changes reflecting the transition from therapeutic drug responses to toxic reactions at the cellular level. By use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, in vitro toxicity data were first contextualized to quantitatively describe time-resolved drug responses within a patient context. Comparatively studying toxic changes across the considered hepatotoxicants allowed the identification of subsets of drugs sharing similar perturbations on key cellular processes, functional classes of genes, and individual genes. The identified subsets of drugs were next analyzed with regard to drug-related characteristics and their physicochemical properties. Toxic changes were finally evaluated to predict both molecular biomarkers and potential drug-drug interactions. The results may facilitate the early diagnosis of adverse drug events in clinical application. PMID:28151932

  18. Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Ponnaiyan, Deepa; Jegadeesan, Visakan

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

  19. Drug-induced death signaling strategy rapidly predicts cancer response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Montero, Joan; Sarosiek, Kristopher A; DeAngelo, Joseph D; Maertens, Ophélia; Ryan, Jeremy; Ercan, Dalia; Piao, Huiying; Horowitz, Neil S; Berkowitz, Ross S; Matulonis, Ursula; Jänne, Pasi A; Amrein, Philip C; Cichowski, Karen; Drapkin, Ronny; Letai, Anthony

    2015-02-26

    There is a lack of effective predictive biomarkers to precisely assign optimal therapy to cancer patients. While most efforts are directed at inferring drug response phenotype based on genotype, there is very focused and useful phenotypic information to be gained from directly perturbing the patient's living cancer cell with the drug(s) in question. To satisfy this unmet need, we developed the Dynamic BH3 Profiling technique to measure early changes in net pro-apoptotic signaling at the mitochondrion ("priming") induced by chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells, not requiring prolonged ex vivo culture. We find in cell line and clinical experiments that early drug-induced death signaling measured by Dynamic BH3 Profiling predicts chemotherapy response across many cancer types and many agents, including combinations of chemotherapies. We propose that Dynamic BH3 Profiling can be used as a broadly applicable predictive biomarker to predict cytotoxic response of cancers to chemotherapeutics in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventing Drug-Induced Liver Injury: How Useful Are Animal Models?

    PubMed

    Ballet, François

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common organ toxicity encountered in regulatory animal toxicology studies required prior to the clinical development of new drug candidates. Very few reports have evaluated the value of these studies for predicting DILI in humans. Indeed, compounds inducing liver toxicity in regulatory toxicology studies are not always correlated with a risk of DILI in humans. Conversely, compounds associated with the occurrence of DILI in phase 3 studies or after market release are often tested negative in regulatory toxicology studies. Idiosyncratic DILI is a rare event that is precipitated in an individual by the simultaneous occurrence of several critical factors. These factors may relate to the host (e.g. human leukocyte antigen polymorphism, inflammation), the drug (e.g. reactive metabolites) or the environment (e.g. diet/microbiota). This type of toxicity therefore cannot be detected in conventional animal toxicology studies. Several animal models have recently been proposed for the identification of drugs with the potential to cause idiosyncratic DILI: rats treated with lipopolysaccharide, Sod2(+/-) mice, panels of inbred mouse strains or chimeric mice with humanized livers. These models are not suitable for use in the prospective screening of new drug candidates. Humans therefore constitute the best model for predicting and assessing idiopathic DILI. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) classification systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dijemeni, Esuabom; D'Amone, Gabriele; Gbati, Israel

    2017-12-01

    Drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) classification systems have been used to assess anatomical findings on upper airway obstruction, and decide and plan surgical treatments and act as a predictor for surgical treatment outcome for obstructive sleep apnoea management. The first objective is to identify if there is a universally accepted DISE grading and classification system for analysing DISE findings. The second objective is to identify if there is one DISE grading and classification treatment planning framework for deciding appropriate surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The third objective is to identify if there is one DISE grading and classification treatment outcome framework for determining the likelihood of success for a given OSA surgical intervention. A systematic review was performed to identify new and significantly modified DISE classification systems: concept, advantages and disadvantages. Fourteen studies proposing a new DISE classification system and three studies proposing a significantly modified DISE classification were identified. None of the studies were based on randomised control trials. DISE is an objective method for visualising upper airway obstruction. The classification and assessment of clinical findings based on DISE is highly subjective due to the increasing number of DISE classification systems. Hence, this creates a growing divergence in surgical treatment planning and treatment outcome. Further research on a universally accepted objective DISE assessment is critically needed.

  2. Medical management of oral motor disorders: dystonia, dyskinesia and drug-induced dystonic extrapyramidal reactions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T

    2006-08-01

    This article reviews three of the involuntary hyperkinetic motor disorders that affect the orofacial region, namely orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, as well as medication-induced extrapyramidal syndrome-dystonic reactions. Specifically, it discusses and contrasts the clinical features and management strategies for spontaneous primary and drug-induced motor disorders in the orofacial region. The article provides a list of medications reported to cause drug-related extrapyramidal motor activity above and beyond the more commonly known antipsychotics medications. It provides a needed update because the number and use of medications causing involuntary jaw muscle activity are increasing. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), stimulant medications and illegal drugs have all been reported to induce an orofacial motor activation as adverse reactions. This article also discusses briefly the genetic and traumatic events associated with spontaneous dystonia. Finally, this article presents an approach for management of the orofacial motor disorders that involves the following three steps: (1) collect a full clinical history and examination, including magnetic resonance imaging of the brain; (2) after ruling out CNS disease, adverse medications reactions and local pathology, try one or more of the motor-suppressive medications that may be helpful in these cases (e.g., cholinergic receptor antagonizers or blockers, and GABA-ergic including benzodiazepines); and (3) if the disorder is severe enough and focal enough to consider, and motor-suppressive medications are not adequate, then consider botulinum toxin injections. The contraindications, side effects, and usual approach for these medications and injections are discussed.

  3. The role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in surgical planning for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ozturk; Erdur, Omer; Cirik, Ahmet Adnan; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the surgical treatment planning of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study was conducted using patients diagnosed with OSAS between January 2007 and March 2009, who were scheduled for surgical treatment. DISE was performed using propofol in patients considered to have upper respiratory tract obstruction as indicated by Muller's maneuver. After completing the sleep endoscopy, the patient was intubated and surgery was performed (tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty). A successful operation was defined as a decrease in the respiratory disturbance index to below 5 or a decrease of ≥50 % following the operation. The study included 20 patients (4 female and 16 male) aged 19-57 years. No statistically significant correlation between modified Mallampati class and operation success or between the polysomnographic stage of disease and operation success was identified. A significantly high operation success rate was found in the group with obstruction of the upper airway according to DISE (p < 0.05), whereas a significantly low operation success rate was found in the group with obstruction of the lower airway according to DISE (p < 0.01). DISE may be used to identify the localization of obstruction for diagnostic purposes, and it can be helpful in selecting the treatment method.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 & susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra K; Jha, Brajesh Kumar; Sharma, Abhishek; Sreenivas, V; Upadhyay, Vishwanath; Jaisinghani, Chandrita; Singla, Rohit; Mishra, Hemant Kumar; Soneja, Manish

    2016-12-01

    The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene encodes an enzyme which both activates and deactivates arylamine and other drugs and carcinogens. This study was aimed to investigate the role of NAT2 gene polymorphism in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). In this prospective study, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism results for NAT2 gene were compared between 185 tuberculosis patients who did not develop DIH and 105 tuberculosis patients who developed DIH while on anti-tuberculosis drugs. Frequency of slow-acetylator genotype was commonly encountered and was not significantly different between DIH (82.8%) and non-DIH (77.2%) patients. However, the genotypic distribution of variant NAT2FNx015/FNx017 amongst slow-acetylator genotypes was significantly higher in DIH (56%) group as compared to non-DIH (39%) group (odds ratio 2.02; P=0.006). The present study demonstrated no association between NAT2 genotype and DIH in the north Indian patients with tuberculosis.

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herb-induced Liver Injury: Comparison with Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Teschke, Rolf

    2018-03-28

    Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other. China is among the few countries with a large population using synthetic Western drugs as well as herbal TCM. Therefore, China is well suited to studies of liver injury comparing drugs with TCM herbs. Despite some concordance, recent analyses of liver injury cases with verified causality, using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, revealed major differences in HILI caused by TCMs as compared to DILI with respect to the following features: HILI cases are less frequently observed as compared to DILI, have a smaller proportion of females and less unintentional rechallenge events, and present a higher rate of hepatocellular injury features. Since many results were obtained among Chinese residents who had access to and had used Western drugs and TCM herbs, such ethnic homogeneity supports the contention that the observed differences of HILI and DILI in the assessed population are well founded.

  6. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy changes snoring management plan very significantly compared to standard clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pilaete, Karen; De Medts, Joris; Delsupehe, Kathelijne Godelieve

    2014-05-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a new tool in the work-up of patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We assessed the impact of DISE on the treatment plan of snoring patients. This is a single institution prospective longitudinal clinical trial. The setting is a private teaching hospital. A consecutive series of 100 snoring patients prospectively underwent a standardised questionnaire, clinical examination, rhinomanometry, allergy skin prick testing, DISE and polysomnography. Management plan before and after DISE evaluation was compared. In 61 patients (excluding 16 patients sent for continuous positive airway pressure, three patients refused sleep endoscopy and 20 were lost to follow-up), we compared the treatment plans. DISE showed single level airway collapse in 13 and multilevel collapse in 48 patients. The site of flutter did not add additional information as compared to the pattern and the location of the collapse. After DISE, the initial management plan changed in 41% of patients irrespective of the type of initial management plan. The only somewhat accurate initial treatment plan was uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (unchanged in 11/13 patients). Excluding moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea patients DISE is an indispensable tool in treatment decision in all SDB patients. We suggest to simplify the protocol for DISE reporting.

  7. The failure to detect drug-induced sensory loss in standard preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, David V; Abernathy, Matthew M; Tapp, Rachel L; Yoder, Joshua D; Dalton, Jill A; Baird, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    Over the years a number of drugs have been approved for human use with limited signs of toxicity noted during preclinical risk assessment study designs but then show adverse events in compliant patients taking the drugs as prescribed within the first few years on the market. Loss or impairments in sensory systems, such as hearing, vision, taste, and smell have been reported to the FDA or have been described in the literature appearing in peer-reviewed scientific journals within the first five years of widespread use. This review highlights the interactive cross-modal compensation within sensory systems that can occur that reduces the likelihood of identifying these losses in less sentient animals used in standard preclinical toxicology and safety protocols. We provide some historical and experimental evidence to substantiate these sensory effects in and highlight the critical importance of detailed training of technicians on basic ethological, species-specific behaviors of all purpose-bred laboratory animals used in these study designs. We propose that the time, effort and cost of training technicians to be better able to identify and document very subtle changes in behavior will serve to increase the likelihood of early detection of biomarkers predictive of drug-induced sensory loss within current standard regulatory preclinical research protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug-induced acute liver failure: results of a U.S. multicenter, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Adrian; Koch, David G; Lee, William M

    2010-12-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) due to drug-induced liver injury (DILI), though uncommon, is a concern for both clinicians and patients. The Acute Liver Failure Study Group has prospectively collected cases of all forms of acute liver failure since 1998. We describe here cases of idiosyncratic DILI ALF enrolled during a 10.5-year period. Data were collected prospectively, using detailed case report forms, from 1198 subjects enrolled at 23 sites in the United States, all of which had transplant services. A total of 133 (11.1%) ALF subjects were deemed by expert opinion to have DILI; 81.1% were considered highly likely, 15.0% probable, and 3.8% possible. Subjects were mostly women (70.7%) and there was overrepresentation of minorities for unclear reasons. Over 60 individual agents were implicated, the most common were antimicrobials (46%). Transplant-free (3-week) survival was poor (27.1%), but with highly successful transplantation in 42.1%, overall survival was 66.2%. Transplant-free survival in DILI ALF is determined by the degree of liver dysfunction, specifically baseline levels of bilirubin, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. DILI is an uncommon cause of ALF that evolves slowly, affects a disproportionate number of women and minorities, and shows infrequent spontaneous recovery, but transplantation affords excellent survival. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Influence of dietary iodine on drug-induced hypothyrodism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Beyssen, M L; Lagorce, J F; Cledat, D; Buxeraud, J

    1999-06-01

    Several compounds of pharmaceutical importance from a variety of chemical families, for example chlorpromazine and clomipramine, have been found to form charge-transfer complexes with iodine. We have investigated the influence of dietary iodine on thyroid-gland dysfunction induced by clomipramine, chlorpromazine or 2-thiazoline-2-thiol. We suggest that iodine is partly diverted from its metabolic pathway by complexation with drugs, and so the urinary concentration of iodide is increased. Both chlorpromazine and clomipramine, at doses which do not inhibit thyroperoxidase, enhanced urinary iodine excretion when dietary iodine was restricted (3.944+/-0.96 microg/day for chlorpromazine-tested rats, 3.43+/-1.33 microg/day for clomipramine-tested rats, compared with 2.34+/-0.11 microg/day in control rats). Concurrently, these pharmaceutical compounds increased the level of free thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in comparison with controls and induced histological modifications in, and enlargement of, the thyroid gland. We have demonstrated that drug-induced loss of iodine in the urine was associated with antithyroid action when iodine intake was limited.

  10. Accurate Prediction of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Using Stem Cell-Derived Populations

    PubMed Central

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Storck, Christopher; Zhou, Wenli; Iredale, John P.; Flint, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Despite major progress in the knowledge and management of human liver injury, there are millions of people suffering from chronic liver disease. Currently, the only cure for end-stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation; however, this approach is severely limited by organ donation. Alternative approaches to restoring liver function have therefore been pursued, including the use of somatic and stem cell populations. Although such approaches are essential in developing scalable treatments, there is also an imperative to develop predictive human systems that more effectively study and/or prevent the onset of liver disease and decompensated organ function. We used a renewable human stem cell resource, from defined genetic backgrounds, and drove them through developmental intermediates to yield highly active, drug-inducible, and predictive human hepatocyte populations. Most importantly, stem cell-derived hepatocytes displayed equivalence to primary adult hepatocytes, following incubation with known hepatotoxins. In summary, we have developed a serum-free, scalable, and shippable cell-based model that faithfully predicts the potential for human liver injury. Such a resource has direct application in human modeling and, in the future, could play an important role in developing renewable cell-based therapies. PMID:24375539

  11. Drug-induced liver injury secondary to testosterone prohormone dietary supplement use.

    PubMed

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Rerucha, Caitlyn; Maxwell, Kimberly; Butler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation has become progressively more prevalent, with over half of the American population reporting use of various products. An increased incidence of supplement use has been reported in the military especially within Special Operations Forces (SOF) where training regimens rival those of elite athletes. Federal regulations regarding dietary supplements are minimal, allowing for general advertisement to the public without emphasis on the potentially harmful side effects. Subsequent medical care for these negative effects causes financial burden on the military in addition to the unit?s loss of an Operator and potential mission compromise. This report reviews a case of an Operator diagnosed with drug-induced liver injury secondary to a testosterone prohormone supplement called Post Cycle II. Clinical situations like this emphasize the necessity that SOF Operators and clinicians be aware of the risks and benefits of these minimally studied substances. Providers should also be aware of the Human Performance Resource Center for Health Information and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database supplement safety ratings as well as the Food and Drug Administration?s MedWatch and Natural Medicines WATCH, to which adverse reactions should be reported. 2013.

  12. Multimode drug inducible CRISPR/Cas9 devices for transcriptional activation and genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jia; Zhao, Chen; Zhao, Yingze; Zhang, Jingfang; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Li; Han, Qiyuan; Ying, Yue; Peng, Shuai; Ai, Runna; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Precise investigation and manipulation of dynamic biological processes often requires molecular modulation in a controlled inducible manner. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) has emerged as a versatile tool for targeted gene editing and transcriptional programming. Here, we designed and vigorously optimized a series of Hybrid drug Inducible CRISPR/Cas9 Technologies (HIT) for transcriptional activation by grafting a mutated human estrogen receptor (ERT2) to multiple CRISPR/Cas9 systems, which renders them 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) inducible for the access of genome. Further, extra functionality of simultaneous genome editing was achieved with one device we named HIT2. Optimized terminal devices herein delivered advantageous performances in comparison with several existing designs. They exerted selective, titratable, rapid and reversible response to drug induction. In addition, these designs were successfully adapted to an orthogonal Cas9. HIT systems developed in this study can be applied for controlled modulation of potentially any genomic loci in multiple modes. PMID:29237052

  13. A hidden Markov model to assess drug-induced sleep fragmentation in the telemetered rat.

    PubMed

    Diack, C; Ackaert, O; Ploeger, B A; van der Graaf, P H; Gurrell, R; Ivarsson, M; Fairman, D

    2011-12-01

    Drug-induced sleep fragmentation can cause sleep disturbances either via their intended pharmacological action or as a side effect. Examples of disturbances include excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia and nightmares. Developing drugs without these side effects requires insight into the mechanisms leading to sleep disturbance. The characterization of the circadian sleep pattern by EEG following drug exposure has improved our understanding of these mechanisms and their translatability across species. The EEG shows frequent transitions between specific sleep states leading to multiple correlated sojourns in these states. We have developed a Markov model to consider the high correlation in the data and quantitatively compared sleep disturbance in telemetered rats induced by methylphenidate, which is known to disturb sleep, and of a new chemical entity (NCE). It was assumed that these drugs could either accelerate or decelerate the transitions between the sleep states. The difference in sleep disturbance of methylphenidate and the NCE were quantitated and different mechanisms of action on rebound sleep were identified. The estimated effect showed that both compounds induce sleep fragmentation with methylphenidate being fivefold more potent compared to the NCE.

  14. A Text Searching Tool to Identify Patients with Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Lauren; Law, James; Fontana, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an uncommon but important cause of liver disease that is challenging to diagnose and identify in the electronic medical record (EMR). To develop an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of identifying patients with bonafide DILI in an EMR system. In total, 527,000 outpatient and ER encounters in an EPIC-based EMR were searched for potential DILI cases attributed to eight drugs. A searching algorithm that extracted 200 characters of text around 14 liver injury terms in the EMR were extracted and collated. Physician investigators reviewed the data outputs and used standardized causality assessment methods to adjudicate the potential DILI cases. A total of 101 DILI cases were identified from the 2564 potential DILI cases that included 62 probable DILI cases, 25 possible DILI cases, nine historical DILI cases, and five allergy-only cases. Elimination of the term "liver disease" from the search strategy improved the search recall from 4 to 19 %, while inclusion of the four highest yield liver injury terms further improved the positive predictive value to 64 % but reduced the overall case detection rate by 47 %. RUCAM scores of the 57 probable DILI cases were generally high and concordant with expert opinion causality assessment scores. A novel text searching tool was developed that identified a large number of DILI cases from a widely used EMR system. A computerized extraction of dictated text followed by the manual review of text snippets can rapidly identify bona fide cases of idiosyncratic DILI.

  15. Zebrafish as model organisms for studying drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Dear, James W

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major challenge in clinical medicine and drug development. New models are needed for predicting which potential therapeutic compounds will cause DILI in humans, and new markers and mediators of DILI still need to be identified. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of using zebrafish as a high-throughput in vivo model for studying DILI. Although the zebrafish liver architecture is different from that of the mammalian liver, the main physiological processes remain similar. Zebrafish metabolize drugs using similar pathways to those in humans; they possess a wide range of cytochrome P450 enzymes that enable metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, conjugation, oxidation, demethylation and de-ethylation. Following exposure to a range of hepatotoxic drugs, the zebrafish liver develops histological patterns of injury comparable to those of mammalian liver, and biomarkers for liver injury can be quantified in the zebrafish circulation. The zebrafish immune system is similar to that of mammals, but the zebrafish inflammatory response to DILI is not yet defined. In order to quantify DILI in zebrafish, a wide variety of methods can be used, including visual assessment, quantification of serum enzymes and experimental serum biomarkers and scoring of histopathology. With further development, the zebrafish may be a model that complements rodents and may have value for the discovery of new disease pathways and translational biomarkers. PMID:24773296

  16. Treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnason, I; Hopkinson, N; Zanelli, G; Prouse, P; Smethurst, P; Gumpel, J M; Levi, A J

    1990-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced small intestinal inflammation may have an adverse effect on the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We therefore assessed small intestinal and joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis before and after three to nine months' treatment with sulphasalazine (n = 40) and other second line drugs (n = 20), while keeping the dosage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug at the same level. Sulphasalazine significantly decreased the mean (SD) faecal excretion of 111indium labelled leucocytes from 2.39 (2.22)% to 1.33 (1.13)% (normal less than 1%, p less than 0.01) and improved the joint inflammation as assessed by a variety of parameters. There was no significant correlation between the effects of sulphasalazine treatment on the intestine and the joints. Treatment with other second line drugs had no significant effect on the faecal excretion of 111indium (1.58 (1.04)% and 1.86 (1.51)%, respectively) but improved joint inflammation significantly. The lack of correlation between the intestinal and joint inflammation and their response to treatment suggests that the two are not causally related. PMID:1973396

  17. Toxicoproteomics: serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of drug induced cardiac toxicities and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Rajapaske, Vinodh; Herman, Eugene H; Arekani, Ali M; Ross, Sally; Johann, Donald; Knapton, Alan; Zhang, J; Hitt, Ben A; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D; Liotta, Lance A; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry which communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity based processes as cascades of reinforcing information percolate through the system and become reflected in changing proteomic information content of the circulation. Serum Proteomic Pattern Diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. While this approach has shown tremendous promise in early detection of cancers, detection of drug-induced toxicity may also be possible with this same technology. Analysis of serum from rat models of anthracycline and anthracenedione induced cardiotoxicity indicate the potential clinical utility of diagnostic proteomic patterns where low molecular weight peptides and protein fragments may have higher accuracy than traditional biomarkers of cardiotoxicity such as troponins. These fragments may one day be harvested by circulating nanoparticles designed to absorb, enrich and amplify the diagnostic biomarker repertoire generated even at the critical initial stages of toxicity.

  18. Clinical review: Aggressive management and extracorporeal support for drug-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Frédéric J; Megarbane, Bruno; Deye, Nicolas; Leprince, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Poisoning may induce failure in multiple organs, leading to death. Supportive treatments and supplementation of failing organs are usually efficient. In contrast, the usefulness of cardiopulmonary bypass in drug-induced shock remains a matter of debate. The majority of deaths results from poisoning with membrane stabilising agents and calcium channel blockers. There is a need for more aggressive treatment in patients not responding to conventional treatments. The development of new antidotes is limited. In contrast, experimental studies support the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary bypass is life-saving. A review of the literature shows that cardiopulmonary bypass of the poisoned heart is feasible. The largest experience has resulted from the use of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass. However, a literature review does not allow any conclusions regarding the efficiency and indications for this invasive method. Indeed, the majority of reports are single cases, with only one series of seven patients. Appealing results suggest that further studies are needed. Determination of prognostic factors predictive of refractoriness to conventional treatment for cardiotoxic poisonings is mandatory. These prognostic factors are specific for a toxicant or a class of toxicants. Knowledge of them will result in clarification of the indications for cardiopulmonary bypass in poisonings. PMID:17367544

  19. [Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide)-induced hepatic dysfunction confirmed by drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Mori, Takehiko; Karigane, Daiki; Kikuchi, Taku; Koda, Yuya; Toyama, Takaaki; Nakajima, Hideaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with refractory leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome was placed on hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) at a daily dose of 500 mg. Because of insufficient cytoreductive efficacy, the dose was increased to 1,500 mg five days later. Eight days after the initiation of hydroxyurea, the patient started complaining of chills, fever, and vomiting. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly elevated to 5,098 and 3,880 IU/l from 44 and 59 IU/l in one day, respectively. Tests for hepatitis viruses were all negative. With the discontinuation of hydroxyurea, AST and ALT returned to their former levels within two weeks. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for hydroxyurea was positive with a stimulating index of 2.0. Hepatic dysfunction has been recognized as one of the side effects of hydroxyurea. However, there have been only a limited number of reports demonstrating drug allergy to have a role in hepatic dysfunction accompanied by fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings of our case strongly suggest that all presentations could be explained by drug allergy. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for acute and severe hepatic dysfunction due to allergic reaction against hydroxyurea.

  20. Protection of a Ceramide Synthase 2 Null Mouse from Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Jae; Park, Joo-Won; Erez-Roman, Racheli; Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Bame, Jessica R.; Tirosh, Boaz; Saada, Ann; Merrill, Alfred H.; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2013-01-01

    Very long chain (C22-C24) ceramides are synthesized by ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2). A CerS2 null mouse displays hepatopathy because of depletion of C22-C24 ceramides, elevation of C16-ceramide, and/or elevation of sphinganine. Unexpectedly, CerS2 null mice were resistant to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Although there were a number of biochemical changes in the liver, such as increased levels of glutathione and multiple drug-resistant protein 4, these effects are unlikely to account for the lack of acetaminophen toxicity. A number of other hepatotoxic agents, such as d-galactosamine, CCl4, and thioacetamide, were also ineffective in inducing liver damage. All of these drugs and chemicals require connexin (Cx) 32, a key gap junction protein, to induce hepatotoxicity. Cx32 was mislocalized to an intracellular location in hepatocytes from CerS2 null mice, which resulted in accelerated rates of its lysosomal degradation. This mislocalization resulted from the altered membrane properties of the CerS2 null mice, which was exemplified by the disruption of detergent-resistant membranes. The lack of acetaminophen toxicity and Cx32 mislocalization were reversed upon infection with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing CerS2. We establish that Gap junction function is compromised upon altering the sphingolipid acyl chain length composition, which is of relevance for understanding the regulation of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:24019516

  1. Drug Induced Liver Injury: Can Biomarkers Assist RUCAM in Causality Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel; Danan, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a potentially serious adverse reaction in a few susceptible individuals under therapy by various drugs. Health care professionals facing DILI are confronted with a wealth of drug-unrelated liver diseases with high incidence and prevalence rates, which can confound the DILI diagnosis. Searching for alternative causes is a key element of RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) to assess rigorously causality in suspected DILI cases. Diagnostic biomarkers as blood tests would be a great help to clinicians, regulators, and pharmaceutical industry would be more comfortable if, in addition to RUCAM, causality of DILI can be confirmed. High specificity and sensitivity are required for any diagnostic biomarker. Although some risk factors are available to evaluate liver safety of drugs in patients, no valid diagnostic or prognostic biomarker exists currently for idiosyncratic DILI when a liver injury occurred. Identifying a biomarker in idiosyncratic DILI requires detailed knowledge of cellular and biochemical disturbances leading to apoptosis or cell necrosis and causing leakage of specific products in blood. As idiosyncratic DILI is typically a human disease and hardly reproducible in animals, pathogenetic events and resulting possible biomarkers remain largely undisclosed. Potential new diagnostic biomarkers should be evaluated in patients with DILI and RUCAM-based established causality. In conclusion, causality assessment in cases of suspected idiosyncratic DILI is still best achieved using RUCAM since specific biomarkers as diagnostic blood tests that could enhance RUCAM results are not yet available. PMID:28398242

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herb-induced Liver Injury: Comparison with Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jing; Teschke, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cases of suspected herb-induced liver injury (HILI) caused by herbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are commonly published in the scientific literature worldwide. As opposed to the multiplicity of botanical chemicals in herbal TCM products, which are often mixtures of several herbs, conventional Western drugs contain only a single synthetic chemical. It is therefore of interest to study how HILI by TCM and DILI compare with each other, and to what extent results from each liver injury type can be transferred to the other. China is among the few countries with a large population using synthetic Western drugs as well as herbal TCM. Therefore, China is well suited to studies of liver injury comparing drugs with TCM herbs. Despite some concordance, recent analyses of liver injury cases with verified causality, using the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, revealed major differences in HILI caused by TCMs as compared to DILI with respect to the following features: HILI cases are less frequently observed as compared to DILI, have a smaller proportion of females and less unintentional rechallenge events, and present a higher rate of hepatocellular injury features. Since many results were obtained among Chinese residents who had access to and had used Western drugs and TCM herbs, such ethnic homogeneity supports the contention that the observed differences of HILI and DILI in the assessed population are well founded. PMID:29577033

  3. Integrated Analysis of Drug-Induced Gene Expression Profiles Predicts Novel hERG Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Joseph J.; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that drugs interact with diverse molecular targets mediating both therapeutic and toxic effects. Prediction of these complex interactions from chemical structures alone remains challenging, as compounds with different structures may possess similar toxicity profiles. In contrast, predictions based on systems-level measurements of drug effect may reveal pharmacologic similarities not evident from structure or known therapeutic indications. Here we utilized drug-induced transcriptional responses in the Connectivity Map (CMap) to discover such similarities among diverse antagonists of the human ether-à-go-go related (hERG) potassium channel, a common target of promiscuous inhibition by small molecules. Analysis of transcriptional profiles generated in three independent cell lines revealed clusters enriched for hERG inhibitors annotated using a database of experimental measurements (hERGcentral) and clinical indications. As a validation, we experimentally identified novel hERG inhibitors among the unannotated drugs in these enriched clusters, suggesting transcriptional responses may serve as predictive surrogates of cardiotoxicity complementing existing functional assays. PMID:23936032

  4. Successful management of drug-induced hypercapnic acidosis with naloxone and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Agrafiotis, Michalis; Tryfon, Stavros; Siopi, Demetra; Chassapidou, Georgia; Galanou, Artemis; Tsara, Venetia

    2015-02-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to deteriorating level of consciousness and desaturation. His Glasgow Coma Scale was 6, and his pupils were constricted but responded to light. Chest radiograph was negative for significant findings. Arterial blood gas evaluation on supplemental oxygen revealed severe acute on chronic respiratory acidosis: pH 7.15; PCO2, 133 mm Hg; PO2,64 mm Hg; and HCO3, 31 mmol/L. He regained full consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale, 15) after receiving a 0.4 mg dose of naloxone, but because of persistent severe respiratory acidosis (pH 7.21; PCO2, 105 mm Hg), he was immediately commenced on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) displaying a remarkable improvement in arterial blood gas values within the next few hours. However, in the days that followed, he remained dependent on NIV, and he was finally discharged on a home mechanical ventilation prescription. In cases of drug-induced respiratory depression, NIV should be regarded as an acceptable treatment, as it can provide ventilatory support without the increased risks associated with invasive mechanical ventilation.

  5. Disease-related and drug-induced skin manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hindryckx, Pieter; Novak, Gregor; Costanzo, Antonio; Danese, Silvio

    2017-03-01

    Skin manifestations are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and can be part of a concomitant illness with a shared genetic background, an extra-intestinal manifestation of the disease, or a drug side-effect. Areas covered: We provide a practical overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutic approach and prognosis of the most frequent disease-related and drug-induced cutaneous manifestations in IBD, illustrated by cases encountered in our clinical practice. Among the most frequently encountered IBD-related lesions are erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome. Common skin manifestations with a strong association to TNF antagonists are local injection site reactions, psoriasiform lesions, cutaneous infections, vasculitides and lupus-like syndromes. In addition, we discuss the relation of thiopurines and TNF antagonists with the risk of skin cancer. Expert commentary: We hope this review will help caretakers involved in the management of IBD patients to recognize the lesions and to manage them in close collaboration with a dedicated dermatologist.

  6. Genetic risk factors for antiepileptic drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Israeli populations.

    PubMed

    Israel, Shoshana; Maggio, Nicola; Ekstein, Dana; Zaid, Huda; Firer, Maria; Bederovsky, Yana; Noyman, Iris; Gandelman-Marton, Revital; Blatt, Ilan; Brautbar, Chaim; Marom, Eli; Nahlieli Dil, Dorit; Berman, Erez; Sabag, David; Ingber, Arieh; Eyal, Sara

    2016-10-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles B*15:02 and A*31:01 have been identified as predictive markers of adverse cutaneous effects of carbamazepine and phenytoin in Asian and North European populations, respectively. Our aim was to estimate the distribution of these alleles in Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. The HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 carrier rate was estimated based on data from the Hadassah Bone Marrow Registry. Data on Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)- and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-related hospitalizations were obtained from the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) registries and from four Israeli medical centers. Of 83,705 Jewish and Arab-Muslim donors, 81 individuals of known origin carried the HLA-B*15:02. Among them, 66 were Jews of India-Cochin descent. Of the Cochin Jewish donors, 12.7% were B*15:02 carriers. HLA-A*31:01 carrier incidence among Arab and Jewish Israeli populations (3.5% and 2.2%, respectively) was within the range reported in other countries. We did not identify SJS- or TEN-related hospitalizations of Jews of Indian descent. Yet, this population should be considered at greater risk for antiepileptic drug-induced SJS and TEN. Until further data on actual risk are available, such patients should be typed for HLA-B before treatment with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Predicting drug-induced liver injury using ensemble learning methods and molecular fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Ai, Haixin; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Li; Huang, Liangchao; Yin, Zimo; Hu, Huan; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Hongsheng

    2018-05-21

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern in the drug-development process, and various methods have been proposed to predict the hepatotoxicity of compounds during the early stages of drug trials. In this study, we developed an ensemble model using three machine learning algorithms and 12 molecular fingerprints from a dataset containing 1,241 diverse compounds. The ensemble model achieved an average accuracy of 71.1±2.6%, sensitivity of 79.9±3.6%, specificity of 60.3±4.8%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.764±0.026 in five-fold cross-validation and an accuracy of 84.3%, sensitivity of 86.9%, specificity of 75.4%, and AUC of 0.904 in an external validation dataset of 286 compounds collected from the Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base (LTKB). Compared with previous methods, the ensemble model achieved relatively high accuracy and sensitivity. We also identified several substructures related to DILI. In addition, we provide a web server offering access to our models (http://ccsipb.lnu.edu.cn/toxicity/HepatoPred-EL/).

  8. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  9. S4. ASYMMETRIC DRUG-INDUCED PARKINSONISM IS RELATED TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Lydia; Bakker, P Roberto; Van Harten, Peter N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Drug-Induced Parkinsonism (DIP) is the most common movement disorder induced by antipsychotics. The prevalence of DIP in chronic psychiatric populations ranges between 17 and 72% (1–3). Although, DIP is mostly symmetric, asymmetric DIP is reported in 18 to 54% of the patients. (4). There are no studies to the clinical relevance of asymmetric DIP. We investigated the prevalence of motor asymmetry in DIP and its relationship to the severity of psychopathology in a prospective study. Methods In a cohort study of 207 long-stay psychiatric inpatients the prevalence of DIP was assessed at least two times (mean follow-up 1.1 year) in each patient (5). DIP was assessed with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the prevalence of persistent DIP was 56.2%. Patients with at least one time parkinsonism in the upper/lower limb(s) were included for analyses. Asymmetry of parkinsonism was calculated with the symmetry index (Figure 1). A cut-off value of ≥ 0,20 was used for the definition of asymmetric DIP. Multilevel mixed models were built to explore the relationship between asymmetry in DIP and the severity of psychopathology, measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale severity index (CGI-SCH SI). Results In a cohort study of 207 long-stay psychiatric inpatients the prevalence of DIP was assessed at least two times (mean follow-up 1.1 year) in each patient (5). DIP was assessed with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the prevalence of persistent DIP was 56.2%. Patients with at least one time parkinsonism in the upper/lower limb(s) were included for analyses. Asymmetry of parkinsonism was calculated with the symmetry index (Figure 1). A cut-off value of ≥ 0,20 was used for the definition of asymmetric DIP. Multilevel mixed models were built to explore the relationship between asymmetry in DIP and the severity of psychopathology, measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale

  10. Pharmacogenomics of drug-induced liver injury (DILI): Molecular biology to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Kaliyaperumal, Kalaiyarasi; Grove, Jane I; Delahay, Robin M; Griffiths, William J H; Duckworth, Adam; Aithal, Guruprasad P

    2018-05-21

    was performed as a part of preparatory investigations and showed the patient carried the HLA haplotype HLA-DRB1∗15:02-DQB1∗06:01. Following orthotopic transplantation of a deceased donor graft her explant histology revealed severe ongoing hepatitis with multi-acinar necrosis (Fig. 1A and B). This case raised a number of important questions about the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury and tools available for clinicians to make the best decisions for patient care: In this Grand Rounds article, we will explore these questions, describing the pathophysiology, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and clinical management of drug-induced liver injury. We will also discuss ongoing areas of uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for CPAP titration in OSA patients.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Huang, Yun-Chen; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chiu, Tsan-Jen; Yang, Mei-Chen

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to identify possible upper airway obstructions causing a higher continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level, utilizing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). A total of 76 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent CPAP titration and DISE. DISE findings were recorded using the VOTE classification system. Polysomnographic (PSG) data, anthropometric variables, and patterns of airway collapse during DISE were analyzed with CPAP titration levels. A significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and BMI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and neck circumference (NC) (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively, by Spearman correlation). Patients with concentric collapse of the velum or lateral oropharyngeal collapse were associated with a significantly higher CPAP titration level (P < 0.001 and P = 0.043, respectively, by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test; P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively, by Spearman correlation). No significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and any other collapse at the tongue base or epiglottis. By analyzing PSG data, anthropometric variables, and DISE results with CPAP titration levels, we can better understand possible mechanisms resulting in a higher CPAP titration level. We believe that the role of DISE can be expanded as a tool to identify the possible anatomical structures that may be corrected by oral appliance therapy or surgical intervention to improve CPAP compliance.

  12. Spontaneous and drug-induced remission of alcoholic organic brain syndrome: clinical, psychometric, and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Saletu, M; Grünberger, J; Mader, R

    1983-09-01

    The spontaneous and drug-induced remission of alcoholic organic brain syndrome was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty patients with alcoholic organic brain syndrome (OBS) were randomly assigned to a 6-week treatment with either placebo or piridoxilate, a reciprocal salt between two stereoisomers of the glyoxylic acid-substituted piridoxine. Clinical, psychometric, and computer-assisted spectral analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG) were carried out in weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Piridoxale-5-phosphate (PLP) blood level determination and laboratory investigations were performed before therapy and also in weeks 4 and 6. Both groups of patients demonstrated significant clinical improvement over 6 weeks of treatment, but the improvement in the piridoxilate-treated group was significantly greater than that in the placebo group. This conclusion was also confirmed by psychometric tests demonstrating a greater improvement in attention, concentration, attention variability, tapping, visual and numerical memory, and aftereffect (Archimedean spiral) in the piridoxilate than in the placebo group. Spectral analysis of the EEG showed an increase in alpha and a decrease in fast beta activities in both groups, while delta activity was attenuated only in the piridoxilate-treated group. The latter was found to be significantly correlated with the improvement in psychopathology. The present data confirm previous predictions about the encephalotropic and psychotropic properties of piridoxilate; these predictions were based on pharmaco-EEG trials in the elderly that suggested vigilance-improving qualities of piridoxilate. The reversible alcoholic OBS appears to be a suitable model for the assessment of therapeutic efficacy of nootropic drugs.

  13. A drug-induced accelerated senescence (DIAS) is a possibility to study aging in time lapse.

    PubMed

    Alili, Lirija; Diekmann, Johanna; Giesen, Melanie; Holtkötter, Olaf; Brenneisen, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Currently, the oxidative stress (or free radical) theory of aging is the most popular explanation of how aging occurs at the molecular level. Accordingly, a stress-induced senescence-like phenotype of human dermal fibroblasts can be induced in vitro by the exposure of human diploid fibroblasts to subcytotoxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. However, several biomarkers of replicative senescence e.g. cell cycle arrest and enlarged morphology are abrogated 14 days after treatment, indicating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather acts as a trigger for short-term senescence (1-3 days) than being responsible for the maintenance of the senescence-like phenotype. Further, DNA-damaging factors are discussed resulting in a permanent senescent cell type. To induce long-term premature senescence and to understand the molecular alterations occurring during the aging process, we analyzed mitomycin C (MMC) as an alkylating DNA-damaging agent and ROS producer. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), used as model for skin aging, were exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of MMC and analyzed for potential markers of cellular aging, for example enlarged morphology, activity of senescence-associated-ß-galactosidase, cell cycle arrest, increased ROS production and MMP1-activity, which are well-documented for HDF in replicative senescence. Our data show that mitomycin C treatment results in a drug-induced accelerated senescence (DIAS) with long-term expression of senescence markers, demonstrating that a combination of different susceptibility factors, here ROS and DNA alkylation, are necessary to induce a permanent senescent cell type.

  14. Strategies to reduce the risk of drug-induced QT interval prolongation: a pharmaceutical company perspective.

    PubMed

    Pollard, C E; Valentin, J-P; Hammond, T G

    2008-08-01

    Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval is having a significant impact on the ability of the pharmaceutical industry to develop new drugs. The development implications for a compound causing a significant effect in the 'Thorough QT/QTc Study' -- as defined in the clinical regulatory guidance (ICH E14) -- are substantial. In view of this, and the fact that QT interval prolongation is linked to direct inhibition of the hERG channel, in the early stages of drug discovery the focus is on testing for and screening out hERG activity. This has led to understanding of how to produce low potency hERG blockers whilst retaining desirable properties. Despite this, a number of factors mean that when an integrated risk assessment is generated towards the end of the discovery phase (by conducting at least an in vivo QT assessment) a QT interval prolongation risk is still often apparent; inhibition of hERG channel trafficking and partitioning into cardiac tissue are just two confounding factors. However, emerging information suggests that hERG safety margins have high predictive value and that when hERG and in vivo non-clinical data are combined, their predictive value to man, whilst not perfect, is >80%. Although understanding the anomalies is important and is being addressed, of greater importance is developing a better understanding of TdP, with the aim of being able to predict TdP rather than using an imperfect surrogate marker (QT interval prolongation). Without an understanding of how to predict TdP risk, high-benefit drugs for serious indications may never be marketed.

  15. Management of Psychotropic Drug-Induced DRESS Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bommersbach, Tanner J; Lapid, Maria I; Leung, Jonathan G; Cunningham, Julie L; Rummans, Teresa A; Kung, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe cutaneous eruption that has been linked to several common drugs and drug categories, including antiepileptics, allopurinol, sulfonamides, and various antibiotics; however, because of a number of recent case reports linking psychotropic medications to this condition, DRESS is increasingly recognized among psychiatrists. We systematically reviewed all psychotropic drugs linked to DRESS syndrome, and this article summarizes the clinical management relevant to psychiatric professionals. A comprehensive search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Scopus, and Litt's Drug Eruption and Reaction Database for articles published in English during the past 20 years (1996-2015) using the search terms (1) psychotropic drugs OR serotonin uptake inhibitors AND DRESS or (2) psychotropic drugs AND drug reaction (or rash) eosinophilia systemic syndrome, and all article abstracts were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria by 3 reviewers. Two independent reviewers examined the full text of 163 articles, of which 96 (25 original articles, 12 review articles, 55 case reports, and 4 letters to the editor) were included in the systematic review. We identified 1072 cases of psychotropic drug-induced DRESS, with carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, valproate, and phenobarbital being the most implicated drugs. Based on our review of the literature, we outline management principles that include prompt withdrawal of the causative drug, hospitalization, corticosteroid therapy, and novel treatments, including intravenous immunoglobulin, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine, for corticosteroid-resistant DRESS. Finally, we outline strategies for treating comorbid psychiatric illness after a DRESS reaction to the psychotropic medication. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of obstruction site in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients by drug induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Choi, Jang Won; Myung, Nam Suk; Lee, Hyoung Ju; Kim, Yang Jae; Kim, Young Joong

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed site, pattern and degree of obstruction in Korean male obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients by drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). We also investigated possible links between BMI, AHI and DISE findings. Sixty-nine male patients underwent DISE. DISE findings were reported using our classification system in which modified 'VOTE classification' - obstruction type, site of obstruction, degree of obstruction and anatomical site contributing obstruction - was reported. Associations were analyzed among the results of the polysomnography, patients' characteristics and DISE finding. Multilevel airway obstruction was found in 84.06% of patients and 15.94% had a unilevel obstruction. Among those with unilevel obstruction, 90.90% had retropalatal level obstruction and 9.10% had retrolingual level obstruction. Palate with lateral pharyngeal wall obstruction (49.28%) is the most common obstruction type of the retropalatal level and tongue with lateral pharyngeal wall (37.68%) is the most common obstruction type of the retrolingual level. Examining the relation between obstruction site according to body mass index (BMI) and severity of OSAS (apnea hypopnea index, AHI), the lateral pharyngeal wall had an increasing tendency associated with higher BMI and higher AHI. But the lateral pharyngeal wall of both levels was statistically significant associated with higher AHI. The majority of the Korean male OSAS patients have multilevel obstruction and according to BMI and AHI, the DISE findings indicate that the lateral pharyngeal wall is the most important anatomical site contributing to obstruction regardless of the level at which the obstruction lies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endoscopic examination of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients during drug-induced sleep.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Koichi; Hasegawa, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Nobuhiro; Kawakatsu, Kenji; Akita, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Kenji; Yagisawa, Mikio; Nishimura, Tadao

    2003-01-01

    Sixty patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). The effects of surgery were studied based on endoscopic findings during drug-induced sleep and determination of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) before and after the operation. Changes in the form of the airway during sleep in the recumbent position were observed, and the role of upper airway endoscopy in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of OSAS was determined. The site of airway obstruction during sleep induced by i.v. injection of 10 mg of diazepam was classified into five types, and changes in AHI and the site of airway obstruction were compared before and after surgery. Changes in airway morphology during sleep in the supine and recumbent positions were also compared before surgery. The postoperative improvement rate was 74.4% for the soft palatal type of obstruction, 76.2% for the tonsillar type, 53.3% for the circumferential palatal type and 34.0% for the mixed type. Treatment produced excellent or good effects for the soft palatal and tonsillar types of obstruction. However, many patients with the circumferential palatal and mixed types of obstruction showed only some improvement or no change. Good airway morphology was maintained in the recumbent position by patients with the soft palatal type of obstruction. With the circumferential palatal and mixed types of obstruction, improvement can be expected from operations which include surgical treatment of the posterior pharyngeal wall or lateral funiculus, or with midline laser glossectomy. A good operative outcome can be predicted in patients showing improvement of apnea in the recumbent position preoperatively.

  18. Identifying the translational gap in the evaluation of drug-induced QTc interval prolongation

    PubMed Central

    Chain, Anne SY; Dubois, Vincent FS; Danhof, Meindert; Sturkenboom, Miriam CJM; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Aims Given the similarities in QTc response between dogs and humans, dogs are used in pre-clinical cardiovascular safety studies. The objective of our investigation was to characterize the PKPD relationships and identify translational gaps across species following the administration of three compounds known to cause QTc interval prolongation, namely cisapride, d, l-sotalol and moxifloxacin. Methods Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from experiments in conscious dogs and clinical trials were included in this analysis. First, pharmacokinetic modelling and deconvolution methods were applied to derive drug concentrations at the time of each QT measurement. A Bayesian PKPD model was then used to describe QT prolongation, allowing discrimination of drug-specific effects from other physiological factors known to alter QT interval duration. A threshold of ≥10 ms was used to explore the probability of prolongation after drug administration. Results A linear relationship was found to best describe the pro-arrhythmic effects of cisapride, d,l-sotalol and moxifloxacin both in dogs and in humans. The drug-specific parameter (slope) in dogs was statistically significantly different from humans. Despite such differences, our results show that the probability of QTc prolongation ≥10 ms in dogs nears 100% for all three compounds at the therapeutic exposure range in humans. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the slope of PKPD relationship in conscious dogs may be used as the basis for the prediction of drug-induced QTc prolongation in humans. Furthermore, the risk of QTc prolongation can be expressed in terms of the probability associated with an increase ≥10 ms, allowing direct inferences about the clinical relevance of the pro-arrhythmic potential of a molecule. PMID:23351036

  19. Psychotropic drug-induced weight gain and other metabolic complications in a Swiss psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Choong, Eva; Bondolfi, Guido; Etter, Manuela; Jermann, Françoise; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Bartolomei, Javier; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Eap, Chin B

    2012-04-01

    To describe the weight gain-related side-effects of psychotropic drugs and their consequences on metabolic complications (hypercholesterolemia, obesity) in a Swiss cohort of psychiatric patients. This cross-sectional observational study was performed in an out-patient psychiatric division with patients having received for more than 3 months the following drugs: clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, lithium, and/or valproate. Clinical measures and lifestyle information (smoking behaviour, physical activity) were recorded. 196 inclusions were completed. Weight gain (≥10% of initial weight) following drug treatment was reported in 47% of these patients. Prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30), hypercholesterolemia (≥6.2 mmol/L) and low HDL-cholesterol (<1.0 mmol/L in men, <1.3 mmol/L in women) were present in 38%, 21%, and 27% of patients, respectively. A higher standardised dose, an increase of appetite following medication introduction, the type of medication (clozapine or olanzapine > quetiapine or risperidone > lithium or valproate), and the gender were shown to be significantly associated with evolution of BMI. High prevalence of obesity and hypercholesterolemia was found in an out-patient psychiatric population and confirms drug-induced weight gain complications during long-term treatment. The results support the recently published recommendations of monitoring of metabolic side-effects during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Moreover, the weight gain predictors found in the present study could help to highlight patients with special health care management requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-induced Ego Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Millière, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). While these substances act on different neurotransmitter receptors, they all produce strong subjective effects that can be compared to the symptoms of acute psychosis, including ego dissolution. It has been suggested that neuroimaging of DIED can indirectly shed light on the neural correlates of the self. While this line of inquiry is promising, its results must be interpreted with caution. First, neural correlates of ego dissolution might reveal the necessary neurophysiological conditions for the maintenance of the sense of self, but it is more doubtful that this method can reveal its minimally sufficient conditions. Second, it is necessary to define the relevant notion of self at play in the phenomenon of DIED. This article suggests that DIED consists in the disruption of subpersonal processes underlying the "minimal" or "embodied" self, i.e., the basic experience of being a self rooted in multimodal integration of self-related stimuli. This hypothesis is consistent with Bayesian models of phenomenal selfhood, according to which the subjective structure of conscious experience ultimately results from the optimization of predictions in perception and action. Finally, it is argued that DIED is also of particular interest for philosophy of mind. On the one hand, it challenges theories according to which consciousness always involves self-awareness. On the other

  1. Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

    2010-08-01

    Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis.

  2. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  3. Associations of Drug Lipophilicity and Extent of Metabolism with Drug-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    McEuen, Kristin; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida; Chen, Minjun

    2017-06-22

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although rare, is a frequent cause of adverse drug reactions resulting in warnings and withdrawals of numerous medications. Despite the research community's best efforts, current testing strategies aimed at identifying hepatotoxic drugs prior to human trials are not sufficiently powered to predict the complex mechanisms leading to DILI. In our previous studies, we demonstrated lipophilicity and dose to be associated with increased DILI risk and, and in our latest work, we factored reactive metabolites into the algorithm to predict DILI. Given the inconsistency in determining the potential for drugs to cause DILI, the present study comprehensively assesses the relationship between DILI risk and lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism using a large published dataset of 1036 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs by considering five independent DILI annotations. We found that lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism alone were associated with increased risk for DILI. Moreover, when analyzed in combination with high daily dose (≥100 mg), lipophilicity was statistically significantly associated with the risk of DILI across all datasets ( p < 0.05). Similarly, the combination of extensive hepatic metabolism (≥50%) and high daily dose (≥100 mg) was also strongly associated with an increased risk of DILI among all datasets analyzed ( p < 0.05). Our results suggest that both lipophilicity and the extent of hepatic metabolism can be considered important risk factors for DILI in humans, and that this relationship to DILI risk is much stronger when considered in combination with dose. The proposed paradigm allows the convergence of different published annotations to a more uniform assessment.

  4. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  5. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation: does ethnicity of the thorough QT study population matter?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2013-01-01

    Inter-ethnic differences in drug responses have been well documented. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation is a major safety concern and therefore, regulatory authorities recommend a clinical thorough QT study (TQT) to investigate new drugs for their QT-prolonging potential. A positive study, determined by breach of a preset regulatory threshold, significantly influences late phase clinical trials by requiring intense ECG monitoring. A few studies that are currently available, although not statistically conclusive at present, question the assumption that ethnicity of the study population may not influence the outcome of a TQT study. Collective consideration of available pharmacogenetic and clinical information suggests that there may be inter-ethnic differences in QT-prolonging effects of drugs and that Caucasians may be more sensitive than other populations. The information also suggest s that (a) these differences may depend on the QT-prolonging potency of the drug and (b) exposure–response (E–R) analysis may be more sensitive than simple changes in QTc interval in unmasking this difference. If the QT response in Caucasians is generally found to be more intense than in non-Caucasians, there may be significant regulatory implications for domestic acceptance of data from a TQT study conducted in foreign populations. However, each drug will warrant an individual consideration when extrapolating the results of a TQT studyfrom one ethnic population to another and the ultimate clinical relevance of any difference. Further adequately designed and powered studies, investigating the pharmacologic properties and E–R relationships of additional drugs with different potencies, are needed in Caucasians, Oriental/Asian and African populations before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22882246

  6. From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Management of Antineoplastic Drug-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity: A Translational Overview.

    PubMed

    Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Cadeddu, Christian; Di Lisi, Daniela; Femminò, Saveria; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Penna, Claudia; Pepe, Alessia; Spallarossa, Paolo; Varricchi, Gilda; Zito, Concetta; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2017-05-15

    Antineoplastic therapies have significantly improved the prognosis of oncology patients. However, these treatments can bring to a higher incidence of side-effects, including the worrying cardiovascular toxicity (CTX). Substantial evidence indicates multiple mechanisms of CTX, with redox mechanisms playing a key role. Recent data singled out mitochondria as key targets for antineoplastic drug-induced CTX; understanding the underlying mechanisms is, therefore, crucial for effective cardioprotection, without compromising the efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. CTX can occur within a few days or many years after treatment. Type I CTX is associated with irreversible cardiac cell injury, and it is typically caused by anthracyclines and traditional chemotherapeutics. Type II CTX is generally caused by novel biologics and more targeted drugs, and it is associated with reversible myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, patients undergoing anti-cancer treatments should be closely monitored, and patients at risk of CTX should be identified before beginning treatment to reduce CTX-related morbidity. Genetic profiling of clinical risk factors and an integrated approach using molecular, imaging, and clinical data may allow the recognition of patients who are at a high risk of developing chemotherapy-related CTX, and it may suggest methodologies to limit damage in a wider range of patients. The involvement of redox mechanisms in cancer biology and anticancer treatments is a very active field of research. Further investigations will be necessary to uncover the hallmarks of cancer from a redox perspective and to develop more efficacious antineoplastic therapies that also spare the cardiovascular system. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  7. Phenytoin activates Smad3 phosphorylation and periostin expression in drug-induced gingival enlargement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shawna S; Nikoloudaki, Georgia; Darling, Mark; Rieder, Michael J; Hamilton, Douglas W

    2018-06-19

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE) is a fibrotic condition associated with systemic administration of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin. We have previously demonstrated that periostin, which is transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) inducible gene, is upregulated in various fibrotic conditions including gingival enlargement associated with nifedipine. The objective of this study was to assess periostin expression in phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement (PIGE) tissues and to investigate the mechanisms underlying periostin expression. Human PIGE tissues were assessed using Masson's trichrome, with cell infiltration and changes in extracellular matrix composition characterized through labeling with antibodies to periostin, phospho-SMAD 3, TGF-β, as well as the macrophage markers CD68 and RM3/1. Using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in vitro we examined the pathways through which phenytoin acts on fibroblasts. In PIGE tissues, which demonstrate altered collagen organization and increased inflammatory cell infiltration, periostin protein was increased compared with healthy tissues. p-SMAD2/3, the transcription factor associated with canonical TGF-β signaling, is localized to the nuclei in both gingival fibroblasts and oral epithelial cells in PIGE tissues, but not in healthy tissue. In vitro culture of HGFs with 15 and 30 μg/ml of phenytoin increased periostin protein levels, which correlated with p-SMAD3 phosphorylation. Inhibition of canonical TGF-β signaling with SB431542 significantly reduced phenytoin induction of SMAD3 phosphorylation and periostin expression in HGFs. Analysis of PIGE tissues showed a subset of CD68 stained macrophages were TGF-β positive and that RM1/3 regenerative macrophages were present in the tissues. Our results demonstrate that phenytoin up-regulates periostin in HGFs in a TGF-β-dependent manner.

  8. Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.) root extracts shows potent protective action against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi

    2012-05-07

    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (P<0.001) reduction in the levels of serum aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total and direct bilirubin, where as an increase was found in the levels of total cholesterol, total protein and albumin. Liver homogenate studies showed a significant increase in the levels of total protein, phospholipids and glycogen, and a reduction in the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol against control animals. In the tissue anti-oxidant studies, we found a significant increase in the levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase, whereas there was marked reduction in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as compared to control. Histology of liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed significant reduction of necrosis and fatty formation when compared with control specimens. These findings suggest that the root extracts of Hibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting drug-induced liver injury in human with Naïve Bayes classifier approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Ding, Lan; Zou, Yi; Hu, Shui-Qing; Huang, Hai-Guo; Kong, Wei-Bao; Zhang, Ji

    2016-10-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the major safety concerns in drug development. Although various toxicological studies assessing DILI risk have been developed, these methods were not sufficient in predicting DILI in humans. Thus, developing new tools and approaches to better predict DILI risk in humans has become an important and urgent task. In this study, we aimed to develop a computational model for assessment of the DILI risk with using a larger scale human dataset and Naïve Bayes classifier. The established Naïve Bayes prediction model was evaluated by 5-fold cross validation and an external test set. For the training set, the overall prediction accuracy of the 5-fold cross validation was 94.0 %. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.1, 89.2, 93.5 and 95.1 %, respectively. The test set with the concordance of 72.6 %, sensitivity of 72.5 %, specificity of 72.7 %, positive predictive value of 80.4 %, negative predictive value of 63.2 %. Furthermore, some important molecular descriptors related to DILI risk and some toxic/non-toxic fragments were identified. Thus, we hope the prediction model established here would be employed for the assessment of human DILI risk, and the obtained molecular descriptors and substructures should be taken into consideration in the design of new candidate compounds to help medicinal chemists rationally select the chemicals with the best prospects to be effective and safe.

  10. Reliability of the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method for Assessing Causality in Drug-Induced Liver Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Rochon, James; Protiva, Petr; Seeff, Leonard B.; Fontana, Robert J.; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Watkins, Paul B.; Davern, Timothy; McHutchison, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was developed to quantify the strength of association between a liver injury and the medication implicated as causing the injury. However, its reliability in a research setting has never been fully explored. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest and interrater reliabilities of RUCAM in retrospectively-identified cases of drug induced liver injury. The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network is enrolling well-defined cases of hepatotoxicity caused by isoniazid, phenytoin, clavulanate/amoxicillin, or valproate occurring since 1994. Each case was adjudicated by three reviewers working independently; after an interval of at least 5 months, cases were readjudicated by the same reviewers. A total of 40 drug-induced liver injury cases were enrolled including individuals treated with isoniazid (nine), phenytoin (five), clavulanate/amoxicillin (15), and valproate (11). Mean ± standard deviation age at protocol-defined onset was 44.8 ± 19.5 years; patients were 68% female and 78% Caucasian. Cases were classified as hepatocellular (44%), mixed (28%), or cholestatic (28%). Test-retest differences ranged from −7 to +8 with complete agreement in only 26% of cases. On average, the maximum absolute difference among the three reviewers was 3.1 on the first adjudication and 2.7 on the second, although much of this variability could be attributed to differences between the enrolling investigator and the external reviewers. The test-retest reliability by the same assessors was 0.54 (upper 95% confidence limit = 0.77); the interrater reliability was 0.45 (upper 95% confidence limit = 0.58). Categorizing the RUCAM to a five-category scale improved these reliabilities but only marginally. Conclusion The mediocre reliability of the RUCAM is problematic for future studies of drug-induced liver injury. Alternative methods, including modifying the RUCAM, developing drug-specific instruments, or causality assessment based on

  11. Role of miRNA and its potential as a novel diagnostic biomarker in drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Sukumaran; Girish, Chandrashekaran

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA or miR) are the most abundant and stable class of small RNA. Unlike the typical RNA molecules present in the cell, they do not encode proteins but can control translation. and Hhence, they are found to play a major role in the regulation of cellular processes. miRNAs have been shown to differentially regulate various genes, and the expression levels of some miRNAs changes several fold in liver and serum, during drug- induced toxicity. This review summarises some of the latest findings about the biological functions of miRNA and its potential use as diagnostic biomarkers in drug- induced liver injury. The information presented in this article is taken from published literature, both original work and reviews on mechanisms of drug- induced liver injury, miRNA in liver pathophysiology, and studies exploring the use of miRNA as biomarker in drug- induced liver injury. Literature search was done using search engines:- PUBMED, Google scholar, and relevant journal sites. Recent research provides insight into the ability of miRNA to regulate various pathways in diseased and nondiseased states of liver. They also lay a foundation for development of diagnostic tests utilizing the potential of miRNAs that can not only be used for early detection of DILI but also to differentiate between different types of DILI. More studies on biological functions of miRNA and standardisation of protocol between research laboratories can lead to further advancement in this field. Considering the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of miRNA, the major challenge would be to integrate these findings to clinical settings where it can be used for the treatment of cases with DILI.

  12. [Trends in drug-induced liver injury based on reports of adverse reactions to PMDA in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sudo, Chie; Maekawa, Keiko; Segawa, Katsunori; Hanatani, Tadaaki; Sai, Kimie; Saito, Yoshiro

    2012-01-01

    Reports on drug-related adverse reactions from manufacturing/distributing pharmaceutical companies or medical institutions/pharmacies are regulated under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan, and this system is important for post-marketing safety measures. Although association between the medicine and the adverse event has not been clearly evaluated, and an incidence may be redundantly reported, this information would be useful to roughly grasp the current status of drug-related adverse reactions. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence of drug-induced liver injury by screening the open-source data publicized by the homepage of Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency from 2005 to 2011 fiscal years. Major drug-classes suspected to cause general drug-induced liver injury were antineoplastics, anti-inflammatory agents/common cold drugs, chemotherapeutics including antituberculous drugs, antidiabetics, antiulcers and antiepileptics. In addition, reported cases for fulminant hepatitis were also summarized. We found that antituberculous isoniazid and antineoplastic tegafur-uracil were the top two suspected drugs. These results might deepen understanding of current situations for the drug-induced liver injury in Japan.

  13. Up-regulation of CCL17, CCL22 and CCR4 in drug-induced maculopapular exanthema.

    PubMed

    Tapia, B; Morel, E; Martín-Díaz, M-A; Díaz, R; Alves-Ferreira, J; Rubio, P; Padial, A; Bellón, T

    2007-05-01

    Maculopapular exanthema has been reported to be the most frequently drug-induced cutaneous reaction. Although T lymphocytes are involved in the pathomechanism of this disease, little is know about the recruitment of these cells to the skin. The aim of this work is to study the role of the chemokines TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 in the lymphocyte trafficking to affected skin in drug-induced exanthemas. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify gene expression levels of CCL17, CCL22 and their receptor CCR4 in lesional skin biopsies and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients. CCL27 and CCL22 proteins were detected in the skin by immunochemistry. Protein expression of CCR4 was determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Functional migration assays to CCL17 and CCL22 were assessed to compare the migratory responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients and healthy subjects. CCL17 and CCL22 were up-regulated in maculopapular exanthema-affected skin. CCR4 mRNA levels and protein expression were increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the acute phase of the disease. The increased expression of the receptor was consistent with a higher response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to CCL17 and CCL22 compared with the migratory response in healthy donors. TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 might cooperate in attracting T lymphocytes to skin in drug-induced maculopapular exanthemas.

  14. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, JiHyeon; Lee, HeeYoung; Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary's teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010-2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton's preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001), and more likely to be type A reactions (73.5% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.001). Females were over-represented among drug-induced adverse reactions (68.1%, p < 0.001) but not among contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p < 0.001). We found differences in sex, preventability, severity, and type A/B reactions between spontaneously reported drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. The World Health Organization

  16. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Methods Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary’s teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010–2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton’s preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Results Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001), and more likely to be type A reactions (73.5% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.001). Females were over-represented among drug-induced adverse reactions (68.1%, p < 0.001) but not among contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p < 0.001). Conclusions We found differences in sex, preventability, severity, and type A/B reactions between spontaneously reported drug and contrast media-induced adverse

  17. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  18. Genetic variants associated with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis: a genome-wide association study in a European population.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Pär; Eriksson, Niclas; Ibañez, Luisa; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Kreutz, Reinhold; Carvajal, Alfonso; Lucena, M Isabel; Ponce, Esther Sancho; Molokhia, Mariam; Martin, Javier; Axelsson, Tomas; Yue, Qun-Ying; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Wadelius, Mia

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a potentially life-threatening adverse reaction. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in ethnic Chinese people in Taiwan and Hong Kong have shown an association between agranulocytosis induced by antithyroid drugs and the HLA alleles HLA-B*38:02 and HLA-DRB1*08:03. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis in a white European population. We did a GWAS in 234 European adults with any non-chemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (absolute neutrophil count ≤0·5 × 10(9)/L [≤500/μL]) and 5170 population controls. 39 of the 234 patients had agranulocytosis that was induced by antithyroid drugs (thiamazole [methimazole], carbimazole, or propylthiouracil). After imputation and HLA allele prediction, 9 380 034 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 180 HLA alleles were tested for association. The genome-wide significance threshold was p<5 × 10(-8). Agranulocytosis induced by non-chemotherapy drugs in general was significantly associated with the HLA region on chromosome 6, with odds ratios (ORs) of 3·24 (95% CI 2·31-4·55, p=1·20 × 10(-11)) for HLA-B*27:05 and 3·57 (2·61-4·90, p=2·32 × 10(-15)) for the top SNP (rs114291795). Drug-specific analysis showed that the association with HLA-B*27:05 was largely driven by cases induced by antithyroid drugs. In a multiple logistic regression model, the OR for HLA-B*27:05 was 7·30 (3·81-13·96) when antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis was compared with population controls (p=1·91 × 10(-9)) and 16·91 (3·44-83·17) when compared with a small group of hyperthyroid controls (p=5·04 × 10(-4)). Three SNPs were strongly associated with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis: rs652888 (OR 4·73, 95% CI 3·00-7·44, p=1·92 × 10(-11)) and rs199564443 (17·42, 7·38-41·12, p=7·04 × 10(-11)), which were independent of HLA-B*27:05, and rs1071816 (5·27, 3·06-9·10, p=2·35 × 10

  19. Features and Outcomes of 899 Patients With Drug-Induced Liver Injury: The DILIN Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Naga; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Fontana, Robert; Lee, William; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Reddy, K Rajendar; Watkins, Paul B; Navarro, Victor; Barnhart, Huiman; Gu, Jiezhun; Serrano, Jose

    2015-06-01

    The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network is conducting a prospective study of patients with DILI in the United States. We present characteristics and subgroup analyses from the first 1257 patients enrolled in the study. In an observational longitudinal study, we began collecting data on eligible individuals with suspected DILI in 2004, following them for 6 months or longer. Subjects were evaluated systematically for other etiologies, causes, and severity of DILI. Among 1257 enrolled subjects with suspected DILI, the causality was assessed in 1091 patients, and 899 were considered to have definite, highly likely, or probable DILI. Ten percent of patients died or underwent liver transplantation, and 17% had chronic liver injury. In the 89 patients (10%) with pre-existing liver disease, DILI appeared to be more severe than in those without (difference not statistically significant; P = .09) and mortality was significantly higher (16% vs 5.2%; P < .001). Azithromycin was the implicated agent in a higher proportion of patients with pre-existing liver disease compared with those without liver disease (6.7% vs 1.5%; P = .006). Forty-one cases with latency ≤7 days were caused predominantly by antimicrobial agents (71%). Two most common causes for 60 DILI cases with latency >365 days were nitrofurantoin (25%) or minocycline (17%). There were no differences in outcomes of patients with short vs long latency of DILI. Compared with individuals younger than 65 years, individuals 65 years or older (n = 149) were more likely to have cholestatic injury, although mortality and rate of liver transplantation did not differ. Nine patients (1%) had concomitant severe skin reactions; implicated agents were lamotrigine, azithromycin, carbamazepine, moxifloxacin, cephalexin, diclofenac, and nitrofurantoin. Four of these patients died. Mortality from DILI is significantly higher in individuals with pre-existing liver disease or concomitant severe skin reactions compared with patients

  20. Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-induced Ego Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Millière, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as “drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)”, for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). While these substances act on different neurotransmitter receptors, they all produce strong subjective effects that can be compared to the symptoms of acute psychosis, including ego dissolution. It has been suggested that neuroimaging of DIED can indirectly shed light on the neural correlates of the self. While this line of inquiry is promising, its results must be interpreted with caution. First, neural correlates of ego dissolution might reveal the necessary neurophysiological conditions for the maintenance of the sense of self, but it is more doubtful that this method can reveal its minimally sufficient conditions. Second, it is necessary to define the relevant notion of self at play in the phenomenon of DIED. This article suggests that DIED consists in the disruption of subpersonal processes underlying the “minimal” or “embodied” self, i.e., the basic experience of being a self rooted in multimodal integration of self-related stimuli. This hypothesis is consistent with Bayesian models of phenomenal selfhood, according to which the subjective structure of conscious experience ultimately results from the optimization of predictions in perception and action. Finally, it is argued that DIED is also of particular interest for philosophy of mind. On the one hand, it challenges theories according to which consciousness always involves self-awareness. On

  1. Features and Outcomes of 899 Patients with Drug-induced Liver Injury: The DILIN Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, N; Bonkovsky, HL; Fontana, R; Lee, W; Stolz, A; Talwalkar, J; Reddy, KR; Watkins, PB; Navarro, V; Barnhart, H; Gu, J; Serrano, J

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The drug-induced liver injury network (DILIN) is conducting a prospective study of patients with DILI in the United States. We present characteristics and subgroup analyses from the first 1257 patients enrolled in the study. Methods In an observational longitudinal study, we began collecting data on eligible individuals with suspected DILI in 2004, following them for 6 months or longer. Subjects were evaluated systematically for other etiologies, causes, and severity of DILI. Results Among 1257 enrolled subjects with suspected DILI, the causality was assessed in 1091 patients, and 899 were considered to have definite, highly likely, or probable DILI. Ten percent of patients died or underwent liver transplantation and 17% had chronic liver injury. In the 89 patients (10%) with pre-existing liver disease, DILI appeared to be more severe than in those without (difference not statistically significant; P=.09) and mortality was significantly higher (16% vs 5.2%; P<.001). Azithromycin was the implicated agent in a higher proportion of patients with pre-existing liver disease compared to those without liver disease (6.7% vs. 1.5%, p=0.006). Forty-one cases with latency ≤ 7 days were caused predominantly by antimicrobial agents (71%). Two most common causes for 60 DILI cases with latency >365 days were nitrofurantoin (25%) or minocycline (17%). There were no differences in outcomes of patients with short vs long latency of DILI. Compared to individuals younger than 65 y, individuals 65 y or older (n=149) were more likely to have cholestatic injury, although mortality and rate of liver transplantation did not differ. Nine patients (1%) had concomitant severe skin reactions; implicated agents were lamotrigine, azithromycin, carbamazepine, moxifloxacin, cephalexin, diclofenac, and nitrofurantoin. Four of these patients died. Conclusion Mortality from DILI is significantly higher in individuals with pre-existing liver disease or concomitant severe skin

  2. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis due to anticonvulsants share certain clinical and laboratory features with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, despite differences in cutaneous presentations.

    PubMed

    Teraki, Y; Shibuya, M; Izaki, S

    2010-10-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS)/drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterized by late disease onset, fever, rash, hepatic dysfunction, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy and often, human herpesvirus (HHV) reactivation. The diagnosis of DIHS is based on the combined presence of these findings. Anticonvulsants are a major cause of DIHS and may also cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). We examined whether SJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants display similar clinical and laboratory features seen in DIHS. Patients diagnosed with SJS or TEN due to anticonvulsants (n = 8) were examined and their clinical features and laboratory findings were compared with patients with anticonvulsant-related DIHS (n = 6). Seven of the eight patients with SJS/TEN developed symptoms > 3 weeks after starting anticonvulsants. Hepatic dysfunction was present in six patients with SJS/TEN and five patients with DIHS. Leucocytosis and/or eosinophilia was noted in seven patients with SJS/TEN and four patients with DIHS. Only one patient in the SJS/TEN group had atypical lymphocytosis; this was present in four patients with DIHS. Reactivation of HHV-6 was detected in one of the four patients tested in the SJS/TEN group, although it was seen in five of the six patients with DIHS. TSJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants may exhibit some clinical and laboratory features of DIHS. The nature of the cutaneous involvement should be emphasized in the diagnosis of DIHS. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Effects of chronic prenatal MK-801 treatment on object recognition, cognitive flexibility, and drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile and adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Gallant, S; Welch, L; Martone, P; Shalev, U

    2017-06-15

    Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered saline or MK-801 (0.1mg/kg; s.c.) at gestation day 7-19. Object recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed in the male offspring using a novel object preference task and a maze-based set-shifting procedure, respectively. Locomotor-activating effects of acute amphetamine and MK-801 were also assessed. Adult, but not juvenile, prenatally MK-801-treated rats failed to show novel object preference after a 90min delay, suggesting that object recognition memory may have been impaired. In addition, the set-shifting task revealed impaired acquisition of a new rule in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats compared to controls. This deficit appeared to be driven by regression to the previously learned behaviour. There were no significant differences in drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile offspring or in adult offspring following acute amphetamine challenges. Unexpectedly, MK-801-induced locomotor activity in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats was lower compared to controls. Glutamate transmission dysfunction during early development may modify behavioural parameters in adulthood, though these parameters do not appear to model deficits observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  6. Stem cell-derived models to improve mechanistic understanding and prediction of human drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Christopher; Antoine, Daniel J; Bonner, Frank; Crozier, Jonathan; Denning, Chris; Fontana, Robert J; Hanley, Neil A; Hay, David C; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Juhila, Satu; Kitteringham, Neil; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Norris, Alan; Pridgeon, Chris; Ross, James A; Young, Rowena Sison; Tagle, Danilo; Tornesi, Belen; van de Water, Bob; Weaver, Richard J; Zhang, Fang; Park, B Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalized toxicology to determine interindividual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury means that no current single-cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human drug-induced liver injury. Nevertheless, a single-cell model of a human hepatocyte which emulates key features of a hepatocyte is likely to be valuable in assessing potential chemical risk; furthermore, understanding how to generate a relevant hepatocyte will also be critical to efforts to build complex multicellular models of the liver. Currently, hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from stem cells still fall short of recapitulating the full mature hepatocellular phenotype. Therefore, we convened a number of experts from the areas of preclinical and clinical hepatotoxicity and safety assessment, from industry, academia, and regulatory bodies, to specifically explore the application of stem cells in hepatotoxicity safety assessment and to make recommendations for the way forward. In this short review, we particularly discuss the importance of benchmarking stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells to their terminally differentiated human counterparts using defined phenotyping, to make sure the cells are relevant and comparable between labs, and outline why this process is essential before the cells are introduced into chemical safety assessment. (Hepatology 2017;65:710-721). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Influence of war on quantitative and qualitative changes in drug-induced mortality in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana; Definis Gojanović, Marija; Vodopija, Davor; Čapkun, Vesna; Smoljanović, Ankica

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study drug-induced mortality and characteristics of overdose deaths in the war (1991-1995), pre-war (1986-1990), and post-war period (1996-2000) in Split-Dalmatia County. Methods We retrospectively searched through Databases of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Split, the national register of death records, the archives of the Split-Dalmatia County Police, and the Register of Treated Drug Addicts of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, covering the period from 1986 to 2000, according to drug poisoning codes IX and X of the International Classification of Diseases. The indicators were statistically analyzed. Results There were 146 registered drug-induced deaths, with 136 (93%) deceased being men. The median age of all cases was 27 years (interquartile range 8). Most of them were single (70.6%), unemployed (44.6%), and secondary school graduates (69.2%). In the war period, there were 4.8 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P = 0.014), and in the post-war period there were 5.2 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P = 0.008). The most common site of death was the deceased person’s home. The toxicological analyses showed that 59 (61%) deaths were heroin related, alcohol use was found in 62 cases (42.5%), and multi-substance use was found in more than a half of the cases. In 133 (91.1%) cases, deaths were classified as unintentional, whereas 13 (8.9%) were classified as suicides. Conclusion The war, along with other risk factors, contributed to unfavorable developments related to drug abuse in Split-Dalmatia County, including the increase in the drug-induced mortality rate. PMID:21990081

  8. Evaluation of the usefulness of novel biomarkers for drug-induced acute kidney injury in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730; Ma, Ben

    As kidney is a major target organ affected by drug toxicity, early detection of renal injury is critical in preclinical drug development. In past decades, a series of novel biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity were discovered and verified in rats. However, limited data regarding the performance of novel biomarkers in non-rodent species are publicly available. To increase the applicability of these biomarkers, we evaluated the performance of 4 urinary biomarkers including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), clusterin, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), relative to histopathology and traditional clinical chemistry in beagle dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin. The resultsmore » showed that urinary NGAL and clusterin levels were significantly elevated in dogs on days 1 and 3 after administration of gentamicin, respectively. Gene expression analysis further provided mechanistic evidence to support that NGAL and clusterin are potential biomarkers for the early assessment of drug-induced renal damage. Furthermore, the high area (both AUCs = 1.000) under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve also indicated that NGAL and clusterin were the most sensitive biomarkers for detection of gentamicin-induced renal proximal tubular toxicity. Our results also suggested that NAG may be used in routine toxicity testing due to its sensitivity and robustness for detection of tissue injury. The present data will provide insights into the preclinical use of these biomarkers for detection of drug-induced AKI in non-rodent species. - Highlights: • Urinary NGAL, clusterin and NAG levels were significantly elevated in canine AKI. • NGAL and clusterin gene expression were increased following treatment with gentamicin. • NGAL and clusterin have high specificity and sensitivity for detection of AKI.« less

  9. MDMA, Methylone, and MDPV: Drug-Induced Brain Hyperthermia and Its Modulation by Activity State and Environment.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn E

    2017-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants are frequently used by humans to intensify the subjective experience of different types of social interactions. Since psychomotor stimulants enhance metabolism and increase body temperatures, their use under conditions of physiological activation and in warm humid environments could result in pathological hyperthermia, a life-threatening symptom of acute drug intoxication. Here, we will describe the brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA, MDPV, and methylone, three structurally related recreational drugs commonly used by young adults during raves and other forms of social gatherings. After a short introduction on brain temperature and basic mechanisms underlying its physiological fluctuations, we will consider how MDMA, MDPV, and methylone affect brain and body temperatures in awake freely moving rats. Here, we will discuss the role of drug-induced heat production in the brain due to metabolic brain activation and diminished heat dissipation due to peripheral vasoconstriction as two primary contributors to the hyperthermic effects of these drugs. Then, we will consider how the hyperthermic effects of these drugs are modulated under conditions that model human drug use (social interaction and warm ambient temperature). Since social interaction results in brain and body heat production, coupled with skin vasoconstriction that impairs heat loss to the external environment, these physiological changes interact with drug-induced changes in heat production and loss, resulting in distinct changes in the hyperthermic effects of each tested drug. Finally, we present our recent data, in which we compared the efficacy of different pharmacological strategies for reversing MDMA-induced hyperthermia in both the brain and body. Specifically, we demonstrate increased efficacy of the centrally acting atypical neuroleptic compound clozapine over the peripherally acting vasodilator drug, carvedilol. These data could be important for understanding the potential

  10. Association Between Plasma Level of Galectin-9 and Survival of Patients With Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hugo R; Biggins, Scott W; Niki, Toshiro; Gralla, Jane; Hillman, Holly; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M

    2016-04-01

    Fewer than 50% of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) recover spontaneously, and ALF has high mortality without liver transplantation. Kupffer cells have been reported to mediate liver inflammation during drug-induced injury. Galectin-9 is produced by Kupffer cells and has diverse roles in regulating immunity. We investigated whether plasma levels of galectin-9 are associated with outcomes of patients with ALF. We analyzed plasma samples (collected at time of hospital admission) and clinical data from 149 patients included in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from July 2006 through November 2010 (110 had acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and 39 had nonacetaminophen drug-induced liver injury). We compared data with those from all patients enrolled in the study (from July 1, 2006 through October 30, 2013), and from healthy individuals of similar ages with no evidence of liver disease (control subjects). Plasma levels of galectin-9 were measured using a polyclonal antibody and colorimetric assay. Patients with ALF had statistically higher plasma levels of galectin-9 than control subjects, but levels did not differ significantly between patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury and drug-induced liver injury. A level of galectin-9 above 690 pg/mL was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk for mortality or liver transplantation caused by ALF. Competing risk analyses associated level of galectin-9 with transplant-free survival, independently of Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. A one-time measurement of plasma galectin-9 level can be used to assign patients with ALF to high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. The combination of galectin-9 level and Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score was more closely associated with patient outcome than either value alone. These data might be used to determine patient prognoses and prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Clinical

  11. Overexpression of IL-38 protein in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Masaki; Okamoto, Masaki; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Matsuoka, Masanobu; Kaieda, Shinjiro; Sakazaki, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke; Inoue, Akira; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38, a member of the IL-1 family, shows high homology to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Its function in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is still unknown. To determine the expression pattern of IL-38 mRNA, a panel of cDNAs derived from various tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-human IL-38 monoclonal antibody (clone H127C) was evaluated semi-quantitatively in lung tissue samples from 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP), 5 with acute exacerbation of IPF, and 10 with anticancer drug-induced ILD (bleomycin in 5 and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in 5). Control lung tissues were obtained from areas of normal lung in 22 lung cancer patients who underwent extirpation surgery. IL-38 transcripts were strongly expressed in the lung, spleen, synoviocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at a lower level in pancreas and muscle. IL-38 protein was not strongly expressed in normal pulmonary alveolar tissues in all 22 control lungs. In contrast, IL-38 was overexpressed in the lungs of 4 of 5 (80%) patients with acute IPF exacerbation and 100% (10/10) of the patients with drug-induced ILD. IL-38 overexpression was limited to hyperplastic type II pneumocytes, which are considered to reflect regenerative change following diffuse alveolar damage in ILD. IL-38 may play an important role in acute and/or chronic inflammation in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of war on quantitative and qualitative changes in drug-induced mortality in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marasovic Susnjara, Ivana; Definis Gojanovic, Marija; Vodopija, Davor; Capkun, Vesna; Smoljanovic, Ankica

    2011-10-15

    To study drug-induced mortality and characteristics of overdose deaths in the war (1991-1995), pre-war (1986-1990), and post-war period (1996-2000) in Split-Dalmatia County. We retrospectively searched through Databases of the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital Split, the national register of death records, the archives of the Split-Dalmatia County Police, and the Register of Treated Drug Addicts of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, covering the period from 1986 to 2000, according to drug poisoning codes IX and X of the International Classification of Diseases. The indicators were statistically analyzed. There were 146 registered drug-induced deaths, with 136 (93%) deceased being men. The median age of all cases was 27 years (interquartile range 8). Most of them were single (70.6%), unemployed (44.6%), and secondary school graduates (69.2%). In the war period, there were 4.8 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P=0.014), and in the post-war period there were 5.2 times more deaths than in the pre-war period (P=0.008). The most common site of death was the deceased person's home. The toxicological analyses showed that 59 (61%) deaths were heroin related, alcohol use was found in 62 cases (42.5%), and multi-substance use was found in more than a half of the cases. In 133 (91.1%) cases, deaths were classified as unintentional, whereas 13 (8.9%) were classified as suicides. CONCLUSION; The war, along with other risk factors, contributed to unfavorable developments related to drug abuse in Split-Dalmatia County, including the increase in the drug-induced mortality rate.

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  15. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  16. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Drug-Induced Thrombophilic or Prothrombotic States: An Underestimated Clinical Problem That Involves Both Legal and Illegal Compounds.

    PubMed

    Girolami, A; Cosi, E; Tasinato, V; Santarossa, C; Ferrari, S; Girolami, B

    2017-10-01

    Vascular thrombosis, both arterial and venous, is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are multiple risk factors for thrombosis, both congenital and acquired, and in the majority of cases, these risk factors are not modifiable. Over the past 2 decades, multiple drugs (both illegal and legal) have been associated with increased risk of thrombosis. However, due to limited scientific literature regarding the prothrombotic tendencies of these drugs, there is a concomitant limited understanding of the pathophysiology of drug-induced thrombosis. As drugs are one of the few modifiable risk factors for thrombosis, further study and dissemination of knowledge regarding drug-associated and drug-induced thrombosis are essential and have the potential to lead to decreased future incidence of thrombosis. The mechanisms at the basis of the thrombophilic activity of these drugs are variable and sometimes still ill recognized. Increased levels of clotting factors, reduction in coagulation natural inhibitors, decreased fibrinolysis, activated clotting factors, increased blood viscosity, endothelial damage, and increased platelet number and activation are the most frequent causes. Arterial steal or coronary arteries no flow has also been implicated. In some cases due to the intake of several drugs, more than one mechanism is present in a given patient. The purpose of the present review is to analyze all the drugs demonstrated to be potentially thrombotic. It is hoped that a prudent use or nonuse of these drugs might result in a reduction of thrombosis-associated diseases.

  18. Identifying clinically relevant drug resistance genes in drug-induced resistant cancer cell lines and post-chemotherapy tissues.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens.

  19. Identifying clinically relevant drug resistance genes in drug-induced resistant cancer cell lines and post- chemotherapy tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens. PMID:26515599

  20. Enigma of drug-induced altered states of consciousness among the !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert.

    PubMed

    Dobkin De Rios, M

    1986-03-01

    This article examines data presented in Katz' book, Boiling Energy: Community Healing among the Kalahari Kung, particularly with regard to plant drugs present in the community during the 1968 visit. The author argues that the similarity of the Bushman trance state, kia and that of drug-induced altered states of consciousness has been paid too little attention in the research, and that an enigma currently exists with regard to the degree to which plant drugs may have influenced the !Kung trance phenomenon and healing beliefs. The author discusses the existing evidence for plant drug use based on Katz' research and the specimens currently on hand at the Harvard Botanical Museum herbarium, and presents a Table which contrasts drug-induced behaviors and ideologies of societies known or suspected to have used mind-altering drugs with similar behavior/beliefs of the !Kung. It is suggested that the influence of a number of psychoactive drugs may have played a much more pivotal role in Bushman behavior and belief than is generally acknowledged.

  1. Ischemic or toxic injury: A challenging diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced stenosis of the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Ming; Lin, Xiang-Chun; Ma, Li; Jin, An-Qin; Lin, Fang-Cai; Liu, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Min; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Na; Huo, Li-Juan; Jiang, Xue-Liang; Kang, Feng; Qin, Hong-Jun; Li, Qiu-Yang; Yu, Hong-Wei; Deng, Hai; Zhu, Ming-Wen; Liu, Zi-Xu; Wan, Bai-Jiang; Yang, Hai-Yan; Liao, Jia-Hong; Luo, Xu; Li, You-Wei; Wei, Wen-Ping; Song, Meng-Meng; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Xue-Ying; Lu, Zhao-Hui

    2017-06-07

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with 15-mo history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and hematochezia, and 5-mo history of defecation difficulty. She had been successively admitted to nine hospitals, with an initial diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease with stenotic sigmoid colon. Findings from computed tomography virtual colonoscopy, radiography with meglumine diatrizoate, endoscopic balloon dilatation, metallic stent implantation and later overall colonoscopy, coupled with the newfound knowledge of compound Qingdai pill-taking, led to a subsequent diagnosis of ischemic or toxic bowel disease with sigmoid colon stenosis. The patient was successfully treated by laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy, and postoperative pathological examination revealed ischemic or toxic injury of the sigmoid colon, providing a final diagnosis of drug-induced sigmoid colon stenosis. This case highlights that adequate awareness of drug-induced colon stenosis has a decisive role in avoiding misdiagnosis and mistreatment. The diagnostic and therapeutic experiences learnt from this case suggest that endoscopic balloon expansion and colonic metallic stent implantation as bridge treatments were demonstrated as crucial for the differential diagnosis of benign colonic stenosis. Skillful surgical technique and appropriate perioperative management helped to ensure the safety of our patient in subsequent surgery after long-term use of glucocorticoids.

  2. Drug-Induced QTc Interval Prolongation: A Multicenter Study to Detect Drugs and Clinical Factors Involved in Every Day Practice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Guillermo A; Alvarez, Paulino A; Ponte, Marcelo L; Belloso, Waldo H; Bagnes, Claudia; Sparanochia, Cecilia; Gonzalez, Claudio D; Villa Etchegoyen, M Cecilia; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The actual prevalence of drug induced QTc prolongation in clinical practice is unknown. Our objective was to determine the occurrence and characteristics of drug-induced QT prolongation in several common clinical practices. Additionally, a subgroup of patients treated with dextropropoxyphene of particular interest for the regulatory authority was analysed. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for 1270 patient requiring medical assistance that involved drug administration. Three ionograms and ECGs were performed: baseline, intra- and after treatment; QT interval was corrected with Bazzet formula. Among patients, 9.9% presented QTc >450/470 ms, 3% QTc > 500 ms, 12.7% ΔQTc >30 ms and 5.2% ΔQTc >60 ms. QTc prolongation associated with congestive heart failure, ischemic cardiopathy, diabetes, renal failure, arrhythmias, hypothyroidism, and bradycardia. At univariate analysis, clarithromycin, haloperidol, tramadol, amiodarone, glyceryl trinitrate, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, amoxicillin + sulbactam, ampicillin + sulbactam, fentanyl, piperacillin + tazobactam, and diazepam prolonged QTc. Prolongation remained significantly associated with furosemide, clarithromycin, glyceryl trinitrate and betalactamase inhibitors after multivariate analysis. QT interval prolongation in everyday practice is frequent, in association to clinical factors and drugs that can be easily identified for monitoring and prevention strategies.

  3. Drug-induced bullous pemphigoid in diabetes mellitus patients receiving dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors plus metformin.

    PubMed

    Skandalis, K; Spirova, M; Gaitanis, G; Tsartsarakis, A; Bassukas, I D

    2012-02-01

    Preclinical data and reports of adverse skin reactions in patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (gliptins) have increased awareness towards skin-targeting side-effects of these anti-hyperglycaemic drugs. Bullous pemphigoid (BP), sometimes drug-induced, is the most commonly acquired autoimmune blistering dermatosis in western countries, typically a disease of the elderly people with significant morbidity and excess mortality. To report the development of BP in five diabetics under gliptin (4 vildagliptin, 1 sitagliptin) plus metformin in fixed-dose drug combinations. From March to August 2010 six out of nine newly diagnosed BP patients in our Department were type 2 diabetics. Five of them were on gliptin plus metformin (three different trade preparations) for 2-13 months prior to BP onset. In all cases BP was controlled after withdrawal of the suspected medication and relatively mild therapeutic interventions. In two cases the eliciting role of the preceding treatment is supported by evidence at the level 'probable/likely' according to the WHO-UMC algorithm. This is the first report of drug-induced BP as a group adverse event of the gliptins plus metformin combination therapy for glycaemia control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Circulating Plasma and Exosomal microRNAs as Indicators of Drug-Induced Organ Injury in Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Heon; Baek, Moon-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) in circulating exosomes may serve as biomarkers of drug-induced liver, kidney, or muscle-injury. Quantitative PCR analyses were performed to measure the amounts of liver-specific miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-155), kidney-specific miR-146a, or muscle-specific miR-206 in plasma and exosomes from mice treated with liver, kidney or muscle toxicants. The levels of liver-specific miRNAs in circulating plasma and exosomes were elevated in acetaminophen-induced liver injury and returned to basal levels by treatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. Circulating miR-146a and miR-206 were increased in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and bupivacaine-induced myotoxicity, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating plasma and exosomal miRNAs can be used as potential biomarkers specific for drug-induced liver, kidney or muscle injury. PMID:28208010

  5. Ischemic or toxic injury: A challenging diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced stenosis of the sigmoid colon

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong-Ming; Lin, Xiang-Chun; Ma, Li; Jin, An-Qin; Lin, Fang-Cai; Liu, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Min; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Na; Huo, Li-Juan; Jiang, Xue-Liang; Kang, Feng; Qin, Hong-Jun; Li, Qiu-Yang; Yu, Hong-Wei; Deng, Hai; Zhu, Ming-Wen; Liu, Zi-Xu; Wan, Bai-Jiang; Yang, Hai-Yan; Liao, Jia-Hong; Luo, Xu; Li, You-Wei; Wei, Wen-Ping; Song, Meng-Meng; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Xue-Ying; Lu, Zhao-Hui

    2017-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with 15-mo history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and hematochezia, and 5-mo history of defecation difficulty. She had been successively admitted to nine hospitals, with an initial diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease with stenotic sigmoid colon. Findings from computed tomography virtual colonoscopy, radiography with meglumine diatrizoate, endoscopic balloon dilatation, metallic stent implantation and later overall colonoscopy, coupled with the newfound knowledge of compound Qingdai pill-taking, led to a subsequent diagnosis of ischemic or toxic bowel disease with sigmoid colon stenosis. The patient was successfully treated by laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy, and postoperative pathological examination revealed ischemic or toxic injury of the sigmoid colon, providing a final diagnosis of drug-induced sigmoid colon stenosis. This case highlights that adequate awareness of drug-induced colon stenosis has a decisive role in avoiding misdiagnosis and mistreatment. The diagnostic and therapeutic experiences learnt from this case suggest that endoscopic balloon expansion and colonic metallic stent implantation as bridge treatments were demonstrated as crucial for the differential diagnosis of benign colonic stenosis. Skillful surgical technique and appropriate perioperative management helped to ensure the safety of our patient in subsequent surgery after long-term use of glucocorticoids. PMID:28638234

  6. Use of Belatacept as Alternative Immunosuppression in Three Renal Transplant Patients with De Novo Drug-Induced Thrombotic Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cicora, Federico; Paz, Marta; Mos, Fernando; Roberti, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), a severe complication of renal transplantation, is a pathological process involving microvascular occlusion, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. It generally appears within the first weeks after transplantation, when immunosuppressive drugs are used at high doses. De novo TMA may also be drug-induced when calcineurin inhibitors or proliferation signal inhibitors are used. We report three cases of de novo drug-induced TMA in renal transplant patients who were managed by replacing calcineurin inhibitors or proliferation signal inhibitors with belatacept, a primary maintenance immunosuppressive drug, which blocks the CD28 costimulation pathway, preventing the activation of T lymphocytes. To identify the cause of TMA, we ruled out HUS, hepatitis C serology, HIV serology, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, anti-HLA antibodies, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. We suspect that the TMA was caused by the calcineurin inhibitors or proliferation signal inhibitors. Belatacept treatment was initiated at a dose of 10 mg/kg on days 1, 5, 14, 28, 60, and 90; maintenance treatment was 5 mg/kg once a month for 1 year. Belatacept, in combination with other agents, prevented graft rejection in three patients. PMID:24198835

  7. Current and future directions in the treatment and prevention of drug-induced liver injury: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Jonathan G.; Lewis, James H.

    2016-01-01

    While the pace of discovery of new agents, mechanisms and risk factors involved in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains brisk, advances in the treatment of acute DILI seems slow by comparison. In general, the key to treating suspected DILI is to stop using the drug prior to developing irreversible liver failure. However, predicting when to stop is an inexact science, and commonly used ALT monitoring is an ineffective strategy outside of clinical trials. The only specific antidote for acute DILI remains N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for acetaminophen poisoning, although NAC is proving to be beneficial in some cases of non-acetaminophen DILI in adults. Corticosteroids can be effective for DILI associated with autoimmune or systemic hypersensitivity features. Ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin and glycyrrhizin have been used to treat DILI for decades, but success remains anecdotal. Bile acid washout regimens using cholestyramine appear to be more evidenced based, in particular for lefluonomide toxicity. For drug-induced acute liver failure, the use of liver support systems is still investigational in the United States and emergency liver transplant remains limited by its availability. Primary prevention appears to be the key to avoiding DILI and the need for acute treatment. Pharmacogenomics, including HLA genotyping and the discovery of specific DILI biomarkers offers significant promise for the future. This article describes and summarizes the numerous and diverse treatment and prevention modalities that are currently available to manage DILI. PMID:26633044

  8. Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) as a subjective measure of drug-induced parkinsonism and akathisia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Seong-Chan; Hwang, Samuel S; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2005-01-01

    The Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) was examined for its usefulness as a subjective measure of drug-induced parkinsonism and akathisia. Eighty-three subjects were assessed using the LUNSERS, the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS), before and after a 6-week treatment with olanzapine. Significant correlations were found between the changes in scores of parkinsonism items of LUNSERS and SAS. The changes in scores of akathisia item (restlessness), extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) subscale and psychic side-effects subscale of LUNSERS were significantly correlated with those of the BARS. 'Shakiness', one item of the EPS subscale of LUNSERS, correctly classified between parkinsonism and non-parkinsonism groups with 81.0% accuracy. A combination of four items included in EPS and psychic side-effect subscales of LUNSERS identified akathisia and non-akathisia groups with 76.2% accuracy. These results suggest that the EPS and psychic side-effect subscales of LUNSERS may be useful in screening for drug-induced parkinsonism and akathisia. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Drug-induced liver injury due to antimicrobials, central nervous system agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad; Andrade, Raúl J

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents including antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents are the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-induced liver failure across the world. Better molecular and genetic biomarkers are acutely needed to help identify those at risk of liver injury particularly for those needing antituberculosis therapy. Some antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate and isoniazid consistently top the lists of agents in retrospective and prospective DILI databases. Central nervous system agents, particularly antiepileptics, account for the second most common class of agents implicated in DILI registries. Hepatotoxicity from older antiepileptics such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital are often associated with hypersensitivity features, whereas newer antiepileptic drugs have a more favorable safety profile. Antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs carry very low risk of significant liver injury, but their prolific use make them important causes of DILI. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent remain the mainstays of minimizing hepatotoxicity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Development of novel prediction model for drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity by using naïve Bayes classifier method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Peng; Ren, Ji-Xia; Li, Xi-Bo; Wang, He-Li; Ding, Lan; Kong, Wei-Bao

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been considered as an important contributing factor in the etiology of drug-induced organ toxicity, and even plays an important role in the pathogenesis of some diseases. The objective of this investigation was to develop a novel prediction model of drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity by using a naïve Bayes classifier. For comparison, the recursive partitioning classifier prediction model was also constructed. Among these methods, the prediction performance of naïve Bayes classifier established here showed best, which yielded average overall prediction accuracies for the internal 5-fold cross validation of the training set and external test set were 95 ± 0.6% and 81 ± 1.1%, respectively. In addition, four important molecular descriptors and some representative substructures of toxicants produced by ECFP_6 fingerprints were identified. We hope the established naïve Bayes prediction model can be employed for the mitochondrial toxicity assessment, and these obtained important information of mitochondrial toxicants can provide guidance for medicinal chemists working in drug discovery and lead optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  12. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxicmore » compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 m

  13. A non-human primate model for investigating drug-induced risk of orthostatic hypotension and sympathetic dysfunction: Preclinical correlate to a clinical test.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Siddhartha; Foote, Stephen; Smith, Andrew; Butler, Paul; Steidl-Nichols, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced orthostatic hypotension (OH) is an important clinical concern and can be an unexpected hurdle during drug development. OH is defined as an abnormal decrease in blood pressure (BP) triggered by a rapid postural change. The sympathetic nervous system is critical for controlling normal cardiovascular function and compensatory responses to changes in posture. Thus, OH can also serve as a surrogate indicator of sympathetic dysfunction. However, preclinical conscious models for investigating risk of OH and/or sympathetic dysfunction are lacking. Herein, we describe a conscious nonhuman primate (NHP) model which mimics the widely used clinical tilt table test for OH. Male, Cynomolgus NHPs (n = 7-8) implanted with radio-telemetry transmitters were placed in modified tilt chairs in a supine position. Subsequently, a 90° head up tilt was performed for 3 min followed by return to the supine position. BP and heart rate were continuously monitored. Test compounds were administered either intravenously or via oral gavage in a crossover design, with blood samples collected at the end of the each tilt to assess total drug concentrations. Tilt responses were assessed following treatment with positive control compounds that cause sympathetic dysfunction; hexamethonium (ganglionic blocker) and prazosin (alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist). Both compounds induced marked OH as evidenced by robust and sustained BP reduction in response to a head up tilt (decrease of 25-35 mmHg for hexamethonium, decrease of 21-44 mmHg for prazosin). OH incidence rates increased in a dose-dependent manner. OH incidences following treatment with minoxidil (vasodilator) were markedly lower to those observed with hexamethonium and prazosin indicating the role of sympathetic dysfunction in causing OH. These data demonstrate that the NHP tilt test is a valuable model for investigating OH risk. This model fills an important preclinical gap for assessing such a safety concern and can be

  14. Susceptibility of N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylators to antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Xie, Min; Wang, Jianmiao; Xu, Yongjian; Liu, Xiansheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphisms and the risk of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI). A meta-analysis was performed including 27 studies with 1289 cases and 5462 controls. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to evaluate the strength of association. Our meta-analysis found that NAT2 slow acetylators were associated with increased risk of ATLI compared with fast and intermediate acetylators when standard dose of isoniazid was administrated (odds ratio: 3.08; 95% CI: 2.29-4.15). Individuals with NAT2 slow acetylators may have increased risk of ATLI when standard dose of isoniazid was used. Detection of NAT2 genotype may benefit to the prevention of ATLI.

  15. Odour identification test and its relation to cardiac 123I‐metaiodobenzylguanidine in patients with drug induced parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Phil Hyu; Yeo, Seung Hyeon; Yong, Seok Woo; Kim, Yun Joong

    2007-01-01

    We investigated olfactory function and its relation to cardiac 123I‐metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in 15 patients with drug induced parkinsonism (DIP). The mean Cross Cultural Smell Identification (CCSI) score was significantly greater in patients with DIP than in those with Parkinson's disease (PD: 6.9 (1.6) vs 4.4 (2.2); p<0.001); however, the mean CCSI score in patients with DIP was not significantly different from controls. One patient with DIP, whose CCSI score was significantly reduced, also exhibited decreased cardiac MIBG uptake. DIP patients with CCSI scores within the normal range had normal cardiac MIBG uptake. Our study suggests that an olfactory function test may be a useful tool for detecting DIP unrelated to PD and for identifying patients with DIP who have subclinical PD. PMID:17557797

  16. Molecular mechanism of direct proflavine-DNA intercalation: evidence for drug-induced minimum base-stacking penalty pathway.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2012-10-11

    DNA intercalation, a biophysical process of enormous clinical significance, has surprisingly eluded molecular understanding for several decades. With appropriate configurational restraint (to prevent dissociation) in all-atom metadynamics simulations, we capture the free energy surface of direct intercalation from minor groove-bound state for the first time using an anticancer agent proflavine. Mechanism along the minimum free energy path reveals that intercalation happens through a minimum base stacking penalty pathway where nonstacking parameters (Twist→Slide/Shift) change first, followed by base stacking parameters (Buckle/Roll→Rise). This mechanism defies the natural fluctuation hypothesis and provides molecular evidence for the drug-induced cavity formation hypothesis. The thermodynamic origin of the barrier is found to be a combination of entropy and desolvation energy.

  17. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy in the identification of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Viana, Alonço da Cunha; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena de

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has multifactorial causes. Although indications for surgery are evaluated by well-known diagnostic tests in the awake state, these do not always correlate with satisfactory surgical results. To undertake a systematic review on endoscopy during sleep, as one element of the diagnosis routine, aiming to identify upper airway obstruction sites in adult patients with OSAS. By means of electronic databases, a systematic review was performed of studies using drug-induced sleep endoscopy to identify obstruction sites in patients with OSAS. Ten articles were selected that demonstrated the importance of identifying multilevel obstruction, especially in relation to retrolingual and laryngeal collapse in OSAS. DISE is an additional method to reveal obstruction sites that have not been detected in awake patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Suspected drug-induced infiltrative lung disease culminating in acute respiratory failure in a dog treated with cytarabine and prednisone.

    PubMed

    Hart, Samantha K; Waddell, Lori

    2016-11-01

    To describe a case of suspected drug-induced infiltrative lung disease (ILD) and acute respiratory failure associated with the administration of cytarabine and prednisone in a dog requiring mechanical ventilation. A 4.5-year-old, female spayed Yorkshire Terrier presented to the ICU with acute onset of respiratory distress following a 24-hour cytarabine infusion. The patient was previously diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUO), caudal occipital malformation, and syringohydromyelia, and was being treated with oral prednisone and levetiracetam, and cytarabine infusions. The patient developed tachypnea and dyspnea, and had diffuse crackles on auscultation of all lung fields, and hypoxemia 6 hours following completion of the fourth cytarabine infusion (300 mg/m 2 ). Thoracic radiographs revealed diffuse, bilateral infiltrates consistent with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory distress and hypoxemia persisted despite oxygen supplementation and furosemide therapy and led to initiation of mechanical ventilation. Approximately 12 hours later, the dog became progressively hypoxemic with worsening pulmonary edema. The owners elected euthanasia. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary edema and diffuse interstitial pneumonia. Histopathologic evaluation revealed pulmonary edema, severe acute neutrophilic and histiocytic pneumonia, and multifocal interstitial fibrosis. Bacterial culture yielded no growth. Drug-induced ILD is rarely reported in the veterinary literature, and has not previously been reported in dogs receiving cytarabine. As with administration of any medication, adverse events may occur. While ILD is unlikely to be commonly recognized, it may be considered in veterinary patients receiving chemotherapy that acutely become dyspneic. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  19. Drug-induced lung injury associated with sorafenib: analysis of all-patient post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi-Yamamoto, Yuka; Gemma, Akihiko; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Sakai, Fumikazu; Johkoh, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Kudoh, Shoji

    2013-08-01

    Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor currently approved in Japan for unresectable and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Although drug-induced lung injury has recently been the focus of interest in Japanese patients treated with molecular targeting agents, the clinical features of patients receiving sorafenib remain to be completely investigated. All-patient post-marketing surveillance data was obtained within the frame of Special Drug Use Investigation; between April 2008 and March 2011, we summarized the clinical information of 62 cases with drug-induced lung injury among approximately 13,600 sorafenib-treated patients in Japan. In addition, we summarized the results of evaluation by a safety board of Japanese experts in 34 patients in whom pulmonary images were available. For the calculation of reporting frequency, interim results of Special Drug Use Investigation were used. In the sets of completed reports (2,407 in renal cell carcinoma and 647 in hepatocellular carcinoma), the reporting frequency was 0.33 % (8 patients; fatal, 4/8) and 0.62 % (4 patients; fatal, 2/4), respectively. Major clinical symptoms included dyspnea, cough, and fever. Evaluation of the images showed that 18 cases out of 34 patients had a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage. The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma showed a greater incidence and earlier onset of lung injury than those with renal cell carcinoma. Although the overall reporting frequency of sorafenib-induced lung injury is not considered high, the radiological diffuse alveolar damage pattern led to a fatal outcome. Therefore, early recognition of sorafenib-induced lung injury is crucial for physicians and patients.

  20. A double-blinded randomized controlled trial of silymarin for the prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Luangchosiri, Chote; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Chitphuk, Sermsiri; Stitchantrakul, Wasana; Petraksa, Supanna; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee

    2015-09-23

    Hepatitis is a common adverse effect of antituberculosis drugs. Silymarin prevented drug-induced hepatoxicity in animals with anti-oxidative mechanisms but its effect in human has been unknown. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin for preventing antituberculosis-drug induced liver injury (antiTB-DILI) in patients with tuberculosis. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed. Tuberculosis patients were randomly allocated to receive placebo or silymarin. The outcomes of interests were antiTB-DILI and the maximum liver enzymes at week 4. Antioxidative enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione and malondialdehyde assays) were assessed. The risks of antiTB-DILI between the two groups were compared. A number need to treat was estimated. A total of 55 out of 70 expected numbers of patients were enrolled. There were 1/27 (3.7%) and 9/28 (32.1%) patients who developed antiTB-DILI in the silymarin and the placebo groups. Risk reduction was 0.28 (0.10, 0.47), i.e., receiving silymarin was 28% at lower risk for antiTB-DILI than placebo. This led to prevention of 28 patients from being antiTB-DILI among 100 treated patients. Median (IQR) of ALT levels at week 4 in the placebo and the silymarin group were 35.0 (15, 415) IU/L and 31.5 (20, 184) IU/L (p = 0.455). The decline of SOD level at week 4 in the silymarin group was less than the placebo group (p < 0.027). Silymarin reduced the incidence of antiTB-DILI. The benefit of silymarin may be explained from superoxide dismutase restoration. Larger clinical trials are required to confirm the result of our small study [Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier Nct01800487].

  1. Inhibin beta E is upregulated by drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress as a transcriptional target gene of ATF4

    SciTech Connect

    Brüning, Ansgar, E-mail: ansgar.bruening@med.uni-muenchen.de; Matsingou, Christina; Brem, German Johannes

    2012-10-15

    Inhibins and activins are gonadal peptide hormones of the transforming growth factor-β super family with important functions in the reproductive system. By contrast, the recently identified inhibin βE subunit, primarily expressed in liver cells, appears to exert functions unrelated to the reproductive system. Previously shown downregulation of inhibin βE in hepatoma cells and anti-proliferative effects of ectopic inhibin βE overexpression indicated growth-regulatory effects of inhibin βE. We observed a selective re-expression of the inhibin βE subunit in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HeLa cervical cancer cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions induced by tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and nelfinavir.more » Analysis of XPB1 splicing and ATF4 activation revealed that inhibin βE re-expression was associated with induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress reaction by these drugs. Transfection of an ATF4 expression plasmid specifically induced inhibin βE expression in HeLa cells and indicates inhibin βE as a hitherto unidentified target gene of ATF4, a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Therefore, the inhibin βE subunit defines not only a new player but also a possible new marker for drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. -- Highlights: ► Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces inhibin beta E expression. ► Inhibin beta E is regulated by the transcription factor ATF4. ► Inhibin beta E expression can be used as a marker for drug-induced ER stress.« less

  2. Evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity using novel in vitro monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays.

    PubMed

    Goto, Koichi; Goto, Mayumi; Ando-Imaoka, Masako; Kai, Kiyonori; Mori, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate drug-induced hematotoxicity in monkey cells in vitro, colony-forming unit-granulocyte, macrophage (CFU-GM), and burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colony assays were established using mononuclear cells in the bone marrow collected from male cynomolgus monkeys. Furthermore, the effects of doxorubicin, chloramphenicol, and linezolid on CFU-GM and BFU-E colony formation were investigated using established monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays in comparison with those on human CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies acquired from human umbilical cord blood cells. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were collected from the ischial or iliac bone of male cynomolgus monkeys. The cells were subsequently processed by density gradient separation at 1.067, 1.070, or 1.077 g/mL for CFU-GM or 1.077 g/mL for BFU-E, and then cultured in methylcellulose medium for 9 or 13 days, respectively. A sufficient number of CFU-GM colonies were formed from mononuclear cells processed at a density of 1.070 g/mL. Moreover, the number of BFU-E colonies from the cells processed at a density of 1.077 g/mL was sufficient for the colony assay. The number of CFU-GM or BFU-E colonies decreased after treatment with the drugs of interest in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with human CFU-GM, monkey CFU-GM were more sensitive to chloramphenicol and resistant to doxorubicin, whereas monkey BFU-E were more sensitive to all compounds in comparison to the sensitivity of human BFU-E. In conclusion, monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays were established and considered useful tools to evaluate the differences in drug-induced hematotoxicity between species.

  3. Comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol used for drug-induced sleep endoscopy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuyrukluyıldız, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Onk, Didem; Ayhan Celik, Serap; Torun, Mumtaz Taner; Unver, Edhem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Alagol, Aysin

    2015-01-01

    Backround: Surgical operations are alternative treatments in persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome who cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy is a method with which somnolence is pharmacologically induced and collapse is evaluated through nasal endoscopy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. We aimed to evaluate efficiency of dexmedetomidine or propofol used for sedation in patients undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy. A total of 40 patients aged between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA STATUS I-II group were included in the study. After premedicatıon wıth midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously, patients were randomly divided into two groups and administered intravenous (iv) propofol with the loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg for 10 minutes, followed 0.5 mg/kg/h infusion (Group P); or dexmedetomidine with the loading dose of 1 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by 0.3 mcg/kg/h infusion (Group D). Haemodynamic and respiratuary parameters, Bispectral index score, Ramsey sedation score, time to achieve sufficient sedation, surgeon's and patients' satisfaction, postoperative Aldrete score and side effects were recorded. Time to achieve sufficient sedation, Bispectral index scores at 5, 10 and 15th. minutes intraoperatively, first Aldrete score in the recovery room, SpO2 values and respiratory rates all over the surgical procedure and in the recovery room were found lower in Group P (P<0.05). Bispectral index scores, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the recovery room were significantly lower in Group D (P<0.05). Dexmedetomidine may be preferred as a safer agent with respecting to respiratory function compared with propofol in obstructive sleep apnea patients who known to be susceptible to hypoxia and hypercarbia.

  4. Comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol used for drug-induced sleep endoscopy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuyrukluyıldız, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Onk, Didem; Ayhan Celik, Serap; Torun, Mumtaz Taner; Unver, Edhem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Alagol, Aysin

    2015-01-01

    Backround: Surgical operations are alternative treatments in persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome who cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy is a method with which somnolence is pharmacologically induced and collapse is evaluated through nasal endoscopy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Aims: We aimed to evaluate efficiency of dexmedetomidine or propofol used for sedation in patients undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Methods: A total of 40 patients aged between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA STATUS I-II group were included in the study. After premedicatıon wıth midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously, patients were randomly divided into two groups and administered intravenous (iv) propofol with the loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg for 10 minutes, followed 0.5 mg/kg/h infusion (Group P); or dexmedetomidine with the loading dose of 1 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by 0.3 mcg/kg/h infusion (Group D). Haemodynamic and respiratuary parameters, Bispectral index score, Ramsey sedation score, time to achieve sufficient sedation, surgeon’s and patients’ satisfaction, postoperative Aldrete score and side effects were recorded. Results: Time to achieve sufficient sedation, Bispectral index scores at 5, 10 and 15th. minutes intraoperatively, first Aldrete score in the recovery room, SpO2 values and respiratory rates all over the surgical procedure and in the recovery room were found lower in Group P (P<0.05). Bispectral index scores, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the recovery room were significantly lower in Group D (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine may be preferred as a safer agent with respecting to respiratory function compared with propofol in obstructive sleep apnea patients who known to be susceptible to hypoxia and hypercarbia. PMID:26131153

  5. Reliability of Causality Assessment for Drug, Herbal and Dietary Supplement Hepatoxicity in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN)

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Paul H.; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Fontana, Robert J.; Chalasani, Naga; Davern, Timothy J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Reddy, K. Rajender; Stolz, Andrew A.; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the lack of objective tests to diagnose drug induced liver injury (DILI), causality assessment is a matter of debate. Expert opinion is often used in research and industry but its test-retest reliability is unknown. Aims To determine the test-retest reliability of the expert opinion process used by the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) Methods Three DILIN hepatologists adjudicate suspected hepatotoxicity cases to 1 of 5 categories representing levels of likelihood of DILI. Adjudication is based on retrospective assessment of gathered case data that includes prospective follow-up information. One hundred randomly selected DILIN cases were re-assessed using the same processes for initial assessment but by 3 different reviewers in 92% of cases. Results The median time between assessments was 938 days (range: 140–2352). Thirty-one cases involved >1 agent. Weighted kappa statistics for overall case and individual agent category agreement were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.50–0.71) and 0.60 (0.52–0.68), respectively. Overall case adjudications were within one category of each other 93% of the time, while 5% differed by 2 categories and 2% differed by 3 categories. Fourteen-percent crossed the 50% threshold of likelihood due to competing diagnoses or atypical timing between drug exposure and injury. Conclusions The DILIN expert opinion causality assessment method has moderate inter-observer reliability but very good agreement within 1 category. A small but important proportion of cases could not be reliably diagnosed as ≥ 50% likely to be DILI. PMID:24661785

  6. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS) in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs) induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI), a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy. PMID:20492672

  7. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  9. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizingmore » these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.« less

  11. [Antiepileptic drug-induced osteopathy. Subtypes, pathogenesis, prevention, early diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Bartl, R

    2007-07-29

    Published reports of studies on the long-term effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) on bone--its density, thickness, vitamin D metabolism and risk of fracture--have shown considerable methodological inadequacies (34). Despite these problems it has been clearly shown that patients with epilepsy who are on anti-epileptic drugs have a greater than normal risk of bone loss, abnormal mineralization and fractures. A patient on long-term treatment with AED has a two- to three-fold risk of sustaining a fracture. On average 50% of patients (ranging from 4-70% in different studies [18]) have an osteopathy (34). Type, dosage and duration of AED treatment determine the exact picture of the osteopathy--regardless of whether or not they are enzyme-inducing. Among the enzyme-inducing drugs, especially phenytoin, primidone, phenobarbital and carbamezapine have been investigated for their influence on vitamin D metabolism. Bone loss has also been noted even without evidence of vitamin D deficiency. Mixed forms of osteoporosis and osteomalacia occur particularly often and must be taken into account in any differentiated form of treatment. But the question remains unanswered whether current AEDs, such as lamotrigine, gabapentin or levetiracetam will cause little or no osteopathy. Comparable to the situation during long-term systemic administration of glucocorticoids, initial diagnosis, including the inexpensive dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, must be obtained to determine whether initially there are any bone changes. In addition to a differentiated and clearly defined treatment of osteopathy in a patient with epilepsy, the aim must be to minimize the tendency towards seizures and their severity. The annual cost of adequate vitamin D substitution is about EUR 50, while biphosphonate treatment costs about EUR 500; the costs of vertebral or forearm fractures are about EUR 1000 and those of hip fracture about EUR 15,000. These

  12. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  13. Common Genetic Variant Risk Score Is Associated With Drug-Induced QT Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes Risk: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Strauss, David G; Vicente, Jose; Johannesen, Lars; Blinova, Ksenia; Mason, Jay W; Weeke, Peter; Behr, Elijah R; Roden, Dan M; Woosley, Ray; Kosova, Gulum; Rosenberg, Michael A; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2017-04-04

    Drug-induced QT interval prolongation, a risk factor for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, is a potential side effect of many marketed and withdrawn medications. The contribution of common genetic variants previously associated with baseline QT interval to drug-induced QT prolongation and arrhythmias is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a weighted combination of common genetic variants contributing to QT interval at baseline, identified through genome-wide association studies, can predict individual response to multiple QT-prolonging drugs. Genetic analysis of 22 subjects was performed in a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 3 QT-prolonging drugs with 15 time-matched QT and plasma drug concentration measurements. Subjects received single doses of dofetilide, quinidine, ranolazine, and placebo. The outcome was the correlation between a genetic QT score comprising 61 common genetic variants and the slope of an individual subject's drug-induced increase in heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) versus drug concentration. The genetic QT score was correlated with drug-induced QTc prolongation. Among white subjects, genetic QT score explained 30% of the variability in response to dofetilide ( r =0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.81; P =0.02), 23% in response to quinidine ( r =0.48; 95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 0.79; P =0.06), and 27% in response to ranolazine ( r =0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.80; P =0.03). Furthermore, the genetic QT score was a significant predictor of drug-induced torsade de pointes in an independent sample of 216 cases compared with 771 controls ( r 2 =12%, P =1×10 -7 ). We demonstrate that a genetic QT score comprising 61 common genetic variants explains a significant proportion of the variability in drug-induced QT prolongation and is a significant predictor of drug-induced torsade de pointes. These findings highlight an opportunity for recent genetic discoveries to

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  15. Perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an early pathogenesis event of drug induced liver injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Makoto; Miyake, Manami; Sato, Hiroko

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats treated with thirteen known hepatotoxins causing various types of DILI: necrosis (acetaminophen, bendazac, cyclosporine A, carbon tetrachloride, ethionine), cholestasis (methapyrilene and naphthylisothiocyanate), steatosis (tetracycline and ticlopidine), and idiosyncratic (carbamazepine, chlorzoxasone, flutamide, and nimesulide) at two doses and two time points. Statistical analysis and pathway mapping of the nearly 1900 metabolitesmore » profiled in the plasma, urine, and liver revealed diverse time and dose dependent metabolic cascades leading to DILI by the hepatotoxins. The most consistent change induced by the hepatotoxins, detectable even at the early time point/low dose, was the significant elevations of a panel of bile acids in the plasma and urine, suggesting that DILI impaired hepatic bile acid uptake from the circulation. Furthermore, bile acid amidation in the hepatocytes was altered depending on the severity of the hepatotoxin-induced oxidative stress. The alteration of the bile acids was most evident by the necrosis and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by the steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. Taking together, our data suggest that the perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an early event of DILI. Upon further validation, selected bile acids in the circulation could be potentially used as sensitive and early DILI preclinical biomarkers. - Highlights: ► We used metabolomics to gain insights on drug induced liver injury (DILI) in rats. ► We profiled rats treated with thirteen hepatotoxins at two doses and two time points. ► The toxins

  16. Drug-Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction: Identifying ‘Prime Suspects’ from Electronic Healthcare Records-Based Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Coloma, Preciosa M.; Schuemie, Martijn J.; Trifirò, Gianluca; Furlong, Laura; van Mulligen, Erik; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Avillach, Paul; Kors, Jan; Sanz, Ferran; Mestres, Jordi; Oliveira, José Luis; Boyer, Scott; Helgee, Ernst Ahlberg; Molokhia, Mariam; Matthews, Justin; Prieto-Merino, David; Gini, Rosa; Herings, Ron; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Picelli, Gino; Scotti, Lorenza; Pedersen, Lars; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug-related adverse events remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality and impose huge burden on healthcare costs. Routinely collected electronic healthcare data give a good snapshot of how drugs are being used in ‘real-world’ settings. Objective To describe a strategy that identifies potentially drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from a large international healthcare data network. Methods Post-marketing safety surveillance was conducted in seven population-based healthcare databases in three countries (Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands) using anonymised demographic, clinical, and prescription/dispensing data representing 21,171,291 individuals with 154,474,063 person-years of follow-up in the period 1996–2010. Primary care physicians’ medical records and administrative claims containing reimbursements for filled prescriptions, laboratory tests, and hospitalisations were evaluated using a three-tier triage system of detection, filtering, and substantiation that generated a list of drugs potentially associated with AMI. Outcome of interest was statistically significant increased risk of AMI during drug exposure that has not been previously described in current literature and is biologically plausible. Results Overall, 163 drugs were identified to be associated with increased risk of AMI during preliminary screening. Of these, 124 drugs were eliminated after adjustment for possible bias and confounding. With subsequent application of criteria for novelty and biological plausibility, association with AMI remained for nine drugs (‘prime suspects’): azithromycin; erythromycin; roxithromycin; metoclopramide; cisapride; domperidone; betamethasone; fluconazole; and megestrol acetate. Limitations Although global health status, co-morbidities, and time-invariant factors were adjusted for, residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Conclusion A strategy to identify potentially drug-induced AMI from electronic healthcare data has

  17. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and drug-induced toxicity in a panel of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Claudia V.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Will, Yvonne

    2012-10-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been proposed to be involved in idiosyncratic drug reactions. However, current in vitro and in vivo models lack the genetic diversity seen in the human population. Our hypothesis is that different cell strains with distinct mtDNA SNPs may have different mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles and may therefore vary in their response to drug-induced toxicity. Therefore, we used an in vitro system composed of four strains of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with mtDNA polymorphisms. We sequenced mtDNA from embryonic fibroblasts isolated from four mouse strains, C57BL/6J, MOLF/EiJ, CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ, with themore » latter two being sequenced for the first time. The bioenergetic profile of the four strains of MEFs was investigated at both passages 3 and 10. Our results showed that there were clear differences among the four strains of MEFs at both passages, with CZECHII/EiJ having a lower mitochondrial robustness when compared to C57BL/6J, followed by MOLF/EiJ and PERA/EiJ. Seven drugs known to impair mitochondrial function were tested for their effect on the ATP content of the four strains of MEFs in both glucose- and galactose-containing media. Our results showed that there were strain-dependent differences in the response to some of the drugs. We propose that this model is a useful starting point to study compounds that may cause mitochondrial off-target toxicity in early stages of drug development, thus decreasing the number of experimental animals used. -- Highlights: ► mtDNA SNPs may be linked to individual predisposition to drug-induced toxicity. ► CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ mtDNA was sequenced for the first time in this study. ► Strain-dependent mitochondrial capacity differences were measured. ► Strain-dependent differences in response to mitochondrial toxicants were observed.« less

  18. Reference intervals for putative biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury and liver regeneration in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Francis, Ben; Clarke, Joanna I; Walker, Lauren E; Brillant, Nathalie; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Park, B Kevin; Pirmohamed, Munir; Antoine, Daniel J

    2018-05-02

    The potential of mechanistic biomarkers to improve the prediction of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and hepatic regeneration is widely acknowledged. We sought to determine reference intervals for new biomarkers of DILI and regeneration as well as to characterize their natural variability and impact of diurnal variation. Serum samples from 200 healthy volunteers were recruited as part of a cross sectional study; of these, 50 subjects had weekly serial sampling over 3 weeks, while 24 had intensive blood sampling over a 24h period. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), total keratin-18 (FL-K18), caspase cleaved keratin-18 (cc-K18), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) were assessed by validated assays. Reference intervals were established for each biomarker based on the 97.5% quantile (90% CI) following the assessment of fixed effects in univariate and multivariable models (ALT 50 (41-50) U/l, miR-122 3548 (2912-4321) copies/µl, HMGB1 2.3 (2.2-2.4) ng/ml, FL-K18 475 (456-488) U/l, cc-K18 272 (256-291) U/l, GLDH 27 (26-30) U/l and CSF-1 2.4 (2.3-2.9) ng/ml). There was a small but significant intra-individual time random effect detected but no significant impact of diurnal variation was observed, with the exception of GLDH. Reference intervals for novel DILI biomarkers have been described for the first time. An upper limit of a reference range might represent the most appropriate method to utilize these data. Regulatory authorities have published letters of support encouraging further qualification of leading candidate biomarkers. These data can now be used to interpret data from exploratory clinical DILI studies and to assist their further qualification. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has a big impact on patient health and the development of new medicines. Unfortunately, currently used blood-based tests to assess liver injury and recovery suffer from insufficiencies. Newer blood

  19. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  20. In-plane microvortices micromixer-based AC electrothermal for testing drug induced death of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lang, Qi; Ren, Yukun; Hobson, Divia; Tao, Ye; Hou, Likai; Jia, Yankai; Hu, Qingming; Liu, Jiangwei; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2016-11-01

    Herein, we first describe a perfusion chip integrated with an AC electrothermal (ACET) micromixer to supply a uniform drug concentration to tumor cells. The in-plane fluid microvortices for mixing were generated by six pairs of reconstructed novel ACET asymmetric electrodes. To enhance the mixing efficiency, the novel ACET electrodes with rotating angles of 0°, 30°, and 60° were investigated. The asymmetric electrodes with a rotating angle of 60° exhibited the highest mixing efficiency by both simulated and experimental results. The length of the mixing area is 7 mm, and the mixing efficiency is 89.12% (approximate complete mixing) at a voltage of 3 V and a frequency of 500 kHz. The applicability of our micromixer with electrodes rotating at 60° was demonstrated by the drug (tamoxifen) test of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) for five days, which implies that our ACET in-plane microvortices micromixer has great potential for the application of drug induced rapid death of tumor cells and mixing of biomaterials in organs-on-a-chip systems.

  1. In-plane microvortices micromixer-based AC electrothermal for testing drug induced death of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Qi; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Hou, Likai; Jia, Yankai; Hu, Qingming; Liu, Jiangwei; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we first describe a perfusion chip integrated with an AC electrothermal (ACET) micromixer to supply a uniform drug concentration to tumor cells. The in-plane fluid microvortices for mixing were generated by six pairs of reconstructed novel ACET asymmetric electrodes. To enhance the mixing efficiency, the novel ACET electrodes with rotating angles of 0°, 30°, and 60° were investigated. The asymmetric electrodes with a rotating angle of 60° exhibited the highest mixing efficiency by both simulated and experimental results. The length of the mixing area is 7 mm, and the mixing efficiency is 89.12% (approximate complete mixing) at a voltage of 3 V and a frequency of 500 kHz. The applicability of our micromixer with electrodes rotating at 60° was demonstrated by the drug (tamoxifen) test of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) for five days, which implies that our ACET in-plane microvortices micromixer has great potential for the application of drug induced rapid death of tumor cells and mixing of biomaterials in organs-on-a-chip systems. PMID:27917250

  2. Nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis: experience of the Strasbourg teaching hospital (1985-2000) and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andrès, E; Kurtz, J-E; Maloisel, F

    2002-04-01

    Agranulocytosis is a life-threatening disorder that frequently occurs as an adverse reaction to drugs. The overall incidence of nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) ranges from 2.6 to 10 cases per million patients exposed to drugs per year. Although patients experiencing DIA may initially be asymptomatic, the severity of the neutropenia usually leads to severe sepsis, requiring intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. In this setting, old age, septicaemia, shock, and the metabolic complications of infection, such as renal failure, are poor prognostic variables. The severity of neutropenia (< 0.1 x 10(9))/l) and its duration (> 10 days) may also impact negatively on the outcome. With appropriate management using pre-established procedures, the mortality rate is now around 5%. Haematopoietic growth factors have been shown to shorten the duration of neutropenia in DIA. However, it has yet to be determined whether their use translates into a better outcome in DIA patients experiencing sepsis. DIA still remains a rare event. However, given the increased life expectancy and subsequent longer exposure to drugs, as well as the development of new agents, physicians should be aware of this complication and its management.

  3. Motoneurons regulate the central pattern generator during drug-induced locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse

    PubMed Central

    Falgairolle, Melanie; Puhl, Joshua G; Pujala, Avinash; Liu, Wenfang; O’Donovan, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Motoneurons are traditionally viewed as the output of the spinal cord that do not influence locomotor rhythmogenesis. We assessed the role of motoneuron firing during ongoing locomotor-like activity in neonatal mice expressing archaerhopsin-3 (Arch), halorhodopsin (eNpHR), or channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in Choline acetyltransferase neurons (ChAT+) or Arch in LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1+ neurons. Illumination of the lumbar cord in mice expressing eNpHR or Arch in ChAT+ or Isl1+ neurons, depressed motoneuron discharge, transiently decreased the frequency, and perturbed the phasing of the locomotor-like rhythm. When the light was turned off motoneuron firing and locomotor frequency both transiently increased. These effects were not due to cholinergic neurotransmission, persisted during partial blockade of gap junctions and were mediated, in part, by AMPAergic transmission. In spinal cords expressing ChR2, illumination increased motoneuron discharge and transiently accelerated the rhythm. We conclude that motoneurons provide feedback to the central pattern generator (CPG) during drug-induced locomotor-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26622.001 PMID:28671548

  4. Combinatorial usage of fungal polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum ameliorate drug-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Songtao; Huang, Xiaojun; Wang, Sunan; Li, Chang; Zhang, Zhihong; Xie, Mingyong; Nie, Shaoping

    2018-05-15

    This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response. Relatively, through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PSG increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content depleted by CTX, as well as prevented mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins (Bad, Bax and Bcl-2). In addition, protective effect of CFP was associated with enhanced modulations on cellular oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and pro-inflammatory factors via PPARα upregulation and TLR9 downregulation. Taking together, the combinatorial approach based on CSP and PSG presented a practical option for the management of drug-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chip-Based Dynamic Real-Time Quantification of Drug-Induced Cytotoxicity in Human Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Skommer, Joanna; McGuinness, Dagmara; Faley, Shannon; Kolch, Walter; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cytotoxicity tests are among the most common bioassays using flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging analysis. The permeability of plasma membranes to charged fluorescent probes serves, in these assays, as a marker distinguishing live from dead cells. Since it is generally assumed that probes, such as propidium iodide (PI) or 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD), are themselves cytotoxic, they are currently generally used only as the end-point markers of assays for live versus dead cells. In the current study, we provide novel insights into potential applications of these classical plasma membrane integrity markers in the dynamic tracking of drug-induced cytotoxicity. We show that treatment of a number of different human tumor cell lines in cultures for up to 72 h with the PI, 7-AAD, SYTOX Green (SY-G), SYTOX Red (SYR), TO-PRO, and YO-PRO had no effect on cell viability assessed by the integrity of plasma membrane, cell cycle progression, and rate of proliferation. We subsequently explore the potential of dynamic labeling with these markers in real-time analysis, by comparing results from both conventional cytometry and microfluidic chips. Considering the simplicity of the staining protocols and their low cost combined with the potential for real-time data collection, we show how that real-time fluorescent imaging and Lab-on-a-Chip platforms have the potential to be used for automated drug screening routines. PMID:19572560

  6. Mechanistically linked serum miRNAs distinguish between drug induced and fatty liver disease of different grades.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhichao; Wang, Yuping; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2016-04-05

    Hepatic steatosis is characterised by excessive triglyceride accumulation in the form of lipid droplets (LD); however, mechanisms differ in drug induced (DIS) and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we hypothesized distinct molecular circuits of microRNA/LD-associated target genes and searched for mechanistically linked serum and tissue biomarkers that would distinguish between DIS and human NAFLD of different grades. We analysed >800 rat hepatic whole genome data for 17 steatotic drugs and identified 157 distinct miRNAs targeting 77 DIS regulated genes. Subsequently, genomic data of N = 105 cases of human NAFLD and N = 32 healthy controls were compared to serum miRNA profiles of N = 167 NAFLD patients. This revealed N = 195 tissue-specific miRNAs being mechanistically linked to LD-coding genes and 24 and 9 miRNAs were commonly regulated in serum and tissue of advanced and mild NAFLD, respectively. The NASH serum regulated miRNAs informed on hepatic inflammation, adipocytokine and insulin signalling, ER-and caveolae associated activities and altered glycerolipid metabolism. Conversely, serum miRNAs associated with blunt steatosis specifically highlighted activity of FOXO1&HNF4α on CPT2, the lipid droplet and ER-lipid-raft associated PLIN3 and Erlin1. Altogether, serum miRNAs informed on the molecular pathophysiology of NAFLD and permitted differentiation between DIS and NAFLD of different grades.

  7. Comedications alter drug-induced liver injury reporting frequency: Data mining in the WHO VigiBase™

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ayako; Yuen, Nancy A.; Ilic, Katarina; Miller, Richard T.; Reese, Melinda J.; Brown, H. Roger; Ambroso, Jeffrey I.; Falls, J. Gregory; Hunt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Polypharmacy is common, and may modify mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury. We examined the effect of these drug–drug interactions on liver safety reports of four drugs highly associated with hepatotoxicity. In the WHO VigiBase™, liver event reports were examined for acetaminophen, isoniazid, valproic acid, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Then, we evaluated the liver event reporting frequency of these 4 drugs in the presence of co-reported medications. Each of the 4 primary drugs was reported as having more than 2000 liver events, and co-reported with more than 600 different medications. Overall, the effect of 2275 co-reported drugs (316 drug classes) on the reporting frequency was analyzed. Decreased liver event reporting frequency was associated with 245 drugs/122 drug classes, including anti-TNFα, opioids, and folic acid. Increased liver event reporting frequency was associated with 170 drugs/82 drug classes; in particular, halogenated hydrocarbons, carboxamides, and bile acid sequestrants. After adjusting for age, gender, and other co-reported drug classes, multiple co-reported drug classes were significantly associated with decreased/increased liver event reporting frequency in a drug-specific/unspecific manner. In conclusion, co-reported medications were associated with changes in the liver event reporting frequency of drugs commonly associated with hepatotoxicity, suggesting that comedications may modify drug hepatic safety. PMID:25988394

  8. Establishment of a drug-induced rhabdomyolysis mouse model by co-administration of ciprofloxacin and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Akiko; Oda, Shingo; Akai, Sho; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2018-07-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is one of the serious side effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX), a widely used antibacterial drug; and occasionally, acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs. Often, rhabdomyolysis has occurred in patients taking CPFX co-administered with statins. The purpose of this study is to establish a mouse model of drug-induced rhabdomyolysis by co-administration of CPFX and atorvastatin (ATV) and to clarify the mechanisms of its pathogenesis. C57BL/6J mice treated with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, were orally administered with CPFX and ATV for 4 days. Plasma levels of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly increased in the CPFX and ATV-co-administered group. Histopathological examination of skeletal muscle observed degeneration in gastrocnemius muscle and an increased number of the satellite cells. Expressions of skeletal muscle-specific microRNA and mRNA in plasma and skeletal muscle, respectively, were significantly increased. The area under the curve (AUC) of plasma CPFX was significantly increased in the CPFX and ATV-co-administered group. Furthermore, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a positively myoglobin-stained region in kidney tissue and high content of myoglobin in urine were observed. These results indicated that AKI was induced by myoglobin that leaked from skeletal muscle. The established mouse model in the present study would be useful for predicting potential rhabdomyolysis risks in preclinical drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kidney-on-a-Chip: a New Technology for Predicting Drug Efficacy, Interactions, and Drug-induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Sejoong

    2018-03-08

    The kidneys play a pivotal role in most drug-removal processes and are important when evaluating drug safety. Kidney dysfunction resulting from various drugs is an important issue in clinical practice and during the drug development process. Traditional in vivo animal experiments are limited with respect to evaluating drug efficacy and nephrotoxicity due to discrepancies in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between humans and animals, and static cell culture experiments cannot fully reflect the actual microphysiological environment in humans. A kidney-on-a-chip is a microfluidic device that allows the culture of living renal cells in 3-dimensional channels and mimics the human microphysiological environment, thus simulating the actual drug filtering, absorption, and secretion process.. In this review, we discuss recent developments in microfluidic culturing technique and describe current and future kidney-on-a-chip applications. We focus on pharmacological interactions and drug-induced nephrotoxicity, and additionally discuss the development of multi-organ chips and their possible applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Experimental drug-induced changes in renal function and biodistribution of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Singh, A.; Roskopf, M.

    Increased renal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was observed irregularly in rats after methotrexate, vincristine or gentamicin, administered separately. Cisplatin regularly induced a dose-related increased MDP uptake which correlated with the degree of tubular damage histologically. The augmented MDP renal uptake was not consistently accompanied by a decreased clearance of simultaneously injected I-131 Hippuran, particularly at lower drug dose levels. This observation agreed with previous evidence that the mechanisms of tubular transport of diphosphonates and organic acids like Hippuran are different. At higher dose levels, the augmented MDP uptake was accompanied by increased renal calcium, hypophosphatemia, elevated serummore » urea nitrogen and creatinine, and only occasional, mild hypercalcemia. The magnitude of the increased renal uptake of MDP observed could not be explained by alterations in iron metabolism or by dehydration. Drug-induced renal retention of MDP by a factor of 2 or more above normal appears to be a useful indicator of tubular damage when other parameters of renal function are sometimes normal.« less

  11. A transcriptomics data-driven gene space accurately predicts liver cytopathology and drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Kohonen, Pekka; Parkkinen, Juuso A.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Ceder, Rebecca; Wennerberg, Krister; Kaski, Samuel; Grafström, Roland C.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting unanticipated harmful effects of chemicals and drug molecules is a difficult and costly task. Here we utilize a ‘big data compacting and data fusion’—concept to capture diverse adverse outcomes on cellular and organismal levels. The approach generates from transcriptomics data set a ‘predictive toxicogenomics space’ (PTGS) tool composed of 1,331 genes distributed over 14 overlapping cytotoxicity-related gene space components. Involving ∼2.5 × 108 data points and 1,300 compounds to construct and validate the PTGS, the tool serves to: explain dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects, provide a virtual cytotoxicity probability estimate intrinsic to omics data, predict chemically-induced pathological states in liver resulting from repeated dosing of rats, and furthermore, predict human drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from hepatocyte experiments. Analysing 68 DILI-annotated drugs, the PTGS tool outperforms and complements existing tests, leading to a hereto-unseen level of DILI prediction accuracy. PMID:28671182

  12. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Moro, Sabrina M. L.; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C. A.; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B. Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Christopher E. P.; Lauschke, Volker M.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  13. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Catherine C; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Moro, Sabrina M L; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C A; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Christopher E P; Lauschke, Volker M; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-05-04

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI.

  14. Evaluation of Pepsinogen I as a Biomarker of Drug-induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ennulat, Daniela; Lynch, Karen M; Kimbrough, Carie L; Mirabile, Rosanna C; Rehm, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Gastric mucosal injury is frequently observed in nonclinical studies of nonhuman primates. Because microscopic evaluation of stomach is generally a terminal procedure, our objective was to determine whether serum pepsinogen I (PG I) could serve as a noninvasive biomarker for detection of gastric mucosal injury in monkey. Serum PG I was measured using a commercial human immunoassay in cynomolgus monkeys ( n = 166) prior to dosing and/or terminally in 11 studies of up to 1 month duration. Mean ( SD) PG I values (ug/L) for monkeys with ( n = 59) and without ( n = 100) gastric mucosal degeneration were 101 (215) and 28 (12.6), respectively. For monkeys with baseline and terminal PG I data, mean ( SD) fold change (ratio of terminal to baseline PG I) for monkeys with ( n = 57) and without ( n = 76) glandular degeneration were 4.1 (11.3) and 1 (0.28). Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) data demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracy for serum PG I for glandular degeneration, AUC ( SE) 0.789 (0.04), with improved diagnostic accuracy as a fold change of baseline, AUC ( SE) 0.816 (0.04), consistent with the large interindividual but low intraindividual variability of serum PG I values in control monkeys. These data demonstrate that serum PG I is a useful biomarker of drug-induced gastric mucosal injury in the cynomolgus monkey.

  15. The contribution of oxidative stress to drug-induced organ toxicity and its detection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Claudia V; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Oliveira, Paulo J; Will, Yvonne

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays the 'redox hypothesis' is based on the fact that thiol/disulfide couples such as glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine (Cys/CySS) and thioredoxin ((Trx-(SH)2/Trx-SS)) are functionally organized in redox circuits controlled by glutathione pools, thioredoxins and other control nodes, and they are not in equilibrium relative to each other. Although ROS can be important intermediates of cellular signaling pathways, disturbances in the normal cellular redox can result in widespread damage to several cell components. Moreover, oxidative stress has been linked to a variety of age-related diseases. In recent years, oxidative stress has also been identified to contribute to drug-induced liver, heart, renal and brain toxicity. This review provides an overview of current in vitro and in vivo methods that can be deployed throughout the drug discovery process. In addition, animal models and noninvasive biomarkers are described. Reducing post-market drug withdrawals is essential for all pharmaceutical companies in a time of increased patient welfare and tight budgets. Predictive screens positioned early in the drug discovery process will help to reduce such liabilities. Although new and more efficient assays and models are being developed, the hunt for biomarkers and noninvasive techniques is still in progress.

  16. Case report: continued treatment with alectinib is possible for patients with lung adenocarcinoma with drug-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Nitawaki, Tatsuya; Sakata, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Kodai; Ichikado, Kazuya

    2017-12-06

    Alectinib, a second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, is a key drug for ALK rearranged lung adenocarcinoma. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an important adverse effect of alectinib, which generally requires termination of treatment. However, we treated two patients with drug-induced ILD who continued to receive alectinib. Patient 1 was a 57-year-old male with an ALK-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who was administered alectinib as first-line therapy. Computed tomography (CT) detected asymptomatic ground-glass opacity (GGO) on day 33 of treatment. Alectinib therapy was therefore discontinued for 7 days and then restarted. GGO disappeared, and the progression of ILD ceased. Patient 2 was a 64-year-old woman with an ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma who was administered alectinib as third-line therapy. One year later, CT detected GGO; and she had a slight, nonproductive cough. Alectinib therapy was continued in the absence of other symptoms, and GGO slightly diminished after 7 days. Two months later, CT detected increased GGO, and alectinib therapy was continued. GGO diminished again after 7 days. The patient has taken alectinib for more than 2 years without progression of ILD. Certain patients with alectinib-induced ILD Grade 2 or less may continue alectinib therapy if they are closely managed.

  17. Reprogramming of Sheep Fibroblasts into Pluripotency under a Drug-Inducible Expression of Mouse-Derived Defined Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Cang, Ming; Lee, Andrew Stephen; Zhang, Kehua; Liu, Dongjun

    2011-01-01

    Animal embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide powerful tool for studies of early embryonic development, gene targeting, cloning, and regenerative medicine. However, the majority of attempts to establish ESC lines from large animals, especially ungulate mammals have failed. Recently, another type of pluripotent stem cells, known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been successfully generated from mouse, human, monkey, rat and pig. In this study we show sheep fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to pluripotency by defined factors using a drug-inducible system. Sheep iPSCs derived in this fashion have a normal karyotype, exhibit morphological features similar to those of human ESCs and express AP, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the cell surface marker SSEA-4. Pluripotency of these cells was further confirmed by embryoid body (EB) and teratoma formation assays which generated derivatives of all three germ layers. Our results also show that the substitution of knockout serum replacement (KSR) with fetal bovine serum in culture improves the reprogramming efficiency of sheep iPSCs. Generation of sheep iPSCs places sheep on the front lines of large animal preclinical trials and experiments involving modification of animal genomes. PMID:21253598

  18. Mechanism-based risk assessment strategy for drug-induced cholestasis using the transcriptional benchmark dose derived by toxicogenomics.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ito, Yuichi; Morita, Osamu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Cholestasis is one of the major causes of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), which can result in withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. Early identification of cholestatic drugs is difficult due to the complex mechanisms involved. In order to develop a strategy for mechanism-based risk assessment of cholestatic drugs, we analyzed gene expression data obtained from the livers of rats that had been orally administered with 12 known cholestatic compounds repeatedly for 28 days at three dose levels. Qualitative analyses were performed using two statistical approaches (hierarchical clustering and principle component analysis), in addition to pathway analysis. The transcriptional benchmark dose (tBMD) and tBMD 95% lower limit (tBMDL) were used for quantitative analyses, which revealed three compound sub-groups that produced different types of differential gene expression; these groups of genes were mainly involved in inflammation, cholesterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the tBMDL values for each test compound were in good agreement with the relevant no observed adverse effect level. These results indicate that our novel strategy for drug safety evaluation using mechanism-based classification and tBMDL would facilitate the application of toxicogenomics for risk assessment of cholestatic DILI.

  19. [The clinicopathological analysis of 88 patients with abnormal liver function test of unknown etiology].

    PubMed

    Pang, Shu-zhen; Ou, Xiao-juan; Shi, Xiao-yan; Wang, Tai-ling; Duan, Wei-jia; Jia, Ji-dong

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and histological features of patients with abnormal liver tests of unknown etiology, and then to investigate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Patients with abnormal liver function test hospitalized and had liver biopsies during 2008 - 2009 constituted this retrospective study cohort. After excluding those patients diagnosed with hepatotropic viral hepatitis, space occupying lesions of the liver, alcoholic liver disease and obstruction of bile duct caused by stone or malignancy and AMA/AMA-M(2) positive of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the clinical and histological characteristics were evaluated. Out of the 180 patients who underwent liver biopsy, 88 patients were included in the present analysis. The final diagnosis involved 15 categories of diseases, with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) [34.09% (30/88)], autoimmune liver diseases [22.73% (20/88)], and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [12.50% (11/88)] being the most common causes, following by genetic and other rare diseases. DILI, autoimmune liver disease and NAFLD were the most common causes of abnormal liver tests in these non-viral liver diseases. Some rare diseases such as hereditary metabolic liver disease also represent a considerable proportion in patients with abnormal liver function test.

  20. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  1. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  2. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are a common cause of liver injury, particularly ... problem. However, if you took high doses of acetaminophen , treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  3. Drug induced psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Višnja; Mance, Marko; Ceović, Romana; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by erythematous, sharply demarcated papules and rounded plaques covered by silvery micaceous scale. While the exact causes of psoriasis have yet to be discovered, the immune system and genetics are known to play major roles in its development. Many external factors including infections, stress and medications may exacerbate psoriasis. Some of the most common medications know to trigger or worsen existing psoriasis include lithium, gold salts, beta blockers and antimalarials. Exacerbation of psoriasis due to the following medications has also been observed: adrenergic antagonists, interferon, gemfibrozil, iodine, digoxin and chlonidine. Having reviewed a variety of cases, we observed a relationship between certain medications and documented their involvement in exacerbating or inducing psoriasis.

  4. Drug induced rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Hohenegger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition of potential life threatening destruction of skeletal muscle caused by diverse mechanisms including drugs and toxins. Given the fact that structurally not related compounds cause an identical phenotype pinpoints to common targets or pathways, responsible for executing rhabdomyolysis. A drop in myoplasmic ATP paralleled with sustained elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration represents a common signature of rhabdomyolysis. Interestingly, cardiac tissue is hardly affected or only secondary, as a consequence of imbalance in electrolytes or acid–base equilibrium. This dogma is now impaired by compounds, which show up with combined toxicity in heart and skeletal muscle. In this review, cases of rhabdomyolysis with novel recently approved drugs will be explored for new target mechanisms in the light of previously described pathomechanisms. PMID:22560920

  5. Drug-induced tremor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can cause tremor include the following: Cancer medicines such as thalidomide and cytarabine Seizure medicines such as valproic acid (Depakote) and sodium valproate (Depakene) Asthma medicines such as theophylline and ...

  6. [Drug-induced gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    Hugues, F C; Gourlot, C; Le Jeunne, C

    2000-02-01

    Drugs are a very common cause of gynecomastia and should always be entertained as the possible causal agent of such a condition. This drug side-effect is due to an impaired balance in the serum estrogen/serum androgen ratio, whatever the mechanism, or a rise in prolactin level. Sex hormones, antiandrogens, are frequently involved as well as spironolactone, cimetidine, verapamil and cancer chemotherapy (especially alkylating agents). Diazepam, tricyclic antidepressants, neuroleptics, calcium channel blockers, captopril, digitalis glycosides, omeprazole, some antibiotics and growth hormone are all possibly, but less often, the responsible agent. Criteria of the French method for determining drug causality are discussed.

  7. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D F; Carter, J R

    1993-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a relatively common physical finding in men. A wide variety of drugs have been implicated in its cause. Sufficient evidence in the literature suggests that calcium-channel blockers, cancer chemotherapeutic agents, and histamine2-receptor blockers may play a role in the disorder. Evidence for digitalis glycosides and neuroleptic agents is insufficient. Ketoconazole and spironolactone can also produce gynecomastia, and data for marijuana are contradictory. Large numbers of drugs have only case reports of temporal association with the disorder.

  8. Drug-induced diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat cancer. Drugs used to treat heartburn and stomach ulcers, such as omeprazole (Prilosec), esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  9. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  10. A collaborative approach to developing an electronic health record phenotyping algorithm for drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Pathak, Jyotishman; Gottesman, Omri; Haerian, Krystl; Perotte, Adler; Murphy, Sean; Bruce, Kevin; Johnson, Stephanie; Talwalkar, Jayant; Shen, Yufeng; Ellis, Steve; Kullo, Iftikhar; Chute, Christopher; Friedman, Carol; Bottinger, Erwin; Hripcsak, George; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe a collaborative approach for developing an electronic health record (EHR) phenotyping algorithm for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Methods We analyzed types and causes of differences in DILI case definitions provided by two institutions—Columbia University and Mayo Clinic; harmonized two EHR phenotyping algorithms; and assessed the performance, measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, of the resulting algorithm at three institutions except that sensitivity was measured only at Columbia University. Results Although these sites had the same case definition, their phenotyping methods differed by selection of liver injury diagnoses, inclusion of drugs cited in DILI cases, laboratory tests assessed, laboratory thresholds for liver injury, exclusion criteria, and approaches to validating phenotypes. We reached consensus on a DILI phenotyping algorithm and implemented it at three institutions. The algorithm was adapted locally to account for differences in populations and data access. Implementations collectively yielded 117 algorithm-selected cases and 23 confirmed true positive cases. Discussion Phenotyping for rare conditions benefits significantly from pooling data across institutions. Despite the heterogeneity of EHRs and varied algorithm implementations, we demonstrated the portability of this algorithm across three institutions. The performance of this algorithm for identifying DILI was comparable with other computerized approaches to identify adverse drug events. Conclusions Phenotyping algorithms developed for rare and complex conditions are likely to require adaptive implementation at multiple institutions. Better approaches are also needed to share algorithms. Early agreement on goals, data sources, and validation methods may improve the portability of the algorithms. PMID:23837993

  11. Alterations in primary motor cortex neurotransmission and gene expression in hemi-parkinsonian rats with drug-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Lindenbach, D; Conti, M M; Ostock, C Y; Dupre, K B; Bishop, C

    2015-12-03

    Treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dopamine replacement relieves symptoms of poverty of movement, but often causes drug-induced dyskinesias. Accumulating clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in the pathophysiology of PD and that modulating cortical activity may be a therapeutic target in PD and dyskinesia. However, surprisingly little is known about how M1 neurotransmitter tone or gene expression is altered in PD, dyskinesia or associated animal models. The present study utilized the rat unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD/dyskinesia to characterize structural and functional changes taking place in M1 monoamine innervation and gene expression. 6-OHDA caused dopamine pathology in M1, although the lesion was less severe than in the striatum. Rats with 6-OHDA lesions showed a PD motor impairment and developed dyskinesia when given L-DOPA or the D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297. M1 expression of two immediate-early genes (c-Fos and ARC) was strongly enhanced by either L-DOPA or SKF81297. At the same time, expression of genes specifically involved in glutamate and GABA signaling were either modestly affected or unchanged by lesion and/or treatment. We conclude that M1 neurotransmission and signal transduction in the rat 6-OHDA model of PD/dyskinesia mirror features of human PD, supporting the utility of the model to study M1 dysfunction in PD and the elucidation of novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of naranjo adverse drug reactions probability scale in causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, M; Lucena, M I; Pachkoria, K; Borraz, Y; Hidalgo, R; Andrade, R J

    2008-05-01

    Causality assessment in hepatotoxicity is challenging. The current standard liver-specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale is complex and difficult to implement in daily practice. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reactions Probability Scale is a simple and widely used nonspecific scale, which has not been specifically evaluated in drug-induced liver injury. To compare the Naranjo method with the standard liver-specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale in evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility of Naranjo Adverse Drug Reactions Probability Scale in the diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. Two hundred and twenty-five cases of suspected hepatotoxicity submitted to a national registry were evaluated by two independent observers and assessed for between-observer and between-scale differences using percentages of agreement and the weighted kappa (kappa(w)) test. A total of 249 ratings were generated. Between-observer agreement was 45% with a kappa(w) value of 0.17 for the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reactions Probability Scale, while there was a higher agreement when using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale (72%, kappa(w): 0.71). Concordance between the two scales was 24% (kappa(w): 0.15). The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reactions Probability Scale had low sensitivity (54%) and poor negative predictive value (29%) and showed a limited capability to distinguish between adjacent categories of probability. The Naranjo scale lacks validity and reproducibility in the attribution of causality in hepatotoxicity.

  13. In Vitro Drug-Induced Liver Injury Prediction: Criteria Optimization of Efflux Transporter IC50 and Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Yucha, Robert W; He, Kan; Shi, Qin; Cai, Lining; Nakashita, Yukie; Xia, Cindy Q; Liao, Mingxiang

    2017-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a severe drug adverse response, which cannot always be reliably predicted in preclinical or clinical studies. Lack of observation of DILI during preclinical and clinical drug development has led to DILI being a leading cause of drug withdrawal from the market. As DILI is potentially fatal, pharmaceutical companies have been developing in vitro tools to screen for potential liver injury. Screens for physicochemical properties, mitochondrial function, and transport protein inhibition have all been employed to varying degrees of success. In vitro inhibition of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) has become a major risk factor for in vivo DILI predictions, yet discrepancies exist in which methods to use and the extent to which BSEP inhibition predicts clinical DILI. The presented work focuses on optimizing DILI predictions by comparing BSEP inhibition via the membrane vesicle assay and the hepatocyte-based BSEPcyte assay, as well as dual and triple liabilities. BSEP transport inhibition of taurcholic acids and glycocholic acids were similar for up to 29 drugs tested, in both the vesicle and hepatocyte-based assays. Positive and negative DILI predictions were optimized at a 50-µM cutoff value for 50 drugs using both NIH Livertox and PharmaPendium databases. Additionally, dual inhibition of BSEP and other efflux transporters (multidrug resistance-associated protein [MRP]2, MRP3, or MRP4) provided no observable predictive benefit compared with BSEP inhibition alone. Eighty-five percent of drugs with high molecular weight (>600 Da), high cLogP (>3), or a daily dose >100 mg and BSEP inhibition were associated with DILI. Triple liability of BSEP inhibition, high molecular weight, and high cLogP attained a 100% positive prediction rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. From the Cover: Potentiation of Drug-Induced Phospholipidosis In Vitro through PEGlyated Graphene Oxide as the Nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liecheng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Li, Qian; Zhang, Xihui; Wang, Yangyun; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Leshuai W

    2017-03-01

    Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) are small molecules that can induce phospholipidosis (PLD), causing the intracellular accumulation of phospholipid in the lamellar bodies. Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems have been used widely, while it is unknown if drug-induced PLD (DIP) can be potentiated through drug retention by indigestible nanocarriers. Due to the high drug loading capacity of graphene, we investigated if PEGylated graphene oxide (PEG-GO) loaded with CAD could potentiate DIP. Tamoxifen induced the accumulation of NBD-PE, a fluorescence labeled phospholipid in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, while PEG-GO loaded with tamoxifen (PEG-GO/tamoxifen) further potentiated PLD. PEG-GO/tamoxifen induced more gene expression of PLD marker than tamoxifen alone. PEG-GO enhanced DIP was also observed for other CAD, indicating that nanocarrier potentiated DIP could be universal. More lamellar bodies were observed in PEG-GO/tamoxifen treated cells than tamoxifen alone by transmission electron microscopy. When compared with tamoxifen alone, PEG-GO/tamoxifen showed a delayed but potent PLD. In addition, the retarded PLD recovery by PEG-GO/tamoxifen indicated that the reversibility of DIP was interfered. Confocal microscopy revealed the increased number of lysosomes, greater expression of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) (a PLD marker), and an increase in the co-localization between lysosome/LAMP2 and NBD-PE by PEG-GO/tamoxifen rather than tamoxifen alone. Finally, we found that PEG-GO or/and tamoxifen-induced PLD seemed to have no correlation with autophagy. This research suggests pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies that if nanoparticles are used as the vectors for drug delivery, the adverse drug effects may be further potentiated probably through the long-term accumulation of nanocarriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  15. Serum apolipoprotein A1 and haptoglobin, in patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) as biomarkers of recovery

    PubMed Central

    Peta, Valentina; Tse, Chantal; Perazzo, Hugo; Munteanu, Mona; Ngo, Yen; Ngo, An; Ramanujam, Nittia; Verglas, Lea; Mallet, Maxime; Ratziu, Vlad; Thabut, Dominique; Rudler, Marika; Thibault, Vincent; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Hainque, Bernard; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Merz, Michael; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd; Andrade, Raul; van Boemmel, Florian; Schott, Eckart

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a clear need for better biomarkers of drug-induced-liver-injury (DILI). Aims We aimed to evaluate the possible prognostic value of ActiTest and FibroTest proteins apoliprotein-A1, haptoglobin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, in patients with DILI. Methods We analyzed cases and controls included in the IMI-SAFE-T-DILI European project, from which serum samples had been stored in a dedicated biobank. The analyses of ActiTest and FibroTest had been prospectively scheduled. The primary objective was to analyze the performance (AUROC) of ActiTest components as predictors of recovery outcome defined as an ALT <2x the upper limit of normal (ULN), and BILI <2x ULN. Results After adjudication, 154 patients were considered to have DILI and 22 were considered to have acute liver injury without DILI. A multivariate regression analysis (ActiTest-DILI patent pending) combining the ActiTest components without BILI and ALT (used as references), apolipoprotein-A1, haptoglobin, alpha-2-macroglobulin and GGT, age and gender, resulted in a significant prediction of recovery with 67.0% accuracy (77/115) and an AUROC of 0.724 (P<0.001 vs. no prediction 0.500). Repeated apolipoprotein-A1 and haptoglobin remained significantly higher in the DILI cases that recovered (n = 65) versus those that did not (n = 16), at inclusion, at 4–8 weeks and at 8–12 weeks. The same results were observed after stratification on APAP cases and non-APAP cases. Conclusions We identified that apolipoprotein-A1 and haptoglobin had significant predictive values for the prediction of recovery at 12 weeks in DILI, enabling the construction of a new prognostic panel, the DILI-ActiTest, which needs to be independently validated. PMID:29287080

  16. Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ritchhart, Casey; Joy, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver injury from herbals and dietary supplements in the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-10-01

    The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity caused by conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight U.S. referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury caused by HDS. Hepatotoxicity caused by HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments, including death and liver transplantation (LT), were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury caused by bodybuilding HDS, 85 by nonbodybuilding HDS, and 709 by medications. Liver injury caused by HDS increased from 7% to 20% (P < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median, 91 days) in young men, but did not result in any fatalities or LT. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women, and, more frequently, led to death or transplantation, compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%; P < 0.05). The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from nonbodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes (death and transplantation). (Hepatology 2014;60:1399-1408). © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. A Drug-Induced Hybrid Electrospun Poly-Capro-Lactone: Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix Scaffold for Liver Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rhiannon; Hay, David C; Callanan, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Liver transplant is the only treatment option for patients with end-stage liver failure, however, there are too few donor livers available for transplant. Whole organ tissue engineering presents a potential solution to the problem of rapidly escalating donor liver shortages worldwide. A major challenge for liver tissue engineers is the creation of a hepatocyte microenvironment; a niche in which liver cells can survive and function optimally. While polymers and decellularized tissues pose an attractive option for scaffold manufacturing, neither alone has thus far proved sufficient. This study exploited cell's native extracellular matrix (ECM) producing capabilities using two different histone deacetylase inhibitors, and combined these with the customizability and reproducibility of electrospun polymer scaffolds to produce a "best of both worlds" niche microenvironment for hepatocytes. The resulting hybrid poly-capro-lactone (PCL)-ECM scaffolds were validated using HepG2 hepatocytes. The hybrid PCL-ECM scaffolds maintained hepatocyte growth and function, as evidenced by metabolic activity and DNA quantitation. Mechanical testing revealed little significant difference between scaffolds, indicating that cells were responding to a biochemical and topographical profile rather than mechanical changes. Immunohistochemistry showed that the biochemical profile of the drug-derived and nondrug-derived ECMs differed in ratio of Collagen I, Laminin, and Fibronectin. Furthermore, the hybrid PCL-ECM scaffolds influence the gene expression profile of the HepG2s drastically; with expression of Albumin, Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Subfamily A Polypeptide 1, Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Subfamily A Polypeptide 2, Cytochrome P450 Family 3 Subfamily A Polypeptide 4, Fibronectin, Collagen I, and Collagen IV undergoing significant changes. Our results demonstrate that drug-induced hybrid PCL-ECM scaffolds provide a viable, translatable platform for creating a niche microenvironment for

  19. Noninvasive cardiac activation imaging of ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Zhou, Zhaoye; He, Bin

    2013-10-01

    Imaging myocardial activation from noninvasive body surface potentials promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. To investigate the ability of a noninvasive 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique for characterizing the activation patterns of dynamically changing ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in rabbits. Simultaneous body surface potential mapping and 3-dimensional intracardiac mapping were performed in a closed-chest condition in 8 rabbits. Data analysis was performed on premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and torsades de pointes (TdP) induced during intravenous administration of clofilium and phenylephrine with combinations of various infusion rates. The drug infusion led to a significant increase in the QT interval (from 175 ± 7 to 274 ± 31 ms) and rate-corrected QT interval (from 183 ± 5 to 262 ± 21 ms) during the first dose cycle. All the ectopic beats initiated by a focal activation pattern. The initial beat of TdPs arose at the focal site, whereas the subsequent beats were due to focal activity from different sites or 2 competing focal sites. The imaged results captured the dynamic shift of activation patterns and were in good correlation with the simultaneous measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.65 ± 0.02 averaged over 111 ectopic beats. Sites of initial activation were localized to be ~5 mm from the directly measured initiation sites. The 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique could localize the origin of activation and image activation sequence of TdP during QT prolongation induced by clofilium and phenylephrine in rabbits. It offers the potential to noninvasively investigate the proarrhythmic effects of drug infusion and assess the mechanisms of arrhythmias on a beat-to-beat basis. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Interplay between Antibiotic Efficacy and Drug-Induced Lysis Underlies Enhanced Biofilm Formation at Subinhibitory Drug Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen; Hallinen, Kelsey M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics have been shown to enhance biofilm formation in multiple bacterial species. While antibiotic exposure has been associated with modulated expression of many biofilm-related genes, the mechanisms of drug-induced biofilm formation remain a focus of ongoing research efforts and may vary significantly across species. In this work, we investigate antibiotic-induced biofilm formation in Enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of nosocomial infections. We show that biofilm formation is enhanced by subinhibitory concentrations of cell wall synthesis inhibitors but not by inhibitors of protein, DNA, folic acid, or RNA synthesis. Furthermore, enhanced biofilm is associated with increased cell lysis, increases in extracellular DNA (eDNA) levels, and increases in the density of living cells in the biofilm. In addition, we observe similar enhancement of biofilm formation when cells are treated with nonantibiotic surfactants that induce cell lysis. These findings suggest that antibiotic-induced biofilm formation is governed by a trade-off between drug toxicity and the beneficial effects of cell lysis. To understand this trade-off, we developed a simple mathematical model that predicts changes in antibiotic-induced biofilm formation due to external perturbations, and we verified these predictions experimentally. Specifically, we demonstrate that perturbations that reduce eDNA (DNase treatment) or decrease the number of living cells in the planktonic phase (a second antibiotic) decrease biofilm induction, while chemical inhibitors of cell lysis increase relative biofilm induction and shift the peak to higher antibiotic concentrations. Overall, our results offer experimental evidence linking cell wall synthesis inhibitors, cell lysis, increased eDNA levels, and biofilm formation in E. faecalis while also providing a predictive quantitative model that sheds light on the interplay between cell lysis and antibiotic efficacy in

  1. Standardization of Nomenclature and Causality Assessment in Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Summary of a Clinical Research Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Andrade, Raúl J.; Björnsson, Einar; Day, Christopher P.; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2013-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important but relatively infrequent cause of potentially severe acute and chronic liver injury. The aim of this clinical research workshop was to review and attempt to standardize the current nomenclature and terminology used in DILI research. Because DILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, selected elements of the medical history, laboratory tests, and previous reports were proposed to improve causality assessment. Definitions and diagnostic criteria regarding the onset of DILI, evolution of liver injury, risk factors, and mandatory testing versus optional testing for competing causes were reviewed. In addition, the role of intentional and inadvertent rechallenge, liver histology, and host genetic polymorphisms in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of DILI were reviewed. Consensus was established regarding the need to develop a web-of-knowledge database that provides concise, reliable, and updated information on cases of liver injury due to drugs and herbal and dietary supplements. In addition, the need to develop drug-specific computerized causality assessment methods that are derived from prospectively phenotyped cases was a high priority. Proposed scales for grading DILI severity and assessing the likelihood of an agent causing DILI and written criteria for improving the reliability, accuracy, and reproducibility of expert opinion were reviewed. Finally, the unique challenges of assessing causality in children, patients with underlying liver disease, and subjects taking herbal and dietary supplements were discussed. Conclusion: Workshop participants concluded that multicenter referral networks enrolling patients with suspected DILI according to standardized methodologies are needed. These networks should also collect biological samples that may provide crucial insights into the mechanism(s) of DILI with the ultimate aim of preventing future cases of DILI. PMID:20564754

  2. Idiosyncratic Drug Induced Liver Injury in African-Americans Is Associated With Greater Morbidity and Mortality Compared to Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Naga; Reddy, K Rajender K; Fontana, Robert J; Barnhart, Huiman; Gu, Jiezhun; Hayashi, Paul H; Ahmad, Jawad; Stolz, Andrew; Navarro, Victor; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but potentially serious liver disorder and a major cause of significant liver injury. Limited data exist on racial differences in DILI incidence, presentation, and course. We compared the causative agents, clinical features, and outcomes of DILI among self-described African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites (Caucasians) enrolled in the DILIN Prospective Study. Individuals with definite, highly likely, or probable DILI enrolled between September 2004 and February 2016 were included in this analysis. 144 African-Americans and 841 Caucasian patients met the eligibility criteria. Causal medications varied by race: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole being the most common cause among African-Americans (7.6 vs. 3.6%) followed by methyldopa (4 vs. <1%), phenytoin (5 vs. <1%), isoniazid (4 vs. 4%), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (4.1 vs. 13.4%). The severity of illness, however, tended to be greater in African-Americans than Caucasians as determined by peak mean bilirubin (14.3 vs. 12.8 mg/dl), INR (1.9 vs. 1.6), and DILIN severity score (3.0 vs. 2.6). The frequency of severe cutaneous reactions was significantly higher in African-Americans (2.1 vs. 0.36% in Caucasians, P=0.048). African-Americans also had higher rates of hospitalization (76.7 vs. 57.6%, P<0.001), liver transplantation or liver related death by 6 months (10.2 vs. 5.8%, P=0.02 after controlling for selected covariates), and chronic DILI (24 vs. 16%, P=0.06). The most common DILI causative agents differ between African-Americans and Caucasians. African-Americans are more likely to have severe cutaneous reactions and more severe liver injury leading to worse outcomes, including death and liver transplant.

  3. Drug-induced liver injury is frequently associated with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions: experience from two Australian tertiary hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wendy C; Adler, Nikki R; Graudins, Linda V; Goldblatt, Caitlin; Goh, Michelle S Y; Roberts, Stuart K; Trubiano, Jason A; Aung, Ar Kar

    2018-05-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can be associated with certain cutaneous adverse drug reaction (cADR). To demonstrate the prevalence of DILI in patients with cADRs. Severity and patterns of liver injury, risk factors, causal medications and outcomes are also examined. A retrospective cohort study of patients with cADRs was conducted across two hospitals in Australia. Patients were identified through cross-linkage of multiple databases. One hundred and four patients with cADRs were identified. Of these, 33 (31.7%) had liver injury, representing 50% of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and 30.2% of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Most cases of liver injury (69.7%) were of a cholestatic/mixed pattern with severe disease in 18.2%. No significant risk factors for development of liver injury were noted, but peripheral lymphocytosis may represent a risk in patients with SJS (odds ratio, OR = 6.0, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.8-19.7, P = 0.003). Antimicrobials were the most common class to be implicated in DILI. The median length of inpatient stay was longer in patients with liver injury compared to those without (19 vs 11 days, P = 0.002). The mortality rate in those with liver injury was 15.2% and 9.9% in those without. No patients required liver transplantation. DILI commonly occurs in patients with cADRs and is associated with longer inpatient stay. Patients with SJS/TEN and peripheral lymphocytosis appear to be at higher risk for developing associated liver injury. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Drug-induced mild therapeutic hypothermia obtained by administration of a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 agonist.

    PubMed

    Fosgerau, Keld; Weber, Uno J; Gotfredsen, Jacob W; Jayatissa, Magdalena; Buus, Carsten; Kristensen, Niels B; Vestergaard, Mogens; Teschendorf, Peter; Schneider, Andreas; Hansen, Philip; Raunsø, Jakob; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Videbaek, Charlotte

    2010-10-09

    The use of mechanical/physical devices for applying mild therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven neuroprotective treatment for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest. However, this type of therapy is cumbersome and associated with several side-effects. We investigated the feasibility of using a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist for obtaining drug-induced sustainable mild hypothermia. First, we screened a heterogeneous group of TRPV1 agonists and secondly we tested the hypothermic properties of a selected candidate by dose-response studies. Finally we tested the hypothermic properties in a large animal. The screening was in conscious rats, the dose-response experiments in conscious rats and in cynomologus monkeys, and the finally we tested the hypothermic properties in conscious young cattle (calves with a body weight as an adult human). The investigated TRPV1 agonists were administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Screening: Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), a component of chili pepper, displayed a desirable hypothermic profile with regards to the duration, depth and control in conscious rats. Dose-response experiments: In both rats and cynomologus monkeys DHC caused a dose-dependent and immediate decrease in body temperature. Thus in rats, infusion of DHC at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/kg/h caused a maximal ΔT (°C) as compared to vehicle control of -0.9, -1.5, -2.0, and -4.2 within approximately 1 hour until the 6 hour infusion was stopped. Finally, in calves the intravenous infusion of DHC was able to maintain mild hypothermia with ΔT > -3°C for more than 12 hours. Our data support the hypothesis that infusion of dihydrocapsaicin is a candidate for testing as a primary or adjunct method of inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia.

  5. Use of Epinephrine in Patients with Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis: An Analysis of the Beijing Pharmacovigilance Database

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiansheng; Ma, Xiang; Xing, Yan; Sun, Shusen; Zhang, Hua; Stürmer, Til; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaotong; Tang, Huilin; Jiao, Ligong; Zhai, Suodi

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies assessing the use of epinephrine in drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) in the hospital setting are available. We utilized the Beijing Pharmacovigilance Database (BPD) to evaluate the appropriateness of epinephrine for DIA management. Methods DIA cases collected in the BPD from January 2004 to December 2014 were adjudicated and analyzed for demographics, causative drugs, clinical signs, outcomes, initial treatment, route, dosing, and cardiovascular adverse events (CAE) of epinephrine. Results DIA was primarily caused by antibiotics (38.4%), radiocontrast agents (11.9%), traditional Chinese medicine injections (10.9%), and chemotherapeutic drugs (10.3%). Only 708 (59.5%) patients received epinephrine treatment. Patients who received epinephrine were more likely to experience wheezing (p < 0.001) and respiratory arrest (p < 0.001). Among 518 patients with a complete record of the epinephrine administration route, the percentage of patients receiving it by intramuscular (IM) injection, subcutaneous (SC) injection, intravenous (IV) bolus injection, or IV continuous infusion was 16.9, 31.5, 43.5, and 8.1%, respectively. Among the 427 patients with a record of both the administration route and the dosing, an overdose was more likely with IV bolus (94.1%) in contrast to IM injection (56.6%; p < 0.001) or SC injection (43.7%; p < 0.001). Among the patients analyzed for CAE (n = 349), 17 patients accounted for 19 CAE, and 13 (76.5%) of these patients were overdosed with epinephrine. Conclusion Underuse, inappropriate IV bolus use, and overdosing were the 3 major problems with epinephrine use in DIA in China. Educational training for health care professionals on the appropriate use of epinephrine in managing anaphylactic reactions is suggested. PMID:28505618

  6. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  7. Cytochrome P450 2E1 gene polymorphisms/haplotypes and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaowen; Lv, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Shanshan; Yang, Zhirong; Xia, Yinyin; Tu, Dehua; Deng, Peiyuan; Ma, Yu; Chen, Dafang; Zhan, Siyan

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced hepatitis is associated with drug metabolizing enzymes. No tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) in the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis have been reported. The present study was aimed at exploring the role of tSNPs in CYP2E1 gene in a population-based anti-TB treatment cohort. A nested case-control study was designed. Each hepatitis case was 14 matched with controls by age, gender, treatment history, disease severity and drug dosage. The tSNPs were selected by using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of Han Chinese in Beijing, and detected by using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. Eighty-nine anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis cases and 356 controls were included in this study. 6 tSNPs (rs2031920, rs2070672, rs915908, rs8192775, rs2515641, rs2515644) were genotyped and minor allele frequencies of these tSNPs were 21.9%, 23.0%, 19.1%, 23.6%, 20.8% and 44.4% in the cases and 20.9%, 22.7%, 18.9%, 23.2%, 18.2% and 43.2% in the controls, respectively. No significant difference was observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the 6 tSNPs between case group and control group, and neither of haplotypes in block 1 nor in block 2 was significantly associated with the development of hepatitis. Based on the Chinese anti-TB treatment cohort, we did not find a statistically significant association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. None of the haplotypes showed a significant association with the development of hepatitis in Chinese TB population.

  8. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  9. Autoantibody presentation in drug-induced liver injury and idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis: the influence of human leucocyte antigen alleles.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Camilla; Castiella, Agustin; Gomez-Moreno, Eva M; Otazua, Pedro; López-Nevot, Miguel-Ángel; Zapata, Eva; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Hallal, Hacibe; Moreno-Planas, José M; Prieto, Martin; Andrade, Raúl J; Lucena, M Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Positive autoantibody (AAB) titres are commonly encountered in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and in a proportion of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) patients. The underlying mechanism for selective AAB occurrence in DILI is unknown, but could be associated with variations in immune-associated genes. Hence, we aimed to analyse human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele compositions in DILI with positive (+) and negative (-) AAB titres and in AIH patients. High-resolution genotyping of HLA class I (A, B, C) and II (DRB1, DQB1) loci was performed on 207 DILI and 50 idiopathic AIH patients and compared with 885 healthy Spanish controls. Compared with controls, HLA-B*08:01 [44 vs. 9.7%, P=3.7E-13/corrected P-value (Pc)=1.0E-11], C*07:01 (46 vs. 24%, P=6.4E-04/Pc=0.012), DRB1*03:01 (58 vs. 21.5%, P=5.0E-09/Pc=1.0E-07) and DQB1*02:01 (56 vs. 22%, P=6.8E-08/Pc=9.0E-07) were significantly more frequent in AIH patients. The HLA-A*01:01 frequency was increased in the same population, but did not reach significance after Bonferroni's correction (34 vs. 19%, P=0.02/Pc=0.37). Fifty-eight of 207 DILI patients presented positive titres for at least one AAB (predominantly antinuclear antibody 76% and antismooth muscle antibody 28%). There was a tendency towards higher representation of DRB1*14:01 and DQB1*05:03 in DILI AAB+ compared with DILI AAB- (13.8 vs. 4.0%, P=0.02/Pc=0.5; 13.8 vs. 4.7%, P=0.04/Pc=0.5). The presence of HLA alleles B*08:01, C*07:01, DRB1*03:01, DQB1*02:01 and possibly A*01:01 enhances the risk of AIH (type 1) in Spanish patients. These alleles form part of the ancestral haplotype 8.1. HLA-DRB1*14:01 and DQB1*05:03 could potentially increase the risk of positive AAB (particularly antinuclear antibody) in Spanish DILI patients.

  10. [Localization of upper airway stricture by CT scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during drug-induced sleeping].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji-bo; Hu, Hong-jie; Hou, Tie-ning; Gao, Hang-xiang; He, Jian

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of multi-slice spiral CT scan to localize upper airway stricture in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) during drug-induced sleeping. One hundred and fourteen patients diagnosed as OSAS by polysomnography were included in the study. Multi-slice spiral CT scan covering upper airway was performed at the end of inspiration and clear upper airway images were obtained in waking. After injecting 5 mg of midazolam intravenously slowly in 109 patients, CT scan was performed at apnea and clear upper airway images were obtained in sleeping. Cross-section area and minimal diameter of airway were measured and the parameters were compared under those two states. Upper airway was displayed intuitionisticly by using post-processing techniques. One hundred and nine patients with OSAS finished the examination with a success rate of 100 %. Airway obstruction at retropalatal level was observed in 62 patients, among whom 26 were associated with airway obstruction at retroglossal level, 27 with narrower airway at retroglossal level in sleeping compared with that in waking, and 9 with no significant change of the airway at retroglossal level after sleeping. Narrower airway at retropalatal level in sleeping compared with that in waking was observed in 40 patients, among whom 20 were associated with narrower airway at retroglossal level in sleeping compared with that in waking, 10 with complete airway obstruction at retroglossal level in sleeping, and 7 with no significant change of the airway at both retropalatal and retroglossal levels before and after sleeping. Minimal mean cross-section area of airway at retropalatal level was (72.60 +/-45.15)mm(2) in waking and (8.26 +/-18.16)mm(2) in sleeping; and minimal mean cross-section area of airway at retroglossal level was (133.21 +/-120.36)mm(2)in waking and (16.73 +/-30.21)mm(2) in sleeping (P <0.01). Minimal mean diameter of airway at retropalatal level was (6.91 +/-2.23) mm in waking and (1

  11. A cellular model to study drug-induced liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Application to acetaminophen

    SciTech Connect

    Michaut, Anaïs; Le Guillou, Dounia; Moreau, Caroline

    Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can increase susceptibility to hepatotoxicity induced by some xenobiotics including drugs, but the involved mechanisms are poorly understood. For acetaminophen (APAP), a role of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is suspected since the activity of this enzyme is consistently enhanced during NAFLD. The first aim of our study was to set up a cellular model of NAFLD characterized not only by triglyceride accumulation but also by higher CYP2E1 activity. To this end, human HepaRG cells were incubated for one week with stearic acid or oleic acid, in the presence of different concentrations ofmore » insulin. Although cellular triglycerides and the expression of lipid-responsive genes were similar with both fatty acids, CYP2E1 activity was significantly increased only by stearic acid. CYP2E1 activity was reduced by insulin and this effect was reproduced in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Next, APAP cytotoxicity was assessed in HepaRG cells with or without lipid accretion and CYP2E1 induction. Experiments with a large range of APAP concentrations showed that the loss of ATP and glutathione was almost always greater in the presence of stearic acid. In cells pretreated with the CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole, recovery of ATP was significantly higher in the presence of stearate with low (2.5 mM) or high (20 mM) concentrations of APAP. Levels of APAP-glucuronide were significantly enhanced by insulin. Hence, HepaRG cells can be used as a valuable model of NAFLD to unveil important metabolic and hormonal factors which can increase susceptibility to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent in obese individuals. • NAFLD can favor hepatotoxicity induced by some drugs including acetaminophen (APAP). • A model of NAFLD was set up by using HepaRG cells incubated with stearate or oleate. • Stearate-loaded HepaRG cells presented higher cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2

  12. Transcriptional profiling suggests that Nevirapine and Ritonavir cause drug induced liver injury through distinct mechanisms in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Terelius, Ylva; Figler, Robert A; Marukian, Svetlana; Collado, Maria S; Lawson, Mark J; Mackey, Aaron J; Manka, David; Qualls, Charles W; Blackman, Brett R; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2016-08-05

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI), a major cause of pre- and post-approval failure, is challenging to predict pre-clinically due to varied underlying direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor, are antiviral drugs that cause clinical DILI with different phenotypes via different mechanisms. Assessing DILI in vitro in hepatocyte cultures typically requires drug exposures significantly higher than clinical plasma Cmax concentrations, making clinical interpretations of mechanistic pathway changes challenging. We previously described a system that uses liver-derived hemodynamic blood flow and transport parameters to restore primary human hepatocyte biology, and drug responses at concentrations relevant to in vivo or clinical exposure levels. Using this system, primary hepatocytes from 5 human donors were exposed to concentrations approximating clinical therapeutic and supra-therapeutic levels of Nevirapine (11.3 and 175.0 μM) and Ritonavir (3.5 and 62.4 μM) for 48 h. Whole genome transcriptomics was performed by RNAseq along with functional assays for metabolic activity and function. We observed effects at both doses, but a greater number of genes were differentially expressed with higher probability at the toxic concentrations. At the toxic doses, both drugs showed direct cholestatic potential with Nevirapine increasing bile synthesis and Ritonavir inhibiting bile acid transport. Clear differences in antigen presentation were noted, with marked activation of MHC Class I by Nevirapine and suppression by Ritonavir. This suggests CD8+ T cell involvement for Nevirapine and possibly NK Killer cells for Ritonavir. Both compounds induced several drug metabolizing genes (including CYP2B6, CYP3A4 and UGT1A1), mediated by CAR activation in Nevirapine and PXR in Ritonavir. Unlike Ritonavir, Nevirapine did not increase fatty acid synthesis or activate the respiratory electron chain

  13. Spatial correlation of action potential duration and diastolic dysfunction in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Jung, Bernd A; Lang, Corinna N; Cabrera Lozoya, Rocio; Ziupa, David; Menza, Marius; Relan, Jatin; Franke, Gerlind; Perez Feliz, Stefanie; Koren, Gideon; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Brunner, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Föll, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced dispersion of action potential duration (APD) is a major contributor to long QT syndrome (LQTS)-related arrhythmias. To investigate spatial correlations of regional heterogeneities in cardiac repolarization and mechanical function in LQTS. Female transgenic LQTS type 2 (LQT2; n = 11) and wild-type littermate control (LMC) rabbits (n = 9 without E4031 and n = 10 with E4031) were subjected to phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to assess regional myocardial velocities. In the same rabbits' hearts, monophasic APDs were assessed in corresponding segments. In LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits, APD was longer in all left ventricular segments (P < .01) and APD dispersion was greater than that in LMC rabbits (P < .01). In diastole, peak radial velocities (Vr) were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated compared to LMC rabbits in LV base and mid (LQT2: -3.36 ± 0.4 cm/s, P < .01; E4031-treated: -3.24 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .0001; LMC: -4.42 ± 0.5 cm/s), indicating an impaired diastolic function. Regionally heterogeneous diastolic Vr correlated with APD (LQT2: correlation coefficient [CC] 0.38, P = .01; E4031-treated: CC 0.42, P < .05). Time-to-diastolic peak Vr were prolonged in LQT2 rabbits (LQT2: 196.8 ± 2.9 ms, P < .001; E4031-treated: 199.5 ± 2.2 ms, P < .0001, LMC 183.1 ± 1.5), indicating a prolonged contraction duration. Moreover, in transgenic LQT2 rabbits, diastolic time-to-diastolic peak Vr correlated with APD (CC 0.47, P = .001). In systole, peak Vr were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits (P < .01) but longitudinal velocities or ejection fraction did not differ. Finally, random forest machine learning algorithms enabled a differentiation between LQT2, E4031-treated, and LMC rabbits solely based on "mechanical" magnetic resonance imaging data. The prolongation of APD led to impaired diastolic and systolic function in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits. APD correlated with regional diastolic dysfunction, indicating that LQTS is not purely an

  14. A case-control study of Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) in pediatric population: A proposal for indications.

    PubMed

    Collu, Maria Antonietta; Esteller, Eduard; Lipari, Fiorella; Haspert, Raul; Mulas, Demetrio; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Dwivedi, Raghav C

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether and when Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) changes diagnosis and treatment plan in pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) with the aim to identify specific subgroups of patients for whom DISE should be especially considered. A case-control study of DISE in 150 children with OSAS. Pre-operative OSA were assessed through detailed history, Chervin questionnaire, physical examination and overnight polysomnography. The group of study was divided into three subgroups according to clinical and polysomnographyc criteria: conventional OSAS, disproportional OSAS and persistent OSAS. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway during DISE was scored using Chan classification. Surgical treatment was tailored individually upon the basis of sleep endoscopy findings: performance of any surgery other than tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) was considered as a change of the treatment plan. Cases and controls were compared considering presence and absence of DISE-directed extra surgery, respectively. 150 patients with mean age (SD) 56.09 (23.94) months and mean apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5.79 (6.52) underwent DISE. The conventional subgroup represented the 58.67% of the sample (n = 88), while the disproportional one counted for the 26.67% (n = 40), and the persistent one for 14.66% (n = 22) of the population. Sleep endoscopy changed the surgical plan in 4.5% of conventional OSAS, 17.5% of disproportional OSAS and 72.7% of persistent OSAS (p < 0.005). Overall, a change of the treatment plan operated by DISE was associated with a non-conventional OSAS status (OR = 6; 95% CI = 1.6-26.4). DISE is a safe procedure in children suffering from OSAS, and, despite being unnecessary in conventional cases of OSA, DISE should be considered not only in syndromic children, as previously demonstrated, but also in the general non-syndromic pediatric population, in the case of non-conventional OSA patients, and in children with persistent

  15. Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species.

    PubMed

    Fourches, Denis; Barnes, Julie C; Day, Nicola C; Bradley, Paul; Reed, Jane Z; Tropsha, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is one of the main causes of drug attrition. The ability to predict the liver effects of drug candidates from their chemical structures is critical to help guide experimental drug discovery projects toward safer medicines. In this study, we have compiled a data set of 951 compounds reported to produce a wide range of effects in the liver in different species, comprising humans, rodents, and nonrodents. The liver effects for this data set were obtained as assertional metadata, generated from MEDLINE abstracts using a unique combination of lexical and linguistic methods and ontological rules. We have analyzed this data set using conventional cheminformatics approaches and addressed several questions pertaining to cross-species concordance of liver effects, chemical determinants of liver effects in humans, and the prediction of whether a given compound is likely to cause a liver effect in humans. We found that the concordance of liver effects was relatively low (ca. 39-44%) between different species, raising the possibility that species specificity could depend on specific features of chemical structure. Compounds were clustered by their chemical similarity, and similar compounds were examined for the expected similarity of their species-dependent liver effect profiles. In most cases, similar profiles were observed for members of the same cluster, but some compounds appeared as outliers. The outliers were the subject of focused assertion regeneration from MEDLINE as well as other data sources. In some cases, additional biological assertions were identified, which were in line with expectations based on compounds' chemical similarities. The assertions were further converted to binary annotations of underlying chemicals (i.e., liver effect vs no liver effect), and binary quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were generated to predict whether a compound would be expected to produce liver effects in humans. Despite the

  16. Risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for underlying inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Remzi, Feza H; Nutter, Benjamin; Fazio, Victor W; Shen, Bo

    2009-10-01

    Liver involvement is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the frequency and the significance of liver function test (LFT) abnormalities in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for underlying IBD have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and to identify risk factors for abnormal LFTs in patients with IPAA and underlying IBD. All patients were identified from our prospectively maintained Pouchitis Database between 2002 and 2008. Abnormal LFTs were classified as the following: (i) any abnormal elevation of transaminases, and/or alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and/or bilirubin; (ii) hepatitis, if there was more than twice the elevation of transaminases; and (iii) cholestatic, if there was more than 1.5 times elevation of ALP. Clinical, endoscopic, and histological variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models for evaluating risk for abnormal LFTs. A total of 545 IPAA patients with underlying IBD were identified from the database, of which 373 patients who had LFTs done after their pouch surgery were included. This included 346 patients with ulcerative colitis, 25 with indeterminate colitis, and 2 with Crohn's colitis before surgery. Their mean age was 45.9+/-13.8 years. A total of 65 patients (17.4%) (40 men, 25 women, median age: 47 years) had abnormal LFTs. Of the patients, 52 (13.9%) had abnormal transaminases, whereas 15 (4%) were classified as having hepatitis. Thirty-five (9.4%) patients had an abnormal ALP level, with 18 (4.8%) classified as cholestatic. The most common cause of an abnormal LFT was transient elevation in 32 (49.2%) patients, followed by fatty liver (fatty change on imaging with body mass index (BMI) > or =25 kg/m(2) in the absence of other causes, including alcohol abuse and drug-induced hepatitis) in 10 (15.4%), drug-induced abnormal LFTs in 7 (10.7%), and chronic hepatitis B or C in 6 (9.2%). Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was responsible for abnormal

  17. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of NAT2, CYP2E1 and GST enzymes and the occurrence of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis in Brazilian TB patients.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Morato, Renata Gomes; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Muniz, Ligia Mayumi Kitada; Moreira, Adriana da Silva Rezende; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho Queiroz; Suffys, Philip Noel; Miranda, Antonio Basilio de; Santos, Adalberto Rezende

    2011-09-01

    Isoniazid (INH), one of the most important drugs used in antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment, is also the major drug involved in hepatotoxicity. Differences in INH-induced toxicity have been attributed to genetic variability at several loci, such as NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1, that code for drug-metabolising enzymes. Our goal was to examine the polymorphisms in these enzymes as susceptibility factors to anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis in Brazilian individuals. In a case-control design, 167 unrelated active tuberculosis patients from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of anti-TB drug-induced acute hepatitis (cases with an increase to 3 times the upper limit of normal serum transaminases and symptoms of hepatitis) and patients with no evidence of anti-TB hepatic side effects (controls) were genotyped for NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. Slow acetylators had a higher incidence of hepatitis than intermediate/rapid acetylators [22% (18/82) vs. 9.8% (6/61), odds ratio (OR), 2.86, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-7.68, p = 0.04). Logistic regression showed that slow acetylation status was the only independent risk factor (OR 3.59, 95% CI, 2.53-4.64, p = 0.02) for the occurrence of anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis during anti-TB treatment with INH-containing schemes in Brazilian individuals.

  1. Screening drug-induced arrhythmia [corrected] using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and low-impedance microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Enrique G; Liang, Ping; Lan, Feng; Sanchez-Freire, Verónica; Simmons, Chelsey; Gong, Tingyu; Sharma, Arun; Burridge, Paul W; Patlolla, Bhagat; Lee, Andrew S; Wu, Haodi; Beygui, Ramin E; Wu, Sean M; Robbins, Robert C; Bers, Donald M; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-09-10

    Drug-induced arrhythmia is one of the most common causes of drug development failure and withdrawal from market. This study tested whether human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) combined with a low-impedance microelectrode array (MEA) system could improve on industry-standard preclinical cardiotoxicity screening methods, identify the effects of well-characterized drugs, and elucidate underlying risk factors for drug-induced arrhythmia. hiPSC-CMs may be advantageous over immortalized cell lines because they possess similar functional characteristics as primary human cardiomyocytes and can be generated in unlimited quantities. Pharmacological responses of beating embryoid bodies exposed to a comprehensive panel of drugs at 65 to 95 days postinduction were determined. Responses of hiPSC-CMs to drugs were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the reported drug effects in literature. Torsadogenic hERG blockers, such as sotalol and quinidine, produced statistically and physiologically significant effects, consistent with patch-clamp studies, on human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes hESC-CMs. False-negative and false-positive hERG blockers were identified accurately. Consistent with published studies using animal models, early afterdepolarizations and ectopic beats were observed in 33% and 40% of embryoid bodies treated with sotalol and quinidine, respectively, compared with negligible early afterdepolarizations and ectopic beats in untreated controls. We found that drug-induced arrhythmias can be recapitulated in hiPSC-CMs and documented with low impedance MEA. Our data indicate that the MEA/hiPSC-CM assay is a sensitive, robust, and efficient platform for testing drug effectiveness and for arrhythmia screening. This system may hold great potential for reducing drug development costs and may provide significant advantages over current industry standard assays that use immortalized cell lines or animal models.

  2. Preventing Unnecessary Costs of Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulin, Mathieu; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2016-01-01

    The costs of drug-induced hypoglycemia are a critical but often neglected component of value-based arguments to reduce tight glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. An economic (decision-tree) analysis compared rates, costs, quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained associated with mild, moderate and severe hypoglycemic events for 6 glucose-lowering medication classes in type 2 diabetic adults aged 65-79 versus those 80 years and older. The national U.S. (Center for Medicare Services) and Canadian public health payer perspectives were adopted. Incidence rates of drug-induced hypoglycemia were the highest for basal insulin and sulfonylureas: 8.64 and 4.32 events per person-year in 65-79 year olds, and 12.06 and 6.03 events per person-year for 80 years and older. In both the U.S. and Canada, metformin dominated sulfonylureas, basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide1 receptor agonists. Relative to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in the U.S. and dominated sulfonylureas in Canada for adults 80 years and older. Relative to sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase4 inhibitors were cost-effective for adults 80 years and older in both countries, and for 65-79 year olds in Canada. Annual costs of hypoglycemia for older adults attaining very tight glycemic control with the use of insulin or sulfonylureas were estimated at U.S.$509,214,473 in the U.S. and CAN$65,497,849 in Canada. Optimizing drug therapy for older type 2 diabetic adults through the avoidance of drug-induced hypoglycemia will dramatically improve patient health while also generating millions of dollars by saving unnecessary medical costs.

  3. The abdominal skin of female Sprague-Dawley rats is more sensitive than the back skin to drug-induced phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Kazuhiro; Yasuno, Hironobu; Sakai, Yumi; Harada, Yumiko; Shimizu, Fumi; Miyamoto, Yumiko; Takamatsu, Yuki; Miyamoto, Makoto; Sato, Keiichiro

    2017-11-01

    In vivo phototoxicity studies are important to predict drug-induced phototoxicity in humans; however, a standard methodology has not established. To determine differences in sensitivity to drug-induced phototoxicity among various skin sites, we evaluated phototoxic reactions in the back and abdominal skin of female Sprague-Dawley rats orally dosed with phototoxic drugs (pirfenidone, 8-methoxysoraren, doxycycline, and lomefloxacin) or a non-phototoxic drug (gatifloxacin) followed by solar-simulated light irradiation comprising 18J/cm 2 ultraviolet A. Tissue reactions were evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, and tissue concentrations of pirfenidone, doxycycline, and lomefloxacin were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the thicknesses of the skin layers at both sites were measured in drug-naïve rats. The abdominal skin showed more severe reactions to all phototoxic drugs than the back skin, whereas the minimal erythema dose in drug-naïve rats and skin concentrations of each drug were comparable between the sites. Furthermore, histopathological lesions and γ-H2AX-positive cells in the abdominal skin were detected in deeper layers than in the back skin. The stratum corneum and dermis in the abdominal skin were significantly thinner than in the back skin, indicating a difference in the depth of light penetration and potentially contributing to the site differences observed in sensitivity to phototoxicity. Gatifloxacin did not induce any phototoxic reactions at either site. In conclusion, the abdominal skin is more sensitive to drug-induced phototoxicity than the back skin and may represent a preferable site for irradiation in this rat phototoxicity model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Transcriptional Regulatory Network Containing Nuclear Receptors and Long Noncoding RNAs Controls Basal and Drug-Induced Expression of Cytochrome P450s in HepaRG Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liming; Bao, Yifan; Piekos, Stephanie C; Zhu, Kexin; Zhang, Lirong; Zhong, Xiao-Bo

    2018-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are responsible for metabolizing drugs. Expression of P450s can directly affect drug metabolism, resulting in various outcomes in therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects. Several nuclear receptors are transcription factors that can regulate expression of P450s at both basal and drug-induced levels. Some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) near a transcription factor are found to participate in the regulatory functions of the transcription factors. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a transcriptional regulatory network containing nuclear receptors and lncRNAs controlling both basal and drug-induced expression of P450s in HepaRG cells. Small interfering RNAs or small hairpin RNAs were applied to knock down four nuclear receptors [hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 α (HNF1 α ), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4 α ), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)] as well as two lncRNAs [HNF1 α antisense RNA 1 (HNF1 α -AS1) and HNF4 α antisense RNA 1 (HNF4 α -AS1)] in HepaRG cells with or without treatment of phenobarbital or rifampicin. Expression of eight P450 enzymes was examined in both basal and drug-induced levels. CAR and PXR mainly regulated expression of specific P450s. HNF1 α and HNF4 α affected expression of a wide range of P450s as well as other transcription factors. HNF1 α and HNF4 α controlled the expression of their neighborhood lncRNAs, HNF1 α -AS1 and HNF4 α -AS1, respectively. HNF1 α -AS1 and HNF4 α -AS1 was also involved in the regulation of P450s and transcription factors in diverse manners. Altogether, our study concludes that a transcription regulatory network containing the nuclear receptors and lncRNAs controls both basal and drug-induced expression of P450s in HepaRG cells. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. A long-term three dimensional liver co-culture system for improved prediction of clinically relevant drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska; Applegate, Dawn

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitromore » three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver

  6. Identification of abnormal accident patterns at intersections

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations based on the Identification of Abnormal Accident Patterns at Intersections. This project used a statistically valid sampling method to determine whether a specific intersection has an abnormally h...

  7. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...

  8. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  9. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient abnormal Q waves during exercise electrocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, F F; Zafari, A M

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia during exercise electrocardiography is usually manifested by ST segment depression or elevation. Transient abnormal Q waves are rare, as Q waves indicate an old myocardial infarction. The case of a patient with exercise induced transient abnormal Q waves is reported. The potential mechanisms involved in the development of such an abnormality and its clinical implications are discussed. PMID:14676264

  11. Cardiac Abnormalities in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Mookadam, Farouk; Smith, Travis; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Moustafa, Sherif E; Monico, Carla G.; Lieske, John C.; Milliner, Dawn S.

    2018-01-01

    Background In patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH), oxalate overproduction can result in recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, which in some cases results in a progressive decline in renal function, oxalate retention, and systemic oxalosis involving bone, retina, arterial media, peripheral nerves, skin, and heart. Oxalosis involving the myocardium or conduction system can potentially lead to heart failure and fatal arrhythmias. Methods and Results A retrospective review of our institution’s database was conducted for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PH between 1/1948 and 1/2006 (n=103). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography were used to identify cardiac abnormalities. Ninety-three patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 58% were male. Mean follow-up was 11.9 (median 8.8) years. In 38 patients who received an ECG or echocardiography, 31 were found to have any cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac findings correlated with decline in renal function. Conclusions Our data suggests that physicians caring for patients with PH should pay close attention to cardiac status, especially if renal function is impaired. PMID:20921818

  12. Activity of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its soluble type I receptor (p55TNF-R) in some drug-induced cutaneous reactions.

    PubMed

    Chodorowska, Grazyna; Czelej, Dorota; Niewiedzioł, Marta

    2003-01-01

    Plasma concentration of TNF-alpha and its type I receptor (p55TNF-R) was examined in 126 patients with drug-induced skin reactions using immunoenzymatic ELISA method. Patients were subdivided into 6 groups: maculopapular eruptions (ME), erythema multiforme (EM), erythema multiforme coexisting with erythema nodosum (EMN), hyperergic vasculitis (HV), Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). In the acute clinical stage highly significant (p<0.001) or significant (p<0.01) elevation of mean plasma concentrations of the cytokine and its receptor was found in all examined groups in comparison with the control. Clearing of clinical symptoms was connected with considerable decrease (p<0.001, p<0.01) of mean plasma levels of the both proteins in comparison with the before treatment values. TNF-alpha concentrations still remained significantly more elevated than those observed in the control. The results indicate that plasma activity of TNF-alpha and its p55 receptor change with the clinical course of the examined drug-induced skin reactions, which suggests the partake of both proteins in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  13. Data mining reveals a network of early-response genes as a consensus signature of drug-induced in vitro and in vivo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J D; Berntenis, N; Roth, A; Ebeling, M

    2014-06-01

    Gene signatures of drug-induced toxicity are of broad interest, but they are often identified from small-scale, single-time point experiments, and are therefore of limited applicability. To address this issue, we performed multivariate analysis of gene expression, cell-based assays, and histopathological data in the TG-GATEs (Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation system) database. Data mining highlights four genes-EGR1, ATF3, GDF15 and FGF21-that are induced 2 h after drug administration in human and rat primary hepatocytes poised to eventually undergo cytotoxicity-induced cell death. Modelling and simulation reveals that these early stress-response genes form a functional network with evolutionarily conserved structure and intrinsic dynamics. This is underlined by the fact that early induction of this network in vivo predicts drug-induced liver and kidney pathology with high accuracy. Our findings demonstrate the value of early gene-expression signatures in predicting and understanding compound-induced toxicity. The identified network can empower first-line tests that reduce animal use and costs of safety evaluation.

  14. [Effect of electroacupuncture at Hegu (LI 4) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) on short-term adverse effects of drug-induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Yan; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Jiang; He, Zhi-Ping; Yan, Chen

    2007-02-01

    To search for a therapeutic method for alleviating the short-term adverse effect of drug-induced abortion. Ninety cases of early pregnancy were divided into 3 groups randomly. Control group were treated with medicine, electroacupuncture group I with electroacupuncture at both Hegu (LI 4) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) simultaneously within 30-60 min after the medicine was given, and electroacupuncture group II with electroacupuncture at Hegu (LI 4) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) successively within 30-60 min after the medicine was administrated. After treatment, the short-term adverse effect in the electroacupuncture groups was more significantly alleviated as compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and alleviative degree of abdominal pain in the electroacupuncture group II was better than that in the electroacupuncture group I . Electroacupuncture at Hegu (LI 4) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) can alleviate short-term adverse effects of drug-induced abortion, and first electroacupuncture at Hegu (LI 4) followed by Sanyinjiao (SP 6) can more significantly alleviate abdominal pain.

  15. Establishment of a novel experimental protocol for drug-induced seizure liability screening based on a locomotor activity assay in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Naoteru; Deguchi, Jiro; Yamashita, Akihito; Miyawaki, Izuru; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    As drug-induced seizures have severe impact on drug development, evaluating seizure induction potential of candidate drugs at the early stages of drug discovery is important. A novel assay system using zebrafish has attracted interest as a high throughput toxicological in vivo assay system, and we tried to establish an experimental method for drug-induced seizure liability on the basis of locomotor activity in zebrafish. We monitored locomotor activity at high-speed movement (> 20 mm/sec) for 60 min immediately after exposure, and assessed seizure liability potential in some drugs using locomotor activity. However this experimental procedure was not sufficient for predicting seizures because the potential of several drugs with demonstrated seizure potential in mammals was not detected. We, therefore, added other parameters for locomotor activity such as extending exposure time or conducting flashlight stimulation (10 Hz) which is a known seizure induction stimulus, and these additional parameters improved seizure potential detection in some drugs. The validation study using the improved methodology was used to assess 52 commercially available drugs, and the prediction rate was approximately 70%. The experimental protocol established in this present study is considered useful for seizure potential screening during early stages of drug discovery.

  16. Causality Assessment in Drug-Induced Liver Injury Using a Structured Expert Opinion Process: Comparison to the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method

    PubMed Central

    Rockey, Don C.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Rochon, James; Freston, James; Chalasani, Naga; Bonacini, Maurizio; Fontana, Robert J.; Hayashi, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion and is therefore challenging. The US Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) prospective study used two methods to assess DILI causality: a structured expert opinion process and the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM). Causality assessment focused on detailed clinical and laboratory data from patients with suspected DILI. The adjudication process used standardized numerical and descriptive definitions and scored cases as definite, highly likely, probable, possible, or unlikely. Results of the structured expert opinion procedure were compared with those derived by the RUCAM approach. Among 250 patients with suspected DILI, the expert opinion adjudication process scored 78 patients (31%) as definite, 102 (41%) as highly likely, 37 (15%) as probable, 25 (10%) as possible, and 8 (3%) as unlikely. Among 187 enrollees who had received a single implicated drug, initial complete agreement was reached for 50 (27%) with the expert opinion process and for 34 (19%) with a five-category RUCAM scale (P = 0.08), and the two methods demonstrated a modest correlation with each other (Spearman's r = 0.42, P = 0.0001). Importantly, the RUCAM approach substantially shifted the causality likelihood toward lower probabilities in comparison with the DILIN expert opinion process. Conclusion The structured DILIN expert opinion process produced higher agreement rates and likelihood scores than RUCAM in assessing causality, but there was still considerable interobserver variability in both. Accordingly, a more objective, reliable, and reproducible means of assessing DILI causality is still needed. PMID:20512999

  17. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  18. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  19. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal...

  20. Drug-Induced Trafficking of P-Glycoprotein in Human Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells as Demonstrated by Exposure to Mitomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Hoffmann, Andrea; Maalouf, Katia; Buettner, Manuela; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Alms, Dana; Römermann, Kerstin; Naim, Hassan Y.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1/MDR1) is a major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting the penetration of various compounds. In other tissues, trafficking of Pgp from subcellular stores to the cell surface has been demonstrated and may constitute a rapid way of the cell to respond to toxic compounds by functional membrane insertion of the transporter. It is not known whether drug-induced Pgp trafficking also occurs in brain capillary endothelial cells that form the BBB. In this study, trafficking of Pgp was investigated in human brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) that were stably transfected with a doxycycline-inducible MDR1-EGFP fusion plasmid. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells exhibited a 15-fold increase in Pgp-EGFP fusion protein expression, which was associated with an increased efflux of the Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). The chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was used to study drug-induced trafficking of Pgp. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of single hCMEC/D3-MDR1-EGFP cells revealed that Pgp redistribution from intracellular pools to the cell surface occurred within 2 h of MMC exposure. Pgp-EGFP exhibited a punctuate pattern at the cell surface compatible with concentrated regions of the fusion protein in membrane microdomains, i.e., lipid rafts, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis of biotinylated cell surface proteins in Lubrol-resistant membranes. MMC exposure also increased the functionality of Pgp as assessed in three functional assays with Pgp substrates (Rho123, eFluxx-ID Gold, calcein-AM). However, this increase occurred with some delay after the increased Pgp expression and coincided with the release of Pgp from the Lubrol-resistant membrane complexes. Disrupting rafts by depleting the membrane of cholesterol increased the functionality of Pgp. Our data present the first direct evidence of drug-induced Pgp trafficking at the human BBB and indicate that Pgp has to be released from lipid

  1. Drug-induced trafficking of p-glycoprotein in human brain capillary endothelial cells as demonstrated by exposure to mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Hoffmann, Andrea; Maalouf, Katia; Buettner, Manuela; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Alms, Dana; Römermann, Kerstin; Naim, Hassan Y; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1/MDR1) is a major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting the penetration of various compounds. In other tissues, trafficking of Pgp from subcellular stores to the cell surface has been demonstrated and may constitute a rapid way of the cell to respond to toxic compounds by functional membrane insertion of the transporter. It is not known whether drug-induced Pgp trafficking also occurs in brain capillary endothelial cells that form the BBB. In this study, trafficking of Pgp was investigated in human brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) that were stably transfected with a doxycycline-inducible MDR1-EGFP fusion plasmid. In the presence of doxycycline, these cells exhibited a 15-fold increase in Pgp-EGFP fusion protein expression, which was associated with an increased efflux of the Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). The chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C (MMC) was used to study drug-induced trafficking of Pgp. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of single hCMEC/D3-MDR1-EGFP cells revealed that Pgp redistribution from intracellular pools to the cell surface occurred within 2 h of MMC exposure. Pgp-EGFP exhibited a punctuate pattern at the cell surface compatible with concentrated regions of the fusion protein in membrane microdomains, i.e., lipid rafts, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis of biotinylated cell surface proteins in Lubrol-resistant membranes. MMC exposure also increased the functionality of Pgp as assessed in three functional assays with Pgp substrates (Rho123, eFluxx-ID Gold, calcein-AM). However, this increase occurred with some delay after the increased Pgp expression and coincided with the release of Pgp from the Lubrol-resistant membrane complexes. Disrupting rafts by depleting the membrane of cholesterol increased the functionality of Pgp. Our data present the first direct evidence of drug-induced Pgp trafficking at the human BBB and indicate that Pgp has to be released from lipid

  2. Risk of Acute Liver Failure in Patients With Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Evaluation of Hy's Law and a New Prognostic Model.

    PubMed

    Lo Re, Vincent; Haynes, Kevin; Forde, Kimberly A; Goldberg, David S; Lewis, James D; Carbonari, Dena M; Leidl, Kimberly B F; Reddy, K Rajender; Nezamzadeh, Melissa S; Roy, Jason; Sha, Daohang; Marks, Amy R; De Boer, Jolanda; Schneider, Jennifer L; Strom, Brian L; Corley, Douglas A

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated the ability of laboratory tests to predict risk of acute liver failure (ALF) among patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to develop a highly sensitive model to identify DILI patients at increased risk of ALF. We compared its performance with that of Hy's Law, which predicts severity of DILI based on levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and validated the model in a separate sample. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 15,353 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members diagnosed with DILI from 2004 through 2010, liver aminotransferase levels above the upper limit of normal, and no pre-existing liver disease. Thirty ALF events were confirmed by medical record review. Logistic regression was used to develop prognostic models for ALF based on laboratory results measured at DILI diagnosis. External validation was performed in a sample of 76 patients with DILI at the University of Pennsylvania. Hy's Law identified patients that developed ALF with a high level of specificity (0.92) and negative predictive value (0.99), but low level of sensitivity (0.68) and positive predictive value (0.02). The model we developed, comprising data on platelet count and total bilirubin level, identified patients with ALF with a C statistic of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.96) and enabled calculation of a risk score (Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity ALF Score). We found a cut-off score that identified patients at high risk patients for ALF with a sensitivity value of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.71-0.99) and a specificity value of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75-0.77). This cut-off score identified patients at high risk for ALF with a high level of sensitivity (0.89; 95% CI, 0.52-1.00) in the validation analysis. Hy's Law identifies patients with DILI at high risk for ALF with low sensitivity but high specificity. We developed a model (the Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity ALF Score) based on platelet count and

  3. Technique and Preliminary Analysis of Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy With Online Polygraphic Cardiorespiratory Monitoring in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Riccardo; Baiardi, Simone; Mondini, Susanna; Cerritelli, Luca; Piccin, Ottavio; Scaramuzzino, Giuseppe; Milano, Francesca; Melotti, Maria Rita; Mordini, Francesco; Pirodda, Antonio; Cirignotta, Fabio; Sorrenti, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy is a diagnostic technique that allows dynamic evaluation of the upper airway during artificial sleep. The lack of a standardized procedure and the difficulties associated with direct visual detection of obstructive events result in poor intraobserver and interobserver reliability, especially when otolaryngology surgeons not experienced in the technique are involved. To describe a drug-induced sleep endoscopy technique implemented with simultaneous polygraphic monitoring of cardiorespiratory parameters (DISE-PG) in patients with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and discuss the technique's possible advantages compared with the standard procedure. This prospective cohort study included 50 consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome who underwent DISE-PG from March 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014. A standard protocol was adopted, and all the procedures were carried out in an operation room by an experienced otolaryngology surgeon under the supervision of an anesthesiologist. Endoscopic and polygraphic obstructive respiratory events were analyzed offline in a double-blind setting and randomized order. The feasibility and safety of the DISE-PG technique, as well as its sensitivity in detecting respiratory events compared with that of the standard drug-induced sleep endoscopy procedure. All 50 patients (43 men and 7 women; mean [SD] age, 51.1 [12.1] years) underwent DISE-PG without technical problems or patient difficulties regarding the procedure. As expected, polygraphic scoring was more sensitive than endoscopic scoring in identifying obstructive events (mean [SD] total events, 13.3 [6.8] vs 5.3 [3.6]; mean [SD] difference, 8.8 [5.6]; 95% CI, 7.3 to 10.4; Cohen d, -1.5). This difference was most pronounced in patients with a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at baseline (mean [SD] difference for AHI >30, 27.1% [31.0%]; 95% CI, -36.2% to 90.4%; Cohen d, 0.2; for AH I >40, 76.0% [35.5%]; 95% CI, 4.6% to 147.4%; Cohen d

  4. Technique and Preliminary Analysis of Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy With Online Polygraphic Cardiorespiratory Monitoring in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Riccardo; Mondini, Susanna; Cerritelli, Luca; Piccin, Ottavio; Scaramuzzino, Giuseppe; Milano, Francesca; Melotti, Maria Rita; Mordini, Francesco; Pirodda, Antonio; Cirignotta, Fabio; Sorrenti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Importance Drug-induced sleep endoscopy is a diagnostic technique that allows dynamic evaluation of the upper airway during artificial sleep. The lack of a standardized procedure and the difficulties associated with direct visual detection of obstructive events result in poor intraobserver and interobserver reliability, especially when otolaryngology surgeons not experienced in the technique are involved. Objectives To describe a drug-induced sleep endoscopy technique implemented with simultaneous polygraphic monitoring of cardiorespiratory parameters (DISE-PG) in patients with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and discuss the technique’s possible advantages compared with the standard procedure. Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective cohort study included 50 consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome who underwent DISE-PG from March 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014. A standard protocol was adopted, and all the procedures were carried out in an operation room by an experienced otolaryngology surgeon under the supervision of an anesthesiologist. Endoscopic and polygraphic obstructive respiratory events were analyzed offline in a double-blind setting and randomized order. Main Outcomes and Measures The feasibility and safety of the DISE-PG technique, as well as its sensitivity in detecting respiratory events compared with that of the standard drug-induced sleep endoscopy procedure. Results All 50 patients (43 men and 7 women; mean [SD] age, 51.1 [12.1] years) underwent DISE-PG without technical problems or patient difficulties regarding the procedure. As expected, polygraphic scoring was more sensitive than endoscopic scoring in identifying obstructive events (mean [SD] total events, 13.3 [6.8] vs 5.3 [3.6]; mean [SD] difference, 8.8 [5.6]; 95% CI, 7.3 to 10.4; Cohen d, –1.5). This difference was most pronounced in patients with a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at baseline (mean [SD] difference for AHI >30, 27.1% [31.0%]; 95

  5. A Framework of Knowledge Integration and Discovery for Supporting Pharmacogenomics Target Predication of Adverse Drug Events: A Case Study of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Qian; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-driven text mining is becoming an important research area for identifying pharmacogenomics target genes. However, few of such studies have been focused on the pharmacogenomics targets of adverse drug events (ADEs). The objective of the present study is to build a framework of knowledge integration and discovery that aims to support pharmacogenomics target predication of ADEs. We integrate a semantically annotated literature corpus Semantic MEDLINE with a semantically coded ADE knowledgebase known as ADEpedia using a semantic web based framework. We developed a knowledge discovery approach combining a network analysis of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and a gene functional classification approach. We performed a case study of drug-induced long QT syndrome for demonstrating the usefulness of the framework in predicting potential pharmacogenomics targets of ADEs.

  6. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  7. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D

    2011-12-07

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

  9. Early-Life Experience Decreases Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Morphine CPP in Adulthood via Microglial-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

  10. Drug induced sleep endoscopy: its role in evaluation of the upper airway obstruction and patient selection for surgical and non-surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Vito, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders cause obstruction of the upper airway which can be alleviated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, oral devices or surgical intervention. Non-surgical treatment modalities are not always accepted by patients and in order to attain successful surgical outcomes, evaluation of the upper airway is necessary to carefully select the patients who would benefit from surgery. There are numerous techniques available to assess the upper airway obstruction and these include imaging, acoustic analysis, pressure transducer recording and endoscopic evaluation. It is essential to note that the nocturnal obstructive upper airway has limited muscle control compared to the tone of the upper airway lumen during wakefulness. Thus, if one were to attempt to identify the anatomical segments contributing to upper airway obstruction in sleep related breathing disorders; it must be borne in mind that evaluation of the airway must be performed if possible when the patient is awake and asleep albeit during drug induced sleep. This fact as such limits the use of imaging techniques for the purpose. Drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) was pioneered at Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London in 1990 and initially introduced as sleep nasendoscopy. The nomenclature and the technique has been modified by various Institutions but the core value of this evaluation technique remains similar and extremely useful for identifying the anatomical segment responsible for obstructing the upper airway during sleep in patients with sleep related breathing disorders. There have been numerous controversies that have surrounded this technique but over the last two decades most of these have been addressed and it now remains in the forefront of methods of evaluating the upper airway obstruction. A variety of sedative agents and different grading systems have been described and efforts to unify various aspects of the technique have been made. This

  11. Application of optical action potentials in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes to predict drug-induced cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Lu, H R; Hortigon-Vinagre, M P; Zamora, V; Kopljar, I; De Bondt, A; Gallacher, D J; Smith, G

    2017-09-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) are emerging as new and human-relevant source in vitro model for cardiac safety assessment that allow us to investigate a set of 20 reference drugs for predicting cardiac arrhythmogenic liability using optical action potential (oAP) assay. Here, we describe our examination of the oAP measurement using a voltage sensitive dye (Di-4-ANEPPS) to predict adverse compound effects using hiPS-CMs and 20 cardioactive reference compounds. Fluorescence signals were digitized at 10kHz and the records subsequently analyzed off-line. Cells were exposed to 30min incubation to vehicle or compound (n=5/dose, 4 doses/compound) that were blinded to the investigating laboratory. Action potential parameters were measured, including rise time (T rise ) of the optical action potential duration (oAPD). Significant effects on oAPD were sensitively detected with 11 QT-prolonging drugs, while oAPD shortening was observed with I Ca -antagonists, I Kr -activator or ATP-sensitive K + channel (K ATP )-opener. Additionally, the assay detected varied effects induced by 6 different sodium channel blockers. The detection threshold for these drug effects was at or below the published values of free effective therapeutic plasma levels or effective concentrations by other studies. The results of this blinded study indicate that OAP is a sensitive method to accurately detect drug-induced effects (i.e., duration/QT-prolongation, shortening, beat rate, and incidence of early after depolarizations) in hiPS-CMs; therefore, this technique will potentially be useful in predicting drug-induced arrhythmogenic liabilities in early de-risking within the drug discovery phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro screening of 50 highly prescribed drugs for thiol adduct formation--comparison of potential for drug-induced toxicity and extent of adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jinping; Ruan, Qian; He, Bing; Zhu, Mingshe; Shyu, Wen C; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2009-04-01

    Reactive metabolite formation has been associated with drug-induced liver, skin, and hematopoietic toxicity of many drugs that has resulted in serious clinical toxicity, leading to clinical development failure, black box warnings, or, in some cases, withdrawal from the market. In vitro and in vivo screening for reactive metabolite formation has been proposed and widely adopted in the pharmaceutical industry with the aim of minimizing the property and thus the risk of drug-induced toxicity (DIT). One of the most common screening methods is in vitro thiol trapping of reactive metabolites. Although it is well-documented that many hepatotoxins form thiol adducts, there is no literature describing the adduct formation potential of safer drugs that are widely used. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the thiol adduct formation potential of 50 drugs (10 associated with DIT and 40 not associated) and document apparent differences in adduct formation between toxic and safer drugs. Dansyl glutathione was used as a trapping agent to aid the quantitation of adducts following in vitro incubation of drugs with human liver microsomes in the presence and absence of NADPH. Metabolic turnover of these drugs was also monitored by LC/UV. Overall, 15 out of the 50 drugs screened formed detectable levels of thiol adducts. There were general trends toward more positive findings in the DIT group vs the non-DIT group. These trends became more marked when the relative amount of thiol adducts was taken into account and improved further when dose and total daily reactive metabolite burdens were considered. In conclusion, there appears to be a general trend between the extent of thiol adduct formation and the potential for DIT, which would support the preclinical measurement and minimization of the property through screening of thiol adduct formation as part of an overall discovery optimization paradigm.

  13. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy with target-controlled infusion using propofol and monitored depth of sedation to determine treatment strategies in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Clemens; Fthenakis, Phillippe; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Berger, Sebastian; Hofauer, Benedikt; Hohenhorst, Winfried; Kochs, Eberhard F; Wagner, Klaus J; Edenharter, Guenther M

    2017-09-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) has become an important diagnostic examination tool in the treatment decision process for surgical therapies in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Currently, there is a variety of regimes for the performance of DISE, which renders comparison and assessment across results difficult. It remains unclear how the different regimes influence the findings of the examination and the resulting conclusions and treatment recommendations. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between increasing levels of sedation (i.e., light, medium, and deep) induced by propofol using a target-controlled infusion (TCI) pump, with the obstruction patterns at the levels of the velum, oropharynx, tongue base, and epiglottis (i.e., VOTE classification). A second goal was the establishment of a sufficient sedation level to enable a reliable decision regarding treatment recommendations. Forty-three patients with OSA underwent a DISE procedure using propofol TCI. Three levels of sedation were defined, depending on entropy levels and assessment of sedation: light sedation, medium sedation, and deep sedation. The evaluation of the upper airway at each level, with increasing sedation, was documented using the VOTE classification. The elapsed time at which each assessment was performed was recorded. Upper airway changes occurred and were measured throughout the DISE procedure. Clinically useful determinations of airway closure occurred at medium sedation; this level of sedation was most probably achieved with a blood propofol concentration of 3.2 μg/ml. In all 43 patients, definite treatment decisions could be made at medium sedation level. Increasing sedation did not result in changes in the treatment decision. Changes in upper airway collapse during DISE with propofol TCI occur at levels of medium sedation. Decisions regarding surgical treatment could be made at this level of sedation. Upper Airway Collapse in Patients with Obstructive

  14. Clinical Utility of LC3 and p62 Immunohistochemistry in Diagnosis of Drug-Induced Autophagic Vacuolar Myopathies: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han S.; Daniels, Brianne H.; Salas, Eduardo; Bollen, Andrew W.; Debnath, Jayanta; Margeta, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients treated with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, or colchicine develop autophagic vacuolar myopathy, the diagnosis of which currently requires electron microscopy. The goal of the current study was to develop an immunohistochemical diagnostic marker for this pathologic entity. Methodology Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) has emerged as a robust marker of autophagosomes. LC3 binds p62/SQSTM1, an adapter protein that is selectively degraded via autophagy. In this study, we evaluated the utility of immunohistochemical stains for LC3 and p62 as diagnostic markers of drug-induced autophagic vacuolar myopathy. The staining was performed on archival muscle biopsy material, with subject assignment to normal control, drug-treated control, and autophagic myopathy groups based on history of drug use and morphologic criteria. Principal Findings In all drug-treated subjects, but not in normal controls, LC3 and p62 showed punctate staining characteristic of autophagosome buildup. In the autophagic myopathy subjects, puncta were coarser and tended to coalesce into linear structures aligned with the longitudinal axis of the fiber, often in the vicinity of vacuoles. The percentage of LC3- and p62-positive fibers was significantly higher in the autophagic myopathy group compared to either the normal control (p<0.001) or the drug-treated control group (p<0.05). With the diagnostic threshold set between 8% and 15% positive fibers (depending on the desired level of sensitivity and specificity), immunohistochemical staining for either LC3 or p62 could be used to identify subjects with autophagic vacuolar myopathy within the drug-treated subject group (p≤0.001). Significance Immunohistochemistry for LC3 and p62 can facilitate tissue-based diagnosis of drug-induced autophagic vacuolar myopathies. By limiting the need for electron microscopy (a time consuming and costly technique with high specificity, but low sensitivity), clinical use of these

  15. Clinical utility of LC3 and p62 immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of drug-induced autophagic vacuolar myopathies: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han S; Daniels, Brianne H; Salas, Eduardo; Bollen, Andrew W; Debnath, Jayanta; Margeta, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Some patients treated with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, or colchicine develop autophagic vacuolar myopathy, the diagnosis of which currently requires electron microscopy. The goal of the current study was to develop an immunohistochemical diagnostic marker for this pathologic entity. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) has emerged as a robust marker of autophagosomes. LC3 binds p62/SQSTM1, an adapter protein that is selectively degraded via autophagy. In this study, we evaluated the utility of immunohistochemical stains for LC3 and p62 as diagnostic markers of drug-induced autophagic vacuolar myopathy. The staining was performed on archival muscle biopsy material, with subject assignment to normal control, drug-treated control, and autophagic myopathy groups based on history of drug use and morphologic criteria. In all drug-treated subjects, but not in normal controls, LC3 and p62 showed punctate staining characteristic of autophagosome buildup. In the autophagic myopathy subjects, puncta were coarser and tended to coalesce into linear structures aligned with the longitudinal axis of the fiber, often in the vicinity of vacuoles. The percentage of LC3- and p62-positive fibers was significantly higher in the autophagic myopathy group compared to either the normal control (p<0.001) or the drug-treated control group (p<0.05). With the diagnostic threshold set between 8% and 15% positive fibers (depending on the desired level of sensitivity and specificity), immunohistochemical staining for either LC3 or p62 could be used to identify subjects with autophagic vacuolar myopathy within the drug-treated subject group (p ≤ 0.001). Immunohistochemistry for LC3 and p62 can facilitate tissue-based diagnosis of drug-induced autophagic vacuolar myopathies. By limiting the need for electron microscopy (a time consuming and costly technique with high specificity, but low sensitivity), clinical use of these markers will improve the speed and accuracy of

  16. Dandy-Walker syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Imataka, George; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a brain malformation of unknown etiology, but several reports have been published indicating that there is a causal relationship to various types of chromosomal abnormalities and malformation syndromes. In the present article, we present a bibliographical survey of several previously issued reports on chromosomal abnormalities associated with DWS, including our case of DWS found in trisomy 18. There are various types of chromosomal abnormalities associated with DWS; most of them are reported in chromosome 3, 9, 13 and 18. We also summarize some other chromosomal abnormalities and various congenital malformation syndromes.

  17. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  18. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  19. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  20. Study of Abnormal Liver Function Test during Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chhattisgarh.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V N; Thakur, Parineeta

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in pregnancy require proper interpretation in order to avoid pitfalls in the diagnosis. The underlying disorder can have a significant effect on the outcome of both mother and foetus. The present study was done with the objective to study the clinical profile, incidence and possible causes of derangements of liver function tests. Eighty pregnant women with abnormal liver dysfunction were studied prospectively. Women with chronic liver disease and drug-induced abnormal liver function test were excluded. All available LFTs including LDH were studied along with some more definitive tests to aid identification of underlying cause. Foetomaternal outcome was noted in all. The incidence of abnormal LFT was 0.9 %. 13/80 (16.75 %) women had liver disorder not specific to pregnancy, whereas 67/80 (83.25 %) women had pregnancy-specific liver dysfunction. Of these, 65(81.25 %) women with liver dysfunction had pre-eclampsia including 11 (13.75 %) with HELLP and six women with eclampsia. 48/65 (60 %) women had pre-eclampsia in the absence of HELLP syndrome or eclampsia. The mean value for bilirubin (mg %) in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy ranged from 1.64 to 3.8, between 5 and 10 for ICP and AFLP and >10 in infective hepatitis. Transaminases were highest in infective hepatitis, whereas alkaline phosphate was highest in ICP. Total 27 (33.75 %) women suffered from adverse outcome with four (5 %) maternal deaths and 23 (28.75 %) major maternal morbidities. 33/80 (41.25 %) women had intrauterine death. 26.25 % babies were small for date. Pregnancy-specific disorders are the leading cause of abnormal liver function test during pregnant state particularly in the third trimester. Pre-eclampsia-related disorder is the commonest. Gestational age of pregnancy and relative values of various liver function tests in different pregnancy-specific and pregnancy nonspecific disorders appear to be the best guide to clinch the diagnosis.

  1. Abnormal branching and regression of the notochord and its relationship to foregut abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vleesch Dubois, V N; Quan Qi, B; Beasley, S W; Williams, A

    2002-04-01

    An abnormally positioned notochord has been reported in embryos that develop foregut abnormalities, vertebral defects and other abnormalities of the VATER association. This study examines the patterns of regression of the abnormal notochord in the rat model of the VATER association and investigates the relationship between developmental abnormalities of the notochord and those of the vertebra and foregut. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 1.75 mg/kg adriamycin on gestational days 6 - 9 inclusive. Rats were sacrificed between days 14 and 20 and their embryos harvested, histologically sectioned and stained and examined serially. The location and appearance of the degenerating notochord and its relationship to regional structural defects were analysed. All 26 embryos exposed to adriamycin developed foregut abnormalities and had an abnormal notochord. The notochord disappeared by a process of apoptotic degeneration that lagged behind that of the normal embryo: the notochord persisted in the abnormal embryo beyond day 17, whereas in the normal rat it had already disappeared. Similarly, formation of the nucleus pulposus was delayed. Vertebral abnormalities occurred when the notochord was ventrally-positioned. The notochord disappears during day 16 in the normal embryo whereas abnormal branches of the notochord persist until day 19 in the adriamycin-treated embryo. Degeneration of the notochord is dominated by apoptosis. An excessively ventrally-placed notochord is closely associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column, especially hemivertebrae.

  2. Action potential-based MEA platform for in vitro screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity using human iPSCs and rat neonatal myocytes.

    PubMed

    Jans, Danny; Callewaert, Geert; Krylychkina, Olga; Hoffman, Luis; Gullo, Francesco; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Drug-induced cardiotoxicity poses a negative impact on public health and drug development. Cardiac safety pharmacology issues urged for the preclinical assessment of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmia leading to the design of several in vitro electrophysiological screening assays. In general, patch clamp systems allow for intracellular recordings, while multi-electrode array (MEA) technology detect extracellular activity. Here, we demonstrate a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based MEA system as a reliable platform for non-invasive, long-term intracellular recording of cardiac action potentials at high resolution. Quinidine (8 concentrations from 10 -7 to 2.10 -5 M) and verapamil (7 concentrations from 10 -11 to 10 -5 M) were tested for dose-dependent responses in a network of cardiomyocytes. Electrophysiological parameters, such as the action potential duration (APD), rates of depolarization and repolarization and beating frequency were assessed. In hiPSC, quinidine prolonged APD with EC 50 of 2.2·10 -6 M. Further analysis indicated a multifactorial action potential prolongation by quinidine: (1) decreasing fast repolarization with IC 50 of 1.1·10 -6 M; (2) reducing maximum upstroke velocity with IC 50 of 2.6·10 -6 M; and (3) suppressing spontaneous activity with EC 50 of 3.8·10 -6 M. In rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, verapamil blocked spontaneous activity with EC 50 of 5.3·10 -8 M and prolonged the APD with EC 50 of 2.5·10 -8 M. Verapamil reduced rates of fast depolarization and repolarization with IC 50 s of 1.8 and 2.2·10 -7 M, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed action potential-based MEA platform offers high quality and stable long-term recordings with high information content allowing to characterize multi-ion channel blocking drugs. We anticipate application of the system as a screening platform to efficiently and cost-effectively test drugs for cardiac safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Di-22:6-bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate: A clinical biomarker of drug-induced phospholipidosis for drug development and safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nanjun; Tengstrand, Elizabeth A.; Chourb, Lisa

    The inability to routinely monitor drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) presents a challenge in pharmaceutical drug development and in the clinic. Several nonclinical studies have shown di-docosahexaenoyl (22:6) bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (di-22:6-BMP) to be a reliable biomarker of tissue DIPL that can be monitored in the plasma/serum and urine. The aim of this study was to show the relevance of di-22:6-BMP as a DIPL biomarker for drug development and safety assessment in humans. DIPL shares many similarities with the inherited lysosomal storage disorder Niemann–Pick type C (NPC) disease. DIPL and NPC result in similar changes in lysosomal function and cholesterol status that leadmore » to the accumulation of multi-lamellar bodies (myeloid bodies) in cells and tissues. To validate di-22:6-BMP as a biomarker of DIPL for clinical studies, NPC patients and healthy donors were classified by receiver operator curve analysis based on urinary di-22:6-BMP concentrations. By showing 96.7-specificity and 100-sensitivity to identify NPC disease, di-22:6-BMP can be used to assess DIPL in human studies. The mean concentration of di-22:6-BMP in the urine of NPC patients was 51.4-fold (p ≤ 0.05) above the healthy baseline range. Additionally, baseline levels of di-22:6-BMP were assessed in healthy non-medicated laboratory animals (rats, mice, dogs, and monkeys) and human subjects to define normal reference ranges for nonclinical/clinical studies. The baseline ranges of di-22:6-BMP in the plasma, serum, and urine of humans and laboratory animals were species dependent. The results of this study support the role of di-22:6-BMP as a biomarker of DIPL for pharmaceutical drug development and health care settings. - Highlights: • A reliable biomarker of drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is needed for humans. • Di-22:6-BMP is specific/sensitive for DIPL in animals as published in literatures. • The di-22:6-BMP biomarker can be validated for humans via NPC patients.

  4. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF ORTHOTOPIC HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA AND DRUG-INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN MICE WITH SPLEEN-DEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haoxuan; Chen, Yan; Sun, Baoguo; Xiang, Ting; Zhang, Shijun

    2017-01-01

    Spleen-deficiency syndrome (SDS) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) played pivotal roles on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was performed to establish and evaluate HCC model in mice with SDS in TCM. A total of 90 C57BL/6 mice were randomized in six groups (n=15 for each group): A, Control group; B, SDS group; C, orthotopic HCC (OHCC) group; D, OHCC based on SDS (SDS-OHCC) group; E, Drug-induced HCC (DHCC) group; F, DHCC based on SDS (SDS-DHCC) group. The SDS model were established by subcutaneous injection of reserpine, followed by the OHCC or DHCC model establishment. The SDS scores, tumor formation rate and survival time were recorded and calculated, as well as the histochemical stain was performed. The SDS scores of mice in Group B, D, F were 17.57±4.86 (P<0.05 vs. Group A), 18.13±4.53 (P<0.05 vs. Group A and C) and 23.32±4.94 (P<0.05 vs. Group A and E) respectively. The tumor formation rate of mice in Group C, D, E and F were 73.33%, 100%, 60% and 80% respectively. The survival time of mice in Group C, D, E and F were 26.42±5.27, 17.33±4.76 (P<0.05 vs. Group C), 35.77±6.12 and 22.61±5.05 (P<0.05 vs. Group E) respectively. The SDS-oriented HCC mice models were simple and easily-operated models for further studies on SDS oriented tumor. Meanwhile, SDS was a pivotal factor for low outcome of hepatic tumor. Abbreviations: HCC, Hepatocellular carcinoma; OHCC, Orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma; DHCC, Drug-induced hepatocellular carcinoma; SDS, Spleen-deficiency syndrome; TCM, Traditional Chinese Medicine; SPF, Specific pathogen-free; DEN, Diethylnitrosamine; CCl4, Carbon tetrachloride; HE, Hematoxylin-eosin; IACUC, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

  5. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  6. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  7. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  8. Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzhu; Yang, Jian; Li, Yuhong; Ma, Xin; Li, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Excesses of sex chromosome abnormalities in patients with psychiatric diseases have recently been observed. It remains unclear whether sex chromosome abnormalities are related to sex differences in some psychiatric diseases. While studies showed evidence of susceptibility loci over many sex chromosomal regions related to various mental diseases, others demonstrated that the sex chromosome aneuploidies may be the key to exploring the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. In this review, we will outline the current evidence on the interaction of sex chromosome abnormalities with schizophrenia, autism, ADHD and mood disorders. PMID:27992373

  9. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  11. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  12. Video traffic analysis for abnormal event detection.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to : be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for : new road guidelines; for rapid deplo...

  13. Abnormal findings in peers during skills learning.

    PubMed

    Wearn, Andy; Nakatsuji, Miriam; Bhoopatkar, Harsh

    2017-02-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE), where students examine each other, is common in contemporary clinical skills learning. A range of benefits and risks have been explored in the literature. One persistent concern has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings. Two previous studies have attempted to quantify the risk, one through the discussion of two exemplar cases and the other with a retrospective student survey. Here, we report the first prospective study of the number and type of abnormalities encountered as part of early clinical skills learning in a medical programme. We have a formal written consent process for PPE, which includes the management of abnormal findings through the completion of an event form. Our data come from cohorts undertaking years 2 and 3 of the programme between 2003 and 2014. One persistent concern (of PPE) has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings RESULTS: Nineteen event forms were completed over this period. The incidence rates per year ranged from 0.23 to 1.05 per cent. Abnormal findings included raised blood pressure, heart murmur, abnormal bedside test values, and eye and skin conditions. The low event rate, along with a feasible process for dealing with this issue, goes some way to reassuring those with concerns. We acknowledge that some abnormalities may have been missed, and that some data may have been lost as a result of incorrect process; however, even the highest annual rate is low in absolute terms. We recommend a formal process for managing abnormalities. Ideally this would be part of an overall PPE written policy, communicated to students, enacted by tutors and approved by the local ethics committee. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  15. Evaluating Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Its Remission via Discrimination and Imaging of HClO and H2S with a Two-Photon Fluorescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaoyun; Xiao, Yongsheng; Li, Yong; Liang, Muwen; Xie, Xilei; Wang, Xu; Tang, Bo

    2018-06-19

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has aroused wide concern. Finding new markers or indicators as well as detoxification molecules for DILI is of great significance and good application prospect, which can help develop effective preclinical screening methodology and corresponding treatment protocols. Herein, in this article, DILI caused by antidepressant drugs of duloxetine and fluoxetine and its remission were evaluated by a two-photon fluorescent probe, RPC-1, through discriminating and imaging HClO and H 2 S simultaneously. By being applied both in vitro and in vivo, RPC-1 revealed slight up-regulation of HClO and negligible liver damage after administration of either of the two drugs. In contrast, an apparent up-regulation of HClO and obvious liver damage was observed after combined administration of the drugs. Meanwhile, the pretreatment of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) resulted in the increasing of endogenous H 2 S level, which contributed to the remission of DILI. The histological analysis and serological test both gave good consistency with the imaging results. These findings demonstrate that HClO may be an appropriate indicator of DILI, and H 2 S plays an important role in the antidotal effect of NAC. We envision that RPC-1 can be used as a powerful tool to predict clinical DILI and study the effect of antidote, as well as explore the molecular mechanisms involved.

  16. In Silico Identification of Proteins Associated with Drug-induced Liver Injury Based on the Prediction of Drug-target Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Sergey; Semin, Maxim; Lagunin, Alexey; Filimonov, Dmitry; Poroikov, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the leading cause of acute liver failure as well as one of the major reasons for drug withdrawal from clinical trials and the market. Elucidation of molecular interactions associated with DILI may help to detect potentially hazardous pharmacological agents at the early stages of drug development. The purpose of our study is to investigate which interactions with specific human protein targets may cause DILI. Prediction of interactions with 1534 human proteins was performed for the dataset with information about 699 drugs, which were divided into three categories of DILI: severe (178 drugs), moderate (310 drugs) and without DILI (211 drugs). Based on the comparison of drug-target interactions predicted for different drugs' categories and interpretation of those results using clustering, Gene Ontology, pathway and gene expression analysis, we identified 61 protein targets associated with DILI. Most of the revealed proteins were linked with hepatocytes' death caused by disruption of vital cellular processes, as well as the emergence of inflammation in the liver. It was found that interaction of a drug with the identified targets is the essential molecular mechanism of the severe DILI for the most of the considered pharmaceuticals. Thus, pharmaceutical agents interacting with many of the identified targets may be considered as candidates for filtering out at the early stages of drug research. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A multi-center preclinical study of gadoxetate DCE-MRI in rats as a biomarker of drug induced inhibition of liver transporter function

    PubMed Central

    Lenhard, Stephen C.; Yerby, Brittany; Forsgren, Mikael F.; Liachenko, Serguei; Johansson, Edvin; Pilling, Mark A.; Peterson, Richard A.; Yang, Xi; Williams, Dominic P.; Ungersma, Sharon E.; Morgan, Ryan E.; Brouwer, Kim L. R.; Jucker, Beat M.; Hockings, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. DILI can be the result of impaired hepatobiliary transporters, with altered bile formation, flow, and subsequent cholestasis. We used gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), combined with pharmacokinetic modelling, to measure hepatobiliary transporter function in vivo in rats. The sensitivity and robustness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of a clinical dose of the antibiotic rifampicin in four different preclinical imaging centers. The mean gadoxetate uptake rate constant for the vehicle groups at all centers was 39.3 +/- 3.4 s-1 (n = 23) and 11.7 +/- 1.3 s-1 (n = 20) for the rifampicin groups. The mean gadoxetate efflux rate constant for the vehicle groups was 1.53 +/- 0.08 s-1 (n = 23) and for the rifampicin treated groups was 0.94 +/- 0.08 s-1 (n = 20). Both the uptake and excretion transporters of gadoxetate were statistically significantly inhibited by the clinical dose of rifampicin at all centers and the size of this treatment group effect was consistent across the centers. Gadoxetate is a clinically approved MRI contrast agent, so this method is readily transferable to the clinic. Conclusion: Rate constants of gadoxetate uptake and excretion are sensitive and robust biomarkers to detect early changes in hepatobiliary transporter function in vivo in rats prior to established biomarkers of liver toxicity. PMID:29771932

  18. Role of CYP2E1 immunoglobulin G4 subclass antibodies and complement in pathogenesis of idiosyncratic drug-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Dolores B; Mellerson, Jenelle L; Talor, Monica V; Kerr, Douglas R; Faraday, Nauder R; Outschoorn, Ingrid; Rose, Noel R

    2006-02-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced hepatitis (IDDIH) is the third most common cause for acute liver failure in the United States. Previous studies have attempted to identify susceptible patients or early stages of disease with various degrees of success. To determine if total serum immunoglobulin subclasses, CYP2E1-specific subclass autoantibodies, complement components, or immune complexes could distinguish persons with IDDIH from others exposed to drugs, we studied persons exposed to halogenated volatile anesthetics, which have been associated with IDDIH and CYP2E1 autoantibodies. We found that patients with anesthetic-induced IDDIH had significantly elevated levels of CYP2E1-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) autoantibodies, while anesthetic-exposed healthy persons had significantly elevated levels of CYP2E1-specific IgG1 autoantibodies. Anesthetic IDDIH patients had significantly lower levels of C4a, C3a, and C5a compared to anesthetic-exposed healthy persons. C1q- and C3d-containing immune complexes were significantly elevated in anesthetic-exposed persons. In conclusion, our data suggest that anesthetic-exposed persons develop CYP2E1-specific IgG1 autoantibodies which may form detectable circulating immune complexes subsequently cleared by classical pathway activation of the complement system. Persons susceptible to anesthetic-induced IDDIH develop CYP2E1-specific IgG4 autoantibodies which form small, nonprecipitating immune complexes that escape clearance because of their size or by direct inhibition of complement activation.

  19. Species differences in drug glucuronidation: Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 mice and their application for predicting drug glucuronidation and drug-induced toxicity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Yoda, Emiko; Tukey, Robert H.

    2018-01-01

    More than 20% of clinically used drugs are glucuronidated by a microsomal enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Inhibition or induction of UGT can result in an increase or decrease in blood drug concentration. To avoid drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in individuals, therefore, it is important to understand whether UGTs are involved in metabolism of drugs and drug candidates. While most of glucuronides are inactive metabolites, acyl-glucuronides that are formed from compounds with a carboxylic acid group can be highly toxic. Animals such as mice and rats are widely used to predict drug metabolism and drug-induced toxicity in humans. However, there are marked species differences in the expression and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes including UGTs. To overcome the species differences, mice in which certain drug-metabolizing enzymes are humanized have been recently developed. Humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice were created in 2010 by crossing Ugt1-null mice with human UGT1 transgenic mice in a C57BL/6 background. hUGT1 mice can be promising tools to predict human drug glucuronidation and acyl-glucuronide-associated toxicity. In this review article, studies of drug metabolism and toxicity in the hUGT1 mice are summarized. We further discuss research and strategic directions to advance the understanding of drug glucuronidation in humans. PMID:29079228

  20. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Points-to-consider Paper*: Drug-induced Vascular Injury Associated with Nonsmall Molecule Therapeutics in Preclinical Development: Part 2. Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Jeffery A; Fant, Pierluigi; Guionaud, Silvia; Henry, Scott P; Leach, Michael W; Louden, Calvert; Scicchitano, Marshall S; Weaver, James L; Zabka, Tanja S; Frazier, Kendall S

    2015-10-01

    Drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) is a recurrent challenge in the development of novel pharmaceutical agents. In recent years, DIVI has been occasionally observed in nonhuman primates given RNA-targeting therapeutics such as antisense oligonucleotide therapies (ASOs) during chronic toxicity studies. While DIVI in laboratory animal species has been well characterized for vasoactive small molecules, and immune-mediated responses against large molecule biotherapeutics have been well described, there is little published information regarding DIVI induced by ASOs to date. Preclinical DIVI findings in monkeys have caused considerable delays in development of promising new ASO therapies, because of the uncertainty about whether DIVI in preclinical studies is predictive of effects in humans, and the lack of robust biomarkers of DIVI. This review of DIVI discusses clinical and microscopic features of vasculitis in monkeys, their pathogenic mechanisms, and points to consider for the toxicologist and pathologist when confronted with ASO-related DIVI. Relevant examples of regulatory feedback are included to provide insight into risk assessment of ASO therapies. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  1. Species differences in drug glucuronidation: Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 mice and their application for predicting drug glucuronidation and drug-induced toxicity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Yoda, Emiko; Tukey, Robert H

    2018-02-01

    More than 20% of clinically used drugs are glucuronidated by a microsomal enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Inhibition or induction of UGT can result in an increase or decrease in blood drug concentration. To avoid drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in individuals, therefore, it is important to understand whether UGTs are involved in metabolism of drugs and drug candidates. While most of glucuronides are inactive metabolites, acyl-glucuronides that are formed from compounds with a carboxylic acid group can be highly toxic. Animals such as mice and rats are widely used to predict drug metabolism and drug-induced toxicity in humans. However, there are marked species differences in the expression and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes including UGTs. To overcome the species differences, mice in which certain drug-metabolizing enzymes are humanized have been recently developed. Humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice were created in 2010 by crossing Ugt1-null mice with human UGT1 transgenic mice in a C57BL/6 background. hUGT1 mice can be promising tools to predict human drug glucuronidation and acyl-glucuronide-associated toxicity. In this review article, studies of drug metabolism and toxicity in the hUGT1 mice are summarized. We further discuss research and strategic directions to advance the understanding of drug glucuronidation in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is a ...

  4. Drug-induced pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... are known to cause lung disease in some people. These include: Antibiotics, such as nitrofurantoin and sulfa drugs Heart medicines, such as amiodarone Chemotherapy drugs such as bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate Street drugs

  5. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tsokos GC, ed. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 54. Habif TP. Connective tissue diseases. ... TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster ...

  6. [Drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders].

    PubMed

    Horga, J F; Navarro, M; Peiró, V; Hernández, M

    1995-01-01

    We analyze 402 drug-adverse events consisting of movement disorders or aggravation of parkinsonisms, submitted to Sistema Español de Farmacovigilancia until 1994. Our aim is to know patient characteristics and the drugs related with these submissions. Most of them (64) belong to calcium-entry blocker group (31%) and benzamides (27%). Case age intervals more frequent were 11-30 and 60-80 years-old and the events affect predominantly females. The percentage of serious adverse events were near 80%. We think that drug-related parkinsonisms have high prevalence rate and that the role of calcium-entry blockers in these events should be considered at the moment to prescribe groups.

  7. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Daniels, Katleen; Walters, Mark; Clement, John; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2012-02-06

    The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

  8. Abnormalities of High Density Lipoproteins in Abetalipoproteinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, John W.; Ways, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Detailed studies of the high density lipoproteins from three patients with abetalipoproteinemia have revealed the following principal abnormalities: 1) High density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) is reduced in both absolute and relative concentration, although HDL2 is present in normal amounts. 2) The phospholipid distribution of both HDL fractions is abnormal, with low concentrations of lecithin and an increased percentage (though normal absolute quantity) of sphingomyelin. 3) In both HDL fractions, lecithin contains less linoleate and more oleate than normal. The cholesteryl esters are also low in linoleic acid, and the sphingomyelin is high in nervonic acid. Dietary intake influences the linoleic acid concentration within 2 weeks, and perhaps sooner, but the elevated sphingomyelin nervonic acid is little affected by up to 6 months of corn oil supplementation. Qualitatively similar changes in fatty acid composition, but not phospholipid distribution, are also found in other malabsorption states. The available evidence suggests that the abnormally low levels of HDL3 and the deranged phospholipid distribution are more specific for abetalipoproteinemia than the fatty acid abnormalities. However, the absence of these abnormalities in obligate heterozygous subjects makes their relationship to the primary defect of abetalipoproteinemia difficult to assess. Images PMID:6027078

  9. [Liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Mendes, João Luiz Barberino; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Nascimento, Ana Lísia Cunha; Lima Júnior, Alberto Soares; Cunha, Tatiana Oliveira Bernardo da

    2006-02-01

    Occupational exposure typical of an oil refinery may alter liver function among the workers. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify risk factors for liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. The workers at an oil refinery in Northeastern Brazil underwent routine annual medical examination from 1982 to 1998. This case-control study investigated all the 150 cases of individuals with simultaneous gamma-glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase abnormalities of at least 10% above reference levels. As controls, 150 workers without any liver enzyme or bilirubin abnormalities since starting to work there were selected. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated from logistic regression models. In all the production sectors, the risk of liver enzyme abnormalities was significantly higher than in the administrative sector (OR=5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-18.4), even when the effects of alcohol, obesity and medical history of hepatitis were controlled for. During the period from 1992 to 1994, 88 out of the 89 cases occurred among workers from the various production sectors. Occupational exposure plays an important role in causing liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. This is in addition to the specifically biological and/or behavioral risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption.

  10. Chromosome and molecular abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are seen in approximately 50% of cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 80% of cases of secondary MDS (following chemotherapy or radiotherapy). These abnormalities generally consist of partial or complete chromosome deletion or addition (del5q, -7, +8, -Y, del20q), whereas balanced or unbalanced translocations are rarely found in MDS. Fluorescence hybridization techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH], multiplex FISH, and spectral karyotyping) are useful in detecting chromosomal anomalies in cases in which few mitoses are obtained or rearrangements are complex. Ras mutations are the molecular abnormalities most frequently found in MDS, followed by p15 gene hypermethylation, FLT3 duplications, and p53 mutations, but none of these abnormalities are specific for MDS. The rare cases of balanced translocations in MDS have allowed the identification of genes whose rearrangements appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of MDS. These genes include MDS1-EVI1 in t(3;3) or t(3;21) translocations, TEL in t(5;12), HIP1 in t(5;7), MLF1 in t(3;5), and MEL1 in t(1;3). Genes more frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of MDS cases, such as those involving del5q, remain unknown, although some candidate genes are currently being studied. Cytogenetic and known molecular abnormalities generally carry a poor prognosis in MDS and can be incorporated into prognostic scoring systems such as the International Prognostic Scoring System.

  11. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  12. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will...

  13. Bid Participates in Genotoxic Drug-Induced Apoptosis of HeLa Cells and Is Essential for Death Receptor Ligands' Apoptotic and Synergistic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Concannon, Caoimhin G.; Rehm, Markus; Kögel, Donat; Prehn, Jochen H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The BH3-only protein Bid is an important component of death receptor-mediated caspase activation. Bid is cleaved by caspase-8 or -10 into t-Bid, which translocates to mitochondria and triggers the release of caspase-activating factors. Bid has also been reported to be cleaved by other proteases. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that Bid is a central mediator of stress-induced apoptosis, we investigated the effects of a small molecule Bid inhibitor on stress-induced apoptosis, and generated HeLa cells deficient for Bid. Stable knockdown of bid lead to a pronounced resistance to Fas/CD95- and TRAIL-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, and significantly increased clonogenic survival. While Bid-deficient cells were equally sensitive to ER stress-induced apoptosis, they showed moderate, but significantly reduced levels of apoptosis, as well as increased clonogenic survival in response to the genotoxic drugs Etoposide, Oxaliplatin, and Doxorubicin. Similar effects were observed using the Bid inhibitor BI6C9. Interestingly, Bid-deficient cells were dramatically protected from apoptosis when subtoxic concentrations of ER stressors, Etoposide or Oxaliplatin were combined with subtoxic TRAIL concentrations. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that Bid is central for death receptor-induced cell death and participates in anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. They also show that the synergistic effects of TRAIL in combination with either ER stressors or genotoxic anti-cancer drugs are nearly exclusively mediated via an increased activation of Bid-induced apoptosis signalling. PMID:18665234

  14. Impact of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 on anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Chinese pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Jiao, An-xia; Wu, Xi-rong; Zhao, Wei; Yin, Qing-qin; Qi, Hui; Jiao, Wei-wei; Xiao, Jing; Sun, Lin; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jian-ling; Shen, Dan; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Shen, A-dong

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) is a major adverse drug reaction associated for anti-tuberculosis therapy. The glutathione S-transferases (GST) plays a crucial role in the detoxification of hepatotoxic metabolites of anti-tuberculosis drugs.An association between GSTM1/GSTT1 null mutations and increased risk of ATDH has been demonstrated in adults. Given the ethnic differences and developmental changes, our study aims to investigate the potential impacts of GSTM1/GSTT1 genotypes on the development of ATDH in Han Chinese children treated with anti-tuberculosis therapy. Children receiving anti-tuberculosis therapy with or without evidence of ATDH were considered as the cases or controls, respectively. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping were performed using the polymerase chain reaction. One hundred sixty-three children (20 cases and 143 controls) with a mean age of 4.7 years (range: 2 months-14.1 years) were included. For the GSTM1, 14 (70.0%) cases and 96 (67.1%) controls had homozygous null mutations. For the GSTT1, 13 (65.0%) cases and 97 (67.8%) controls had homozygous null mutations. Neither the GSTM1, nor the GSTT1 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the occurrence of ATHD. Our results did not support the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms as the predictors of ADTH in Chinese Han children treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs. An age-related association between pharmacogenetics and ATHD need to be confirmed in the further study.

  15. A testing strategy to predict risk for drug-induced liver injury in humans using high-content screen assays and the 'rule-of-two' model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Tung, Chun-Wei; Shi, Qiang; Guo, Lei; Shi, Leming; Fang, Hong; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2014-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of drug failures in both the preclinical and clinical phase. Consequently, improving prediction of DILI at an early stage of drug discovery will reduce the potential failures in the subsequent drug development program. In this regard, high-content screening (HCS) assays are considered as a promising strategy for the study of DILI; however, the predictive performance of HCS assays is frequently insufficient. In the present study, a new testing strategy was developed to improve DILI prediction by employing in vitro assays that was combined with the RO2 model (i.e., 'rule-of-two' defined by daily dose ≥100 mg/day & logP ≥3). The RO2 model was derived from the observation that high daily doses and lipophilicity of an oral medication were associated with significant DILI risk in humans. In the developed testing strategy, the RO2 model was used for the rational selection of candidates for HCS assays, and only the negatives predicted by the RO2 model were further investigated by HCS. Subsequently, the effects of drug treatment on cell loss, nuclear size, DNA damage/fragmentation, apoptosis, lysosomal mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and steatosis were studied in cultures of primary rat hepatocytes. Using a set of 70 drugs with clear evidence of clinically relevant DILI, the testing strategy improved the accuracies by 10 % and reduced the number of drugs requiring experimental assessment by approximately 20 %, as compared to the HCS assay alone. Moreover, the testing strategy was further validated by including published data (Cosgrove et al. in Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:317-330, 2009) on drug-cytokine-induced hepatotoxicity, which improved the accuracies by 7 %. Taken collectively, the proposed testing strategy can significantly improve the prediction of in vitro assays for detecting DILI liability in an early drug discovery phase.

  16. Comparison of efficacy of folic acid and silymarin in the management of antiepileptic drug induced liver injury: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Asgarshirazi, Masoumeh; Shariat, Mamak; Sheikh, Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Liver injury associated with antiepileptic drugs accounts for a large proportion of drug-induced liver injuries (DILI) in children. Although withdrawal of the causative agent is the only proved treatment for DILI, in some clinical situations it is not possible. Recent studies have reported promising results of using hepatoprotective drugs with antioxidant actions for the management of DILI. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid versus silymarin treatment in relation to decreasing liver enzymes in patients with DILI due to antiepileptic therapy. This randomized, open-label, clinical trial evaluated 55 children with epilepsy who were on antiepileptic treatment and experienced DILI. The children were randomized to receive either silymarin (5 mg/kg per day) or folic acid (1 mg per day) for one month and were followed up for three months. Liver enzymes significantly decreased in both groups. The decrease trend in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were stronger in the folic acid group compared to silymarin group (P=0.04 and P=0.007, respectively). At the end of the study patients in the folic acid group had significantly lower ALT (P=0.04), AST (P=0.02), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (P<0.001) levels and also higher percentage of normal ALT (30.7% vs 3.4%, P=0.009) and AST (42.3% vs 0%, P<0.001), and GGT (23.1% vs 0%, P=0.008) values compared to the patients in the silymarin group. No rebound elevations in ALT, AST and GGT levels or adverse reactions were noted in neither of the study groups. Although both treatments were safe and effective in decreasing liver enzymes, folic acid seems to be superior to silymarin in the management of DILI.

  17. Selected ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 polymorphisms do not enhance the risk of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Stephens, Camilla; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Robles-Diaz, Mercedes; Saenz-López, Pablo; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Fernandez, M Carmen; Lucena, M Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J

    2014-01-01

    Flawed ABC transporter functions may contribute to increased risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to analyse the influence of genetic variations in ABC transporters on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations in a large Spanish DILI cohort. A total of ten polymorphisms in ABCB1 (1236T>C, 2677G>T,A, 3435T>C), ABCB4 (1954A>G) and ABCC2 (-1774G>del, -1549A>G, -24C>T, 1249G>A, 3972C>T and 4544G>A) were genotyped using Taqman 5' allelic discrimination assays or sequencing in 141 Spanish DILI patients and 161 controls. The influence of specific genotypes, alleles and haplotypes on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations was analysed. None of the individual polymorphisms or haplotypes was found to be associated with DILI development. Carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 -1774del allele were however only found in DILI patients. Hence, this genotype could potentially be associated with increased risk, though its low frequency in our Spanish cohort prevented a final conclusion. Furthermore, carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 -1774G/-1549A/-24T/1249G/3972T/4544G haplotype were found to have a higher propensity for total bilirubin elevations when developing DILI. Our findings do not support a role for the analysed polymorphisms in the ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 transporter genes in DILI development in Spanish patients. The ABCC2 -1774deldel genotype was however restricted to DILI cases and could potentially contribute to enhanced DILI susceptibility.

  18. Selected ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 Polymorphisms Do Not Enhance the Risk of Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Stephens, Camilla; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Robles-Diaz, Mercedes; Saenz-López, Pablo; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Fernandez, M. Carmen; Lucena, M. Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Flawed ABC transporter functions may contribute to increased risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to analyse the influence of genetic variations in ABC transporters on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations in a large Spanish DILI cohort. Methods A total of ten polymorphisms in ABCB1 (1236T>C, 2677G>T,A, 3435T>C), ABCB4 (1954A>G) and ABCC2 (−1774G>del, −1549A>G, −24C>T, 1249G>A, 3972C>T and 4544G>A) were genotyped using Taqman 5′ allelic discrimination assays or sequencing in 141 Spanish DILI patients and 161 controls. The influence of specific genotypes, alleles and haplotypes on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations was analysed. Results None of the individual polymorphisms or haplotypes was found to be associated with DILI development. Carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 −1774del allele were however only found in DILI patients. Hence, this genotype could potentially be associated with increased risk, though its low frequency in our Spanish cohort prevented a final conclusion. Furthermore, carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 −1774G/−1549A/−24T/1249G/3972T/4544G haplotype were found to have a higher propensity for total bilirubin elevations when developing DILI. Conclusions Our findings do not support a role for the analysed polymorphisms in the ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 transporter genes in DILI development in Spanish patients. The ABCC2 −1774deldel genotype was however restricted to DILI cases and could potentially contribute to enhanced DILI susceptibility. PMID:24732756

  19. Drug-induced sedation endoscopy in children <2 years with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: upper airway findings and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boudewyns, A; Van de Heyning, P; Verhulst, S

    2017-05-01

    Few data are available about the pattern of upper airway (UA) obstruction in children <2 years with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Also, the role of adenoidectomy versus adenotonsillectomy (AT) is poorly defined in this age group. We performed drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) in young OSAS children to investigate the pattern of UA obstruction and the value of DISE in therapeutic decision making. Retrospective analysis of ≤2-year-old children undergoing DISE-directed UA surgery. OSAS severity and the treatment outcomes were documented by polysomnography. Data are available for 28 patients, age 1.5 years (1.3-1.8), BMI-z score 0.5 (-0.7 to 1.3) with severe OSAS, obstructive apnea/hypopnea index (oAHI) 13.8/hr (7.5-28.3). All but 3 had (>50%) obstruction at the level of the adenoids, and all but 5 had (>50%) tonsillar obstruction. DISE-directed treatment consisted of adenoidectomy (n = 4), tonsillectomy (n = 1), and AT (n = 23). There was a significant improvement in respiratory parameters. Twenty children (71.4%) had a postoperative oAHI <2/hr. None had palatal or tongue base obstruction. Five children had a circumferential UA narrowing (hypotonia), 2 of them had residual OSAS. DISE showed a collapse of the epiglottis in 6 and late-onset laryngomalacia in 4. These findings did not affect surgical outcome. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the major cause of UA obstruction, and DISE-directed UA surgery was curative in 71,4% of children ≤2 years. We suggest that DISE may be helpful in surgical decision making. Circumferential UA narrowing may result in less favorable surgical outcomes.

  20. Drug-Induced Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Results in Nearly Therapy Resistant Bradykinin Induced Angioedema: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Janina; Trainotti, Susanne; Hoffmann, Thomas K.; Greve, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 83 Final Diagnosis: Angioedema Symptoms: Edema Medication: Ramipril Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Bradykinin is an underestimated mediator of angioedema. One subgroup of bradykinin induced angioedema is angioedema triggered by treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Due to its localization in the head and neck region and its unpredictable course, it is a possibly life-threatening condition. There is not an officially approved treatment for ACE inhibitor induced angioedema. Case Report: We present a case of an 83-year-old woman, who presented to our ENT department because of acute swelling of the tongue. On admission, there was no pharyngeal or laryngeal edema and no dyspnea. Treatment with glucocorticoids and antihistamines had no response. The patient had ramipril as regular medication, so we assumed ACE inhibitor induced angioedema and treated consequently with C1-inhibitor (human) 1,500 IU. Nevertheless, swelling was progressive and required intubation. Even after the second specific treatment with icatibant, her angioedema subsided extremely slowly. The patient also had regular treatment with saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, so we assumed that the simultaneous inhibition of two bradykinin degrading enzymes led to a treatment-refractory course of angioedema. Conclusions: General awareness for bradykinin induced angioedema due to regular medication is limited. Our case demonstrated the importance of improving awareness and knowledge about this side effect. We need a better understanding of the pathomechanism to aid in more precise clinical diagnosis. Securing the patient’s airway as well as administration of an officially approved therapy is of utmost importance. As the number of patients simultaneously treated with antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs is likely to increase, the incidence of bradykinin mediated drug induced angioedema is

  1. Evidence-based selection of training compounds for use in the mechanism-based integrated prediction of drug-induced liver injury in man.

    PubMed

    Dragovic, Sanja; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Gerets, Helga H; Hewitt, Philip G; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Park, B Kevin; Juhila, Satu; Snoeys, Jan; Weaver, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    The current test systems employed by pharmaceutical industry are poorly predictive for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The 'MIP-DILI' project addresses this situation by the development of innovative preclinical test systems which are both mechanism-based and of physiological, pharmacological and pathological relevance to DILI in humans. An iterative, tiered approach with respect to test compounds, test systems, bioanalysis and systems analysis is adopted to evaluate existing models and develop new models that can provide validated test systems with respect to the prediction of specific forms of DILI and further elucidation of mechanisms. An essential component of this effort is the choice of compound training set that will be used to inform refinement and/or development of new model systems that allow prediction based on knowledge of mechanisms, in a tiered fashion. In this review, we focus on the selection of MIP-DILI training compounds for mechanism-based evaluation of non-clinical prediction of DILI. The selected compounds address both hepatocellular and cholestatic DILI patterns in man, covering a broad range of pharmacologies and chemistries, and taking into account available data on potential DILI mechanisms (e.g. mitochondrial injury, reactive metabolites, biliary transport inhibition, and immune responses). Known mechanisms by which these compounds are believed to cause liver injury have been described, where many if not all drugs in this review appear to exhibit multiple toxicological mechanisms. Thus, the training compounds selection offered a valuable tool to profile DILI mechanisms and to interrogate existing and novel in vitro systems for the prediction of human DILI.

  2. Drug-Induced liver injury with hypersensitivity features has a better outcome: a single-center experience of 39 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad; Karanth, Dheeraj; Prasanna, K S; Adarsh, C K; Patil, Mallikarjun

    2011-10-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare in children and adolescents, and, consequently, data are remarkably limited. We analyzed the causes, clinical and biochemical features, natural history, and outcomes of children with DILI. Consecutive children with DILI from 1997 to 2004 (retrospective) and 2005 to 2010 (prospective) were studied based on standard criteria for DILI. Thirty-nine children constituted 8.7% of 450 cases of DILI. There were 22 boys and 17 girls. Median age was 16 years (range, 2.6-17). Combination antituberculous drugs were the most common cause (n = 22), followed by the anticonvulsants, phenytoin (n = 10) and carbamazepine (n = 6). All of the 16 children (41%) who developed hypersensitivity features, such as skin rashes, fever, lymphadenopathy, and/or eosinophilia, including the 3 with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, survived. Those with hypersensitivity presented earlier (24.5 versus 35 days; P = 0.24) had less severe disease (MELD, 16 versus 29; P = 0.01) and had no mortality (0/16 versus 12/23; P < 0.001), compared to those without hypersensitivity. The 12 fatalities were largely the result of antituberculous DILI (n = 11). The presence of encephalopathy and ascites were associated with mortality, along with hyperbilirubinemia, high international normalized ratio, and serum creatinine. According to the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, 18 were highly probable, 14 probable, and 7 possible. Thirty-two children were hospitalized. DILI is not uncommon in children and accounts for 8.7% of all patients with DILI. Antituberculous drugs and anticonvulsants are the leading causes of DILI in India. Overall mortality is high (30.7%), largely accounted by antituberculous drugs. Children with DILI and hypersensitivity features present early, have less severe disease, and, consequently, a better prognosis, compared to those without, and are often associated with anticonvulsants or sulfonamides. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of

  3. Comparison of drug-induced sleep endoscopy and Müller's maneuver in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea using the VOTE classification system.

    PubMed

    Yegïn, Yakup; Çelik, Mustafa; Kaya, Kamïl Hakan; Koç, Arzu Karaman; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

    Knowledge of the site of obstruction and the pattern of airway collapse is essential for determining correct surgical and medical management of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). To this end, several diagnostic tests and procedures have been developed. To determine whether drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) or Müller's maneuver (MM) would be more successful at identifying the site of obstruction and the pattern of upper airway collapse in patients with OSAS. The study included 63 patients (52 male and 11 female) who were diagnosed with OSAS at our clinic. Ages ranged from 30 to 66 years old and the average age was 48.5 years. All patients underwent DISE and MM and the results of these examinations were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification. The results of each test were analyzed per upper airway level and compared using statistical analysis (Cohen's kappa statistic test). There was statistically significant concordance between the results from DISE and MM for procedures involving the anteroposterior (73%), lateral (92.1%), and concentric (74.6%) configuration of the velum. Results from the lateral part of the oropharynx were also in concordance between the tests (58.7%). Results from the lateral configuration of the epiglottis were in concordance between the tests (87.3%). There was no statistically significant concordance between the two examinations for procedures involving the anteroposterior of the tongue (23.8%) and epiglottis (42.9%). We suggest that DISE has several advantages including safety, ease of use, and reliability, which outweigh MM in terms of the ability to diagnose sites of obstruction and the pattern of upper airway collapse. Also, MM can provide some knowledge of the pattern of pharyngeal collapse. Furthermore, we also recommend using the VOTE classification in combination with DISE. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  4. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Redox-Dependent HMGB1 Isoforms as Pivotal Co-Ordinators of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Mechanistic Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Lea, Jonathan D; Clarke, Joanna I; McGuire, Niamh; Antoine, Daniel J

    2016-04-20

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a critical protein in the coordination of the inflammatory response in drug-induced liver injury (DILI). HMGB1 is released from necrotic hepatocytes and activated immune cells. The extracellular function of HMGB1 is dependent upon redox modification of cysteine residues that control chemoattractant and cytokine-inducing properties. Existing biomarkers of DILI such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) have limitations such as lack of sensitivity and tissue specificity that can adversely affect clinical intervention. HMGB1 isoforms have been shown to be more sensitive biomarkers than ALT for predicting DILI development and the requirement for liver transplant following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. Hepatocyte-specific conditional knockout of HMGB1 has demonstrated the pivotal role of HMGB1 in DILI and liver disease. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) enables the characterization and quantification of different mechanism-dependent post-translationally modified isoforms of HMGB1. HMGB1 shows great promise as a biomarker of DILI. However, current diagnostic assays are either too time-consuming to be clinically applicable (MS/MS) or are unable to distinguish between different redox and acetyl isoforms of HMGB1 (ELISA). Additionally, HMGB1 is not liver specific, so while it outperforms ALT (also not liver specific) as a biomarker for the prediction of DILI development, it should be used in a biomarker panel along with liver-specific markers such as miR-122. A point-of-care test for HMGB1 and the development of redox and acetyl isoform-targeting antibodies will advance clinical utility. Work is ongoing to validate baseline levels of circulating HMGB1 in healthy volunteers.

  6. Role of CYP2E1 Immunoglobulin G4 Subclass Antibodies and Complement in Pathogenesis of Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Dolores B.; Mellerson, Jenelle L.; Talor, Monica V.; Kerr, Douglas R.; Faraday, Nauder R.; Outschoorn, Ingrid; Rose, Noel R.

    2006-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced hepatitis (IDDIH) is the third most common cause for acute liver failure in the United States. Previous studies have attempted to identify susceptible patients or early stages of disease with various degrees of success. To determine if total serum immunoglobulin subclasses, CYP2E1-specific subclass autoantibodies, complement components, or immune complexes could distinguish persons with IDDIH from others exposed to drugs, we studied persons exposed to halogenated volatile anesthetics, which have been associated with IDDIH and CYP2E1 autoantibodies. We found that patients with anesthetic-induced IDDIH had significantly elevated levels of CYP2E1-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) autoantibodies, while anesthetic-exposed healthy persons had significantly elevated levels of CYP2E1-specific IgG1 autoantibodies. Anesthetic IDDIH patients had significantly lower levels of C4a, C3a, and C5a compared to anesthetic-exposed healthy persons. C1q- and C3d-containing immune complexes were significantly elevated in anesthetic-exposed persons. In conclusion, our data suggest that anesthetic-exposed persons develop CYP2E1-specific IgG1 autoantibodies which may form detectable circulating immune complexes subsequently cleared by classical pathway activation of the complement system. Persons susceptible to anesthetic-induced IDDIH develop CYP2E1-specific IgG4 autoantibodies which form small, nonprecipitating immune complexes that escape clearance because of their size or by direct inhibition of complement activation. PMID:16467335

  7. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  9. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  10. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  11. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate themore » types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.« less

  12. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  13. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    PubMed

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  14. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  16. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  17. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  18. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations.

  19. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in amateur male marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Anna M; Lewicka, Ewa; Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Alicja; Lewicka-Potocka, Zuzanna; Wabich, Elżbieta; Szerszyńska, Anna; Dyda, Julia; Sobolewski, Jakub; Koenner, Jakub; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2018-06-18

    Sports activity has become extremely popular among amateurs. Electrocardiography is a useful tool in screening for cardiac pathologies in athletes; however, there is little data on electrocardiographic abnormalities in the group of amateur athletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the abnormalities in resting and exercise electrocardiograms (ECGs) in a group of amateur athletes, and try to determine whether the criteria applied for the general population or for athletes' ECGs should be implemented in this group. In 40 amateur male marathon runners, 3 consecutive 12-lead ECGs were performed: 2-3 weeks before (stage 1), just after the run (stage 2) and 2-3 weeks after the marathon (stage 3). Resting (stage 1) and exercise (stage 2) ECGs were analyzed following the refined criteria for the assessment of athlete's ECG (changes classified as training-related, borderline or training-unrelated). In resting ECGs, at least 1 abnormality was found in 92.5% of the subjects and the most common was sinus bradycardia (62.5%). In post-exercise ECGs, at least 1 abnormality was present in 77.5% of the subjects and the most common was right atrium enlargement (RAE) (42.5%). Training-related ECG variants were more frequent at rest (82.5% vs 42.5%; p = 0.0008), while borderline variants - after the run (22.5% vs 57.5%; p = 0.0004). Training-unrelated abnormalities were found in 15% and 10% of the subjects, respectively (p-value - nonsignificant), and the most common was T-wave inversion. Even if the refined criteria rather than the criteria used for normal sedentary population were applied, the vast majority of amateur runners showed at least 1 abnormality in resting ECGs, which were mainly training-related variants. However, at rest, in 15% of the subjects, pathologic training-unrelated abnormalities were found. The most frequent post-exercise abnormality was right atrial enlargement. General electrocardiographic screening in amateur athletes should be taken into consideration.

  20. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  1. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  2. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  3. Neuroimaging evidence of brain abnormalities in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boddaert, N; Salvador, A; Chandesris, M O; Lemaître, H; Grévent, D; Gauthier, C; Naggara, O; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Moura, D S; Munsch, F; Jaafari, N; Zilbovicius, M; Lortholary, O; Gaillard, R; Hermine, O

    2017-08-08

    Mastocytosis is a rare disease in which chronic symptoms are related to mast cell accumulation and activation. Patients can display depression-anxiety-like symptoms and cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of these symptoms may be associated with tissular mast cell infiltration, mast cell mediator release or both. The objective of this study is to perform morphological or functional brain analyses in mastocytosis to identify brain changes associated with this mast cell disorder. We performed a prospective and monocentric comparative study to evaluate the link between subjective psycho-cognitive complaints, psychiatric evaluation and objective medical data using magnetic resonance imaging with morphological and perfusion sequences (arterial spin-labeled perfusion) in 39 patients with mastocytosis compared with 33 healthy controls. In the test cohort of 39 mastocytosis patients with psycho-cognitive complaints, we found that 49% of them had morphological brain abnormalities, mainly abnormal punctuated white matter abnormalities (WMA). WMA were equally frequent in cutaneous mastocytosis patients and indolent forms of systemic mastocytosis patients (42% and 41% of patients with WMA, respectively). Patients with WMA showed increased perfusion in the putamen compared with patients without WMA and with healthy controls. Putamen perfusion was also negatively correlated with depression subscores. This study demonstrates, for we believe the first time, a high prevalence of morphological and functional abnormalities in the brains of mastocytosis patients with neuropsychiatric complaints. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism underpinning this association and to ascertain its specificity.

  4. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  5. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison ofmore » emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.« less

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  7. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  8. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  9. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  10. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  11. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  12. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  13. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  14. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  15. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

    PubMed

    Kiviranta, A-M; Rusbridge, C; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Hielm-Björkman, A; Lappalainen, A K; Knowler, S P; Jokinen, T S

    2017-11-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas. Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. Scratching was the most common CM/SM-related clinical sign and decreased postural reaction the most common neurologic deficit in 73 and 87% of dogs, respectively. Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 100 and 38% of dogs, respectively. Syringomyelia was associated with the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs (P = 0.034), and medullary kinking and sum indices were higher in dogs with clinical signs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.007, respectively). Syringomyelia and CCJ abnormalities are prevalent in Chihuahuas. Syringomyelia was an important factor for the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs, but many dogs suffered from similar clinical signs without being affected by SM, highlighting the clinical importance of CCJ abnormalities in Chihuahuas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Hemostatic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Aarti; Sikka, Meera; Sharma, Satender; Rusia, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Diverse hemostatic abnormalities have been reported in patients with myeloma which predispose to bleeding and also thrombosis. Methods: Complete blood count, biochemical parameters and parameters of hemostasis i.e. platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), factor VIII assay resu