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Sample records for abnormalities growth retardation

  1. Ring chromosome 5 associated with severe growth retardation as the sole major physical abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, M.V.; Pettinari, A.; Cherubini, V.; Bartolotta, E.; Pecora, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a case of ring chromosome 5 in a 36-month-old girl with severe growth retardation, clinodactyly, mild psychological abnormalities, and normal facial appearance. Endocrine tests showed partial growth hormone deficiency. Cytogenetic investigation failed to demonstrate any apparent microscopic deletion of either the short or long arm of chromosome 5 as a consequence of ring formation. In 12% of cells examined, the ring was either absent or present in multiple copies. Only 3 previous cases of ring chromosome 5 have been reported in association with short stature of prenatal onset and minor anomalies, without mental retardation. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Radiation-Induced Growth Retardation and Microstructural and Metabolite Abnormalities in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zawaski, Janice A.; Sahnoune, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Cranial radiotherapy (CRT) increases survival in pediatric brain-tumor patients but can cause deleterious effects. This study evaluates the acute and long-term impact of CRT delivered during childhood/adolescence on the brain and body using a rodent model. Rats received CRT, either 4 Gy fractions × 5 d (fractionated) or a cumulative dose of 20 Gy (single dose) at 28 d of age. Animals were euthanized 1 d, 5 d, or 3.5 mo after CRT. The 3.5 mo group was imaged prior to euthanasia. At 3.5 mo, we observed significant growth retardation in irradiated animals, versus controls, and the effects of single dose on brain and body weights were more severe than fractionated. Acutely single dose significantly reduced body weight but increased brain weight, whereas fractionation significantly reduced brain but not body weights, versus controls. CRT suppressed cell proliferation in the hippocampal subgranular zone acutely. Fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fimbria was significantly lower in the single dose versus controls. Hippocampal metabolite levels were significantly altered in the single dose animals, reflecting a heightened state of inflammation that was absent in the fractionated. Our findings indicate that despite the differences in severity between the doses they both demonstrated an effect on cell proliferation and growth retardation, important factors in pediatric CRT. PMID:27242931

  3. Cerebral cortical hypoplasia with abnormal morphology of pyramidal neuron in growth-retarded mouse (grt/grt).

    PubMed

    Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Chika; Aoyama, Junya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize structural abnormalities of the cerebrum in a growth-retarded mouse (grt/grt) with a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase 2 gene defect. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from fixed brains of male homogenous grt/grt (n=5) and heterozygous grt/+ (n=5) mice at 15 weeks of age, and volumes of representative cerebral regions were calculated on the basis of those images. Following CT measurements, cryosections of the brain were made, and immunohistochemistry for NeuN and SMI-32 was carried out. By CT-based volumetry, region-specific reductions in volumes were marked in the cerebral cortex and white matter, but not in other cerebral regions of grt/grt. When quantitatively evaluating the shape of the cerebral cortex, the frontooccipital length of the cortex was significantly smaller in grt/grt than in grt/+, whereas the cortical width was not altered in grt/grt. On the other hand, both cortical thickness and density of NeuN-immunopositive neurons in three distinctive cortical regions, i.e., the primary motor cortex, barrel field of primary somatosensory cortex and primary visual cortex, were not different between grt/grt and grt/+. By semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis, the intensity of SMI-32 immunostaining was significantly weaker in grt/grt than in grt/+ in the three cortical areas examined. SMI-32 staining was reduced, particularly in layer III pyramidal neurons in grt/grt, while it was sustained in multipolar neurons. The present results suggest that cerebral abnormalities in grt/grt mice are characterized by cortical hypoplasia at the frontooccipital axis with immature pyramidal neurons and insufficient development of callosal fibers.

  4. Alterations of growth plate and abnormal insulin-like growth factor I metabolism in growth-retarded hypokalemic rats: effect of growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Gil-Peña, Helena; Garcia-Lopez, Enrique; Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Loredo, Vanessa; Carbajo-Perez, Eduardo; Ordoñez, Flor A; Rodriguez-Suarez, Julian; Santos, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Hypokalemic tubular disorders may lead to growth retardation which is resistant to growth hormone (GH) treatment. The mechanism of these alterations is unknown. Weaning female rats were grouped (n = 10) in control, potassium-depleted (KD), KD treated with intraperitoneal GH at 3.3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) during the last week (KDGH), and control pair-fed with KD (CPF). After 2 wk, KD rats were growth retarded compared with CPF rats, the osseous front advance (+/-SD) being 67.07 +/- 10.44 and 81.56 +/- 12.70 microm/day, respectively. GH treatment did not accelerate growth rate. The tibial growth plate of KD rats had marked morphological alterations: lower heights of growth cartilage (228.26 +/- 23.58 microm), hypertrophic zone (123.68 +/- 13.49 microm), and terminal chondrocytes (20.8 +/- 2.39 microm) than normokalemic CPF (264.21 +/- 21.77, 153.18 +/- 15.80, and 24.21 +/- 5.86 microm). GH administration normalized these changes except for the distal chondrocyte height. Quantitative PCR of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor, and GH receptor genes in KD growth plates showed downregulation of IGF-I and upregulation of IGF-I receptor mRNAs, without changes in their distribution as analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. GH did not further modify IGF-I mRNA expression. KD rats had normal hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels and low serum IGF-I values. GH increased liver IGF-I mRNA, but circulating IGF-I levels remained reduced. This study discloses the structural and molecular alterations induced by potassium depletion on the growth plate and shows that the lack of response to GH administration is associated with persistence of the disturbed process of chondrocyte hypertrophy and depressed mRNA expression of local IGF-I in the growth plate.

  5. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

  6. A new form of X-linked mental retardation with growth retardation, deafness, and microgenitalism.

    PubMed Central

    Juberg, R C; Marsidi, I

    1980-01-01

    The proband and two maternal uncles were similarly affected by a unique constellation of mental retardation and physical abnormalities. There were severe retardation, growth less than the third percentile, and significantly delayed bone age. They manifested deafness, a flat nasal bridge, several ocular abnormalities, and a rudimentary scrotum with cryptorchidism, and one had a small penis. The proband also had onychodystrophy of his fingers and toes. Their birth weights and lengths were less than expected. No chromosomal or biochemical abnormality was detected. Both uncles died, but the proband is healthy at 4 years. Their phenotype is distinguished from other forms of X-linked mental retardation and appears to be a new syndrome. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6107045

  7. Dynamic mosaicism manifesting as loss, gain and rearrangement of an isodicentric Y chromosome in a male child with growth retardation and abnormal external genitalia.

    PubMed

    Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Liehr, T; Monakhov, V V; Soloviev, I V; Yurov, Y B

    2008-01-01

    Isodicentric chromosomes are considered the most common structural abnormality of the human Y chromosome. Because of their instability during cell division, loss of an isodicentric Y seems mainly to lie at the origin of mosaicism in previously reported patients with a 45,X cell line. Here, we report on a similar case, which, however, turned out to be an example of dynamic mosaicism involving isodicentric chromosome Y and isochromosome Y after FISH with a set of chromosome Y-specific probes and multicolor banding. Cytogenetic analyses (GTG-, C-, and Q-banding) have shown three different cell lines: 45,X/46, X,idic(Y)(q12)/46,X,+mar. The application of molecular cytogenetic techniques established the presence of four cell lines: 45,X (48%), 46,X,idic(Y)(q11.23) (42%), 46,X,i(Y)(p10) (6%) and 47,X,idic(Y)(q11.23),+idic(Y)(q11.23) (4%). According to the available literature, this is the first case of dynamic mosaicism with up to four different cell lines involving loss, gain, and rearrangement of an idic(Y)(q11.23). The present report indicates that cases of mosaicism involving isodicentric and isochromosome Ys can be more dynamic in terms of somatic intercellular variability that probably has an underappreciated effect on the phenotype. PMID:18758177

  8. Regulation of Plant Morphology by Growth Retardants

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Klaus; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Siebecker, Heinrich; Jung, Johannes

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the growth retardants tetcyclacis, a norbornenodiazetine, and LAB 150 978, a dioxanylalkenyl triazole, on seedling growth and endogenous levels of phytohormone-like substances in Glycine max L. cv Maple Arrow were studied. The levels of phytohormone-like substances in the root and in the various shoot tissues were analyzed by immunoassay. After seed treatment with both compounds, shoot growth was reduced more intensively than root growth. Both compounds decreased, on a fresh weight basis, the amount of various immunoreactive gibberellins when compared with the levels in control plants, especially in the shoot tip. Likewise, the growth retardants lowered the levels of abscisic acid-like material, particularly in the primary leaf, the epicotyl and the root. In contrast, the levels of trans-zeatin-riboside and dihydrozeatin-riboside-type cytokinins were considerably elevated by the growth retardants, mainly in the primary leaf, epicotyl, and hypocotyl. On the other hand the level of isopentenyladenosine-like material was less influenced. In general, the immunoreactive 3-indoleacetic acid content in the different plant parts was changed only slightly. It is assumed that besides their effect on gibberellin content both compounds interfere directly or indirectly with the regulation of the endogenous levels of abscisic acid and cytokinins. This might be seen as an additional mode of action of growth retardants explaining some side effects on developmental processes of treated plants, e.g. delayed senescence and enhanced chlorophyll concentration in the leaves. PMID:16665554

  9. Ventricular ejection force in growth-retarded fetuses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Rinaldo, D; Arduini, D; Romanini, C

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether in growth-retarded fetuses secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency the cardiac ventricles exert a force different from that of appropriately grown fetuses. Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed in 156 appropriately grown fetuses (gestational age 18-38 weeks) and in 72 growth-retarded fetuses (gestational age 24-36 weeks) free from structural and chromosomal abnormalities and characterized by Doppler changes in the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery suggesting uteroplacental insufficiency as the most likely etiology of the growth defect. Right and left ventricular ejection force values were calculated from velocity waveforms recorded at the level of aortic and pulmonary valves, according to Newton's second law of motion. In appropriately grown fetuses, left and right ventricular ejection force values significantly increased with advancing gestation and the two ventricles exerted similar force. In growth-retarded fetuses, the ventricular ejection force was significantly and symmetrically decreased in both ventricles. Among growth-retarded fetuses, a poorer perinatal outcome was observed in those fetuses in which the ejection force of both ventricles was below the 5th centile of the normal limits for gestation. In 12 growth-retarded fetuses followed longitudinally during the last week preceding intrauterine death or Cesarean section due to antepartum heart-rate late decelerations, a significant decrease of ejection force was found in both ventricles. Finally, a significant relationship was found between the severity of acidosis and right and left ventricular ejection force values in 22 fetuses in which Doppler recordings were performed immediately before cordocentesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Normalisation of a severely abnormal ductus venosus Doppler flow velocity waveform in a growth-retarded fetus with absent end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Rehn, M; Girschick, G; Kristen, P; Dietl, J

    2001-01-01

    Doppler recordings of fetal venous blood flow seem to be superior to arterial velocimetry and CTG concerning the prediction of fetal outcome and optimal time of delivery in pregnancies with fetal growth retardation and AREDV. An improvement of arterial Doppler flow velocities has been described. We report the reappearance of a normal end-diastolic flow velocity in a ductus venosus temporarily showing reversed end-diastolic flow in a growth-retarded fetus with congenital anomalies. This normalization was accompanied by an improvement of the CTG, a loss of umbilical vein pulsations, a reappearance of umbilical diastolic flow and a progressive return of cerebral and venous blood flow into the 'normal' range. Improvement of fetal condition may be the explanation for our observation.

  11. [Growth charts and intrauterine growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Gouyon, J-B; Ferdynus, C; Quantin, C

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction indicates that a fetus is unable to achieve its growth potential. The individual growth potential is approximated by customization of growth charts. Neonatal growth charts rely on body weight measures at birth while fetal growth charts rely on body weight estimated from biometric measurements of the fetus. The neonatal and fetal growth charts are not equivalent and have different meanings for epidemiologists and clinicians. Fetal growth charts also assess fetal growth velocity, but individual assessment of fetal weight may be flawed by lack of precision. Neonatal charts are constructed based on data obtained in the whole population or in a subgroup without gestational diseases. The two types of neonatal charts markedly differ at low gestational ages as 30% of preterm infants present intrauterine growth restriction, usually due to maternal diseases. Even if intrauterine growth restriction is a risk factor of fetal mortality, neonatal mortality, and short- and long-term morbidity, the predictive value of the charts (whether or not they are customized) at an individual level is low and may be improved by additional investigations.

  12. Late infantile autosomal recessive myotonia, mental retardation, and skeletal abnormalities: a new autosomal recessive syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Richieri-Costa, A; Garcia da Silva, S M; Frota-Pessoa, O

    1984-01-01

    Four sibs of non-consanguineous parents who had myotonia from late infancy are described. Mild to moderate mental retardation, severe bone abnormalities of the vertebral column (mainly in the thoracolumbar region), and short stature were also observed. Autosomal recessive inheritance is demonstrated. These cases are compared with reported cases of the Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Images PMID:6716408

  13. [Intrauterine growth retardation and lung development].

    PubMed

    Zana-Taïeb, E; Aubelle, M-S; El Ayoubi, M; Lopez, E; Jarreau, P-H

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased respiratory morbidity in the neonatal period with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respiratory consequences of environmental intrauterine changes extend into childhood and adulthood with abnormal lung function tests. In animal models, changes in surfactant and alveolarization disorders vary from one study to another. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Fetal adaptations to intrauterine malnutrition result in permanent changes in lung structure, raising the question of lung "programming". PMID:23886868

  14. Intrauterine growth retardation--small events, big consequences.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Taimur; Sajjad, Nida; Fatima, Sanna; Habib, Nida; Ali, Syed R; Qadir, Maqbool

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age). As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard. PMID:21899747

  15. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (p<0.05). At delivery to market, the sugar-supplemented calves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  16. Diagnosis of growth retardation by biochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Klopper, A

    1984-08-01

    The substances in the blood or urine of a pregnant woman which may give an indication of the state of fetal growth are examined. The drawback of measuring such substances is that the values are variable, making it difficult to distinguish between normal and abnormal. Variability arises from technical factors in measurements, from short-term changes of no significance and from the large spread of normal values from one individual to the next. Biochemical parameters of fetal growth can be applied in one of two ways: as screening tests or as control measures by serial assays to guide management. The criteria by which any test should be evaluated--sensitivity, specificity and relative risk--are examined. Particular substances whose measurement may be helpful are considered in terms of the steroids or proteins produced by the fetoplacental unit. The oestrogens, notably oestriol, hold pride of place among the steroids. Dynamic tests of steroid synthesis are also considered. The chief placental proteins of interest are chorionic gonadotrophin, placental lactogen and Schwangerschaftsprotein 1. It is concluded that the method to be recommended is to screen a whole obstetric population with assays of placental lactogen and to follow those with values below the normal limit with serial oestriol assays. PMID:6332704

  17. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  18. Craniotubular dysplasia with severe postnatal growth retardation, mental retardation, ectodermal dysplasia, and loose skin: Lenz-Majewski-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Harigaya, A; Kuwashima, M; Kuwashima, S

    1997-07-11

    The heterogeneous group of craniotubular dysplasias is characterized by modeling errors of the craniofacial and tubular bones. Some conditions in this category cause not only skeletal abnormalities but also a variety of mesoectodermal dysplasias, as exemplified in Lenz-Majewski syndrome (MIM 151050), which comprises craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, proximal symphalangism, enamel hypoplasia, and loose skin. We report on a boy with a hitherto unknown multisystem disorder, including skeletal changes that were regarded as a form of craniotubular dysplasia. The patient had a large head, exophthalmos, a broad nasal root, anteverted nostrils, large auricles, thick lips, micrognathia, severe postnatal growth retardation with emaciation, severe mental retardation, sparse hair growth, enamel hypoplasia, and thin, loose skin with hyperlaxity. Skeletal changes consisted of thickened calvaria, sclerosis of the skull base and facial bones, thick ribs, and metaphyseal undermodeling of the tubular bones. In addition, generalized osteopenia was evident. The present disorder overlaps phenotypically with Lenz-Majewski syndrome; nevertheless, the absence of diaphyseal hyperostosis and proximal symphalangism in the present patient was not consistent with Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

  19. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  20. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  1. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  2. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  3. Chlormequat chloride retards rat embryo growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiagedeer, Bayindala; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Yingjuan; Hao, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Chlormequat chloride is the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture to promote sturdier growth of grain crops by avoidance of lodging. Therefore, human exposure to chlormequat chloride is very common, but its developmental toxicity has not been studied. Thus, we investigated the developmental toxicity of chlormequat chloride by applying rat whole embryo culture (WEC) model, limb bud micromass culture and 3T3 fibroblast cytotoxicity test. Chlormequat chloride at 150μg/ml (0.93mM) retarded the rat embryo growth without causing significant morphological malformations and at 500μg/ml (3.1mM) caused both retardation and morphological malformation of the embryos. However, the proliferation and differentiation of limb bud cells were not affected by chlormequat chloride at as high as up to 1000μg/ml (6.2mM) applied. This concentration of chlormequat chloride did not affect the cell viability as examined by 3T3 fibroblast cytotoxicity test either, suggesting that cellular toxicity may not play a role in chlormequat induced inhibition of rat embryo growth. Collectively, our results demonstrated that chlormequat chloride may affect embryo growth and development without inhibiting cell viability.

  4. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Endocrine-related causes and consequences of intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Mastorakos, George; Chrousos, George P

    2003-11-01

    The term intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is assigned to newborns born with a birth weight and/or birth length below the tenth percentile for their gestational age. Intrauterine growth retardation is usually due to maternal, fetal factors, or placental insufficiency, while endocrine factors represent just a small minority in its etiology. Main endocrine-related causes of IUGR are disorders in insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion or action. Newborns with IUGR are at increased risk to develop a metabolic syndrome later in life, namely obesity, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus type 2. This association is the result of the adaptational changes of the fetal endocrine-metabolic mechanisms to the impaired intrauterine milieu to assure survival in the short term. The persistence of these changes after birth can be detrimental in adult life. Furthermore, premature adrenarche, as well as ovarian hyperandrogenism, seem to be associated with IUGR in girls, demonstrating that IUGR may have long-lasting effects on both somatic health and reproductive function. Finally, the intrauterine exposure of the fetus to stressors may affect the individual's ability to face stress in postnatal life. Therefore, if optimization of somatic and psychosocial well-being of the individual is the golden goal of medicine, special attention should be paid to maintain an optimal intrauterine milieu devoid of any stressors with adequate nutrient supply and to reserve ideal psychosocial support to the pregnant woman. PMID:14644821

  6. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  7. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites.

  8. Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: a general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O

    1993-01-01

    Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here I describe and analyze a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, approximately 50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomeres should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. PMID:8352277

  9. A review of contemporary modalities for identifying abnormal fetal growth.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C; Stuart, B; Fitzpatrick, C; Turner, M J; Kennelly, M M

    2013-04-01

    Detecting aberrant fetal growth has long been an important goal of modern obstetrics. Failure to diagnose abnormal fetal growth results in perinatal morbidity or mortality. However, the erroneous diagnosis of abnormal growth may lead to increased maternal anxiety and unnecessary obstetric interventions. We review the aetiology of deviant fetal growth and its implications both for the neonatal period and later in adult life. We examine maternal factors that may influence fetal growth such as obesity, glycaemic control and body composition. We discuss novel ways to improve our detection of abnormal fetal growth with a view to optimising antenatal care and clinical outcomes. These include using customised centiles or individualised growth assessment methods to improve accuracy. The role of fetal subcutaneous measurements as a surrogate marker of the nutritional status of the baby is also discussed. Finally, we investigate the role of Doppler measurements in identifying growth-restricted babies.

  10. Treating growth and TMJ abnormalities in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tanchyk, A

    1994-12-01

    Two case reports illustrate the orofacial aspects of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The disease can affect facial growth and cause TMJ abnormalities. Children may vary in the degree to which they are affected by JRA, and dentists should investigate JRA as a cause of these abnormalities or deformities.

  11. Assessment of Turner's syndrome by molecular analysis of the X chromosome in growth-retarded girls.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, C; Gaston, V; Cabrol, S; Le Bouc, Y

    1998-05-01

    Turner's syndrome (TS) is a common disorder (1/2500 to 1/5000 female births) which is diagnosed at birth in approximately 20% of patients and during childhood or at puberty for the rest. Growth retardation is the most frequent clinical feature of TS, so we systematically searched for TS in female patients referred to our center because of short stature. Three hundred seventy-five female patients, 1 month to 18 yr old (mean +/- SD = 9(7/12) +/- 3(9/12), with growth retardation (less than -2 SD) and/or decreased height velocity were included in the study. Mean growth retardation was -2.57 SD +/- 0.79 (range: -1 to -7). Thirty-two percent of the patients had reached puberty. GH provocative tests were performed in 329 patients (87.7%), and 36 of these patients (11%) had impaired GH secretion (5 complete and 31 partial GH deficiency). TS was evaluated by Southern blot analysis of leukocyte DNA using a multiallelic polymorphic X chromosome marker (88% heterozygosity rate). Y chromosome PCR analysis was carried out if a pattern indicative of TS was obtained. Leukocyte DNA analysis produced an abnormal restriction pattern for 20 of the 375 cases (5.3%). There was a single hybridizing band in 13 cases, an allelic disproportion indicative of mosaicism in 6 cases, and 3 hybridizing bands in 1 case. One patient tested positive in the Y chromosome PCR analysis. Cytogenetic analysis showed 47 XXX trisomy in the patient with a 3-hybridizing-band pattern and confirmed the diagnosis of TS for 17 of the 19 suspected cases: 45 X: n = 7; 45 X/46 Xi(Xq): n = 4; 45 X/46 XX: n = 2; 46 Xi(Xq): n = 1; 45 X/46 Xr(X): n = 1; 45 X/46 XX/47 XXX: n = 1; 45 X/46 XY: n = 1. Cytogenetic analysis was normal (46 XX) for the 2 other patients. The TS phenotype is variable: dysmorphism is often missing or mild (particularly in cases of mosaicism), but growth is reduced in virtually all patients. Screening of 375 growth-retarded girls identified 18 cases of TS, of which 17 were diagnosed by molecular

  12. Assessment of developmental retardation and abnormality of in vivo produced preimplantation embryos in rat.

    PubMed

    Rupasri, A; Shivakumar, K R; Sreenath, B R; Seshagiri, P B

    1995-12-01

    In most mammals studied, a substantial numbers of preimplantation embryos are believed to be lost in vivo. In vitro, embryos develop slowly and lose viability. Hence, there is a need to assess the extent and cause of embryonic loss both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we assessed the quality of in vivo produced ovulation products/embryos, recovered on days 1-5 pregnancy, from naturally bred wistar rats. From day 1 pregnant rats (n = 24), 226 ovulation products were recovered which included 52% (117) unfertilized oocytes and empty zonae with/without cell debris (UFO-EZ:CD) and 48% (109) 1-cells. Flushings of day 2 rats (n = 27) contained 229 ovulation products, consisting of 70% (160) 2-cells and 30% (69) UFO-EZ:CD. Flushings of day 3 rats (n = 27) had 23% (56) 2-cells, 6% (15) 3-cells, 23% (57) 4-cells, 1% (2) 5-7 cells, 2% (5) 8-cells and 45% (112) UFO-EZ:CD, total being 247. Flushings of day 4 rats (n = 28) had 193 ovulation products comprising of one morula, 45% (86) 8-cells, 5% (9) 5-7-cells and the rest were 4-cells (2), 3-cells (2), 2-cells (1) and 48% (92) UFO-EZ:CD. Day 5 flushings (n = 27) had 202 ovulation products which included 13% (27) morulae, 17% (34) early, 36% (73) mid and 2% (5) late blastocysts; additionally, 4-cells (1), 8-cells (2) and 30% (60) UFO-EZ:CD were also recovered. On day 4, embryos (8-cells) migrated from the oviduct to the uterus. When pregnant rats (n = 25) were allowed to term, only 15 females (60%) delivered pups (128) with variable litter size (2-12). These results indicate that 56% (619/1097) of recovered rat preimplantation embryos are of expected developmental age with a mixture of asynchronously cleaving embryos. The remaining 44% (478) is comprised of 38% (417) UFO-EZ:CD and 6% (61) abnormal and developmentally retarded embryos, which are unlikely to produce viable pups at term.

  13. Uniparental isodisomy for paternal 7p and maternal 7q in a child with growth retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerding, F.A.; Schonberg, S.A.; Cox, V.A.; Epstein, C.J. Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA ); Chehab, F.F.; Norton, M.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Uniparental isodisomy resulting from the simultaneous presence of isochromosomes of the p and q arms of a chromosome and absence of a normal homologue is an exceptionally rare event. The authors have observed a growth-retarded female infant in whom the normal chromosome 7 homologues were replaced by what appeared cytogenetically to be isochromosomes of 7p and 7q. Polymorphic microsatellite loci spanning the length of 7p and 7q were analyzed in the proband and her parents to ascertain the parental origin and extent of heterozygosity of the proband's rearranged chromosomes. These studies demonstrated that the 7p alleles of the proband were derived only from the father, the 7q alleles were derived only from the mother, and there was homozygosity for all chromosome 7 loci analyzed. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the proband's isochromosomes could reflect abnormalities of cell division occurring at meiosis, postfertilization mitosis, or both. The authors believe that the present case may result from incomplete mitotic interchange in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 7 homologues, with resolution by sister-chromatid reunion in an early, if not first, zygotic division. Phenotypically, the proband resembled three previously reported cases of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 7, suggesting that lack of paternal genes from 7q may result in a phenotype of short stature and growth retardation. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Plant Growth Retardants as Inhibitors of Sterol Biosynthesis in Tobacco Seedlings 12

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Trevor J.; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1974-01-01

    Three plant-growth retardants 2′-isopropy1-4′-(trimethylammonium chloride)-5-methylphenylpiperidine carboxylate (Amo 1618), β-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride, and tributyl-2, 4-dichlorobenzylphosphonium chloride were tested for their effects on sterol production in, and growth of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. As the concentration of each retardant increased, there was an increased inhibition of the incorporation of dl-2-14C-mevalonic acid into sterol (particularly desmethylsterol) fractions and an increased retardation of stem growth. Growth retardation was observed with both single and repeated retardant treatments, and with Amo 1618, in particular, a close quantitative relationship between inhibition of sterol biosynthesis and stem growth was obtained. Gibberellic acid completely overcame retardant effects and application of sterols also restored normal growth. It is concluded that the concept of causality in the relationship between growth retardation and gibberellin biosynthesis is probably premature, since growth retardants have a more general inhibitory action on isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. PMID:16658867

  15. 1q25.2-q31.3 Deletion in a female with mental retardation, clinodactyly, minor facial anomalies but no growth retardation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The reports of 1q25-32 deletion cases are rare. We reported here an 11-year-old Chinese Han female with an interstitial 1q25 deletion displaying mental retardation, clinodactyly of the 5th finger and minor facial anomalies. Notably, the patient did not present growth retardation which is quite common in patients with 1q25-32 deletion encompassing LHX4. The heterozygous deletion in this patient was characterized as 46,XX,del(1)(q25.2-q31.3) with a length of 20.5 Mb according to SNP-array test results. STRP (Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphism) analysis of the family trio indicated the genomic abnormality was de novo with paternal origin. After a genotype-phenotype analysis, we proposed here the loss of a 3.1 Mb critical region including 24 genes within 1q25.2 (chr1:174.5-177.6 Mb, build 36) may account for the mental retardation in patients with 1q25-32 deletion. PMID:23915434

  16. Abnormal Grain Growth in M-252 and S-816 Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R F; Rush, A I; Dano, A G; Freeman, J W

    1957-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out on air- and vacuum-melted M-252 and S-816 alloys to find conditions of heating and hot-working which resulted in abnormal grain growth. The experiments were mainly limited to normal conditions of heating for hot-working and heat treatment and normal temperatures of solution treatment were used to allow grain growth after susceptibility to abnormal grain growth was developed by various experimental conditions. Results indicated that small reductions of essentially strain-free metal were the basic cause of such grain growth.

  17. Familial X-linked mental retardation and isolated growth hormone deficiency: Clinical and molecular findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, B.C.J.; Smits, A.P.T.; Helm, B. van den

    1996-07-12

    We report on several members of a family with varying degrees of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), and infantile behavior but without other consistent phenotypic abnormalities. Male patients continued to grow until well into their twenties and reached a height ranging from 135 to 159 cm. Except one, all female carriers were mentally normal; their adult height ranged from 159 to 168 cm. By linkage studies we have assigned the underlying genetic defect to the Xq24-q27.3 region, with a maximum lod score of Z = 3.26 at {theta} = 0.0 for the DXS294 locus. The XLMR-IGHD phenotype in these patients may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or it may represent a contiguous gene syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Growth of functional cranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation after treatment with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Fabián Anibal; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Luna, María Eugenia; Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Cesani, María Florencia; Fucini, María Cecilia; Villanueva, Myriam; Prio, Verónica; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of growth hormone (GH) on catch-up growth of functional facial (splanchnocranial) and neurocranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), sham-operated (SH), IUGR, and IUGR + GH. IUGR was surgically induced and GH was administered between 21 and 60 days of age. Radiographs were obtained at 1, 21, 42, 63, and 84 days of age in order to measure length, width, and height of neurocranium (NL, NW, and NH) and face length, width, and height (FL, FW, and FH). Analysis of variance was performed at 1 day of age and a principal components analysis (PCA) at 84 days of age. Neurocranial and facial volumetric indexes were calculated as NVI = (3)√NL × NW × NH and FVI = (3)√FL × FW × FH, respectively, and adjusted by non-linear regression analysis. On postnatal day 1, there were significant differences between SH and IUGR (P < 0.01). Also, in both genders, final neurocranial volume was similar between SH and IUGR + GH groups, while the IUGR group had the lower value (P < 0.01). Final facial volume was similar among the three groups. In both genders, facial growth rates were SH = IUGR > IUGR + GH (P < 0.01). The first axis of the PCA exhibited size effect and the second axis showed shape effect. Reductions of placental blood flow modify cranial growth. The functional neurocranial and facial components in rats with IUGR presented different recovery strategies through modular behaviour, mainly related to modifications of growth rate as response to GH administration.

  19. Structural chromosomal abnormalities in patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies: a new series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Tos, T; Karaman, A; Aksoy, A; Tukun, A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA/MR). Screening for these chromosomal imbalances has mainly been done by standard karyotyping. The objective of this study was to report standard chromosome analysis and FISH screening of a series of 24 patients with MCA/MR. Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 24 alterations and included 5 deletions, 2 duplications, 6 unbalanced translocations, 3 inversions, 2 insertions, 3 derivative chromosomes, 2 marker chromosomes and 1 isochromosome. We confirm that a high percentage of MCA/MR cases hitherto considered idiopathic is caused by chromosomal imbalances. We conclude that patients with MCA/MR should be routinely karyotyped.

  20. The Use of Genomic Microarrays to Study Chromosomal Abnormalities in Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Mental retardation affects 2 to 3% of the US population. It is defined by broad criteria, including significantly subaverage intelligence, onset by age 18, and impaired function in a group of adaptive skills. A myriad of genetic and environmental causes have been described, but for approximately half of individuals diagnosed with mental…

  1. Kinetic constants of abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel with a purity of 99.5 at % during non-isothermal annealing was experimentally investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystalline nickel was prepared by electrodeposition and had an average grain size of approximately 20 nm. It was shown that, at a temperature corresponding to the calorimetric signal peak, abnormal grain growth occurs with the formation of a bimodal grain microstructure. Calorimeters signals were processed within the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism. This made it possible to determine the exponent of the corresponding equation, the frequency factor, and the activation energy of the grain growth, which was found to be equal to the activation energy of the vacancy migration. The reasons for the abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel were discussed.

  2. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    PubMed

    Strazzullo, Maria; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID:24587197

  3. Global Transcriptome Profiles of Italian Mediterranean Buffalo Embryos with Normal and Retarded Growth

    PubMed Central

    Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID:24587197

  4. Effects of Ancymidol (a Growth Retardant) and Triarimol (a Fungicide) on the Growth, Sterols, and Gibberellins of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.).

    PubMed

    Shive, J B; Sisler, H D

    1976-04-01

    The effect of the two substituted pyrimidines, ancymidol (a growth retardant) and triarimol (a fungicide) on Phaseolus vulgaris was studied. Both compounds retarded shoot and root elongation as well as increases in fresh weight. Both compounds caused production of ethylene-like responses when given in high dosages or when applied shortly after germination. As growth retardation was shown to occur in the absence of net increase in sterol levels, neither ancymidol nor triarimol apparently retards growth by inhibiting sterol synthesis.Both ancymidol and triarimol treatment drastically reduced the amount of extractable gibberellin-like activity in beans. Ancymidol also either induced or enhanced the production of a compound which gave a negative response in the bioassay plant Oryza sativa var. Tan-ginbozu. The addition of gibberellin completely relieved the dwarfing effects of both ancymidol and triarimol in dark-grown beans. It is concluded that ancymidol and triarimol affect a gibberellin-induced growth response, probably by inhibiting gibberellin biosynthesis.

  5. Abnormal Stability in Growth of Diffusion-Limited Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Shonosuke

    2009-01-01

    An abnormal and unsteady growth of an isotropic cluster in diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) is observed in stability analyses. Macroscopic fluctuation due to the delay of transition from a dendritic tip to a tip-splitting growth induces the anisotropy of DLA. An asymptotic deformation factor \\varepsilon∞ = 0.0888 is obtained from large DLA clusters. A symmetric oval model proposed from the dual-stability growth of DLA gives an asymptotic fractal dimension of 1.7112 using \\varepsilon∞. The correspondence of this model to the box dimension is excellent.

  6. A new diagnostic workflow for patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities: test arrays first.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Antoinet C J; Lew, Janet Y K; Bosch, Cathy A J; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H M; van Haeringen, Arie; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Kant, Sarina G; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Breuning, Martijn H; Bakker, Egbert; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L

    2009-11-01

    High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology enables extensive genotyping as well as the detection of increasingly smaller chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we assess molecular karyotyping as first-round analysis of patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MR/MCA). We used different commercially available SNP array platforms, the Affymetrix GeneChip 262K NspI, the Genechip 238K StyI, the Illumina HumanHap 300 and HumanCNV 370 BeadChip, to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in 318 patients with unexplained MR/MCA. We found abnormalities in 22.6% of the patients, including six CNVs that overlap known microdeletion/duplication syndromes, eight CNVs that overlap recently described syndromes, 63 potentially pathogenic CNVs (in 52 patients), four large segments of homozygosity and two mosaic trisomies for an entire chromosome. This study shows that high-density SNP array analysis reveals a much higher diagnostic yield as that of conventional karyotyping. SNP arrays have the potential to detect CNVs, mosaics, uniparental disomies and loss of heterozygosity in one experiment. We, therefore, propose a novel diagnostic approach to all MR/MCA patients by first analyzing every patient with an SNP array instead of conventional karyotyping.

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation: clues from the Old Order Amish.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Cohen, B H

    1987-08-01

    We studied differences in the role of genetic factors in prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation with the use of data on 312 Amish singleton live children ascertained from Amish records in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, between 1969 and 1980. Birth and death certificates were obtained on all children, and inbreeding coefficients of child, mother, and father were computed by use of the path method of tracing common ancestors in a unique genealogic registry of Amish ancestors dating back to the 1700s. Multivariate analysis with linear and log linear models showed that a lower mean gestational age and a higher risk of prematurity (less than 37 weeks) and borderline maturity (37 to 38 weeks) were significantly associated with increased maternal inbreeding but not child or paternal inbreeding. On the other hand, a higher risk of intrauterine growth retardation (less than the tenth percentile in birth weight for gestational age) and mild intrauterine growth delay (tenth to twenty-fifth percentile) were associated with increased child inbreeding but not maternal or paternal inbreeding. The analysis suggests the presence of genetic heterogeneity in the etiology of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation; while prematurity is mostly related to the maternal genotype, intrauterine growth retardation is related to the fetal genotype. The study reemphasizes the need for separating low birth weight into prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation in genetic and epidemiologic studies. PMID:3618690

  8. Abnormal Growth Factor/Cytokine Network in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer cells express a broad spectrum of the growth factor/cytokine receptor systems that organize the complex interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in tumor microenvironment, which confers cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, progression and metastasis. However, these abnormal growth factor/cytokine networks differ in the two histological types of gastric cancer. Importantly, activation of nuclear factor-kB pathway by Helicobacter pylori infection may act as a key player for induction of growth factor/cytokine networks in gastritis and pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Better understanding of these events will no doubt provide new approaches for biomarkers of diagnosis and effective therapeutic targeting of gastric cancer. PMID:19308687

  9. Congenital contractures, edema, hyperkeratosis, and intrauterine growth retardation: a fatal syndrome in Hutterite and Mennonite kindreds.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R B; Machin, G A; Morgan, K; Mayock, D; Marx, L

    1985-11-01

    We present clinical findings in infants from three kindreds (two Hutterite and one Mennonite) with an apparently unique, fatal disorder. The major manifestations consist of severe intrauterine growth retardation, congenital contractures, and tense skin which is easily eroded. The skin is tightly drawn over the face, giving an abnormal appearance consisting of a narrow, pinched nose, small mouth, limited jaw mobility, and ectropion (in one). One infant had first-degree hypospadias. Apart from this, there were no organ malformations and the infants did not have hydrops. Histologically, the skin showed hyperkeratosis. It is postulated that this is a tissue dysplasia and that all of the clinical effects are secondary. The disorder appears to be an autosomal recessive trait. The two Hutterite families are from different endogamous subdivisions. They are related as fourth cousins once-removed and fifth cousins in multiple ways through the six nearest common ancestors of all four parents. There are 25 founders (11 couples and three individuals) who are common ancestors. We computed the probability of joint descent of the four alleles in each pair of parents and in a sample of Alberta Hutterite couples, assuming that each of the common founders in turn was the original carrier. For an allele from one particular founder couple, there is a relatively greater probability of identity by descent for each pair of parents than on the average for other couples of the same endogamous subdivision.

  10. Low birthweight, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation in relation to maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Horta, B L; Victora, C G; Menezes, A M; Halpern, R; Barros, F C

    1997-04-01

    The association between the intensity and duration of cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the frequency of low birthweight, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation was investigated in a historical cohort. All 5166 livebirths occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 1993 were identified and mothers interviewed soon after delivery. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a birthweight 142 g lower than those of non-smoking mothers. The odds ratio for low birthweight among children of smokers was 1.59 [95% CI 1.30-1.95]. There was no association between smoking and preterm delivery assessed by the Dubowitz score. In relation to intrauterine growth retardation, smoking was associated with an odds ratio of 2.07 [95% CI 1.69-2.53]. There was a direct dose-response association between the number of cigarettes smoked and the risk of growth retardation. Women whose partner smoked were also at higher risk of having a child with growth retardation. All the above results were adjusted for confounding factors. The effect of maternal smoking on low birthweight seems to be attributable to intrauterine growth retardation rather than preterm delivery.

  11. [Genomic abnormalities in children with mental retardation and autism: the use of comparative genomic hybridization in situ (HRCGH) and molecular karyotyping with DNA-microchips (array CGH)].

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iurov, I Iu; Kurinnaia, O S; Voinova, V Iu; Iurov, Iu B

    2013-01-01

    Genomic abnormalities occur with high frequency in children with mental retardation and autistic spectrum disorders (ADS). Molecular karyotyping using DNA microarrays is a new technology for diagnosis of genomic and chromosomal abnormalities in autism implemented in the fields of biological psychiatry and medical genetics. We carried out a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of genome abnormalities in children with mental retardation and autism of unknown etiology using high-resolution comparative genomic methods for hybridization (HRCGH) and molecular karyotyping (array CGH). In a study of 100 children with autism, learning difficulties and congenital malformations by HRCGH, we identified genomic rearrangements in 46% of cases. Using array CGH we examined 50 children with autism. In 44 cases out of 50 (88%), different genomic abnormalities and genomic variations (CNV - copy number variations) were identified. Unbalanced genomic rearrangements, including deletions and duplications, were found in 23 cases out of 44 (52%). These data suggest that genomic abnormalities which are not detectable by common methods of chromosome analysis are often discovered by molecular cytogenetic techniques in children autism spectrum disorders. In addition, 54 children with idiopathic mental retardation and congenital malformations (31 boys and 23 girls) without autism spectrum disorders were examined using molecular karyotyping and microarray containing an increased number of DNA samples for genomic loci of chromosome X. Deletions and duplications affecting different regions of the chromosome X were detected in 11 out of 54 children (20.4%).

  12. Deletion of SHP-2 in mesenchymal stem cells causes growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lapinski, Philip E.; Meyer, Melissa F.; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; King, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In mice, induced global disruption of the Ptpn11 gene, which encodes the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, results in severe skeletal abnormalities. To understand the extent to which skeletal abnormalities can be attributed to perturbation of SHP-2 function in bone-forming osteoblasts and chondrocytes, we generated mice in which disruption of Ptpn11 is restricted to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, which include both cell types. MSC-lineage-specific SHP-2 knockout (MSC SHP-2 KO) mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects. These skeletal abnormalities were associated with an absence of mature osteoblasts and massive chondrodysplasia with a vast increase in the number of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes in affected bones. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (PKB; also known as AKT) was impaired in bone-forming cells of MSC SHP-2 KO mice, which provides an explanation for the skeletal defects that developed. These findings reveal a cell-autonomous role for SHP-2 in bone-forming cells in mice in the regulation of skeletal development. The results add to our understanding of the pathophysiology of skeletal abnormalities observed in humans with germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene (e.g. Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome). PMID:24077964

  13. Growth retardation in sickle-cell disease treated by nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Heyman, M B; Vichinsky, E; Katz, R; Gaffield, B; Hurst, D; Castillo, R; Chiu, D; Kleman, K; Ammann, A J; Thaler, M M

    1985-04-20

    The effect of increased nutritional intake was evaluated in 5 growth-retarded children with sickle-cell disease. Growth on recommended daily calorie and protein intakes had been inadequate in all 5. Fat absorption and intestinal mucosal morphology were normal in all 5. 2 children were given nutritional supplementation by nasogastric intubation, 1 received nightly oral formula supplements, and 2 were supplemented with zinc, iron, folate, and vitamin E only. Nutritional supplementation by the nasogastric route produced a rapid sustained increase in growth rate, associated with striking reductions in pain crises and infections which had previously necessitated many hospital admissions. Oral supplementation improved the clinical course but had no effect on growth rate. Mineral and vitamin supplements influenced neither the growth rate nor the clinical course. The observations indicate that nasogastric nutritional supplementation may accelerate growth and reduce the incidence and severity of complications in growth-retarded children with sickle-cell disease. PMID:2858749

  14. Growth retardation in sickle-cell disease treated by nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Heyman, M B; Vichinsky, E; Katz, R; Gaffield, B; Hurst, D; Castillo, R; Chiu, D; Kleman, K; Ammann, A J; Thaler, M M

    1985-04-20

    The effect of increased nutritional intake was evaluated in 5 growth-retarded children with sickle-cell disease. Growth on recommended daily calorie and protein intakes had been inadequate in all 5. Fat absorption and intestinal mucosal morphology were normal in all 5. 2 children were given nutritional supplementation by nasogastric intubation, 1 received nightly oral formula supplements, and 2 were supplemented with zinc, iron, folate, and vitamin E only. Nutritional supplementation by the nasogastric route produced a rapid sustained increase in growth rate, associated with striking reductions in pain crises and infections which had previously necessitated many hospital admissions. Oral supplementation improved the clinical course but had no effect on growth rate. Mineral and vitamin supplements influenced neither the growth rate nor the clinical course. The observations indicate that nasogastric nutritional supplementation may accelerate growth and reduce the incidence and severity of complications in growth-retarded children with sickle-cell disease.

  15. Pattern of growth retardation after Blount stapling: a roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Bylander, B; Hansson, L I; Selvik, G

    1983-02-01

    The roentgen stereophotogrammetric method has been used in 19 children treated by Blount stapling for progressive leg length discrepancy. The growth plates of distal femur and/or proximal tibia were stapled with a total of 31 growth regions stapled. Longitudinal growth rate of 25 intact growth regions of distal femur and proximal tibia was determined and correlated well to growth rates as derived from growth tables of Green and Anderson and Kember and Sissons. In stapled growth regions, a uniform pattern of growth retardation was found and correlated well to skeletal age: the more advanced the skeletal age at time of stapling, the more pronounced and rapid initial growth retardation and the lower basal growth rate. Significant asymmetric growth was registered in 5 of 31 stapled growth regions, especially in three patients who developed loosening of staples. In five patients the staple tip motion was analyzed. Widening of staples and staple tip movements within the bony epiphysis and metaphysis were small. In the skeletally younger cases the widening and tip movement were more pronounced than in the older cases. In summary, the roentgen stereophotogrammetric method was used in order to analyze pre- and postoperative growth pattern and was found valuable in checking growth rates after Blount stapling to detect early complications such as asymmetric growth and loosening of staples. Furthermore, the movements and the deformation of the staples by the growth process could be evaluated with high precision.

  16. Influence of obstetric management on outcome of extremely preterm growth retarded infants

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, A; Wolf, H; Bruinse, H; den Ouden, A L; Haas, H; van Ertbruggen, I; Treffers, P

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To describe the long term outcome of extremely preterm growth retarded infants in relation to obstetric management and various perinatal events.
METHODS—A cohort study was undertaken in two tertiary care centres with different obstetric management. All infants with fetal growth retardation due to placental insufficiency and resulting in fetal distress at 26 to 32 weeks of gestation, were included for the years 1984-89. Main outcome measures were impairment, disability, or handicap at 2 years corrected age and at school age (4 1/2 to 10 1/2 years).
RESULTS—One hundred and twenty five (98%) were followed up until 2 years corrected age in the outpatient department; 114 (90%) were assessed at school age. Impairments were found in 37% and disabilities or handicaps in 9% of the assessed infants, with no difference between centres. All disabled or handicapped children had already been identified by 2 years corrected age.
CONCLUSIONS—Disability or handicap were related to neonatal complications (intracerebral haemorrhage or bronchopulmonary dysplasia) and not to obstetric variables, thus making antenatal prediction impossible. The incidence of disability or handicap in these growth retarded infants was comparable with that of other preterm infants.

 Keywords: growth retardation; disability; handicap; obstetric variables PMID:9377153

  17. Relation of caffeine intake during pregnancy to intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Fortier, I; Marcoux, S; Beaulac-Baillargeon, L

    1993-05-01

    Whether caffeine intake during pregnancy is related to intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preterm birth remains unclear. The purpose of this population-based study is to assess these associations and to evaluate the interaction between caffeine intake and smoking. The study participants (n = 7,025) were women who lived in Quebec City, Canada, and the surrounding area who gave birth between January 1989 and October 1989 to a singleton liveborn neonate. Information on gestational age at delivery, caffeine intake (coffee, tea, chocolate, and colas) during pregnancy, and several potential confounders was obtained by telephone a few weeks after delivery. Birth weight was abstracted from the birth certificate. Caffeine consumption was associated with an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for sex and gestational age). For women whose average daily caffeine consumption was 0-10, 11-150, 151-300, or > 300 mg, the adjusted odds ratios for delivering a newborn with growth retardation were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59), 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.87), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.05-2.33), respectively. Caffeine intake, however, was not related to preterm delivery or low birth weight. We conclude that caffeine intake during pregnancy is a risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation.

  18. Screening for detection of intra-uterine growth retardation by means of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Selbing, A; Wichman, K; Rydén, G

    1984-01-01

    In a two-stage ultrasound screening program the gestational age was assessed by measurement of the fetal crown-rump length in early pregnancy. At an adjusted gestational age between 32 and 35 completed weeks the biparietal diameter, the abdominal circumference, the abdominal area and the ratio between fetal head area and abdominal area were estimated by means of ultrasound measurement. 'Acute' fetal weight was estimated by calculations from biparietal diameter and abdominal diameters. Percentile curves were constructed for these parameters and cut-off limits were tested for the predictability of intra-uterine growth retardation of the fetus. The abdominal circumference and area estimations were equally good for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation. The biparietal diameter alone is of limited value for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation but the combination with abdominal diameters in 'acute' fetal weight estimation can well be used. The ratio between the skull and abdominal areas seems to be of little use for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation of two reasons: difficulty in measurement and low sensitivity. We consider that the assessment of gestational age in early pregnancy is a necessity both for the identification of suspected IUGR by means of ultrasound and the diagnosis of IUGR by measurement of fetal weight at birth. It is concluded that if the gestational age has been assessed by crown-rump length measurement in early pregnancy, a single estimation of the fetal abdominal circumference between 32 and 35 completed gestational weeks and a cut-off limit at the 15th percentile offers a detection rate of about 90% of the growth retarded infants. PMID:6391070

  19. Phenomenology of Abnormal Grain Growth in Systems with Nonuniform Grain Boundary Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the potential for nonuniform grain boundary mobility to act as a persistence mechanism for abnormal grain growth (AGG) using Monte Carlo Potts model simulations. The model system consists of a single initially large candidate grain embedded in a matrix of equiaxed grains, corresponding to the abnormal growth regime before impingement occurs. We assign a mobility advantage to grain boundaries between the candidate grain and a randomly selected subset of the matrix grains. We observe AGG in systems with physically reasonable fractions of fast boundaries; the probability of abnormal growth increases as the density of fast boundaries increases. This abnormal growth occurs by a series of fast, localized growth events that counteract the tendency of abnormally large grains to grow more slowly than the surrounding matrix grains. Resulting abnormal grains are morphologically similar to experimentally observed abnormal grains.

  20. Epidermal growth factor advances some aspects of development but retards others in both rats and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Smart, J L; da Silva, V A; Malheiros, L R; Paumgartten, F J; Massey, R F

    1989-03-01

    The present experiments were undertaken to confirm the recent suggestion that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can have both retarding and accelerating effects on development, using a greater number of developmental indices than hitherto; to extend such studies to another species, the golden hamster, and to compare the responses of males and females. On each of days 0-3, one male and one female rat pup from each of 16 litters of 6 pups were injected subcutaneously with human EGF (0.5 micrograms/g body weight), one male and one female with vehicle, and the remaining two pups were not injected. As expected, EGF accelerated incisor eruption and eye-opening. However, EGF retarded the detachment of the pinna and the appearance of the auditory startle response. Free-fall righting was little affected. Hamster litters were left undisturbed till day 7 to minimise infanticide. Thereafter, experimental design was as far as possible the same as for the rats. Pups from 18 litters were injected on days 7-10. EGF advanced eye-opening, but retarded auditory startling, vaginal opening and the weaning growth spurt. Free-fall righting was unaffected. Hence, EGF had similar accelerating and retarding effects on development in both rats and hamsters. Also, these effects were the same in males and females for most indices. PMID:2809131

  1. High Fat Diet Induced Developmental Defects in the Mouse: Oocyte Meiotic Aneuploidy and Fetal Growth Retardation/Brain Defects

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Scott H.; Chi, Maggie; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Grindler, Natalia; Schedl, Tim; Moley, Kelle H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if the origin of the reproductive complications is attributable to problems that arise in the oocyte or the uterine environment. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the developmental basis of the reproductive phenotypes in obese animals by employing a high fat diet mouse model of obesity. We analyzed very early embryonic and fetal phenotypes, which can be parsed into three abnormal developmental processes that occur in obese mothers. The first is oocyte meiotic aneuploidy that then leads to early embryonic loss. The second is an abnormal process distinct from meiotic aneuploidy that also leads to early embryonic loss. The third is fetal growth retardation and brain developmental abnormalities, which based on embryo transfer experiments are not due to the obese uterine environment but instead must be from a defect that arises prior to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that reproductive complications in obese females are, at least in part, from oocyte maternal effects. This conclusion is consistent with IVF studies where the increased pregnancy failure rate in obese women returns to the normal rate if donor oocytes are used instead of autologous oocytes. We postulate that preconceptional weight gain adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In light of our findings, preconceptional counseling may be indicated as the preferable, earlier target for intervention in obese women desiring pregnancy and healthy outcomes. PMID:23152876

  2. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Broerse, Mieke; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2010-07-01

    For 7 weeks, we studied the effects on body size and growth rate of Folsomia candida exposed to nickel and chlorpyrifos and their mixtures in a natural Lufa 2.2 soil. Nickel significantly reduced the development of body size of the springtails, although no complete dose-response curve was obtained. Chlorpyrifos did not influence the springtail growth when applied alone, but significantly reduced the growth retardation induced by nickel. We showed that by monitoring the development of toxicity in time for both the single compounds and the mixtures it was possible to determine mixture interactions even when no complete dose-response curves were available for all mixture components. PMID:20185177

  3. Could growth retardation in cystic fibrosis be partly due to deficient steroid and thyroid hormonogenesis?

    PubMed

    Panesar, N S

    1999-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) mainly affects Caucasians of northwestern-European ancestry with severe morbidity. The individuals are malnourished and growth retarded. The latter is thought to be the consequence of delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis due to malnourishment. However, there is evidence that steroid and thyroid hormone syntheses may be impaired in CF. Thyrotropin stimulates the uptake and efflux of iodide before the halide is incorporated into thyroid hormones and it is becoming apparent that gonadotropins likewise mobilise chloride ions in Leydig cells prior to steroidogenesis. Since the primary defect causing CF is the mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)--a chloride channel residing on the apical membrane of wet epithelia, the growth retardation in CF may in part be due to deficient hormone syntheses. The latter may involve CFTR or may be the halide channel activated by glycoprotein hormones prior to hormonogenesis.

  4. Effect of sugar supplementation on rumen protozoa profile and papillae development in retarded growth calves.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Kyosuke; Mishima, Takakibi; Nibe, Kazumi; Kitahara, Go; Hidaka, Yuichi; Katamoto, Hiromu; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-11-01

    The effect of sugar supplementation with 1 g/kg BW twice a week for eight weeks on rumen protozoa was determined in ten retarded growth calves. Rumen juice was sampled by abdominal paracentesis during the experiment. Papillae development of rumens excised by experimental laparotomy was macro- and micromorphologically determined before and after sugar supplementation in a selected calf. The numbers of Entodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha and Epidinium protozoa increased by 3 to 12 folds after 1-3 wk of supplementation and subsequently decreased. The heights of the rumen papillae after sugar supplementation showed marked development compared with before supplementation (Post vs. Pre: 4.44 ± 0.43 vs. 1.36 ± 0.24 mm). Sugar supplementation accommodates the rumen protozoa profile and stimulates papillae development in retarded growth calves.

  5. Fetal growth retardation in cigarette-smoking mothers is not due to decreased maternal food intake.

    PubMed

    Haworth, J C; Ellestad-Sayed, J J; King, J; Dilling, L A

    1980-07-15

    To determine whether the fetal growth-retarding effect of maternal cigarette smoking could be due to a lower dietary intake in smokers than in nonsmokers, the energy and nutrient intake of 302 smoking and 234 nonsmoking women were assessed toward the end of the last trimester of pregnancy. The women were from two socioeconomic groups which differed greatly in age, height, education, family income, racial origin, and pregnancy weight gain. Within each group, smokers had significantly smaller infants, but pregnancy weight gain was not different. Daily dietary intake of the smokers was not less than that of the nonsmokers; in fact, for some nutrients it was significantly greater. Therefore, fetal growth retardation due to smoking is not caused by the mother's diminished intake of food. PMID:7395936

  6. Partial MCM4 deficiency in patients with growth retardation, adrenal insufficiency, and natural killer cell deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gineau, Laure; Cognet, Céline; Kara, Nihan; Lach, Francis Peter; Dunne, Jean; Veturi, Uma; Picard, Capucine; Trouillet, Céline; Eidenschenk, Céline; Aoufouchi, Said; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Smith, Owen; Geissmann, Frédéric; Feighery, Conleth; Abel, Laurent; Smogorzewska, Agata; Stillman, Bruce; Vivier, Eric; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes that exert potent and nonredundant antiviral activity and antitumoral activity in the mouse; however, their function in host defense in humans remains unclear. Here, we investigated 6 related patients with autosomal recessive growth retardation, adrenal insufficiency, and a selective NK cell deficiency characterized by a lack of the CD56dim NK subset. Using linkage analysis and fine mapping, we identified the disease-causing gene, MCM4, which encodes a component of the MCM2-7 helicase complex required for DNA replication. A splice-site mutation in the patients produced a frameshift, but the mutation was hypomorphic due to the creation of two new translation initiation methionine codons downstream of the premature termination codon. The patients’ fibroblasts exhibited genomic instability, which was rescued by expression of WT MCM4. These data indicate that the patients’ growth retardation and adrenal insufficiency likely reflect the ubiquitous but heterogeneous impact of the MCM4 mutation in various tissues. In addition, the specific loss of the NK CD56dim subset in patients was associated with a lower rate of NK CD56bright cell proliferation, and the maturation of NK CD56bright cells toward an NK CD56dim phenotype was tightly dependent on MCM4-dependent cell division. Thus, partial MCM4 deficiency results in a genetic syndrome of growth retardation with adrenal insufficiency and selective NK deficiency. PMID:22354167

  7. Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) regulates embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-07-20

    Plant seeds accumulate large amounts of protein and carbohydrate as storage reserves during maturation. Thus, understanding the genetic control of embryo and seed development may provide bioengineering tools for yield improvement. In this study, we report the identification of Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) gene in Arabidopsis, whose two independent T-DNA insertion mutant lines, SALK_085642 (red1-1) and SALK_022583 (red1-2), show a retarded embryo development phenotype. The embryogenesis process ceases at the late heart stage in red1-1 and at the bent-cotyledon stage in red1-2, respectively, resulting in seed abortion in both lines. The retarded embryo development and seed abortion phenotypes reverted to normal when RED1 complementation constructs were introduced into mutant plants. Small red1-2 homozygous plants can be successfully rescued by culturing immature seeds, indicating that seed abortion likely results from compromised tolerance to the desiccation process associated with seed maturation. Consistent with this observation, red1-2 seeds accumulate less protein, and the expression of two late embryo development reporter transgenes, LEA::GUS and β-conglycinin::GUS, was significantly weak and started relatively late in the red1-2 mutant lines compared to the wild type. The RED1 gene encodes a plant specific novel protein that is localized in the nucleus. These results indicate that RED1 plays important roles in embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth. PMID:27477025

  8. Chronic kidney disease induced by adenine: a suitable model of growth retardation in uremia.

    PubMed

    Claramunt, Débora; Gil-Peña, Helena; Fuente, Rocío; García-López, Enrique; Loredo, Vanessa; Hernández-Frías, Olaya; Ordoñez, Flor A; Rodríguez-Suárez, Julián; Santos, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Growth retardation is a major manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in pediatric patients. The involvement of the various pathogenic factors is difficult to evaluate in clinical studies. Here, we present an experimental model of adenine-induced CKD for the study of growth failure. Three groups (n = 10) of weaning female rats were studied: normal diet (control), 0.5% adenine diet (AD), and normal diet pair fed with AD (PF). After 21 days, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, parathyroid hormone (PTH), weight and length gains, femur osseous front advance as an index of longitudinal growth rate, growth plate histomorphometry, chondrocyte proliferative activity, bone structure, aorta calcifications, and kidney histology were analyzed. Results are means ± SE. AD rats developed renal failure (serum urea nitrogen: 70 ± 6 mg/dl and creatinine: 0.6 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (PTH: 480 ± 31 pg/ml). Growth retardation of AD rats was demonstrated by lower weight (AD rats: 63.3 ± 4.8 g, control rats: 112.6 ± 4.7 g, and PF rats: 60.0 ± 3.8 g) and length (AD rats: 7.2 ± 0.2 cm, control rats: 11.1 ± 0.3 cm, and PF rats: 8.1 ± 0.3 cm) gains as well as lower osseous front advances (AD rats: 141 ± 13 μm/day, control rats: 293 ± 16 μm/day, and PF rats: 251 ± 10 μm/day). The processes of chondrocyte maturation and proliferation were impaired in AD rats, as shown by lower growth plate terminal chondrocyte height (21.7 ± 2.3 vs. 26.2 ± 1.9 and 23.9 ± 1.3 μm in control and PF rats) and proliferative activity index (AD rats: 30 ± 2%, control rats: 38 ± 2%, and PF rats: 42 ± 3%). The bone primary spongiosa structure of AD rats was markedly disorganized. In conclusion, adenine-induced CKD in young rats is associated with growth retardation and disturbed endochondral ossification. This animal protocol may be a useful new experimental model to study growth in CKD.

  9. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1985-02-19

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290 to 400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area. 6 figs.

  10. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290-400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area.

  11. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mental performance and behavior, outcomes during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hack, M

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the long-term effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mental performance and behavior are reviewed. The results of the majority of studies suggest that, if effects of prematurity and of other associated complicating factors are controlled for, effects of IUGR per se, that can sometimes be demonstrated at an earlier age, become diluted by socio-environmental conditions at later stages in life and no longer appear to have a detrimental effect on mental and behavioral outcomes in adolescence and adulthood.

  12. HCl-Retarded Gold Nanorod Growth for Aspect Ratio and Shape Tuning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Guo, Yuan; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Rongjun; Wang, Feihu; Zhou, Dejian; Guo, Shengrong

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, gold nanorods (GNRs) are mostly prepared via a seed-mediated growth approach, which usually produce an initial burst growth followed by slower kinetics and generate dogbone- shaped GNRs with relatively small aspect ratios (ARs). We demonstrate here that the growth of GNRs can be effectively retarded by addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl), leading to the formation of symmetric, long GNRs with high ARs. Furthermore, time-dependent kinetic analysis of GNR growth reveals two completely different growth modalities: in the absence of HCl, the GNR growth is rapid, reaching a concentration of 0.64 nM in 10 min. Its AR also rapidly reaches a maximum value of 4.1 at 2 min and then gradually decreases to 3.3 over 5 h. In sharp contrast, in the presence of HCI additive, the GNR growth happens very slowly, reaching a concentration of 0.33 nM at 7 h, and the AR also grows slowly to reach a maximum value of 5.3 at 3 h. These growth modalities endow different formation mechanisms of GNRs, which determine their aspect ratios and shape. PMID:27398586

  13. Anophthalmia, hearing loss, abnormal pituitary development and response to growth hormone therapy in three children with microdeletions of 14q22q23

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microdeletions of 14q22q23 have been associated with eye abnormalities and pituitary defects. Other phenotypic features in deletion carriers including hearing loss and response to growth hormone therapy are less well recognized. We studied genotype and phenotype of three newly identified children with 14q22q23 deletions, two girls and one boy with bilateral anophthalmia, and compared them with previously published deletion patients and individuals with intragenic defects in genes residing in the region. Results The three deletions were de novo and ranged in size between 5.8 and 8.9 Mb. All three children lacked one copy of the OTX2 gene and in one of them the deletion involved also the BMP4 gene. All three patients presented partial conductive hearing loss which tended to improve with age. Analysis of endocrine and growth phenotypes showed undetectable anterior pituitary, growth hormone deficiency and progressive growth retardation in all three patients. Growth hormone therapy led to partial catch-up growth in two of the three patients but just prevented further height loss in the third. Conclusions The pituitary hypoplasia, growth hormone deficiency and growth retardation associated with 14q22q23 microdeletions are very remarkable, and the latter appears to have an atypical response to growth hormone therapy in some of the cases. PMID:24581273

  14. Pathophysiology and management of abnormal growth in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S F; Farquharson, C; McGrogan, P; Russell, R K

    2013-01-01

    Many children with a variety of chronic diseases suffer from a variable component of chronic inflammation and often have co-existing growth retardation. The aetiology of this growth retardation may be multifactorial and in a condition such as inflammatory bowel disease it includes the effects of the disease on nutrition as well as the effect of drugs such as glucocorticoids. Growth is primarily regulated through the endocrine and paracrine component of the GH/IGF-1 axis which may be modulated by other factors such as sex steroids. There is increasing evidence that this axis may be affected in children with chronic inflammation. An improved understanding of the GH/IGF-1 axis and how it is affected in chronic inflammation will lead to an improved rationale for developing therapeutic regimens that can improve growth in those children whose growth does not improve despite optimal management of the disease. This review will illustrate these aspects by concentrating primarily on the pathophysiology of growth retardation in inflammatory bowel disease and possible interventions for improving growth.

  15. Haploinsufficiency of KDM6A is associated with severe psychomotor retardation, global growth restriction, seizures and cleft palate

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Amelia M.; Hoyos, Tatiana; Talkowski, Michael E.; Hanscom, Carrie; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Ernst, Carl; Pereira, Shahrin; Ordulu, Zehra; Clericuzio, Carol; Drautz, Joanne M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Velsher, Lea; Pynn, Tania; Vermeesch, Joris; Harris, David J.; Gusella, James F.; Liao, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a female subject (DGAP100) with a 46,X,t(X;5)(p11.3;q35.3)inv(5)(q35.3q35.1)dn, severe psychomotor retardation with hypotonia, global postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, globally reduced cerebral volume, seizures, facial dysmorphia and cleft palate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that the X chromosome breakpoint disrupts KDM6A in the second intron. No genes were directly disrupted on chromosome 5. KDM6A is a histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase and a histone 3 lysine 4 methyl-transferase. Expression of KDM6A is significantly reduced in DGAP100 lymphoblastoid cells compared to control samples. We identified nine additional cases with neurodevelopmental delay and various other features consistent with the DGAP100 phenotype with copy number variation encompassing KDM6A from microarray databases. We evaluated haploinsufficiency of kdm6a in a zebrafish model. kdm6a is expressed in the pharyngeal arches and ethmoid plate of the developing zebrafish, while a kdm6a morpholino knockdown exhibited craniofacial defects. We conclude KDM6A dosage regulation is associated with severe and diverse structural defects and developmental abnormalities. PMID:23354975

  16. The Role of Mucosal Defense in Intestinal Injury of Infants With Fetal Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Panakhova, Nushaba F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infants with fetal growth retardation (FGR) are prone to intestinal disorders. Objectives: Aim of the study was to determine the role of mucosal defense ability in formation of gut injury in infants with FGR. Materials and Methods: 44 premature infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were divided into two groups: 20 infants with FGR (FGR group) and 24 appropriate-for-gestational age newborns (AGA group). Control group consisted of 22 premature infants who were delivered after uncomplicated pregnancy. Gut barrier function was evaluated by detecting serum intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP). The level of serum IFABP and ITF was measured by using ELISA method. Results: FGR group showed significantly higher ITF concentration than AGA group on the first days of life (P ˂ 0.01). High level of ITF in the FGR group significantly declines up to 7th - 10th day of life (P ˂ 0.01). This reduction was accompanied by increase of IFABP which is a marker of ischemic intestinal mucosal injury. Correlation analyses showed that ITF had a negative correlation with IFABP. Conclusions: Infants with fetal growth retardation are characterized by a high level of ITF on the first days of life. This protects intestinal mucosa under hypoxic conditions. Its subsequent decline accompanied by an increase of IFABP reflects the depletion of Goblet cells to secret ITF causing damage to the integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier. PMID:26848381

  17. Insulin reverses the growth retardation effect of phorbol ester in chicken embryos during organogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Girbau, M.; Bassas, L.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-01-01

    The tumor promoting phorbol esters can affect early embryonic development by causing interference with the normal pathways of cellular growth and differentiation. The present study was designed to: (a) define a time in organogenesis when a vertebrate embryo model, the chicken, was sensitive to the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoil-13-acetate (TPA), and (b) attempt a rescue of the embryos disturbed by TPA with simultaneous addition of insulin. In embryos treated at days 2 and 3 of development, TPA caused dose-dependent mortality. Survivors were biochemically retarded as indicated by their decreased weight, protein, DNA, RNA, total creatine kinase, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol contents. When intermediated doses of TPA were applied together with insulin the embryonic growth disturbance was largely antagonized. These data, generated with an in vivo whole embryo, support the strong link between the mode of action of insulin and signal transduction mechanisms typical of phorbol esters.

  18. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haymond, Morey; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Czernichow, Paul; Biller, Beverly MK; Takano, Koji; Kiess, Wieland

    2013-01-01

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. Conclusion This review summarizes currently available information on monitoring for short stature in children and conditions usually associated with short stature and summarizes the authors’ conclusions on the early recognition of growth disorders. PMID:23586744

  19. Clinical features and molecular analysis of the alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndromes. II. Cases without detectable abnormality of the alpha globin complex.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O; Zeitlin, H C; Lindenbaum, R H; Buckle, V J; Fischel-Ghodsian, N; Chui, D H; Gardner-Medwin, D; MacGillivray, M H; Weatherall, D J; Higgs, D R

    1990-01-01

    We have identified five unrelated patients, all of north European origin, who have hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease and profound mental handicap. Surprisingly, detailed molecular analysis of the alpha globin complex is normal in these subjects. Clinically, they present with a rather uniform constellation of abnormalities, notably severe mental handicap, microcephaly, relative hypertelorism, unusual facies and genital anomalies. Hematologically, their Hb H disease has subtly but distinctly milder properties than the recognized Mendelian forms of the disease. These common features suggest that these five "nondeletion" patients have a similar underlying mutation, quite distinct from the 16p13.3 deletion associated with alpha thalassemia and mild to moderate mental retardation described in the accompanying paper. We speculate that the locus of this underlying mutation is not closely linked to the alpha globin complex and may encode a trans-acting factor involved in the normal regulation of alpha globin expression. Images p[1130]-a Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:2339705

  20. Pulmonary beta-adrenergic receptors and response do not mature precociously in growth-retarded rabbit fetuses.

    PubMed

    Lee, J K; Goldfien, A; Lykins, D L; Roberts, J M

    1989-10-01

    Growth-retarded infants have a reduced risk of pulmonary morbidity. We used a naturally occurring model of growth retardation in rabbits to test the hypothesis that reduced risk might be related to precocious maturation of the alveolar beta-adrenergic response system in runted neonates. We confirmed that the weights of the fetuses were significantly different, depending on uterine position, as predicted by this model. However, we found no evidence of either increased beta-adrenergic receptor concentration or cyclic adenosine monophosphate generation in the smaller fetuses. These results indicate that reduced fetal size in this model of growth retardation does not result in accelerated maturation of alveolar beta-adrenergic responses in neonates.

  1. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  2. Malathion exposure induces the endocrine disruption and growth retardation in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Lal, Bechan; Sarang, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-01-15

    Many hormones are known for their role in the regulation of metabolic activities and somatic growth in fishes. The present study deals with the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on the levels of metabolic hormones that are responsible for promotion of somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment for thirty days drastically reduced the food intake and body weight of fish. These fish also exhibited a great avoidance to food. Exposure of catfish to malathion reduced the levels of thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E(2)) in a dose dependent manner during all the studied reproductive phases, in general, except that malathion increased the level of GH during the quiescence phase. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content also occurred in the malathion-treated fish. Malathion exposure induced lipolysis too in the liver and muscle. The results thus support that malathion treatment disrupts the endocrine functions and the olfactory sensation responsible for food intake and gustatory feeding behavior, which ultimately leads to retardation of fish growth. PMID:23174696

  3. The Effects of Grain Size and Texture on Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2016-10-01

    This is the first report of abnormal grain morphologies specific to a Mo sheet material produced from a commercial-purity arc-melted ingot. Abnormal grains initiated and grew during plastic deformation of this material at temperatures of 1793 K and 1813 K (1520 °C and 1540 °C). This abnormal grain growth during high-temperature plastic deformation is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth, DAGG. DAGG in this material readily consumes nearly all grains near the sheet center while leaving many grains near the sheet surface unconsumed. Crystallographic texture, grain size, and other microstructural features are characterized. After recrystallization, a significant through-thickness variation in crystallographic texture exists in this material but does not appear to directly influence DAGG propagation. Instead, dynamic normal grain growth, which may be influenced by texture, preferentially occurs near the sheet surface prior to DAGG. The large grains thus produced near the sheet surface inhibit the subsequent growth of the abnormal grains produced by DAGG, which preferentially consume the finer grains near the sheet center. This produces abnormal grains that span the sheet center but leave unconsumed polycrystalline microstructure near the sheet surface. Abnormal grains are preferentially oriented with the < 110rangle approximately along the tensile axis. These results provide additional new evidence that boundary curvature is the primary driving force for DAGG in Mo.

  4. The Effects of Grain Size and Texture on Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report of abnormal grain morphologies specific to a Mo sheet material produced from a commercial-purity arc-melted ingot. Abnormal grains initiated and grew during plastic deformation of this material at temperatures of 1793 K and 1813 K (1520 °C and 1540 °C). This abnormal grain growth during high-temperature plastic deformation is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth, DAGG. DAGG in this material readily consumes nearly all grains near the sheet center while leaving many grains near the sheet surface unconsumed. Crystallographic texture, grain size, and other microstructural features are characterized. After recrystallization, a significant through-thickness variation in crystallographic texture exists in this material but does not appear to directly influence DAGG propagation. Instead, dynamic normal grain growth, which may be influenced by texture, preferentially occurs near the sheet surface prior to DAGG. The large grains thus produced near the sheet surface inhibit the subsequent growth of the abnormal grains produced by DAGG, which preferentially consume the finer grains near the sheet center. This produces abnormal grains that span the sheet center but leave unconsumed polycrystalline microstructure near the sheet surface. Abnormal grains are preferentially oriented with the < 110rangle approximately along the tensile axis. These results provide additional new evidence that boundary curvature is the primary driving force for DAGG in Mo.

  5. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  6. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Gaetke, Lisa M; McClain, Craig J; Toleman, C Jean; Stuart, Mary A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adding yogurt to animal diets that were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 microg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, six groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of six AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. The diets were as follows: (a) AIN, (b) AIN with active yogurt, (c) AIN and inactive yogurt, (d) AIN with PA, (e) AIN with PA plus active yogurt and (f) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and food efficiency ratio was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (P<.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (P<.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats; however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still suboptimal.

  7. Chromosome instability and X-ray hypersensitivity in a microcephalic and growth-retarded child

    SciTech Connect

    Barbi, G.; Scheres, J.M.; Schindler, D.; Taalman, R.D.; Rodens, K.; Mehnert, K.; Mueller, M.S.; Seyschab, H. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors report on a microcephalic, growth-retarded newborn girl without major anomalies who has chromosome instability in lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Frequent involvement of bands 7p13, 7q34, 14q11, and 14q32 suggested the diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) or a related disorder. Supportive evidence was radioresistant DNA synthesis in fibroblasts and radiation hypersensitivity of short-term lymphocyte cultures. Follow-up for nearly 4 years showed largely normal development, and no signs of telangiectasia, ataxia, or immunodeficiency. Serum AFP levels turned from elevated at age 5 months to normal at age 2 years. They propose that their patient belongs to the expanding category of AT-related genetic disorders, probably to the Nijmegen breakage syndrome.

  8. Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) as a Novel Condition of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Martín-Estal, I; de la Garza, R G; Castilla-Cortázar, I

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone with several biological activities, such as proliferation, mitochondrial protection, cell survival, tissue growth and development, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifibrogenic and antiaging. This hormone plays an important role in embryological and postnatal states, being essential for normal foetal and placental growth and differentiation. During gestation, the placenta is one of the major sources of IGF-1, among other hormones. This intrauterine organ expresses IGF-1 receptors and IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs), which control IGF-1 activities. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the second most frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, defined as the inability to achieve the expected weight for gestational age. Different studies have revealed that IUGR infants have placental dysfunction and low circulating levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBPs. Such data suggest that IGF-1 deficiency in gestational state may be one of the major causes of foetal growth retardation. The aim of this review is to study the epidemiology, physiopathology and possible causes of IUGR. Also, it intends to study the possible role of the placenta as an IGF-1 target organ. The purpose is to establish if IUGR could be considered as a novel condition of IGF-1 deficiency and if its treatment with low doses of IGF-1 could be a suitable therapeutic strategy. PMID:26634242

  9. Study of Abnormal Vertical Emittance Growth in ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Alabau, M.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Alabau, M.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Le Meur, G.; Rimbault, C.; Touze, F.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.K.; Appleby, R.; Scarfe, A.; Kuroda, S.; White, G.R.; Woodley, M.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN

    2011-11-04

    Since several years, the vertical beam emittance measured in the Extraction Line (EXT) of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK, that will transport the electron beam from the ATF Damping Ring (DR) to the future ATF2 Final Focus beam line, is significantly larger than the emittance measured in the DR itself, and there are indications that it grows rapidly with increasing beam intensity. This longstanding problem has motivated studies of possible sources of this anomalous emittance growth. One possible contribution is non-linear magnetic fields in the extraction region experimented by the beam while passing off-axis through magnets of the DR during the extraction process. In this paper, simulations of the emittance growth are presented and compared to observations. These simulations include the effects of predicted non-linear field errors in the shared DR magnets and orbit displacements from the reference orbit in the extraction region. Results of recent measurements using closed orbit bumps to probe the relation between the extraction trajectory and the anomalous emittance growth are also presented.

  10. Retardation of cell growth by avian reovirus p17 through the activation of p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-J.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, J.-W.; Hsu, H.-Y.; Shih, W.-L. . E-mail: shihwl@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2005-10-21

    The second open reading frame of avian reovirus S1 gene segment encodes a 17 kDa non-structural protein, named p17. The biological role of p17 is fully unknown so far. Using trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay, we demonstrated that the ectopic expression of p17 results in the reduction of viable cell number and cell proliferation rate of Vero, BHK, 293, and HeLa cells. Measurement of LDH activity and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that p17 expression did not cause cell death or apoptosis. These data indicated that the p17 possessed the growth retardation function. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that p17-expressing cells induced the expression of CDK inhibitor p21{sup cip1/waf1} in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but the transcripts of CDK inhibitor p15{sup INK4b}, p16{sup INK4a}, or p27{sup kip} were not altered. In the presence of p17, the p53 protein level and p53-driven reporter activity were elevated significantly. Dominant negative p53 alleviated the p21 accumulation, p53 activation, and growth inhibition effect induced by p17. Taken together, these studies revealed a possible intrinsic function of p17 in growth regulation through the activation of p53 and p21{sup cip1/waf1}.

  11. Behavioral intervention and post-natal growth in full-term intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) infants.

    PubMed

    Garcia Coll, C T; Halpern, L; Seifer, R; Meyer, E C; Kilis, E; Lester, B M; Vohr, B R; Oh, W

    1996-09-20

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the patterns of post-natal growth in full-term infants as a function of IUGR and (2) to assess the impact of an individualized behavioral feeding intervention with the mothers on these patterns of infant growth. Eighty-eight (88) full-term infants, including 54 with IUGR, half of whom received behavioral intervention were included. Weight, length, skinfold thickness, head circumference and Ponderal Index were measured at birth and at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 18 months. Results show positive intervention effects between birth and 1 month in weight, length, skinfold thickness, and Ponderal Index. However, there were no intervention effects at subsequent ages. No evidence was found for catch-up growth in full-term IUGR infants in weight, length, and head circumference. We conclude that an individualized behavioral feeding intervention can accelerate early growth in IUGR infants, but the positive effects on growth are only seen while the intervention lasts (between birth and 1 month). On most parameters of physical growth, there is no lasting catch-up growth over the first 18 months in IUGR full-term infants.

  12. Comparison of the causes and consequences of prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation: a longitudinal study in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, F C; Huttly, S R; Victora, C G; Kirkwood, B R; Vaughan, J P

    1992-08-01

    A cohort of 5914 liveborns (99% of the city births) was followed up to the age of 4 years in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Besides the perinatal evaluation, the cohort children were examined again at mean ages of 11, 23, and 47 months. During each visit the children were weighed and measured and information on morbidity was collected. Also, multiple sources of information were used for monitoring mortality throughout the study. Of the babies with known gestational age, 9.0% were classified as intrauterine growth-retarded and 6.3% as preterm. Excluding those of unknown gestational age, 62% of low birth weight babies were intrauterine growth-retarded and 36% were preterm. Intrauterine growth retardation was statistically associated with maternal height, prepregnancy weight, birth interval, and smoking, whereas preterm births were associated with maternal prepregnancy weight and maternal age. Preterm babies had a perinatal mortality rate 13 times higher than that of babies of appropriate birth weight and gestational age and 2 times higher than that of intrauterine growth-retarded babies. Infant mortality rates presented a similar pattern, with the differentials being more pronounced during the neonatal than in the postneonatal period. In the first 2 years of life intrauterine growth-retarded children were at almost twice the risk of being hospitalized for diarrhea compared with appropriate birth weight, term children, while preterm children experienced only a slightly greater risk. For pneumonia, however, both groups of children were hospitalized significantly more than appropriate birth weight, term children. In terms of growth, despite their earlier disadvantage, preterm children gradually caught up with their appropriate birth weight, term counterparts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Growth outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children aged 11 years who were born with intrauterine growth retardation at term gestation.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Mackerras, Dorothy; Halpin, Stephen; Singh, Gurmeet

    2007-09-01

    Long-term poor growth outcomes are well documented for intrauterine growth-retarded babies (IUGR) in developed populations but there is a paucity of IUGR studies from disadvantaged populations where the greatest burden of IUGR occurs. Using a Northern Territory, Aboriginal cohort recruited at birth and followed up at a mean age of 11.4 years, comparisons of body size were made between children born at term who had been IUGR (n = 121) and those non-IUGR (n = 341), and between those IUGR babies who had an appropriate ponderal index at birth (n = 72) and those with a low ponderal index (n = 49). Compared with non-IUGR children, at follow-up the IUGR children were almost 2 cm shorter (P = 0.10), 4 kg lighter (P < 0.01) and their head circumferences were almost a 1 cm smaller (P < 0.01). For the 121 term IUGR children, there were no significant differences in growth outcomes according to ponderal index measures at birth. These findings from an Australian Aboriginal sample are consistent with other comparisons of IUGR and non-IUGR children in developed populations and suggest there may be no additional effects of IUGR on growth in childhood for disadvantaged populations similar to the Aboriginal population in the Northern Territory.

  14. An animal model of cigarette smoke-induced in utero growth retardation

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Emily R.; Horn, Kristin H.; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2009-01-01

    Maternal/fetal genetic constitution and environmental factors are vital to delivery of a healthy baby. In the United States (US), a low birth weight (LBW) baby is born every minute and a half. LBW, defined as weighing less than 5.5 lbs at birth, affects nearly 1 in 12 infants born in the US with resultant costs for the nation of more than 15 billion dollars annually. Infant birth weight is the single most important factor affecting neonatal mortality. Various environmental and genetic risk factors for LBW have been identified. Several risks are preventable, such as cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Over one million babies are exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke accounting for over 20% of the LBW incidence in the US. Cigarette smoke exposure in utero results in a variety of adverse developmental outcomes with intrauterine growth restriction and infant LBW being the most well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying the causes of LBW remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was: (1) to establish an animal model of cigarette smoke-induced in utero growth retardation and LBW using physiologically relevant inhalation exposure conditions which simulate “active” and “passive” tobacco smoke exposures, and (2) to determine whether particular stages of development are more susceptible than others to the adverse effects of in utero smoke exposure on embryo/fetal growth. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke during three periods of gestation: pre-/peri-implantation (gestational days [gds] 1−5), post-implantation (gds 6−18), and throughout gestation (gds 1−17). Reproductive and fetal outcomes were assessed on gd 18.5. Exposure of dams to mainstream/sidestream cigarette smoke, simulating “active” maternal smoking, resulted in decreases in fetal weight and crown–rump length when exposed throughout gestation (gds 1−17). Similar results were seen when dams were exposed only during the first 5 days of gestation (pre

  15. Growth plate abnormalities in a new dwarf mouse model: tich.

    PubMed

    Brown, R A; Bird, L; Blunn, G W; Archer, J R

    1994-03-01

    Growth plate cartilage calcification has been examined in a recently described mouse mutant, tich, which is co-isogenic with the A.TL strain. Long bones were studied from 1-day-old and 1-month-old mice which carried a homozygous recessive gene mutation making them short limbed and dumpy. Specimens were studied by routine histology, scanning electron microscopy and radiography. In 1-day-old tich mice the front of calcified cartilage was recessed behind the advancing periosteum and bone. No similar recess was seen in control mice. At 1 month of age, a number of the long bone growth plates were irregularly thickened, particularly in the central area. This produced a central tongue of non-calcified cartilage (particularly prominent in the proximal tibia) which gave rise to a corresponding pit in the calcified cartilage layer, in macerated specimens. This was accompanied by poor resorption of calcified cartilage. At both ages the presence of the respective defects was radiographically confirmed. At present it is not known whether this is primarily a defect of calcification or resorption but its presence, apparently from a single mutation in a genetically defined mouse strain, makes it a potentially valuable model.

  16. PICK1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis and Leads to Growth Retardation and Decreased Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anna M.; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K.; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N.; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K.; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  17. Plant-Made Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Inhibits HER2/Neu+ Cell Proliferation and Retards Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Frolova, Olga Y.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Skrypnik, Ksenia A.; Gleba, Yuri Y.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant biotechnology provides a valuable contribution to global health, in part because it can decrease the cost of pharmaceutical products. Breast cancer can now be successfully treated by a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), trastuzumab (Herceptin). A course of treatment, however, is expensive and requires repeated administrations of the mAb. Here we used an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system to produce trastuzumab in plant cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the cloning and expression of gene constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using intron-optimized Tobacco mosaic virus- and Potato virus X-based vectors encoding, respectively, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab. Full-size antibodies extracted and purified from plant tissues were tested for functionality and specificity by (i) binding to HER2/neu on the surface of a human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, in fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and (ii) testing the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HER-2-expressing cancer cell proliferation. We show that plant-made trastuzumab (PMT) bound to the Her2/neu oncoprotein of SK-BR-3 cells and efficiently inhibited SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, mouse intraperitoneal PMT administration retarded the growth of xenografted tumors derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 Her2+ cells. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PMT is active in suppression of cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:21390232

  18. Russell-Silver Syndrome in a Nigerian infant with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Mokuolu, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) is a rare cause of pre-natal dwarfism, associated with recognizable dysmorphic features and limb asymmetry. The propositus was a term infant of unrelated Nigerian parents, whose 35-year-old mother had peri-conceptual haloperidol for schizophrenia. Anthropometric values suggested severe prenatal stunting in a term infant with asymmetric "head sparing" intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A syndromic consideration of Russell-Silver dwarfism was subsequently predicated on the distinctive dysmorphic craniofacial features of a triangular facial profile with a broad forehead and hypoplastic mandible, right upper and lower limb rhizomelia, clinodactyly of the little fingers, micro-penis, and (unilateral) cryptochidism. Routine care of a small-for-gestational-age infant was pursued, but postnatal growth remained slow (despite adequate caloric provision) until a parent-pressured discharge at 4 weeks. His subsequent demise was said to have occurred "suddenly" 2 weeks post-discharge. Despite the limitations posed by the local paucity of modern investigative tools for genetic disorders, the current case report underscores the diagnostic reality of RSS in a non-white African population. While emphasizing the need for a high index of diagnostic suspicion for congenital malformations and syndromic causes of IUGR in the African sub-region, we suspect a possible etiologic association of haloperidol embryopathy with RSS in the current case. The characteristic features, differential diagnoses, etiologic postulates/current cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings of RSS are fully reviewed in the discussion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:11405596

  19. Overexpression of OsSWEET5 in Rice Causes Growth Retardation and Precocious Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Liu, Li; Huang, Weifeng; Yuan, Meng; Zhou, Fei; Li, Xianghua; Lin, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    As a novel sugar transporter family, SWEETs play important roles in plant growth and development. Here, we characterized a SWEET gene named OsSWEET5 through its overexpression in rice. Heterologous expression assay indicated that OsSWEET5 encoded a galactose transporter in yeast. OsSWEET5-overexpressing plants displayed the phenotypes of growth retardation and precocious senescence at seedling stage. GC-MS analysis showed that the sugar levels were largely altered in the leaves of the OsSWEET5-overexpressing plants. Molecular analysis revealed that these phenotypes might be due to the transcriptional changes of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport. In addition, the transgenic plants showed a lower level of auxin with altered transcription of genes involved in auxin signaling and translocation pathways. However, no obvious phenotype was observed between the amiRNA-OsSWEET5 transgenic lines and WT plants, which could be a result of the functional redundancy of the galactose transporters in rice. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsSWEET5 plays a crucial role in regulating the crosstalk between sugar and auxin in rice. PMID:24709840

  20. STING in tumor and host cells cooperatively work for NK cell-mediated tumor growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Ken; Takeda, Yohei; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Shime, Hiroaki; Okabe, Masaru; Ikawa, Masahito; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-09-30

    An interferon-inducing DNA sensor STING participates in tumor rejection in mouse models. Here we examined what mechanisms contribute to STING-dependent growth retardation of B16 melanoma sublines by NK cells in vivo. The studies were designed using WT and STING KO black mice, and B16D8 (an NK-sensitive melanoma line having STING) and STING KO B16D8 sublines established for this study. The results from tumor-implant studies suggested that STING in host immune cells and tumor cells induced distinct profiles of chemokines including CXCL10, CCL5 and IL-33, and both participated in NK cell infiltration and activation in B16D8 tumor. Spontaneous activation of STING occurs in host-immune and tumor cells of this NK-sensitive tumor, thereby B16D8 tumor growth being suppressed in this model. Our data show that STING induces tumor cytotoxicity by NK cells through tumor and host immune cell network to contribute to innate surveillance and suppression of tumors in vivo. PMID:27608599

  1. A new autosomal recessive non-progressive congenital cerebellar ataxia associated with mental retardation, optic atrophy, and skin abnormalities (CAMOS) maps to chromosome 15q24-q26 in a large consanguineous Lebanese Druze Family.

    PubMed

    Delague, Valérie; Bareil, Corinne; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Salem, Nabiha; Chouery, Eliane; Loiselet, Jacques; Mégarbané, André; Claustres, Mireille

    2002-03-01

    Congenital cerebellar ataxias are a heterogeneous group of non-progressive disorders characterized by hypotonia and developmental delay followed by the appearance of ataxia, and often associated with dysarthria, mental retardation, and atrophy of the cerebellum. We report the mapping of a disease gene in a large inbred Lebanese Druze family, with five cases of a new form of non-progressive autosomal recessive congenital ataxia associated with optic atrophy, severe mental retardation, and structural skin abnormalities, to a 3.6-cM interval on chromosome 15q24-15q26.

  2. Flame retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troitzsch, J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of flame retardants in plastics has grown only slightly in recent years and will probably grow slowly in the future. The reasons for this are slow economic growth and the absence of fundamentally new requirements for future fire prevention. The trends are toward the increasing use of easily handled, dust-free and well-dispersed flame retardant compounds and master batches; there are no spectacular new developments. In the future, questions of smoke evolution, toxicity and corrosiveness of combustion gases will become increasingly important, especially due to new regulations and rising requirements for environmental protection.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-1) involvement in intrauterine growth retardation: study on IGFBP-1 overexpressing transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Lagha, Nadia; Seurin, Danielle; Le Bouc, Yves; Binoux, Michel; Berdal, Ariane; Menuelle, Pierrette; Babajko, Sylvie

    2006-10-01

    In humans, intrauterine growth retardation is correlated to high levels of serum IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1). This present study analyzes in vivo the impact of circulating IGFBP-1 on body growth associated to bone mineralization and carbohydrate resources. Transgenic mice used in this work overexpressed human IGFBP-1 in liver from embryonic day (E)14.5, concomitantly to the appearance of ossification centers, through to adulthood. Growth retardation was observed as early as E17.5 in homozygous (HM) mice being 20% smaller at birth (postnatal d 1). Anatomical analysis of the skeletons by alizarin red and alcian blue staining showed that the mice exhibited pleiotropic defects of several skeletal units. Some bones were small and dysmorphic. Our results showed reduced mineralization in the posterior area of the skull (delayed suture closure), as well as in the appendicular and axial skeleton. Heterozygous crossings showed a loss of HM animals. Moreover, IGFBP-1 overexpression contributed to decreased fetal hepatic glycogen and neonate blood glucose levels which constitute the main reservoir of carbohydrate resources for neonates. Thus, this reduced carbohydrate pool contributed to perinatal mortality. Maternal IGFBP-1 expression was also clearly associated with neonate growth retardation (newborn weights from HM mothers were 20% smaller than newborns from NT mothers) and reduced fetal carbohydrate resources. In conclusion, antenatal growth retardation and delayed mineralization in transgenic mice are related to overexpressed fetal and maternal circulating human IGFBP-1. Similar perturbations could be observed in human intrauterine growth retardation suggesting the IGF/IGFBP system is involved in fetal growth, biomineralization, and energetic status in humans.

  4. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Prescott, Trine E; Lee, Sora; Cang, Chunlei; Aranda, Kimberly; Ahmed, Sohnee; Alders, Marielle; Gerstner, Thorsten; Aslaksen, Kathinka; Tétreault, Martine; Qin, Wen; Hartley, Taila; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Lupski, James R; Ren, Dejian; Yoon, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel proteins are required for both the establishment of resting membrane potentials and the generation of action potentials. Hundreds of mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential generation have been found to cause severe neurological diseases. In contrast, the roles of voltage-independent "leak" channels, important for the establishment and maintenance of resting membrane potentials upon which action potentials are generated, are not well established in human disease. UNC80 is a large component of the NALCN sodium-leak channel complex that regulates the basal excitability of the nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of NALCN cause infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF). We report four individuals from three unrelated families who have homozygous missense or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in UNC80 and persistent hypotonia, encephalopathy, growth failure, and severe intellectual disability. Compared to control cells, HEK293T cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the c.5098C>T (p.Pro1700Ser) UNC80 mutation found in one individual showed markedly decreased NALCN channel currents. Our findings demonstrate the fundamental significance of UNC80 and basal ionic conductance to human health. PMID:26708751

  5. Effects of glutamine supplementation on the immune status in weaning piglets with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiang; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuexin; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Yanmin; Hussain, Ahmad; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) often suffer from impaired cellular immunity, and weaning may further aggravate adverse effects of IUGR on development and function of the immune system. In this study, we investigated effects of glutamine supplementation on immune status in the intestines of weaning pigs with IUGR, focusing on molecular mechanisms underlying altered immune response. Piglets with IUGR were weaned at 21 days of age and received orally 1.22 g alanine or 1 g glutamine per kg body weight every 12 h. Weight gain and intestinal weight of weaning piglets were increased by glutamine supplementation. Levels of serum IgG in piglets supplemented with glutamine were increased compared with Control piglets. The production of IL-1 and IL-8 in the serum and jejunum was decreased by glutamine supplementation, whereas the levels of IL-4 in the serum and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 in the jejunum were increased. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the jejunum was increased by glutamine supplementation, but the degradation of inhibitor κB and the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were decreased. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation enhanced immune response in weaning piglets with IUGR. The effects of glutamine in IUGR are associated with increased Hsp70 expression and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  6. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Prescott, Trine E; Lee, Sora; Cang, Chunlei; Aranda, Kimberly; Ahmed, Sohnee; Alders, Marielle; Gerstner, Thorsten; Aslaksen, Kathinka; Tétreault, Martine; Qin, Wen; Hartley, Taila; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Lupski, James R; Ren, Dejian; Yoon, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel proteins are required for both the establishment of resting membrane potentials and the generation of action potentials. Hundreds of mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential generation have been found to cause severe neurological diseases. In contrast, the roles of voltage-independent "leak" channels, important for the establishment and maintenance of resting membrane potentials upon which action potentials are generated, are not well established in human disease. UNC80 is a large component of the NALCN sodium-leak channel complex that regulates the basal excitability of the nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of NALCN cause infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF). We report four individuals from three unrelated families who have homozygous missense or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in UNC80 and persistent hypotonia, encephalopathy, growth failure, and severe intellectual disability. Compared to control cells, HEK293T cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the c.5098C>T (p.Pro1700Ser) UNC80 mutation found in one individual showed markedly decreased NALCN channel currents. Our findings demonstrate the fundamental significance of UNC80 and basal ionic conductance to human health.

  7. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Prescott, Trine E.; Lee, Sora; Cang, Chunlei; Aranda, Kimberly; Ahmed, Sohnee; Alders, Marielle; Gerstner, Thorsten; Aslaksen, Kathinka; Tétreault, Martine; Qin, Wen; Hartley, Taila; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; van Karnebeek, Clara D.M.; Lupski, James R.; Ren, Dejian; Yoon, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel proteins are required for both the establishment of resting membrane potentials and the generation of action potentials. Hundreds of mutations in genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential generation have been found to cause severe neurological diseases. In contrast, the roles of voltage-independent “leak” channels, important for the establishment and maintenance of resting membrane potentials upon which action potentials are generated, are not well established in human disease. UNC80 is a large component of the NALCN sodium-leak channel complex that regulates the basal excitability of the nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of NALCN cause infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies (IHPRF). We report four individuals from three unrelated families who have homozygous missense or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in UNC80 and persistent hypotonia, encephalopathy, growth failure, and severe intellectual disability. Compared to control cells, HEK293T cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the c.5098C>T (p.Pro1700Ser) UNC80 mutation found in one individual showed markedly decreased NALCN channel currents. Our findings demonstrate the fundamental significance of UNC80 and basal ionic conductance to human health. PMID:26708751

  8. Exaggerated root respiration accounts for growth retardation in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Katrin; Hörmiller, Imke; Nägele, Thomas; Heyer, Arnd G

    2014-07-01

    The knock-out mutation of plastidial phosphoglucomutase (pgm) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana, and results in a severe growth reduction of plants cultivated under diurnal conditions. It has been speculated that high soluble sugar levels accumulating during the light phase in leaf mesophyll might cause a reduction of photosynthetic activity or that shortage of reduced carbon during the night is the reason for the slow biomass gain of pgm. Separate simultaneous measurements of leaf net photosynthesis and root respiration demonstrate that photosynthetic activity per unit fresh weight is not reduced in pgm, whereas root respiration is strongly elevated. Comparison with a mutant defective in the dominating vacuolar invertase (AtβFruct4) revealed that high sucrose concentration in the cytosol, but not in the vacuole, of leaf cells is responsible for elevated assimilate transport to the root. Increased sugar supply to the root, as observed in pgm mutants, forces substantial respiratory losses. Because root respiration accounts for 80% of total plant respiration under long-day conditions, this gives rise to retarded biomass formation. In contrast, reduced vacuolar invertase activity leads to reduced net photosynthesis in the shoot and lowered root respiration, and affords an increased root/shoot ratio. The results demonstrate that roots have very limited capacity for carbon storage but exert rigid control of supply for their maintenance metabolism.

  9. Growth Retardation, DNA Repair Defects, and Lack of Spermatogenesis in BRCA1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Victoria L.; Backlund, Dana C.; Avrutskaya, Anna V.; Leadon, Steven A.; Godfrey, Virginia; Koller, Beverly H.

    1999-01-01

    BRCA1 is a nuclear phosphoprotein expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues during cell division. The inheritance of a mutant BRCA1 allele dramatically increases a woman’s lifetime risk for developing both breast and ovarian cancers. A number of mouse lines carrying mutations in the Brca1 gene have been generated, and mice homozygous for these mutations generally die before day 10 of embryonic development. We report here the survival of a small number of mice homozygous for mutations in both the p53 and Brca1 genes. The survival of these mice is likely due to additional unknown mutations or epigenetic effects. Analysis of the Brca1−/− p53−/− animals indicates that BRCA1 is not required for the development of most organ systems. However, these mice are growth retarded, males are infertile due to meiotic failure, and the mammary gland of the female mouse is underdeveloped. Growth deficiency due to loss of BRCA1 was more thoroughly examined in an analysis of primary fibroblast lines obtained from these animals. Like p53−/− fibroblasts, Brca1−/− p53−/− cells proliferate more rapidly than wild-type cells; however, a high level of cellular death in these cultures results in reduced overall growth rates in comparison to p53−/− fibroblasts. Brca1−/− p53−/− fibroblasts are also defective in transcription-coupled repair and display increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We show, however, that after continued culture, and perhaps accelerated by the loss of BRCA1 repair functions, populations of Brca1−/− p53−/− fibroblasts with increased growth rates can be isolated. The increased survival of BRCA1-deficient fibroblasts in the absence of p53, and with the subsequent accumulation of additional growth-promoting changes, may mimic the events that occur during malignant transformation of BRCA1-deficient epithelia. PMID:10490643

  10. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  11. Relationship of blood rheology to lipoprotein profile during normal pregnancies and those with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, A; Uberos, J; Molina, A; Valenzuela, A; Cano, D; Ruiz, C; Molina Font, J A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--The effects on fetal growth of hyperlipidaemia in pregnancy are not well understood at present. In this study the different lipid fractions in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) were determined and related to changes in plasma and serum viscosity. METHODS--Two groups of pregnant women were studied. Group 1 consisted of 35 healthy pregnant women aged between 21 and 38 years with no previous pathology and a normal pregnancy to term. Group 1 patients were studied at four periods defined at the start of the study: (1) < or = 17 weeks; (2) 18-24 weeks; (3) 25-32 weeks, (4) > or = 33 weeks. Group 2 consisted of 24 pregnant women aged between 16 and 34 years with ultrasound diagnosed IUGR confirmed after birth. Plasma lipids and plasma and serum viscosity were measured. RESULTS--Plasma triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol increased progressively throughout pregnancy, with significantly higher values after week 25. Apolipoprotein A (ApoA) and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the normal group. The HDL/ApoA ratio was greater in the IUGR group than in the control group, as was the ApoB/ApoA ratio. There were no differences in the other lipids. Plasma and serum viscosity was higher in the IUGR group than in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS--Haemorheological modifications in the IUGR group are partly secondary to changes in high density lipoprotein metabolism and the competitive inhibition of fibrinolysis by ApoB, which is increased in pregnancies with IUGR. Changes in ApoA, and more specifically in the ApoB/ApoA ratio, could be good markers for the early detection of IUGR. PMID:7665704

  12. Fetal PCB syndrome: clinical features, intrauterine growth retardation and possible alteration in calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, F.; Hayashi, M.

    1985-02-01

    Pregnant mothers with Yusho in Fukuoka, Nagasaki and Kochi Prefectures delivered babies with a peculiar clinical manifestation which will be called fetal PCB syndrome (FPS). The birth rate incidences were 3.6% (Fukuoka Prefecture), 4% (Nagasaki Prefecture), 2.9% (Kochi Prefecture) and 3.9% (total). The manifestations consisted of dark brown pigmentation of the skin and the mucous membrane, gingival hyperplasia, exophthalmic edematous eye, dentition at birth, abnormal calcification of the skull as demonstrated by X-ray, rocker bottom heel and high incidence of light for date (low birth weight) babies. The authors suggest that there may be a possible alteration in calcium metabolism in these babies, related to the fragile egg shells observed in PCB-contaminated birds and to the female hormone-enhancing effect of PCB. The high incidence of low birth weight among these newborns and two other similar studies indicated that PCBs suppress fetal growth.

  13. Inhibition of Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Cercospora rosicola by Inhibitors of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Plant Growth Retardants

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Shirley M.; Poling, Stephen M.; Maier, Vincent P.; Orme, Edward D.

    1983-01-01

    The fungus Cercospora rosicola produces abscisic acid (ABA) as a secondary metabolite. We developed a convenient system using this fungus to determine the effects of compounds on the biosynthesis of ABA. Inasmuch as ABA and the gibberellins (GAs) both arise via the isoprenoid pathway, it was of interest to determine if inhibitors of GA biosynthesis affect ABA biosynthesis. All five putative inhibitors of GA biosynthesis tested inhibited ABA biosynthesis. Several plant growth retardants with poorly understood actions in plants were also tested; of these, six inhibited ABA biosynthesis to varying degrees and two had no effect. Effects of plant growth retardants on various branches of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway may help to explain some of the diverse and unexpected results reported for these compounds. Knowledge that certain inhibitors of GA biosynthesis also have the ability to inhibit ABA biosynthesis in C. rosicola indicates the need for further studies in plants on the mode of action of these compounds. PMID:16662775

  14. Growth, Hypothalamic Function, and Brain Ventricle Size in Mentally Retarded Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisti, S.; Iianainen, M.

    1978-01-01

    To determine whether moderate enlargement of the third brain ventricle or the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles was associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, 15 mentally retarded Ss (ages 12-25 years) with such characteristics were studies. (DLS)

  15. Maternal transcription of non-protein coding RNAs from the PWS-critical region rescues growth retardation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S; Robeck, Thomas; Galiveti, Chenna R; Raabe, Carsten A; Seeger, Birte; Wolters, Anna; Gubar, Leonid V; Brosius, Jürgen; Skryabin, Boris V

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by loss of paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. The PWS-critical region (PWScr) contains an array of non-protein coding IPW-A exons hosting intronic SNORD116 snoRNA genes. Deletion of PWScr is associated with PWS in humans and growth retardation in mice exhibiting ~15% postnatal lethality in C57BL/6 background. Here we analysed a knock-in mouse containing a 5'HPRT-LoxP-Neo(R) cassette (5'LoxP) inserted upstream of the PWScr. When the insertion was inherited maternally in a paternal PWScr-deletion mouse model (PWScr(p-/m5'LoxP)), we observed compensation of growth retardation and postnatal lethality. Genomic methylation pattern and expression of protein-coding genes remained unaltered at the PWS-locus of PWScr(p-/m5'LoxP) mice. Interestingly, ubiquitous Snord116 and IPW-A exon transcription from the originally silent maternal chromosome was detected. In situ hybridization indicated that PWScr(p-/m5'LoxP) mice expressed Snord116 in brain areas similar to wild type animals. Our results suggest that the lack of PWScr RNA expression in certain brain areas could be a primary cause of the growth retardation phenotype in mice. We propose that activation of disease-associated genes on imprinted regions could lead to general therapeutic strategies in associated diseases. PMID:26848093

  16. Improved bone status by the beta-blocker propranolol in an animal model of nutritional growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Lezón, Christian E; Olivera, María I; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to study if the beta-blocker propranolol, which is known to increase bone mass, could reverse the adverse skeletal effects of mild chronic food restriction in weanling rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, control+propranolol (CP), nutritional growth retardation (NGR) and nutritional growth retardation+propranolol (NGRP). Control and CP rats were fed freely with the standard diet. NGR and NGRP rats received, for 4 weeks, 80 % of the amount of food consumed by the control and CP rats, respectively. Results were expressed as mean values and sem. Food restriction induced detrimental effects on body and femur weight and length (P < 0.05) and bone structural and geometrical properties (P < 0.001), confirming results previously shown in our laboratory. However, the beta-blocker overcame the deleterious effect of nutritional stress on load-bearing capacity, yielding load, bone stiffness, cross-sectional cortical bone area and second moment of inertia of the cross-section in relation to the horizontal axis without affecting anthropometric, histomorphometric and bone morphometric parameters. The results suggest that propranolol administration to mildly chronically undernourished rats markedly attenuates the impaired bone status in this animal model of growth retardation.

  17. Improved bone status by the beta-blocker propranolol in an animal model of nutritional growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Lezón, Christian E; Olivera, María I; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to study if the beta-blocker propranolol, which is known to increase bone mass, could reverse the adverse skeletal effects of mild chronic food restriction in weanling rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, control+propranolol (CP), nutritional growth retardation (NGR) and nutritional growth retardation+propranolol (NGRP). Control and CP rats were fed freely with the standard diet. NGR and NGRP rats received, for 4 weeks, 80 % of the amount of food consumed by the control and CP rats, respectively. Results were expressed as mean values and sem. Food restriction induced detrimental effects on body and femur weight and length (P < 0.05) and bone structural and geometrical properties (P < 0.001), confirming results previously shown in our laboratory. However, the beta-blocker overcame the deleterious effect of nutritional stress on load-bearing capacity, yielding load, bone stiffness, cross-sectional cortical bone area and second moment of inertia of the cross-section in relation to the horizontal axis without affecting anthropometric, histomorphometric and bone morphometric parameters. The results suggest that propranolol administration to mildly chronically undernourished rats markedly attenuates the impaired bone status in this animal model of growth retardation. PMID:19537307

  18. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis

  19. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  20. Genital flora in pregnancy and its association with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Germain, M; Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Eschenbach, D A

    1994-01-01

    A study of risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was conducted among a cohort of 13,914 pregnant women enrolled in the multicenter Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study. From 23 through 26 weeks of gestational age, cultures of specimens from the vagina and cervix were done for group B streptococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and anaerobic gram-negative rods belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. Newborns who were small for their gestational age were delivered by 1,251 women, and infants of the appropriate weight for their gestational age were delivered by 10,332 women. When controlling for ethnicity and smoking and excluding women treated with antibiotics, the Mantel-Haenszel adjusted relative risk of IUGR was 1.16 for Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.33), 1.16 for M. hominis (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.29), 1.20 for U. urealyticum (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.38), and 1.22 for T. vaginalis (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.42). There was also a strong and significant trend for an increasing risk of IUGR with the number of these four microbes recovered. Among women colonized with all four isolates, the adjusted odds ratio of IUGR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.52) in comparison with women not colonized with any of these microorganisms. Group B streptococci, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and C. albicans were not significantly associated with IUGR. These results suggest that infection is associated with some cases of IUGR and that specific microorganisms, alone or in combination, are involved. Since genital isolates are highly correlated with each other, the relative contribution of each microbe is difficult to determine. PMID:7814541

  1. Urine glycoprotein crystal growth inhibitors. Evidence for a molecular abnormality in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Y; Abram, V; Parks, J H; Lau, H S; Kawooya, J K; Coe, F L

    1985-01-01

    One reason that some people are prone to calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is that they produce urine that is subnormal in its ability to inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate crystals. We have identified in human urine a glycoprotein (GCI) that inhibits calcium oxalate crystal growth strongly, and at low concentrations (10(-7) M); in this study, we have isolated GCI molecules from the urine of normal people and patients with calcium oxalate stones. GCI from stone formers is abnormal in three ways: it contains no detectable gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), whereas normal GCI contains 2-3 residues of Gla per mole; about half of the GCI in urine of patients inhibits crystal growth 4-20 times less than normal GCI as judged by its performance in a kinetic growth assay, in vitro; at the air-water interface, patient GCI has a film collapse pressure approximately half of normal. GCI molecules from the urine of patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis are intrinsically abnormal, and these abnormalities could play a role in the genesis of stones. PMID:4056037

  2. Growth Retardation, General Hypotonia, and Loss of Acquired Neuromotor Skills in the Infants of Mothers With Cobalamin Deficiency and the Possible Role of Succinyl-CoA and Glycine in the Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) deficiency can cause metabolic, hematological, and neurological abnormalities. Adequate levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) cannot be synthesized from methylmalonyl-CoA because of the decreased activity of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzyme that uses Cbl as the cofactor. Succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency leads to decreased heme synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The reason of growth retardation can be gluconeogenesis deficiency together with heme synthesis deficiency whereas the reason of the neurological abnormalities can be glycine increase in the tissue due to decreased heme synthesis. We present 7 infants diagnosed with severe nutritional Cbl deficiency and discuss the role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the possible pathogenesis in this article. Patients brought to our clinic with a complaint of growth retardation and diagnosed with nutritional Cbl deficiency were included in the study. There were 5 females and 2 males. The mean age was 11 ± 2.30 (range 6–13) months. All patients had general muscular hypotonia and 4 had growth retardation. Neuromotor growth retardation was found in 4 of the children who had previously shown normal neuromotor development for age. The mean Cbl level was 83.8 ± 27.6 (45.6–114) pg/mL. The mean Cbl level of the mothers was 155 ± 56.6 (88–258) pg/mL. Six of the patients had anemia and 1 had thrombocytopenia. Mean corpuscular volume value was 91.5 ± 12.2 fL. Following treatment, the muscle tonus of the patients improved, the anemia and growth retardation decreased, and the lost neuromotor abilities were recovered. Severe nutritional Cbl deficiency is an important nutritional disease where complications can be prevented with early treatment. When evaluating the pathogenesis, it should be noted that nutritional Cbl deficiency is a succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency. PMID:25738478

  3. The Levels of Calcium and Magnesium, and of Selected Trace Elements, in Whole Blood and Scalp Hair of Children with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Ozmen, Habibe; Akarsu, Saadet; Polat, Fatih; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metals such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) are essential for human beings. Chronic metabolic disturbances may result from an excess or deficiency of these metals. Ca and Mg are also nutrient elements and play an important role in biological systems. Thus, it is very important to check regularly trace elements concentration in the body. The purpose of this study was to measure the content of Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca and Mg in whole blood and hair of children with growth retardation compared to that of controls. Methods A quantitative elemental analysis of whole blood and scalp hair of children with constitutional growth retardation (n = 27) and matched controls (n = 21) was used to find out correlation and possible changes, between growth retardation and healthy controls. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analysis of quantitative method was used to determine iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium levels of whole blood and scalp hair. Findings The whole blood levels of Fe and Zn were significantly lower in children with growth retardation (P<0.05), but there were no differences in Cu, Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood between children with growth retardation and healthy controls. The hair levels of Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg were significantly lower in children with growth retardation when compared to that of controls (P<0.05). The Cu concentrations in the hair of children with growth retardation and healthy controls showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Conclusion The usefulness and significance of these elements in growth retardation should be discussed more detailed in the light of the most recent data. PMID:23724170

  4. Effects of alendronate and pamidronate on cultured rat metatarsal bones: failure to prevent dexamethasone-induced growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Heino, Terhi J; Chagin, Andrei S; Takigawa, Masaharu; Sävendahl, Lars

    2008-04-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used anti-resorptive drugs in the adult population. In children, their use has mainly been limited to patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the powerful effects of bisphosphonates on bone turnover have raised concern about their long-term effects on the growing skeleton. We aimed to study the effects of two commonly used bisphosphonates, alendronate (Aln) and pamidronate (Pam) on normal bone growth as well as their potential to prevent glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation. Effects on bone growth were studied in fetal rat metatarsal bones (day E20) that were cultured for 5-47 days and measured every 2-7 days. Cellular mechanisms were investigated in metatarsal bones and also in the human chondrocytic cell line HCS-2/8. Chondrocyte viability (WST-1), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), differentiation (collagen type X immunohistochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL and Cell Death ELISA) were determined. At a clinically relevant concentration of bisphosphonates (1 microM), metatarsal bone growth was stimulated by both Aln (p<0.001 for length and p<0.05 for width) and Pam (p<0.05 for both length and width) from day 19 of culture. The growth-stimulatory effect was associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation (+21% with Aln and +24% with Pam), while cell differentiation and apoptosis were not affected. Despite the finding that both Aln and Pam (1 muM) rescued HCS-2/8 cells from undergoing dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, neither of them was able to prevent dexamethasone-induced growth retardation of fetal rat metatarsal bones. Aln and Pam have the capacity to stimulate the growth of cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones; an effect associated with increased proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes. Our experimental data suggest that bisphosphonates are ineffective in preventing glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation. Nevertheless, based on our in vitro data, both Aln and Pam appear safe to use in growing children, at least

  5. Hypomorphic mutation in mouse Nppc gene causes retarded bone growth due to impaired endochondral ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Takehito Kondo, Eri; Yasoda, Akihiro; Inamoto, Masataka; Kiyosu, Chiyo; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2008-11-07

    Long bone abnormality (lbab/lbab) is a spontaneous mutant mouse characterized by dwarfism with shorter long bones. A missense mutation was reported in the Nppc gene, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), but it has not been confirmed whether this mutation is responsible for the dwarf phenotype. To verify that the mutation causes the dwarfism of lbab/lbab mice, we first investigated the effect of CNP in lbab/lbab mice. By transgenic rescue with chondrocyte-specific expression of CNP, the dwarf phenotype in lbab/lbab mice was completely compensated. Next, we revealed that CNP derived from the lbab allele retained only slight activity to induce cGMP production through its receptor. Histological analysis showed that both proliferative and hypertrophic zones of chondrocytes in the growth plate of lbab/lbab mice were markedly reduced. Our results demonstrate that lbab/lbab mice have a hypomorphic mutation in the Nppc gene that is responsible for dwarfism caused by impaired endochondral ossification.

  6. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  7. Monte Carlo Potts Investigation of the Role of Sparse Recrystallization in Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Alan Scott

    Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth (DAGG) is a type of abnormal grain growth discovered in Molybdenum that occurs during dynamic straining at medium homologous temperatures. Specifics about DAGG initiation and propagation are dependent on the processing conditions experienced by the material. The mechanism responsible for DAGG has yet to be identified. Proposed is a theory is for explaining DAGG, through the nucleation and growth of a sparse number of recrystallized grains DAGG is achieved. These recrystallized grains could grow abnormally using their strain energy driving force advantage. This theory is investigated numerically by modeling dynamic recrystallization using the Monte Carlo Potts method. Dynamic recrystallization is modeled using a combination of dynamic straining, nucleation of recrystallized grains and grain growth. Dynamic recrystallization is studied to answer whether sparse recrystallization is possible, if sparse recrystallization can cause abnormal grain growth and under what conditions sparse recrystallization is accomplished. Viable sparse recrystallization can be achieved and will cause DAGG-like behavior through the nucleation and rapid growth of a single recrystallized grain. The conditions to achieve sparse recrystallization are examined using the relationship recrystallization has with strain energy and microstructure parameters. Results show that a critical strain energy is needed to allow viable nucleation of recrystallized grains. The value of the critical strain energy is the equivalent of 6 grain boundary segments of non-dimensional (n.d.) energy. The inclusion of external solid-vapor surfaces can reduce the critical strain energy to 5 n.d. Strain energy also directly influences the rate of nucleation. By minimizing strain energy, while keeping it is above the critical value, nucleation can be suppressed enough to allow sparse recrystallization. The microstructure will also influence recrystallization. The grain size of the

  8. Treadmill exercise-dependent tumor growth retardation in T-cell lymphoma-bearing host displays gender dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Vivek; Singh, Mahendra Pal; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2010-01-01

    A number of previous investigations have reported that physical exercise renders immunopotentiating and antitumor therapeutic benefits to the tumor-bearing host. As these effects of physical exercise are mainly mediated through the modulation of hormonal and cytokine repertoire, it remains unclear if male and female tumor-bearing hosts show a gender-dependent differential response to the therapeutic action of physical exercise in tumor growth retardation. In the present investigation tumor growth retardation, following physical exercise was investigated in a gender-specific manner in a murine tumor model of a T-cell lymphoma designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). The results of the present investigation show that physical exercise of a tumor-bearing host on a treadmill results in a better retardation of tumor progression along with prolongation of survival time in male compared to female tumor-bearing host. Such gender dimorphism of the therapeutic benefits of physical exercise in tumor-bearing host was found to be associated with a gender-dependent variation in cell survival and induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Moreover, expression of cell growth regulatory proteins-selectin, Hsp70, p53, CAD, SOCS, and IL-2 receptor-was found to vary in a gender-specific manner following physical exercise. The investigation also indicates the role of cytokines and macrophages in manifestation of gender dimorphism in the response of tumor-bearing mice to physical exercise. Thus, the observations of the present investigation suggest for the first time that the beneficial effects of physical exercise in a tumor-bearing host may be variable depending on the gender of the host. PMID:20377130

  9. A Nerve Growth Factor Peptide Retards Seizure Development and Inhibits Neuronal Sprouting in a Rat Model of Epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Kashif; van der Zee, Catharina E. E. M.; Ross, Gregory M.; Chapman, C. Andrew; Stanisz, Jolanta; Riopelle, Richard J.; Racine, Ronald J.; Fahnestock, Margaret

    1995-10-01

    Kindling, an animal model of epilepsy wherein seizures are induced by subcortical electrical stimulation, results in the upregulation of neurotrophin mRNA and protein in the adult rat forebrain and causes mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus. Intraventricular infusion of a synthetic peptide mimic of a nerve growth factor domain that interferes with the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors resulted in significant retardation of kindling and inhibition of mossy fiber sprouting. These findings suggest a critical role for neurotrophins in both kindling and kindling-induced synaptic reorganization.

  10. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2012-10-01

    Piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or with normal birth weight (NBW) were selected to evaluate the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis and mitochondrial function. During gestation, primiparous Yorkshire sows were fed a Control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or a folic acid-supplemented diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) with 16 replicates per diet. During the 28-d lactation period, sows were fed a common diet. Compared with NBW piglets, hepatic ATP concentrations and mtDNA contents were decreased in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, IUGR piglets exhibited lower membrane potential and decreased oxygen consumption in liver mitochondria, but these parameters were not affected by maternal folic acid supplementation. Intrauterine growth retardation decreased mRNA expression abundance of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, uncoupling protein 3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and IV. Impaired antioxidant capacity characterised by increased malondialdehyde content and decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase activity was also observed in IUGR pigs. In IUGR piglets, however, nearly all of these parameters were normalised to the level of NBW piglets when the maternal diet was supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy. Hence, maternal folic acid supplementation was proved to be an effective way to reverse the changes in gene expressions in IUGR pigs, which provided a possible nutritional strategy to improve growth development of IUGR individuals.

  11. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: inhibition of placental folic acid transport as a potential mechanism for fetal growth retardation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Will, M.; Barnard, J.A.; Said, H.M.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1985-04-01

    Maternal hydantoin ingestion during pregnancy results in a well defined clinical entity termed ''fetal hydantoin syndrome''. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome includes growth retardation, and congenital anomalies. Because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, the authors postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin. Therefore, they studied in vivo placental folate transport in a well-established model for fetal hydantoin syndrome in the rat. Our results indicate that maternal hydantoin ingestion, significantly decreased fetal weight and placental and fetal uptake of folate compared to controls. To determine whether maternal hydantoin ingestion has a generalized or specific effect on placental function, they examined placental and fetal zinc transport in the same model. Our results indicate that zinc transport is not altered by hydantoin ingestion. They conclude that maternal hydantoin ingestion results in fetal growth retardation which may be due in part to inhibition of placental folate transport.

  12. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  13. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  14. Delayed myelination in an intrauterine growth retardation model is mediated by oxidative stress upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4.

    PubMed

    Reid, Mary V; Murray, Kaitlin A; Marsh, Eric D; Golden, Jeffrey A; Simmons, Rebecca A; Grinspan, Judith B

    2012-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with neurological deficits including cerebral palsy and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. The pathogenesis involves oxidative stress that leads to periventricular white matter injury with a paucity of mature oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. The molecular mechanisms underlying this damage remain poorly understood. We used a rat model of IUGR created by bilateral ligation of the uterine artery at embryonic Day 19 that results in fetal growth retardation and oxidative stress in the developing brain. The IUGR rat pups showed significant delays in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that resolved by 8 weeks. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points and returned to near normal by adulthood. Despite the apparent recovery, behavioral deficiencies were found in 8-week-old female animals, suggesting that the early transient myelination defects have permanent effects. In support of these in vivo data, oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured from postnatal IUGR rats retained increased BMP4 expression and impaired differentiation that was reversed with the BMP inhibitor noggin. Oxidants in oligodendrocyte cultures increased BMP expression, which decreased differentiation; however, abrogating BMP signaling with noggin in vitro and in BMP-deficient mice prevented these effects. Together, these findings suggest that IUGR results in delayed myelination through the generation of oxidative stress that leads to BMP4 upregulation. PMID:22710965

  15. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J.

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. We find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.

  16. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  17. Growth of plasmodium falciparum in human erythrocytes containing abnormal membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, S. City Univ. of New York, NY ); Roth, E.F. Jr.; Cheng, B.; Rybicki, A.C.; Sussman, I.I.; Wong, M.; Nagel, R.L.; Schwartz, R.S. ); Wang, W. ); Ranney, H.M. )

    1990-09-01

    To evaluate the role of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane proteins in the invasion and maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the authors have studied, in culture, abnormal RBCs containing quantitative or qualitative membrane protein defects. These defects included hereditary spherocytosis (HS) due to decreases in the content of spectrin (HS(Sp{sup +})), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) due to protein 4.1 deficiency (HE(4.1{sup 0})), HE due to a spectrin {alpha}I domain structural variant that results in increased content of spectrin dimers (HE(Sp{alpha}{sup I/65})), and band 3 structural variants. Parasite invasion, measured by the initial uptake of ({sup 3}H)hypoxanthine 18 hr after inoculation with merozoites, was normal in all of the pathologic RBCs. In contrast, RBCs from six HS(Sp{sup +}) subjects showed marked growth inhibition that became apparent after the first or second growth cycle. The extent of decreased parasite growth in HS(Sp{sup +}) RBCs closely correlated with the extent of RBC spectrin deficiency. Homogeneous subpopulations of dense HS RBCs exhibited decreased parasite growth to the same extent as did HS whole blood. RBCs from four HE subjects showed marked parasite growth and development.

  18. Suppression of insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit expression--a novel mechanism for deoxynivalenol-induced growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Amuzie, Chidozie J; Pestka, James J

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin commonly detected in cereal-based foods, causes impaired growth in many animal species. While growth retardation is used as a basis for regulating DON levels in human food, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Oral exposure of mice to DON rapidly induces multiorgan expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and this is followed by upregulation of several suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), some of which are capable of impairing growth hormone (GH) signaling. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that impairment of the GH axis precedes DON-induced growth retardation in the mouse. Subchronic dietary exposure of young (4-week old) mice to DON (20 ppm) over a period of 2-8 weeks was found to (1) impair weight gain, (2) result in a steady-state plasma DON concentration (40-60 ng/ml), (3) downregulate hepatic insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS) mRNA expression, and (4) reduce circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGFALS levels. Acute oral exposure to DON at 0.5-12.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) markedly suppressed hepatic IGFALS mRNA levels within 2 h in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas 0.1 mg/kg bw was without effect. DON-induced IGFALS mRNA upregulation occurred both with and without exogenous GH treatment. These latter effects co-occurred with robust hepatic suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 upregulation. Taken together, these data suggest that oral DON exposure perturbs GH axis by suppressing two clinically relevant growth-related proteins, IGFALS and IGF1. Both have potential to serve as biomarkers of effect in populations exposed to this common foodborne mycotoxin.

  19. The grain size distribution and the detection of abnormal grain growth of austenite in an eutectoid steel containing niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, J.C. . Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais); Rios, P.R. . Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia)

    1995-02-15

    The abnormal grain growth of austenite was studied in a commercial steel of composition (wt%): 0.70 C, 1.36 Mn, 0.72 Si, 0.015 P, 0.027 S and 0.03 Nb. Specimens were thermocycled at various conditions and then grain size distribution determined. The grain size distribution shape did not change during normal grain growth but this distribution widened and flattened during the abnormal grain growth. The initial smaller mean size of carbonitrides and/or the highest homogeneity of niobium carbonitride size distribution of the samples submitted to thermal cycles, in comparison with the normalized samples, increased the abnormal grain growth temperature from 1,373 K to 1,473 K.

  20. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor levels and binding affinity in the thyroid gland of growth-retarded mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichi; Sato, Mirei; Machida, Takeo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2005-09-01

    Growth-retarded (grt/grt) mice are congenitally primary hypothyroid. Our previous study indicated that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) responsiveness was defective in the grt/grt thyroid gland. We now report additional studies of impaired grt/grt thyroid function. Semiquantitative RT-PCR confirmed that TSH receptor (TSHR) mRNA expression in the grt/grt thyroid was significantly decreased compared with +/+ thyroids. Scatchard analysis revealed that grt/grt and +/+ mice have only one type of TSH binding site. grt/grt thyroids had fewer TSH binding sites, although this did not apparently affect the affinity of TSH for its receptor. The present data suggest that reduced TSHR levels or defects in TSHR signaling could be one of the possible defective sites in the grt/grt thyroid gland.

  1. Exposure to electromagnetic fields during pregnancy and associated risks for intrauterine growth retardation and spontaneous abortion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, M.B.

    1995-12-01

    This joint EPRI/National Institutes of Health study is the largest epidemiological study ever undertaken to examine the relationship between exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMF) during pregnancy and reproductive outcomes. Overall, the study concludes that EMF exposure during pregnancy is unrelated to pregnancy outcome. In specific, the study reveals no association between electromagnetic field exposure from electrically heated beds and intrauterine growth retardation or spontaneous abortion. Among the many strengths of this study are clearly specified hypotheses; prospective design; randomized assignment to exposure monitoring; very large sample size; detailed assessment of potential confounding by known risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes; and comprehensive statistical analyses. The study also featured extensive exposure assessment, including measurements of EMF from a variety of sources, personal monitoring, and wire coding information.

  2. An examination of abnormal grain growth in low strain nickel-200

    DOE PAGES

    Underwood, O.; Madison, J.; Martens, R. M.; Thompson, G. B.; Welsh, S.; Evans, J.

    2016-06-21

    Here, this study offers experimental observation of the effect of low strain conditions (ε < 10%) on abnormal grain growth (AGG) in Nickel-200. At such conditions, stored mechanical energy is low within the microstructure enabling one to observe the impact of increasing mechanical deformation on the early onset of AGG compared to a control, or nondeformed, equivalent sample. The onset of AGG was observed to occur at specific pairings of compressive strain and annealing temperature and an empirical relation describing the influence of thermal exposure and strain content was developed. The evolution of low-Σ coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries andmore » overall grain size distributions are quantified using electron backscatter diffraction preceding, at onset and during ensuing AGG, whereby possible mechanisms for AGG in the low strain regime are offered and discussed.« less

  3. Abnormal test growth in benthic foraminifera from hypersaline coastal ponds of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2014-05-01

    The living (Rose-Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera assemblage from shallow coastal ponds located in the intertidal area of the United Arab Emirate Western Region was investigated. The studied coastal ponds are located between a lagoonal area, characterized by carbonate sedimentation, and the supratidal, evaporite-dominated, sabkha. Sampling was undertaken when the maximum water depth in the ponds was 50 cm with a water temperature ranging from 27 to 35°C, a pH of 8 and a maximum salinity of 60 ppt. The sides and floor of the pond were characterized by a microbial mat. Detached blades of sea grass were present in the ponds and are inferred to have been transported into the pond either during high-tides or storm surges. Collected samples were stained with Rose-Bengal at the moment of sample collection and the living assemblage was studied. The benthic foraminifera that were present show a low-diversity assemblage. Epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera dominate the living assemblage with Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus characterizing 90% of the living assemblage and the species Spirolina areatina, S. aciculata, Sorites marginalis and Quinqueloculina spp. comprising the rest of the foraminifera community. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of anomalous tests of benthic foraminifera belonging to the genera Peneroplis, Spirolina and Sorites were observed. The anomalies included dissolution, microboring and abnormality in growth. Three different forms of abnormal shell architecture were recorded; the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress caused by instability of physical parameters (particularly high and variable salinity and temperature) in this kind of transitional marine environment. The unique presence of epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the

  4. A syndrome of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with normal teeth, peculiar facies, pigmentary disturbances, psychomotor and growth retardation, bilateral nuclear cataract, and other signs.

    PubMed Central

    Freire-Maia, N; Fortes, V A; Pereira, L C; Opitz, J M; Marcalle, F A; Cavalli, I J

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a 7-year-old girl with trichodysplasia, normal teeth, onychogryposis, hypohidrosis, psychomotor and growth retardation, dry and warm skin with follicular hyperkeratosis, pigmentary disturbances (hyper- and hypochromic spots), bilateral nuclear cataract, dermatoglyphic anomalies, and other signs. This condition is considered a new form of ectodermal dysplasia. Images PMID:1177286

  5. No effect of sustained systemic growth retardation on the distribution of Reelin-expressing interneurons in the neuron-producing hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Takumi; Wang, Liyun; Ogawa, Bunichiro; Fujisawa, Kenichi; Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2010-12-01

    Reelin signaling plays a role in neuronal migration and positioning during brain development. To clarify the effect of systemic growth retardation on the distribution of Reelin-expressing interneurons in the hilus of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, pregnant rats were fed a synthetic diet with either a normal (20% casein) or low (10% casein) protein concentration from gestational day 10 to postnatal day (PND) 21 at weaning. Male offspring were immunohistochemically examined at PND 21 and on PND 77. Protein-restricted offspring displayed systemic growth retardation through PND 77 and had decreased absolute brain weights and an increased number of external granular cells in the cerebellar cortex, suggestive of retarded brain growth at weaning. However, maternal protein restriction did not change the cellular distribution of immunoreactivity for Reelin, Calbindin-D-28K, or glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 or of NeuN-positive postmitotic neurons in the dentate hilus either at PND 21 or PND 77, which suggests that the population of γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic interneurons involving synthesis of Reelin was not affected. Furthermore, as well as the distribution of hilar neurons expressing neurogenesis-related FoxG1, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the subgranular zone were unaffected through PND 77. These results suggest that systemic growth retardation caused by maternal protein restriction does not affect neuronal migration and postnatal neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus resulting in unaltered distribution of Reelin-synthesizing interneurons.

  6. Influence of the growth retardant tetcyclacis on cell division and cell elongation in plants and cell cultures of sunflower, soybean, and maize.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, K; Grossmann, K; Sauerbrey, E; Jung, J

    1985-03-01

    Taking tetcyclacis, a norbornenodiazentine derivative, as an example, the influence of a growth retardant on the shoot growth of sunflower, soybean, and maize seedlings grown and treated in hydroculture was investigated. In detail, the reduction in the length of various shoot sections {epicotyl, 1st internode, leaf blade) caused by the retardant was studied. At low concentrations of the retardant (\\lt10(-6) M) the shortening effects are substantially attributable to an influence on cell elongation, whereas cell division is inhibited as the concentration increases (τ10(-6) M). A comparison of the effects of tetcyclacis in cell suspension cultures of appropriate plant species showed that also in this system concentrations τ 10(-6) M inhibited cell division growth, i. e. there is comparability of plant/ cell culture regarding the retardant effect on cell division. In contrast to the intact plants, however, cell elongation appears to be of only subordinate importance for the growth of cell cultures, as it has been shown using parsley cell suspension cultures. It is discussed to what extent influencing the gibberellin or sterol biosynthesis by means of tetcyclacis provides an explanation for the concentration-dependent effect on the cell division and cell elongation processes. PMID:23196005

  7. Enhanced and Retarded SiO2 Growth on Thermally Oxidized Fe-Contaminated n-Type Si(001) Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hirofumi; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the oxidation of Fe-contaminated n-type Si(001) surfaces, Fe reacted with oxygen (O2) on the silicon (Si) substrate to form Fe2O3 and oxygen-induced point defects (emitted Si + vacancies). SiO2 growth was mainly enhanced by catalytic action of Fe. At 650 °C, SiO2 growth of the contaminated samples was faster than in reference samples rinsed in RCA solution during the first 60 min. However, it substantially slowed and became less than that of the reference samples. As the oxidation advanced, approximately half of the contaminated Fe atoms became concentrated close to the surface area of the SiO2 film layer. This Fe2O3-rich SiO2 layer acted as a diffusion barrier against oxygen species. The diffusion of oxygen atoms toward the SiO2/Si interface may have been reduced, and in turn, the emission of Si self-interstitials owing to oxidation-induced strain may have been decreased at the SiO2/Si interface, resulting in the retarded oxide growth. These results are evidence that emitted Si self-interstitials are oxidized not in the Fe2O3-rich SiO2 layer, but at the SiO2/Si interface in accordance with a previously proposed model. A possible mechanism based on the interfacial Si emission model is discussed. The activation energies for the oxide growth are found to be in accord with the enhanced and reduced growths of the Fe-contaminated samples.

  8. Fundamental voice frequence during normal and abnormal growth, and after androgen treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Vuorenkoski, V; Lenko, H L; Tjernlund, P; Vuorenkoski, L; Perheentupa, J

    1978-01-01

    A simple treatment was shown to be suitable for clinical measurement of fundamental voice frequency. Basal frequency (SFF) and lowest frequency (LF) were determined in 374 normal subjects aged 6 years to adulthood. SFF fell between ages 8 and 10 years in boys (from 259 to 247 Hz), but not in girls (253 Hz). LF fell between ages 6 and 10 years in boys (from 234 to 203 Hz) and girls (from 230 to 218 Hz), and a sex difference appeared. In puberty, parallel to pubic hair (PH) development, a gradual fall of SFF and LF occurred in both boys (to 100 and 90 Hz, respectively) and girls (to 213 and 180 Hz). As a group, young hypopituitary children and girls with Turner's syndrome had a high SFF, and prepubertal boys with delayed maturation a low SFF. In some children with prenatal growth failure, SFF was abnormally high. The girls with Turner's syndrome exhibited a high, though individually variable, sensitivity of voice to androgen; their voices became lower before the appearance of any other masculinising effects. The instrument is useful for characterisation of growth failure syndromes and stages of puberty. It is particularly recommended for monitoring an undesirable effect on the voice during androgen treatment. Images Fig. 1 p202-b PMID:646429

  9. Mitigating Abnormal Grain Growth for Friction Stir Welded Al-Li 2195 Spun Formed Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Russell, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Formability and abnormal grain growth (AGG) are the two major issues that have been encountered for Al alloy spun formed dome development using friction stir welded blanks. Material properties that have significant influence on the formability include forming range and strain hardening exponent. In this study, tensile tests were performed for two 2195 friction stir weld parameter sets at 400 F to study the effects of post weld anneal on the forming range and strain hardening exponent. It was found that the formability can be enhanced by applying a newly developed post weld anneal to heat treat the friction stir welded panels. This new post weld anneal leads to a higher forming range and much improved strain hardening exponent. AGG in the weld nugget is known to cause a significant reduction of ductility and fracture toughness. This study also investigated how AGG may be influenced by the heating rate to the solution heat treatment temperature. After post-weld annealing, friction stir welds were strained to 15% and 39% by compression at 400 F before they were subjected to SHT at 950 F for 1 hour. Salt bath SHT is very effective in reducing the grain size as it helps arrest the onset of AGG and promote normal recrystallization and grain growth. However, heat treating a 18 ft dome using a salt bath is not practical. Efforts are continuing at Marshall Space Flight Center to identify the welding parameters and heat treating parameters that can help mitigate the AGG in the friction stir welds.

  10. Retarding the growth of the Rosensweig instability unveils a new scaling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Adrian; Gollwitzer, Christian; Maretzki, Robin; Rehberg, Ingo; Richter, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Using a highly viscous magnetic fluid, the dynamics in the aftermath of the Rosensweig instability can be slowed down by more than 2000 times. In this way we expand the regime where the growth rate is predicted to scale linearly with the bifurcation parameter by six orders of magnitude, while this regime is tiny for standard ferrofluids and cannot be resolved experimentally there. We measure the growth of the pattern by means of a two-dimensional imaging technique, and find that the slopes of the growth and decay rates are not the same—a qualitative discrepancy with respect to the theoretical predictions. We solve this discrepancy by taking into account a viscosity which is assumed to be different for the growth and decay. This may be a consequence of the measured shear thinning of the ferrofluid.

  11. Retarding the growth of the Rosensweig instability unveils a new scaling regime.

    PubMed

    Lange, Adrian; Gollwitzer, Christian; Maretzki, Robin; Rehberg, Ingo; Richter, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Using a highly viscous magnetic fluid, the dynamics in the aftermath of the Rosensweig instability can be slowed down by more than 2000 times. In this way we expand the regime where the growth rate is predicted to scale linearly with the bifurcation parameter by six orders of magnitude, while this regime is tiny for standard ferrofluids and cannot be resolved experimentally there. We measure the growth of the pattern by means of a two-dimensional imaging technique, and find that the slopes of the growth and decay rates are not the same-a qualitative discrepancy with respect to the theoretical predictions. We solve this discrepancy by taking into account a viscosity which is assumed to be different for the growth and decay. This may be a consequence of the measured shear thinning of the ferrofluid. PMID:27176389

  12. Retarding the growth of the Rosensweig instability unveils a new scaling regime.

    PubMed

    Lange, Adrian; Gollwitzer, Christian; Maretzki, Robin; Rehberg, Ingo; Richter, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Using a highly viscous magnetic fluid, the dynamics in the aftermath of the Rosensweig instability can be slowed down by more than 2000 times. In this way we expand the regime where the growth rate is predicted to scale linearly with the bifurcation parameter by six orders of magnitude, while this regime is tiny for standard ferrofluids and cannot be resolved experimentally there. We measure the growth of the pattern by means of a two-dimensional imaging technique, and find that the slopes of the growth and decay rates are not the same-a qualitative discrepancy with respect to the theoretical predictions. We solve this discrepancy by taking into account a viscosity which is assumed to be different for the growth and decay. This may be a consequence of the measured shear thinning of the ferrofluid.

  13. Short-Term Exposure of Zebrafish Embryos to Arecoline Leads to Retarded Growth, Motor Impairment, and Somite Muscle Fiber Changes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Lee, Yen-Chia; Chau, Yat-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The areca nut-chewing habit is common in Southeast Asia, India, and Taiwan, and arecoline is the most abundant and potent component in the areca nut. The effects of arecoline on birth defects have been explored in many species, including chicken, mice, and zebrafish. The effects of arecoline on embryos after long-term exposure are well established; however, the effects of short-term embryo exposure to arecoline are not understood. Using zebrafish, we study the effects of short-term exposure of arecoline on embryos to model the human habit of areca nut-chewing during early pregnancy. Arecoline, at concentrations from 0.001% to 0.04%, was administered to zebrafish embryos from 4 to 24 hours post fertilization. The morphological changes, survival rates, body length, and skeletal muscle fiber structure were then investigated by immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and conventional electron microscopy. With exposure of embryos to increasing arecoline concentrations, we observed a significant decline in the hatching and survival rates, general growth retardation, lower locomotor activity, and swimming ability impairment. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated a loose arrangement of myosin heavy chains, and ultrastructural observations revealed altered myofibril arrangement and swelling of the mitochondria. In addition, the results of flow-cytometry and JC-1 staining to assay mitochondria activity, as well as reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analyses of functional gene expression, revealed mitochondrial dysfunctions after exposure to arecoline. We confirmed that short-term arecoline exposure resulted in retarded embryonic development and decreased locomotor activity due to defective somitic skeletal muscle development and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25549301

  14. Short-term exposure of zebrafish embryos to arecoline leads to retarded growth, motor impairment, and somite muscle fiber changes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Lee, Yen-Chia; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2015-02-01

    The areca nut-chewing habit is common in Southeast Asia, India, and Taiwan, and arecoline is the most abundant and potent component in the areca nut. The effects of arecoline on birth defects have been explored in many species, including chicken, mice, and zebrafish. The effects of arecoline on embryos after long-term exposure are well established; however, the effects of short-term embryo exposure to arecoline are not understood. Using zebrafish, we study the effects of short-term exposure of arecoline on embryos to model the human habit of areca nut-chewing during early pregnancy. Arecoline, at concentrations from 0.001% to 0.04%, was administered to zebrafish embryos from 4 to 24 hours post fertilization. The morphological changes, survival rates, body length, and skeletal muscle fiber structure were then investigated by immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and conventional electron microscopy. With exposure of embryos to increasing arecoline concentrations, we observed a significant decline in the hatching and survival rates, general growth retardation, lower locomotor activity, and swimming ability impairment. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated a loose arrangement of myosin heavy chains, and ultrastructural observations revealed altered myofibril arrangement and swelling of the mitochondria. In addition, the results of flow-cytometry and JC-1 staining to assay mitochondria activity, as well as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of functional gene expression, revealed mitochondrial dysfunctions after exposure to arecoline. We confirmed that short-term arecoline exposure resulted in retarded embryonic development and decreased locomotor activity due to defective somitic skeletal muscle development and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  15. Cytosolic ppGpp accumulation induces retarded plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuta; Masuda, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria a second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), synthesized upon nutrient starvation, controls many gene expressions and enzyme activities, which is necessary for growth under changeable environments. Recent studies have shown that ppGpp synthase and hydrolase are also conserved in eukaryotes, although their functions are not well understood. We recently showed that ppGpp-overaccumulation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts results in robust growth under nutrient-limited conditions, demonstrating that the bacterial-like stringent response at least functions in plastids. To test if ppGpp also functions in the cytosol, we constructed the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Bacillus subtilis ppGpp synthase gene yjbM. Upon induction of the gene, the mutant synthesizes ∼10-20-fold higher levels of ppGpp, and its fresh weight was reduced to ˜80% that of the wild type. These results indicate that cytosolic ppGpp negatively regulates plant growth and development.

  16. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  17. Depletion of Ascorbic Acid Restricts Angiogenesis and Retards Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Sucheta; Clem, Amy L; Eaton, John W; Chesney, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Angiogenesis requires the deposition of type IV collagen by endothelial cells into the basement membrane of new blood vessels. Stabilization of type IV collagen triple helix depends on the hydroxylation of proline, which is catalyzed by the iron-containing enzyme prolyl hydroxylase. This enzyme, in turn, requires ascorbic acid to maintain the enzyme-bound iron in its reduced state. We hypothesized that dietary ascorbic acid might be required for tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, tumor growth. Here, we show that, not surprisingly, ascorbic acid is necessary for the synthesis of collagen type IV by human endothelial cells and for their effective migration and tube formation on a basement membrane matrix. Furthermore, ascorbic acid depletion in mice incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid (Gulo-/-) dramatically restricts the in vivo growth of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma tumors. Histopathological analyses of these tumors reveal poorly formed blood vessels, extensive hemorrhagic foci, and decreased collagen and von Willebrand factor expression. Our data indicate that ascorbic acid plays an essential role in tumor angiogenesis and growth, and that restriction of ascorbic acid or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase may prove to be novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer. PMID:17325743

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Flame Retardants and Fetal Growth in the INMA Cohort (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relation between PBDEs and fetal growth or newborn anthropometry in a Spanish cohort (2003–2008). PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -153, -154, and -209) were determined in serum of 670 mothers at gestational week 12 and in 534 umbilical cord samples. Abdominal circumference (AC), estimated fetal weight (EFW), femur length (FL), and biparietal diameter (BPD) during gestation were measured by ultrasounds. At birth, weight (BW), head circumference (HC), and length (BL) were also measured. We assessed growth in the intervals between 12–20 and 20–34 weeks of gestation and size at birth by standard deviation (SD)-scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. We conducted multivariate linear regression analyses between PBDE congeners and their sum (ΣPBDEs) and outcomes. We found statistically significant inverse associations between ΣPBDEs and AC, EFW, and BPD at weeks 20–34 and HC at birth. Regarding congeners, the association was clearer with BDE-99, with inverse associations being found with AC, EFW, and BPD at weeks 20–34, and with BW and HC at delivery. These outcomes decreased between 1.3% and 3.5% for each 2-fold PBDE increase. Concerning matrices, we found statistically significant inverse associations with BPD, HC, and BW when using maternal serum, and for AC and EFW with cord serum. In conclusion, PBDEs may impair fetal growth in late pregnancy and reduce birth size. PMID:26181825

  19. Growth Retardation and Altered Isotope Composition As Delayed Effects of PCB Exposure in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ek, Caroline; Gerdes, Zandra; Garbaras, Andrius; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Gorokhova, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Trophic magnification factor (TMF) analysis employs stable isotope signatures to derive biomagnification potential for environmental contaminants. This approach relies on species δ(15)N values aligning with their trophic position (TP). This, however, may not always be true, because toxic exposure can alter growth and isotope allocation patterns. Here, effects of PCB exposure (mixture of PCB18, PCB40, PCB128, and PCB209) on δ(15)N and δ(13)C as well as processes driving these effects were explored using the cladoceran Daphnia magna. A two-part experiment assessed effects of toxic exposure during and after exposure; juvenile daphnids were exposed during 3 days (accumulation phase) and then allowed to depurate for 4 days (depuration phase). No effects on survival, growth, carbon and nitrogen content, and stable isotope composition were observed after the accumulation phase, whereas significant changes were detected in adults after the depuration phase. In particular, a significantly lower nitrogen content and a growth inhibition were observed, with a concomitant increase in δ(15)N (+0.1 ‰) and decrease in δ(13)C (-0.1 ‰). Although of low magnitude, these changes followed the predicted direction indicating that sublethal effects of contaminant exposure can lead to overestimation of TP and hence underestimated TMF. PMID:27367056

  20. The Arabidopsis transcriptional regulator DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation in rice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hikaru; Todaka, Daisuke; Kudo, Madoka; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Zhao, Yu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of heat stress tolerance in crops is an important challenge for food security to facilitate adaptation to global warming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transcriptional regulator DNA polymerase II subunit B3-1 (DPB3-1)/nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) has been reported as a positive regulator of Dehydration-responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), and the overexpression of DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation. Here, we show that DPB3-1 interacts with DREB2A homologues in rice and soya bean. Transactivation analyses with Arabidopsis and rice mesophyll protoplasts indicate that DPB3-1 and its rice homologue OsDPB3-2 function as positive regulators of DREB2A homologues. Overexpression of DPB3-1 did not affect plant growth or yield in rice under nonstress conditions. Moreover, DPB3-1-overexpressing rice showed enhanced heat stress tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that many heat stress-inducible genes were up-regulated in DPB3-1-overexpressing rice under heat stress conditions. However, the overexpression of DPB3-1 using a constitutive promoter had almost no effect on the expression of these genes under nonstress conditions. This may be because DPB3-1 is a coactivator and thus lacks inherent transcriptional activity. We conclude that DPB3-1, a coactivator that functions specifically under abiotic stress conditions, could be utilized to increase heat stress tolerance in crops without negative effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. PMID:26841113

  1. The Arabidopsis transcriptional regulator DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation in rice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hikaru; Todaka, Daisuke; Kudo, Madoka; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Zhao, Yu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of heat stress tolerance in crops is an important challenge for food security to facilitate adaptation to global warming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transcriptional regulator DNA polymerase II subunit B3-1 (DPB3-1)/nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) has been reported as a positive regulator of Dehydration-responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), and the overexpression of DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation. Here, we show that DPB3-1 interacts with DREB2A homologues in rice and soya bean. Transactivation analyses with Arabidopsis and rice mesophyll protoplasts indicate that DPB3-1 and its rice homologue OsDPB3-2 function as positive regulators of DREB2A homologues. Overexpression of DPB3-1 did not affect plant growth or yield in rice under nonstress conditions. Moreover, DPB3-1-overexpressing rice showed enhanced heat stress tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that many heat stress-inducible genes were up-regulated in DPB3-1-overexpressing rice under heat stress conditions. However, the overexpression of DPB3-1 using a constitutive promoter had almost no effect on the expression of these genes under nonstress conditions. This may be because DPB3-1 is a coactivator and thus lacks inherent transcriptional activity. We conclude that DPB3-1, a coactivator that functions specifically under abiotic stress conditions, could be utilized to increase heat stress tolerance in crops without negative effects on vegetative and reproductive growth.

  2. Facilitative Effects of Forgetting from Short-Term Memory on Growth of Long-Term Memory in Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperber, Richard D.

    1976-01-01

    Competing explanations of the beneficial effect of spacing in retardate discrimination learning were tested. Results are inconsistent with consolidation and rehearsal theories but support the prediction of the Geber, Greenfield, and House spacing model that forgetting from short-term memory facilities retardate learning. (Author/SB)

  3. A polysaccharide from mushroom Huaier retards human hepatocellular carcinoma growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanmei; Xiong, Hua; Xiong, Huihua; Lu, Tao; Zhu, Feng; Luo, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, Yihua

    2015-04-01

    Mushroom Huaier has become a focus of interest in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Presently, we isolated and purified one polysaccharide from this mushroom. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SP1 on tumor growth and metastasis in a HCC xenograft model and explore its possible mechanism of action. Our results showed that SP1 not only significantly inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro at the concentration ranging from 0 to 800 μg/ml but also suppressed the HCC tumor growth and metastatic nodules to the lung in SMMC-7721-bearing mice by oral administration at three doses of 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg. Concomitantly, immunohistochemistry analysis of tumor tissues identified that SP1 administration at three doses significantly inhibited the in vivo cancer cell proliferation and microvessel density (MVD) formation, evidenced by a low proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD34 expression, but increased the percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Keeping in line with this observation, SP1 treatment decreased serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, downregulated the protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, VEGF, MMP2, bcl-2, N-cadherin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and metadherin (MTDH), and upregulated bax and NE-cadherin protein expression in tumor tissues. Taken together, our data suggest that SP1 appears to be a promising chemopreventive agent for the tumorigenesis and metastasis in patients with HCC, especially at advanced stages.

  4. PARASITIC INFECTIONS: IS MALE AND FEMALE DIFFERENCE FOR ANEMIA AND GROWTH RETARDATION EVIDENT?

    PubMed

    Safar, Hebatalla H; Eldash, Hanaa H

    2015-12-01

    Parasitoses are the commonest health problem among school age clildren, which impair children's growth and development and causing anemia. To detect the role of parasitic infections and both anemia and growth affection, on one hand, and if so the common complications among males and females on the other hand, a cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the outpatient attended the Pediatrics Clinic, Al-Fayoum University's Hospitals. A total of 314 children aged from 1 to 13 years were subjected to clinical examination as well as stool analysis and CBC examination. The detected parasites were Entameba histolytica, Giardia lamblia (Protozoa) and Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lambricoides and Ancylostoma duodenale (Helminthes). There was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding E. histolytica in females (60%) as to G. lamblia and H. nana in males (16.1%, & 11.5% respecttively). Also, there was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding to hemoglobin level, and weight percentiles with anemia (92%) and underweight& borderline weight (34.5%) in males. The overall anemia was 89.8%. However, there was no significance difference (P<0.05) regarding to height percentiles. PMID:26939224

  5. Depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish causes growth retardation due to mitotic delay and p53-dependent cell death.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Hyunsook

    2013-03-01

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine mitotic kinase that is required for centrosome maturation. Many cancer cells over-express Aurora-A, and several reports have suggested that Aurora-A has prognostic value in the clinical treatment of cancer. Therefore, inhibitors for Aurora-A kinase have been developed. However, studies on Aurora-A are largely performed in cancer cell lines and are sometimes controversial. For effective evaluation of Aurora-A inhibitors in cancer treatment, it is essential to understand its function at the organism level. Here, we report the crucial functions of Aurora-A in homeostasis of spindle organization in mitosis using zebrafish embryogenesis as a model system. Using morpholino technology, we show that depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish embryogenesis results in short bent trunks, accompanied by growth retardation and eventual cell death. Live-imaging and immunofluorescence analyses of the embryos revealed that the developmental defects are due to problems in mitosis, manifested through monopolar and disorganized spindle formation. Aurora-A-depleted cells exhibited mitotic arrest with congression failure, leading to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell death in the absence of Aurora-A was partially rescued by co-injection of the p53 morpholino, suggesting that apoptosis after Aurora-A depletion is p53-dependent. The clinical implications of these results relate to the indication that Aurora-A inhibitors may be effective towards cancers with intact p53.

  6. [Study of body proportionality using Rohrer s Ponderal Index and degree of intrauterine growth retardation in full-term neonates].

    PubMed

    Leão Filho, José Carneiro; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2003-01-01

    An observational, cross-sectional study was used to describe the anthropometric characteristics of 549 full-term neonates with respect to body proportionality. The anthropometric measures used were: weight (W), length (L), head circumference (HC), Rohrer s Ponderal Index (PI), W/HC ratio, and L/HC ratio. Severity of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was studied through z-score distribution. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) was defined as a z-score value < -2, and the cutoff for PI, W/HC, and L/HC was determined as the mean minus one standard deviation for the local reference population. Based on PI, 72.8% of SGA neonates and 12.8% of appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates were disproportionate. Based on the L/HC ratio the results were 25.6% and 11.6%, respectively, while with the W/HC ratio, all SGA and 16.3% of AGA neonates were disproportionate. According to all criteria there was an observed significant linear tendency to increase the disproportionality as IUGR increased. PMID:14999327

  7. Improvement in Growth After 1 Year of Growth Hormone Therapy in Well-Nourished Infants with Growth Retardation Secondary to Chronic Renal Failure: Results of a Multicenter, Controlled, Randomized, Open Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, M. Llanos; Neto, Arlete; Ariceta, Gema; Vara, Julia; Alonso, Angel; Bueno, Alberto; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Correia, António Jorge; Muley, Rafael; Barrios, Vicente; Gómez, Carlos; Argente, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the growth-promoting effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment in infants with chronic renal failure (CRF) and persistent growth retardation despite adequate nutritional and metabolic management. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The study design included randomized, parallel groups in an open, multicenter trial comparing GH (0.33 mg/kg per wk) with nontreatment with GH during 12 months. Sixteen infants who had growth retardation, were aged 12 ± 3 months, had CRF (GFR ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and had adequate nutritional intake and good metabolic control were recruited from eight pediatric nephrology departments from Spain and Portugal. Main outcome measures were body length, body weight, bone age, biochemical and hormonal analyses, renal function, bone mass, and adverse effects. Results: Length gain in infants who were treated with GH was statistically greater (P < 0.05) than that of nontreated children (14.5 versus 9.5 cm/yr; SD score 1.43 versus −0.11). The GH-induced stimulation of growth was associated with no undesirable effects on bone maturation, renal failure progression, or metabolic control. In addition, GH treatment improved forearm bone mass and increased serum concentrations of total and free IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), whereas IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, GH-binding protein, ghrelin, and leptin were not modified. Conclusions: Infants with CRF and growth retardation despite good metabolic and nutritional control benefit from GH treatment without adverse effects during 12 months of therapy. PMID:20522533

  8. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  9. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others

    Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

  10. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  11. Growth retardation and cysteine deficiency in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, M W; Wiseman, A L; Shi, Z Z; Carter, B Z; Barrios, R; Ou, C N; Chévez-Barrios, P; Wang, Y; Habib, G M; Goodman, J C; Huang, S L; Lebovitz, R M; Matzuk, M M

    1996-01-01

    gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an ectoenzyme that catalyzes the first step in the cleavage of glutathione (GSH) and plays an essential role in the metabolism of GSH and GSH conjugates of carcinogens, toxins, and eicosanoids. To learn more about the role of GGT in metabolism in vivo, we used embryonic stem cell technology to generate GGT-deficient (GGTm1/GGTm1) mice. GGT-deficient mice appear normal at birth but grow slowly and by 6 weeks are about half the weight of wild-type mice. They are sexually immature, develop cataracts, and have coats with a gray cast. Most die between 10 and 18 weeks. Plasma and urine GSH levels in the GGTm1/GGTm1 mice are elevated 6-fold and 2500-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type mice. Tissue GSH levels are markedly reduced in eye, liver, and pancreas. Plasma cyst(e)ine levels in GGTm1/GGTm1 mice are reduced to approximately 20% of wild-type mice. Oral administration of N-acetylcysteine to GGTm1/GGTm1 mice results in normal growth rates and partially restores the normal agouti coat color. These findings demonstrate the importance of GGT and the gamma-glutamyl cycle in cysteine and GSH homeostasis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8755578

  12. Expression of the CTCFL Gene during Mouse Embryogenesis Causes Growth Retardation, Postnatal Lethality, and Dysregulation of the Transforming Growth Factor β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Zeiss, Caroline; Yekkala, Krishna; Demir, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    CTCFL, a paralog of CTCF, also known as BORIS (brother of regulator of imprinted sites), is a testis-expressed gene whose function is largely unknown. Its product is a cancer testis antigen (CTA), and it is often expressed in tumor cells and also seen in two benign human vascular malformations, juvenile angiofibromas and infantile hemangiomas. To understand the function of Ctcfl, we created tetracycline-inducible Ctcfl transgenic mice. We show that Ctcfl expression during embryogenesis results in growth retardation, eye malformations, multiorgan pathologies, vascular defects, and neonatal death. This phenotype resembles prior mouse models that perturb the transforming growth factor β (TGFB) pathway. Embryonic stem (ES) cells with the Ctcfl transgene reproduce the phenotype in ES cell-tetraploid chimeras. Transcriptome sequencing of the Ctcfl ES cells revealed 14 genes deregulated by Ctcfl expression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the TGFB pathway as most affected by embryonic Ctcfl expression. Understanding the consequence of Ctcfl expression in nontesticular cells and elucidating downstream targets of Ctcfl could explain the role of its product as a CTA and its involvement in two, if not more, human vascular malformations. PMID:26169830

  13. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  14. Co-existence of anemia, vitamin A deficiency and growth retardation among children 24-84 months old in Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Castejon, H V; Ortega, P; Amaya, D; Gomez, G; Leal, J; Castejon, Orlando J

    2004-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia has been associated with alterations in child development and psychomotor function, being myelination and dopaminergic functioning especially vulnerable. Iron deficiency, at different ages, has different reversible and irreversible effects on CNS. Anemia has also been related to vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and growth retardation. The aim of the present paper was to determine the coexistence of micronutrient deficiency, iron and vitamin A, and macronutrient deficiency (growth retardation). The sample consisted of 202 Venezuelan children, aged 24-84 month old, (104 girls, 98 boys); Anemia, VAD and growth retardation was evaluated by means of blood hemoglobin concentration analysis, HPLC serum retinol (values <20 microg/dl reveal VAD) and height/age and weight/age Z scores (< or = - 2 SD express stunting and underweight). Prevalence of anemia was 38.11%; VAD, 21.78%; stunting, 14.36% and underweight, 9.40%. Anemia and VAD clustered in 7.92%; anemia + stunting or + underweight coexisted in 5.94% and 2.97%, respectively. Stunting and underweight clustered with VAD in 2.97% and 1.48%. The three-way combination with anemia was only seen with stunting in 0.99% of the sample. The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies remain as significant public health problems which should be simultaneously treated as virtually independent, giving priority to infant, toddler and preschool age groups. PMID:15279497

  15. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  16. Effects of dietary exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 on thyroid condition, gonadal development and growth of zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, Leticia; Orazio, Carl E.; Peterman, Paul H.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of brominated flame retardants in teleosts and some of the information currently available is inconsistent. This study examined effects of dietary exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on thyroid condition, body mass and size, and gonadal development of zebrafish. Pubertal, 49-day-old (posthatch) fish were fed diets without BDE-47 (control) or with 1, 5 or 25 μg/g BDE-47/diet. Treatments were conducted in triplicate 30-L tanks each containing 50 zebrafish, and 15 fish per treatment (5 per tank) were sampled at days 40, 80 and 120 of exposure. Measurements were taken of body mass, standard length, head depth and head length. Sex (at 40–120 days of exposure), germ cell stage (at 40 days) and thyroid condition (at 120 days; follicular cell height, colloid depletion, angiogenesis) were histologically determined. Whole-body BDE-47 levels at study completion were within the high end of levels reported in environmentally exposed (wild) fishes. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences among treatments at each sampling time. No effects were observed on thyroid condition or germ cell stage in either sex. Reduced head length was observed in females exposed to BDE-47 at 80 days but not at 40 or 120 days. In males, no apparent effects of BDE-47 were observed at 40 and 80 days, but fish exposed to 25 μg/g had lower body mass at 120 days compared to control fish. These observations suggest that BDE-47 at environmentally relevant whole-body concentrations does not affect thyroid condition or pubertal development of zebrafish but does affect growth during the juvenile-to-adult transition, especially in males.

  17. Distal 8p deletion (8) (p23.1): An easily missed chromosomal abnormality that may be associated with congenital heart defect and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bai-Lin; Schneider, G.H.; Sabatino, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the clinical manifestations and molecular cytogenetic analyses of three patients with a similar distal deletion of chromosome 8. Each child had mild developmental delay and subtle minor anomalies. Two had cardiac anomalies but no other major congenital anomalies were present. High resolution G and R banding showed in all three patients del(8)(p23.1), but the breakpoint in case 1 was distal to 8p23.1, in case 2 was in the middle of 8p23.1, and in case 3 proximal to 8p23.1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies with a chromosome 8 paint probe confirmed that no other rearrangement had occurred. FISH with a chromosome 8-specific telomere probe indicated that two patients had terminal deletions. Chromosome analysis of the parents of case 1 and mother of case 2 were normal; the remaining parents were not available for study. Thirteen individual patients including the three in this study, and three relatives in one family with del(8)(p23.1), have been reported in the past 5 years. Major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defects, are most often associated with a breakpoint proximal to 8p23.1. Three patients were found within a 3-year period in this study and five cases were found within 4 years by another group, indicating that distal 8p deletion might be a relatively common chromosomal abnormality. This small deletion is easily overlooked (i.e., cases 1 and 2 were reported as normal at amniocentesis) and can be associated with few or no major congenital anomalies. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. [A description of early hydrocephalus with macrocephaly, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, intellectual disability, and growth retardation by Norwegian novelist Amalie Skram (1846-1905)].

    PubMed

    Hassel, Bjørnar

    2012-12-11

    In her novel «S.G. Myre» written in 1890, Norwegian author Amalie Skram describes Hans (Hansemann) Tønnesen, a 16-year-old boy with an enormous head, convulsions, and a rudimentary command of language. He is bullied by children in the street and is held in low esteem by his mother, who refers to him as a beast, crazy, or «a cross». Presumably, the boy has hydrocephalus with macrocephaly, epilepsy, and mental retardation. His retarded growth, small teeth and cracked skin suggest growth hormone deficiency resulting from his hydrocephalus. A couple of interesting details, such as his «splaying his fingers and moving them in various directions to make himself understood» and his «becoming red with exertion and grimacing terribly» when trying to speak, suggest extrapyramidal, dyskinetic cerebral palsy. He may also be deaf. A cousin of Skram's shared several of these traits and is a likely model for Hansemann. A question that occurs to a modern reader is to what degree Hansemann is mentally retarded, or whether he is wrongly perceived as such because of his physical challenges and his communication problems. PMID:23338097

  19. Growth and differentiation of circulating hemopoietic stem cells with atomic bomb irradiation-induced chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Amenomori, T.; Honda, T.; Otake, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of atomic bomb irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells were studied cytogenetically using single colonies derived from hemopoietic progenitor cells. The subjects studied were 21 healthy atomic bomb survivors (10 males and 11 females) in the high dose exposure group (100+ rad) with a known high incidence (10% or more) of radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities in their peripheral blood lymphocytes (stimulated with phytohemagglutinin), and 11 nonexposed healthy controls (5 males and 6 females). Colony formation by circulating granulocyte-macrophage (GM-CFC) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells was made by the methylcellulose method using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chromosome specimens were prepared from single colonies by our micromethod. The total number of colonies analyzed in the exposed group was 131 for GM-CFC and 75 for BFU-E. Chromosome abnormalities were observed in 15 (11.5%) and 9 (12.0%) colonies, respectively. In the control group, the total number of colonies analyzed was 61 for GM-CFC and 41 for BFU-E. None of these colonies showed chromosome abnormalities. The difference in incidence of chromosome abnormalities was highly significant by an exact test; p = 0.003 for GM-CFC and 0.017 for BFU-E. The karyotypes of chromosome abnormalities obtained from the colonies in the exposed group were mostly translocations, but deletion and marker chromosomes were also observed. In two individuals, such karyotypic abnormalities as observed in the peripheral lymphocytes were also seen in the myeloid progenitor cells. This finding suggests that atomic bomb irradiation produced a chromosome aberration on multipotent hemopoietic stem cells common to myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

  20. Growth retardation, early death, and DNA repair defects in mice deficient for the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPF.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Shinkura, Reiko; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Alt, Frederick W

    2004-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a human genetic disease which is caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair. Since this repair pathway is responsible for removing UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA, XP patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and are prone to develop skin cancer. Based on the underlying genetic defect, the disease can be divided into the seven complementation groups XPA through XPG. XPF, in association with ERCC1, constitutes a structure-specific endonuclease that makes an incision 5' to the photodamage. XPF-ERCC1 has also been implicated in both removal of interstrand DNA cross-links and homology-mediated recombination and in immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). To study the function of XPF in vivo, we inactivated the XPF gene in mice. XPF-deficient mice showed a severe postnatal growth defect and died approximately 3 weeks after birth. Histological examination revealed that the liver of mutant animals contained abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. Furthermore, embryonic fibroblasts defective in XPF are hypersensitive to UV irradiation and mitomycin C treatment. No defect in CSR was detected, suggesting that the nuclease is dispensable for this recombination process. These phenotypes are identical to those exhibited by the ERCC1-deficient mice, consistent with the functional association of the two proteins. The complex phenotype suggests that XPF-ERCC1 is involved in multiple DNA repair processes.

  1. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  2. Novel two-dimensional morphometric maps and quantitative analysis reveal marked growth and structural recovery of the rat hippocampal regions from early hypothyroid retardation.

    PubMed

    Farahvar, Arash; Meisami, Esmail

    2007-04-01

    Effects of postnatal hypothyroidism and recovery from this condition on regional growth of the rat hippocampus (HC) were studied using two-dimensional (2D) foldout, morphometric maps of HC and its constituent CA1-CA4 regions. The maps were derived from unfolding serial coronal sections of the rat forebrain, consisting of the entire rostrocaudal extent of HC pyramidal cell layer in the normal control and hypothyroid weanling (P25, postnatal day 25) and young adult (P90) male rats, as well as animals allowed to recover from hypothyroid-induced growth retardation at weaning. The maps revealed novel views of HC regions for assessment of topological relationships and measurement of surface areas of the HC cortical sheet (pyramidal cell layer). In normal control P90 rats, the unfolded HC on each side extended 4 times more laterally than rostrocaudally; total HC surface area was about 40 mm(2), compared to 30 mm(2) in the weanling, indicating 35% growth from P25 to P90; CA1 took up 52% of the total HC surface area, followed by CA3 (31%) and CA2 and CA4, 8% each. Hypothyroidism resulted in significant (p<0.01) 11% and 20% reductions in the HC surface area in P25 and P90 rats, respectively; CA1 and CA4 regions suffered the most reductions while CA3 and CA2 regions the least. Recovering rats examined at P90 exhibited remarkable growth plasticity and recovery in HC regions, as evident by their near normal HC cortical surface area values, compared to age-matched controls. The 2D maps also revealed growth deficits in all HC regions of the hypothyroid rats; recovery in these parameters occurred across all dimensions, although the anterior-posterior growth was more severely affected than the mediolateral one. These results are confirmed and extended by volumetric analysis of laminar volumes of HC regions presented in a companion paper [Farahvar, A., Darwish, N., Sladek, S., Meisami, E., in press. Marked recovery of functional metabolic activity and laminar volumes in the rat

  3. Identification of three doublesex genes in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus and their transcriptional responses to environmental stressor-triggered population growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Yong Sung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-08-01

    Doublesex and Mab-3-related transcription factor (Dmrt) gene family members have rarely been identified or characterized in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized three DMdomain-containing genes - Dmrt11E, Dmrt93B, and Dmrt99B - in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus koreanus. DMdomains of the proteins encoded by the B.koreanus Dmrt (Bk-Dmrt) genes had high similarities to DM domains of other invertebrate species. To understand the potential effects of environmental stressors on the transcriptional expression of Dmrt genes in rotifers, we exposed B.koreanus to a wide range of UV-B radiation and different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) over different time courses. Transcript levels of all Bk-Dmrt genes decreased significantly in response to relatively high doses of UV-B irradiation, and were also downregulated in response to exposure to UV-B radiation over time. Transcript levels of all Bk-Dmrt genes were downregulated in response to B[a]P exposure for 24h. This decrease in expression of all Bk-Dmrt genes was concomitant with the growth retardation induced by UV-B and B[a]P exposure. We concluded that both environmental stressors have detrimental effects on transcriptional regulation of all Bk-Dmrt genes, especially relatively high doses of these stressors, leading to growth retardation. However, further studies are required to better understand the potential role of Dmrt genes in environmental stressor-triggered growth retardation in the rotifer B.koreanus.

  4. MEDICAL ASPECTS OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H., COMP.

    TO AID PHYSICIANS AND OTHER SPECIALISTS IN DIAGNOSING CASES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND IN COUNSELING PARENTS, THE BOOK PRESENTS MEDICAL INFORMATION, INCLUDING RECENT ADVANCES. THIRTY-TWO AUTHORITIES CONTRIBUTE CHAPTERS IN SUCH AREAS AS DIAGNOSIS, METABOLISM, NUTRITION, ETIOLOGY, MONGOLISM, CRANIAL ABNORMALITIES, BIRTH INJURIES, INFECTIONS,…

  5. Caffeine-induced fetal rat over-exposure to maternal glucocorticoid and histone methylation of liver IGF-1 might cause skeletal growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Liu, Jin; Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Xu, Dan; Cu, Fenglong; Lei, Youying; Magdalou, Jacques; Wu, Min; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2012-11-15

    Several epidemiological investigations, including previous work by our laboratory, indicate that maternal caffeine consumption is associated with intrauterine growth retardation and impaired fetal length growth. Skeletal development is critical for length growth. In the present study, our goals were to determine the effects of prenatal caffeine exposures on fetal skeletal growth and to investigate the mechanisms associated with such effects. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intragastrically with 120mg/kg of caffeine intragastrically each day from gestational days 11-20. Maternal prenatal caffeine exposure was associated with decreased fetal femur lengths and inhibited of synthesis of extracellular matrices in fetal growth plates Moreover, caffeine exposure significantly increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and decreased IGF-1mRNA expression levels in the liver and growth plate. The expression levels of IGF-1 signaling pathway components (IGF-1R, IRS-1, AKT1/2 and Col2A1) were also reduced. In addition, the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that caffeine exposure down-regulated histone methylation of fetal IGF-1 in the liver. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine exposure may inhibit fetal skeletal growth through a mechanism that is associated with increased fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids and results in lower IGF-1 signaling pathway activity. Taken together, these results raise important concerns regarding the skeletal growth toxicity of caffeine and potentially indicate the intrauterine origins of adult osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

  6. Combined effects of malathion and nitrate on early growth, abnormalities, and mortality of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, S V; Smith, G R

    2011-08-01

    Use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals adversely influence amphibians either directly by killing them or by inducing sublethal, chronic effects. Many studies have investigated the effect of mixtures of pesticides or fertilizers. We studied the combined effects of nitrate and malathion ([(dimethoxy phosphino thioyl] butanediotae) on the early growth, expression of abnormalities, and mortality of Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles in a laboratory experiment. Tadpoles were treated with factorial combinations of 0, 8, and 16 mg NO(3)-N l(-1) and 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 μg malathion l(-1) for a period of 14 days. Feeding behaviour, total length, mean tadpole mass, frequencies of abnormalities, and survivorship in each treatment were recorded. Malathion showed a significant negative influence on all parameters and strongly influenced the frequencies of morphological anomalies. In contrast, nitrate alone did not produce any significant effects on behavior, total length, tadpole mass, or the frequency of abnormalities during the experiment. Malathion and nitrate had an interactive effect on tadpole length and mass, but did not affect any other parameters. Our results suggest that exposure to malathion, even at relatively low concentrations can have serious negative consequences for Wood Frog tadpoles. In addition, our results also indicate that there was little synergistic interaction between malathion and nitrate exposure under laboratory conditions. PMID:21533775

  7. De novo unbalanced translocation resulting in monosomy for proximal 14q and distal 4p in a fetus with intrauterine growth retardation, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and partial hemihypoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C P; Chern, S R; Lee, C C; Chen, W L; Chen, M H; Chang, K M

    1998-01-01

    We present the perinatal findings of a fetus with a de novo unbalanced chromosome translocation that resulted in monosomy for proximal 14q and monosomy for distal 4p. Prenatal sonographic examination at 27 weeks of gestation showed intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, cardiomegaly with arrhythmia, and asymmetry of the upper limbs. Genetic amniocentesis showed an abnormal karyotype of 45,XX,der(4)t(4;14)(p16.3;q12),-14. Linkage analysis of the family confirmed the maternal origin of the deletions. Molecular refinement of the deletion breakpoints indicated that the breakpoints at 4p16.3 and 14q12 were located between loci D4S403 (present) and D4S394 (absent), and between loci D14S252 (present) and D14S64 (absent), respectively. Necropsy showed dysmorphic features compatible with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, partial hemihypoplasia, and a normal brain without evidence of holoprosencephaly. Our case adds to the list of clinical phenotypes associated with the proximal regions of 14q. Images PMID:9863609

  8. A 15-year-old boy with abdominal pain, growth retardation, and anemia secondary to Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Andrianov, Melissa; Rivera, Edgardo; Azzam, Ruba

    2015-03-01

    A 15-year-old boy with abdominal pain, growth retardation, and symptomatic anemia requiring blood transfusion was seen by a gastroenterologist and found to have a large ulcerated, fungating, and actively bleeding mass in his stomach. Initially, the patient was screened for Helicobacter pylori and found to be negative, so there was concern for malignancy after multiple endoscopic procedures. The patient did not respond to initial ulcer treatment and immediately prior to scheduled partial gastrectomy, additional tissue sections from the initial biopsy were stained for H. pylori and rare positive staining organisms were found. The test was positive, and the patient was started empirically on treatment to which he responded and ultimately recovered fully. Gastrectomy was not performed, and following treatment, the ulcer, anemia, and poor growth resolved.

  9. Abnormal gut integrity is associated with reduced linear growth in rural Malawian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of environmental enteropathy, as measured by the dual sugar absorption test, to linear growth faltering in 2- to 5-year-old Malawian children. Dietary quality, food insecurity, anthropometry, and site-specific sugar testing were measured i...

  10. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-06-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented.

  11. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  12. Growth retardation in early-onset inflammatory bowel disease: should we monitor and treat these patients differently?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Growth impairment and associated pubertal delay are common complications of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD). Chronic undernutrition (related primarily to inadequate intake) and pro-inflammatory cytokines are the two major and interrelated contributory factors. Pathogenic mechanisms include interference with growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion patterns, and direct cytokine effects on growing bone. Chronic corticosteroid therapy compounds disease-related causes of growth impairment. The influence on growth of polymorphisms in IBD susceptibility or modifier genes is under study. Accurate recognition of impaired growth requires appreciation of normal growth. Pre-illness standard deviation scores (SDS) for height should be obtained and compared with height SDS at diagnosis, so that the impact of disease on growth can be fully appreciated. The greater the deficit prior to recognition of IBD, the greater is the demand for catch-up growth. Height velocity should be regularly monitored and its adequacy for age and pubertal stage assessed. Restoration and maintenance of pre-illness growth pattern indicate success of therapy. Current treatment regimens limit use of corticosteroids, via optimization of immunomodulatory drugs, use of enteral nutrition in CD, and, if necessary, surgery for ulcerative colitis and for intestinal complications of localized CD. Biologic agents with the potential for mucosal healing hold promise of growth enhancement even among children, whose growth with previously available therapies remained compromised. For all therapies, there is a window of opportunity to achieve normal growth before puberty is too advanced.

  13. Rust fungi causing galls, witches' brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José R; Hennen, Joe F

    2003-01-01

    Conspicuous galls and witches' brooms frequently are symptoms of rust infections on plant hosts in the ecologically diverse northwestern region of Argentina. These symptoms are caused by systemic or locally systemic spermogonial-aecial infections, although uredinial and telial infections also might be involved. Sixteen species of rust fungi are treated in this paper, most of which cause a plant response that results in enlarged growth. Ypsilospora tucumanensis J.R. Hern. & J.F. Hennen on Inga edulis is described as a species new to science. Puccinia cordiae Arthur is cited as a new record for Argentina. These rusts also are included: Chaconia ingae, Gerwasia imperialis, Kuehneola loeseneriana, Prospodium appendiculatum, Prospodium elegans, Prospodium perornatum, Puccinia bougainvilleae, Puccinia pampeana, Ravenelia argentinica, Ravenelia hieronymi, Ravenelia papillosa, Ravenelia spegazziniana, Uromyces cestri and Uropyxis rickiana. For some of the scientific names, lectotype specimens have been designated.

  14. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: an assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Eng, Margaret L; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E

    2013-07-01

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. PMID:23603472

  15. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, J.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems is discussed. Future Research plans are outlined.

  16. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems was developed and tested.

  17. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  18. Invited commentary: the incremental value of customization in defining abnormal fetal growth status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Sun, Kun

    2013-10-15

    Reference tools based on birth weight percentiles at a given gestational week have long been used to define fetuses or infants that are small or large for their gestational ages. However, important deficiencies of the birth weight reference are being increasingly recognized. Overwhelming evidence indicates that an ultrasonography-based fetal weight reference should be used to classify fetal and newborn sizes during pregnancy and at birth, respectively. Questions have been raised as to whether further adjustments for race/ethnicity, parity, sex, and maternal height and weight are helpful to improve the accuracy of the classification. In this issue of the Journal, Carberry et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(8):1301-1308) show that adjustment for race/ethnicity is useful, but that additional fine tuning for other factors (i.e., full customization) in the classification may not further improve the ability to predict infant morbidity, mortality, and other fetal growth indicators. Thus, the theoretical advantage of full customization may have limited incremental value for pediatric outcomes, particularly in term births. Literature on the prediction of short-term maternal outcomes and very long-term outcomes (adult diseases) is too scarce to draw any conclusions. Given that each additional variable being incorporated in the classification scheme increases complexity and costs in practice, the clinical utility of full customization in obstetric practice requires further testing.

  19. Involvement of Gap Junctions in Tumorigenesis: Transfection of Tumor Cells with Connexin 32 cDNA Retards Growth In vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghbali, B.; Kessler, J. A.; Reid, L. M.; Roy, C.; Spray, D. C.

    1991-12-01

    Gap junction channels provide a pathway for exchange of ions and small molecules between coupled cells, and this exchange is believed to be critical for normal tissue growth and development. As a test for a role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in control of cell growth, we have compared growth rates of communication-deficient human tumor cells (SKHep1) with clones stably transfected with cDNA encoding the rat liver gap junction protein connexin 32. In culture, growth rates for parental and transfected clones were similar. However, when sizes of tumors were evaluated following injection of these clones into athymic nude mice, growth rates for two well-coupled clones were significantly lower than for communication-deficient or poorly coupled clones. This study demonstrates that growth rate of these tumor cells in situ is negatively correlated with strength of intercellular communication.

  20. Retardation of Listeria monocytogenes growth in mozzarella cheese using antimicrobial sachets containing rosemary oil and thyme oil.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung H; Patel, Dhaval; Kim, Jung Eun; Min, Sea C

    2014-11-01

    An antimicrobial sachet containing microcellular foam starch (MFS) with embedded rosemary oil and thyme oil was developed to reduce bacterial growth in shredded mozzarella cheese. The efficacy of the volatiles of oils at various concentrations in reducing Listeria monocytogenes as well as the release of the oils from the MFS have been also determined in this study. The cheese, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/g), was packaged in a Nylon/EVOH/PE bag. A paper sachet containing MFS embedded with rosemary oil and thyme oil, separately or together, was inserted into the bag. Rosemary and thyme oil volatiles released from the sachet restricted the growth of L. monocytogenes, resulting in a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction on day 9 at 10 °C. The volatile oils also showed inhibitory effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total aerobic bacteria (TAB). After 15 d at 10 °C, the numbers of LAB and TAB in the samples containing the sachet with both oils experienced a 1.2 and 1.4 log CFU/g reduction, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Nonetheless, the sachet treatment produced a distinct odor, unfavorably received by the panelists. The results suggest the potential for application of the sachet system for the reduction of growth of L. monocytogenes, LAB, and TAB in food products.

  1. Retardation of Listeria monocytogenes growth in mozzarella cheese using antimicrobial sachets containing rosemary oil and thyme oil.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung H; Patel, Dhaval; Kim, Jung Eun; Min, Sea C

    2014-11-01

    An antimicrobial sachet containing microcellular foam starch (MFS) with embedded rosemary oil and thyme oil was developed to reduce bacterial growth in shredded mozzarella cheese. The efficacy of the volatiles of oils at various concentrations in reducing Listeria monocytogenes as well as the release of the oils from the MFS have been also determined in this study. The cheese, inoculated with a cocktail of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/g), was packaged in a Nylon/EVOH/PE bag. A paper sachet containing MFS embedded with rosemary oil and thyme oil, separately or together, was inserted into the bag. Rosemary and thyme oil volatiles released from the sachet restricted the growth of L. monocytogenes, resulting in a 2.5 log CFU/g reduction on day 9 at 10 °C. The volatile oils also showed inhibitory effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and total aerobic bacteria (TAB). After 15 d at 10 °C, the numbers of LAB and TAB in the samples containing the sachet with both oils experienced a 1.2 and 1.4 log CFU/g reduction, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Nonetheless, the sachet treatment produced a distinct odor, unfavorably received by the panelists. The results suggest the potential for application of the sachet system for the reduction of growth of L. monocytogenes, LAB, and TAB in food products. PMID:25243791

  2. Structural analysis of placental terminal villi from growth-restricted pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms.

    PubMed

    Macara, L; Kingdom, J C; Kaufmann, P; Kohnen, G; Hair, J; More, I A; Lyall, F; Greer, I A

    1996-01-01

    The abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveform represented by absent end-diastolic flow velocity (AEDFV) identifies a group of preterm small-for-gestational age fetuses that are at high risk of perinatal death due to chronic fetal hypoxia. The placental ischaemia that results from inadequate trophoblast invasion of spiral arterioles leads to an assumption of placental villous hypoxia, though an alternative explanation is that the placenta fails to adequately transfer oxygen to the fetus from the intervillous space. Because oxygen transport takes place within the terminal villi, we undertook the first detailed studies of villous ultrastructure structure and immunohistochemistry in order to determine the likely origin of fetal hypoxia in this condition. Terminal villi were examined ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy and by immunohistochemical localization of matrix molecules (laminin and collagens I, III and IV) and a marker of cell proliferation (MIB-1), in 16 small-for-gestational age pregnancies with AEDFV in the umbilical artery [deemed to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)] and in 16 gestation age-matched controls. Terminal villi from the IUGR cases were smaller in diameter (P < 0.02) and had several abnormal features in comparison with the controls; increased syncytial nuclei (P < 0.01), reduced cytotrophoblast nuclei (P < 0.01), thickened basal lamina (P < 0.01), and increased stromal deposition of collagens and laminin. The amount of proliferating cytotrophoblast was reduced in the IUGR group (P < 0.014) and the degree of capillary erythrocyte congestion within terminal villous capillaries was increased (P < 0.001). Several of the structural differences in the terminal villi of the IUGR group such as reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation and stromal fibrosis are incompatible with the prevailing view of placental hypoxia in IUGR. Rather thickening of the basal lamina and congestion of the capillaries by erythrocytes are predicted

  3. Food restriction retards body growth and prevents end-stage renal pathology in remnant kidneys of rats regardless of protein intake.

    PubMed

    Tapp, D C; Wortham, W G; Addison, J F; Hammonds, D N; Barnes, J L; Venkatachalam, M A

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of food restriction (without protein or phosphorus restriction) and protein restriction (without the restriction of other nutrients or calories) on the outcome of the remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure in rats. After 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were assigned to one of the following dietary groups: group I (control-ad libitum) consumed a 21% casein diet ad libitum; group II (food restriction with protein restriction) consumed 36% less calories, protein and minerals than group I; group III (food restriction without protein restriction) consumed 36% less calories and minerals than group I, but equivalent amounts of protein; group IV (protein restriction) consumed 38% less protein than group I, but equivalent amounts of calories and minerals; group V (NaCl restriction) consumed 40% less sodium chloride than group I, but equivalent amounts of all other nutrients. All groups consumed equivalent amounts of calcium, phosphorus and vitamins. Groups II and III experienced retardation of growth in comparison to groups I, IV and V. The food-restricted groups II and III, but not groups IV and V, had less proteinuria than group I 20 weeks postablation. By 21 weeks postablation, the kidneys from group I showed severe parenchymal damage, characteristic of end-stage renal pathology. These changes were prevented in the food-restricted groups II and III, but not in groups IV and V. The percentage of glomeruli with severe structural damage was less in groups II (27.3 +/- 8.8) and III (26.9 +/- 7.5) compared with group I (72.4 +/- 7.8). In contrast, the corresponding values in groups IV and V were not significantly different from group I. Interstitial volume (the percentage of tubulointerstitium which is interstitium) which was proportional to the severity of tubular damage was significantly lower in groups II (25.1 +/- 4.5) and III (20.4 +/- 2.8) when compared with groups I (48.1 +/- 3.0), IV (44.4 +/- 6.6), or V (41

  4. Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusilli, L.; Collins, M. O.; Laneve, G.; Palombo, A.; Pignatti, S.; Santini, F.

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this research study is to assess the capability of time-series of MODIS imagery to provide information suitable for enhancing the understanding of the temporal cycles shown by the abnormal growth of the floating macrophytes in order to support monitoring and management action of Lake Victoria water resources. The proliferation of invasive plants and aquatic weeds is of growing concern. Starting from 1989, Lake Victoria has been interested by the high infestation of water hyacinth with significant socio-economic impact on riparian populations. In this paper, we describe an approach based on the time-series of MODIS to derive the temporal behaviour, the abundance and distribution of the floating macrophytes in the Winam Gulf (Kenyan portion of the Lake Victoria) and its possible links to the concentrations of the main water constituencies. To this end, we consider the NDVI values computed from the MODIS imagery time-series from 2000 to 2009 to identify the floating macrophytes cover and an appropriate bio-optical model to retrieve, by means of an inverse procedure, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, coloured dissolved organic matter and total suspended solid. The maps of the floating vegetation based on the NDVI values allow us to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of the weeds with high time resolution. A floating vegetation index (FVI) has been introduced for describing the weeds pollution level. The results of the analysis show a consistent temporal relation between the water constituent concentrations within the Winam Gulf and the FVI, especially in the proximity of the greatest proliferation of floating vegetation in the last 10 years that occurred between the second half of 2006 and the first half of 2007.The adopted approach will be useful to implement an automatic system for monitoring and predicting the floating macrophytes proliferation in Lake Victoria.

  5. Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-08-27

    To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.

  6. Cadmium accumulation retard activity of functional components of photo assimilation and growth of rice cultivars amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake mediated alterations in functional components of photo assimilation during conversion of cow dung and poultry cast to vermicompost were studied in two Indian rice cultivars; MO 16 and MTU 7029. It was found that higher amount of Cd accumulate in plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost which in turn damaged functional components in photo assimilation. Enhancement of root growth was recognized as reason for Cd accumulation. Metabolic alterations noticed among plants were not taken place during application of raw materials used for vermicomposting such as cow dung and poultry cast amendment. Rice varieties accumulated Cd differentially where MTU 7029 accumulated more Cd compare to MO 16. It was also noticed that existence of negative correlation between zinc status of the plant and Cd accumulation.

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  8. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death. PMID:27242886

  9. Ethylene Antagonizes Salt-Induced Growth Retardation and Cell Death Process via Transcriptional Controlling of Ethylene-, BAG- and Senescence-Associated Genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ya-Jie; Liu, Ling; Lin, Ying-Chao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Li, Lei-Peng; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD) profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan's blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM) assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death. PMID:27242886

  10. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family.

  11. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family. PMID:24259184

  12. Mildly Retarded Adults: Their Attitudes Toward Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Jennifer; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Responses to a 40-item questionnaire distributed to 50 mildly mentally retarded (MR) adults indicate that the majority possess accurate information about MR, hold realistic attitudes toward their own needs and abilities, and advocate community integration of the retarded. (Author/JG)

  13. PERSPECTIVES IN MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORDAN, THOMAS E.

    THIRTY-THREE ARTICLES ILLUSTRATE THE EDITOR'S FORMULATION OF ISSUES CONCERNING THE PROBLEM OF MENTAL RETARDATION--(1) THE TRIPARTITE (ONTOLOGICAL, FUNCTIONAL, AND EDOLOGICAL) NATURE OF RETARDATION, (2) THE NECESSITY TO MOVE BEYOND A SINGLE DISCIPLINE IN DEALING WITH RETARDATION, (3) THE NUMBER OF AGENCIES NOW INVOLVED IN STUDY AND CARE, AND (4)…

  14. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…

  15. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally.

    PubMed

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg·d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg·d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose-effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time-course study were analyzed by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR.

  16. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  17. Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets' biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets.

  18. Impaired Fetoplacental Angiogenesis in Growth-Restricted Fetuses With Abnormal Umbilical Artery Doppler Velocimetry Is Mediated by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT)

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong; Yin, Ping; Dyson, Matthew; Coon, John; Farrow, Kathryn N.; Mestan, Karen K.; Ernst, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Fetal growth restriction with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry (FGRadv), reflective of elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance, is associated with increased risks of fetal morbidity and mortality even in comparison to those of growth-restricted fetuses with normal placental blood flow. One major cause of this abnormally elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance is the aberrantly formed, thin, elongated villous vessels that are seen in FGRadv placentas. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of fetoplacental endothelial cells (ECs) in angiogenesis in normal pregnancies and in those complicated by FGRadv. Design and Participants: Human placental specimens were obtained from FGRadv and gestational age–matched, appropriately grown control pregnancies for EC isolation/culture and for immunohistochemical studies. Additional mechanistic studies were performed on ECs isolated from subjects with term, uncomplicated pregnancies. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated tube formation and differential angiogenic gene expression in FGRadv and control ECs, and we used ECs from uncomplicated pregnancies to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which angiogenesis is impaired in FGRadv pregnancies. Results: Tube formation assays showed that FGRadv ECs demonstrate fewer branch points and total length compared with those from gestational age–matched controls, and this defect was not rescued by exposure to hypoxia. FGRadv ECs also demonstrated lower aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) expression. ARNT knockdown resulted in suppression of key angiogenic genes including vascular endothelial growth factor A expression and led to deficient tube formation. Conclusions: ARNT expression in the placental vasculature mediates key angiogenic expression and fetoplacental EC angiogenesis, and low ARNT expression in FGRadv ECs appears to be a key factor in deficient angiogenesis. This, in turn, results in malformed thin

  19. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mößeler, Anne; Schmicke, Marion; Höltershinken, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL) pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7) or 16 weeks (PL-16). Controls (C) underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit) were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg) at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4). Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients. PMID:27690005

  20. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-11-01

    The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  1. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-03-01

    The venerid clam (Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  2. ORO-DENTAL PATTERN IN MENTALLY RETARDED

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Pradeep; Jha, Sanjeev; Tandon, Ragini; Sondhi, Deepak; Chandra, Mahesh; Trivedi, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was carried out in 25 mentally retarded children and compared with equal number of normal children. They were subjected to detailed psychiatric evaluation and dental examination. The dental anomalies were corroborated with cephalometric analysis of lateral cephalograms. It was concluded that all mentally retarded children had some dental abnormality in them in form of dental malocclusion, wide inter dental spaces, absence of teeth etc. We suggest early dental management for such patients for reinforcing their neuromuscular coordination modifying the mastication power, swallowing, speech, stomatognathic function and above all their facial profile for better social acceptance. PMID:21927451

  3. Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

    2011-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40-70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity. PMID:22043167

  4. Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40–70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity. PMID:22043167

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Rho proteins, mental retardation and the neurobiological basis of intelligence.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Elly J M; Ramakers, Ger J A

    2005-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that mental retardation is associated with abnormalities in dendrites and dendritic spines. The recent cloning of eight genes which cause nonspecific mental retardation when mutated, provides an important insight into the cellular mechanisms that result in the dendritic abnormalities underlying mental retardation. Three of the encoded proteins, oligophrenin1, PAK3 and alphaPix, interact directly with Rho GTPases. Rho GTPases are key signaling proteins which integrate extracellular and intracellular signals to orchestrate coordinated changes in the actin cytoskeleton, essential for directed neurite outgrowth and the generation/rearrangement of synaptic connectivity. Although many details of the cell biology of Rho signaling in the CNS are as yet unclear, a picture is unfolding showing how mutations that cause abnormal Rho signaling result in abnormal neuronal connectivity which gives rise to deficient cognitive functioning in humans.

  7. Complete Biallelic Insulation at the H19/Igf2 Imprinting Control Region Position Results in Fetal Growth Retardation and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsark, Walter M. K.; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI)2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI)2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI)2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line. Methodology/Principal Findings We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI)2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI)2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI)2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission. Conclusions/Significance In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development

  8. Study of 30 patients with unexplained developmental delay and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities using conventional cytogenetics and multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay.

    PubMed

    Popp, Susanne; Schulze, Birgit; Granzow, Martin; Keller, Monika; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Schoell, Brigitte; Brough, Michaela; Hager, Hans-Dieter; Tariverdian, Gholamali; Brown, Jill; Kearney, Lyndal; Jauch, Anna

    2002-07-01

    Cryptic subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements are a major cause of mild to severe mental retardation pointing out the necessity of sensitive screening techniques to detect such aberrations among affected patients. In this prospective study a group of 30 patients with unexplained developmental retardation and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities were analysed using the recently published multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay in combination with conventional G-banding analysis. The patients were selected by one or more of the following criteria defined by de Vries et al.: (a) family history with two or more affected individuals, (b) prenatal onset growth retardation, (c) postnatal growth abnormalities, (d) facial dysmorphic features, (e) non-facial dysmorphism and congenital abnormalities. In addition, we included two patients who met these criteria and revealed questionable chromosome regions requiring further clarification. In four patients (13.3%) cryptic chromosome aberrations were successfully determined by the M-TEL integrity assay and in two patients with abnormal chromosome regions intrachromosomal aberrations were characterized by targetted FISH experiments. Our results accentuate the requirement of strict selection criteria prior to patient testing with the M-TEL integrity assay. Another essential precondition is high-quality banding analysis to identify structural abnormal chromosomes. The detection of familial balanced translocation carriers in 50% of the cases emphasizes the significance of such an integrated approach for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

  9. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  10. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  11. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  12. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  13. Abnormal crystal growth in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx using a multi-cycle solution coating process

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Qingfeng; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Fang, Yanjun; Wang, Qi; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-06-23

    Recently, the efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells has improved greatly because of improved material qualities with longer carrier diffusion lengths. Mixing chlorine in the precursor for mixed halide films has been reported to dramatically enhance the diffusion lengths of mixed halide perovskite films, mainly as a result of a much longer carrier recombination lifetime. Here we report that adding Cl containing precursor for mixed halide perovskite formation can induce the abnormal grain growth behavior that yields well-oriented grains accompanied by the appearance of some very large size grains. The abnormal grain growth becomes prominent only after multi-cycle coatingmore » of MAI : MACl blend precursor. The large grain size is found mainly to contribute to a longer carrier charge recombination lifetime, and thus increases the device efficiency to 18.9%, but without significantly impacting the carrier transport property. As a result, the strong correlation identified between material process and morphology provides guidelines for future material optimization and device efficiency enhancement.« less

  14. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-10-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products.

  15. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-01-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products. PMID:1026419

  16. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  17. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  18. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  20. Cytogenetic analysis in a large series of children with non-syndromic mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Mental retardation affects 1-3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy. PMID:27625819

  1. Cytogenetic analysis in a large series of children with non-syndromic mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bouhjar, Inesse Ben Abdallah; Gmidène, Abir; Mougou-Zrelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Gadour, Naoufel; Harrabi, Imed; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Mental retardation affects 1–3% of the population. To evaluate the implication of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of mental retardation, 1420 patients with non-syndromic mental retardation recruited at the department of cytogenetics of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 2005 and December 2009, were analyzed using standard cytogenetic techniques. Age ranged between 3 and 18 years with a median of 8 years. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 7.8% of patients and an increased prevalence of chromosome anomalies was observed in patients when the mental retardation is associated with a severe degree of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphic features and/or congenital malformations or epilepsy.

  2. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  3. Early versus delayed minimal enteral feeding and risk for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm growth-restricted infants with abnormal antenatal Doppler results.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Paraskevi; Briana, Despina D; Mitsiakos, George; Elias, Anestis; Theodoridis, Theodoros; Chatziioannidis, Elias; Kyriakidou, Maria; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    We studied the effect of early (< or = 5 days) versus delayed (> or = 6 days) initiation of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and feeding intolerance in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal antenatal Doppler results. We performed a randomized, nonblinded pilot trial of infants receiving early or delayed MEF in addition to parenteral feeding within 48 hours of life. Demographic data, maternal preeclampsia, antenatal steroid exposure, Doppler studies, as well as cases of NEC and feeding intolerance were all recorded. Of the 84 infants enrolled, 81 completed the study: 40 received early (median age: 2 days, range: 1 to 5 days) and 41 delayed (median age: 7 days, range: 6 to 14 days) MEF. The incidence of NEC and feeding intolerance was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.353 and p = 0.533, respectively). Birth weight was an independent risk factor for NEC in both groups. Early MEF of preterm infants with IUGR and abnormal antenatal Doppler results may not have a significant effect on the incidence of NEC or feeding intolerance. Furthermore, birth weight seems to be an independent risk factor for the development of NEC, irrespectively of the timing of MEF introduction.

  4. Disruption of the gene encoding the latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) causes abnormal lung development, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sterner-Kock, Anja; Thorey, Irmgard S.; Koli, Katri; Wempe, Frank; Otte, Jürgen; Bangsow, Thorsten; Kuhlmeier, Katharina; Kirchner, Thomas; Jin, Shenchu; Keski-Oja, Jorma; von Melchner, Harald

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) are multifunctional growth factors that are secreted as inactive (latent) precursors in large protein complexes. These complexes include the latency-associated propeptide (LAP) and a latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein (LTBP). Four isoforms of LTBPs (LTBP-1–LTBP-4) have been cloned and are believed to be structural components of connective tissue microfibrils and local regulators of TGF-β tissue deposition and signaling. By using a gene trap strategy that selects for integrations into genes induced transiently during early mouse development, we have disrupted the mouse homolog of the human LTBP-4 gene. Mice homozygous for the disrupted allele develop severe pulmonary emphysema, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer. These highly tissue-specific abnormalities are associated with profound defects in the elastic fiber structure and with a reduced deposition of TGF-β in the extracellular space. As a consequence, epithelial cells have reduced levels of phosphorylated Smad2 proteins, overexpress c-myc, and undergo uncontrolled proliferation. This phenotype supports the predicted dual role of LTBP-4 as a structural component of the extracellular matrix and as a local regulator of TGF-β tissue deposition and signaling. PMID:12208849

  5. No asthma, no parasites is a rare type of leukemia: chronic myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormality of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; Alemán, Jesse R; Matos-Fernández, Nelson A; Cáceres-Perkins, Wlliam; De La Paz, Maryknoll

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia and abnormality of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), referred as chronic eosinophilic leukemia, is an extremely rare neoplasm where long-term prognosis is uncertain though a high grade of responsiveness to Imatinib has been reported. The mortality and morbidity associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia is associated with the degree of tissue involvement, damage, or both at diagnosis. We discuss a case of a young male patient with past medical history of hypoglycemia that presented to the emergency room with a complaints of a sharp abdominal pain localized in the upper quadrants. Laboratories were remarkable for elevated white blood cells with eosinophils predominance, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy dislocated a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion of this rare entity since not all eosinophilias can be interpreted as asthma or parasitis infections. PMID:23156891

  6. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  7. Nutrition and Mental Retardation. An Annotated Bibliography, 1964-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino

    This annotated bibliography is primarily organized for nutritionists. It presents selected articles published from 1964 to the present. All aspects of nutrition in mental retardation are covered excepting inborn errors of metabolism. Sections are included on: (1) nutrition, birthweight, and mental retardation; (2) nutrition, growth, and mental…

  8. Abnormal limb regeneration in adult newts exposed to the fungicide Maneb 80. A histological study.

    PubMed

    Zavanella, T; Zaffaroni, N P; Arias, E

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the fungicide Maneb 80 (manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate, 80% active ingredient) on the regenerating limb of the adult crested newt, Triturus cristatus carnifex, was studied. Female newts were exposed percutaneously to 5 ppm Maneb 80. One group of control newts was exposed to the inert ingredients of Maneb 80 (sodium lignin sulfonate and n-butylnaphthalene sulfonate), and another control group was kept in tap water. The limbs were examined histologically at weekly intervals throughout the regeneration period and at the end of the experiment (10-12 wk postamputation). The regenerating limbs of all the animals exposed to Maneb 80 showed growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities. Histological examination provided evidence that vascular disturbances are important for the genesis of the developmental abnormalities induced by Maneb 80. The inert ingredients had a promoting effect on limb growth and had no teratogenic effects under our experimental conditions. There were no histological differences between the two control groups.

  9. Investigation of Abnormal Grain Growth in a Friction Stir Welded and Spin-Formed Al-Li Alloy 2195 Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayon, Wesley A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve manufacturing efficiency and reduce structural mass and costs in the production of launch vehicle structures, NASA is pursuing a wide-range of innovative, near-net shape manufacturing technologies. A technology that combines friction stir welding (FSW) and spin-forming has been applied to manufacture a single-piece crew module using Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) Alloy 2195. Plate size limitations for Al-Li alloy 2195 require that two plates be FSW together to produce a spin-forming blank of sufficient size to form the crew module. Subsequent forming of the FSW results in abnormal grain growth (AGG) within the weld region upon solution heat treatment (SHT), which detrimentally impacts strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The current study seeks to identify microstructural factors that contribute to the development of AGG. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to correlate driving forces for AGG, such as stored energy, texture, and grain size distributions, with the propensity for AGG. Additionally, developmental annealing treatments prior to SHT are examined to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of AGG by promoting continuous, or uniform, grain growth

  10. Cerebellar microfolia and other abnormalities of neuronal growth, migration, and lamination in the Pit1dw-J homozygote mutant mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Abe, H.; Moriya, M.; Tanaka, O.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw-J homozygote) has a mutation in the Pit1 gene that prevents the normal formation of the anterior pituitary. In neonates and adults there is almost complete absence of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyroxin (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Since these hormones have been suggested to play a role in normal development of the central nervous system (CNS), we have investigated the effects of the Pit1dw-J mutation on the cerebellum and hippocampal formation. In the cerebellum, there were abnormalities of both foliation and lamination. The major foliation anomalies were 1) changes in the relative size of specific folia and also the proportional sizes of the anterior vs posterior cerebellum; and 2) the presence of between one and three microfolia per half cerebellum. The microfolia were all in the medial portion of the hemisphere in the caudal part of the cerebellum. Each microfolium was just rostral to a normal fissure and interposed between the fissure and a normal gyrus. Lamination abnormalities included an increase in the number of single ectopic granule cells in the molecular layer in both cerebellar vermis (86%) and hemisphere (40%) in comparison with the wild-type mouse. In the hippocampus of the Pit1dw-J homozygote mouse, the number of pyramidal cells was decreased, although the width of the pyramidal cell layer throughout areas CA1-CA3 appeared to be normal, but less densely populated than in the wild-type mouse. Moreover, the number of granule cells that form the granule cell layer was decreased from the wild-type mouse and some ectopic granule cells (occurring both as single cells and as small clusters) were observed in the innermost portion of the molecular layer. The abnormalities observed in the Pit1dw-J homozygote mouse seem to be caused by both direct and indirect effects of the deficiency of TSH (or T4), PRL, or GH rather than by a direct effect of the deletion of Pit1.

  11. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  12. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  13. The Diagnosis of Reasoning in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhelder, Barbel

    The application of Piaget's theory of cognitive development to the assessment of mental ability of the mentally retarded is presented. Following a discussion of developmental theories and diagnosis of mental development, testing interviews demonstrate the limits of cognitive thought at each of three stages. Abnormal intellectual oscillations are…

  14. Increased Lung Expression of Anti-Angiogenic Factors in Down Syndrome: Potential Role in Abnormal Lung Vascular Growth and the Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Galambos, Csaba; Minic, Angela D.; Bush, Douglas; Nguyen, Dominique; Dodson, Blair; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Infants with Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21, are at high risk for developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but mechanisms that increase susceptibility are poorly understood. Laboratory studies have shown that early disruption of angiogenesis during development impairs vascular and alveolar growth and causes PAH. Human chromosome 21 encodes known anti-angiogenic factors, including collagen18a1 (endostatin, ES), ß-amyloid peptide (BAP) and Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (DSCR-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that fetal lungs from subjects with DS are characterized by early over-expression of anti-angiogenic factors and have abnormal lung vascular growth in utero. Methods Human fetal lung tissue from DS and non-DS subjects were obtained from a biorepository. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to assay 84 angiogenesis-associated genes and individual qRT-PCR was performed for ES, amyloid protein precursor (APP) and DSCR1. Western blot analysis (WBA) was used to assay lung ES, APP and DSCR-1 protein contents. Lung vessel density and wall thickness were determined by morphometric analysis. Results The angiogenesis array identified up-regulation of three anti-angiogenic genes: COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3 (tumstatin) and TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3) in DS lungs. Single qRT-PCR and WBA showed striking elevations of ES and APP mRNA (p = 0.022 and p = 0.001) and protein (p = 0.040 and p = 0.002; respectively). Vessel density was reduced (p = 0.041) and vessel wall thickness was increased in DS lung tissue (p = 0.033) when compared to non-DS subjects. Conclusions We conclude that lung anti-angiogenic factors, including COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3, TIMP3 and APP are over-expressed and fetal lung vessel growth is decreased in subjects with DS. We speculate that increased fetal lung anti-angiogenic factor expression due to trisomy 21 impairs lung vascular growth and signaling, which impairs alveolarization and

  15. Array based characterization of a terminal deletion involving chromosome subband 15q26.2: an emerging syndrome associated with growth retardation, cardiac defects and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Josef; Collin, Anna; Björkhem, Gudrun; Soller, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. Methods In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k) genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Results After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb) region, ranging from 93.86–100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. Conclusion In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome. PMID:18194513

  16. Effect of a nutritional shift on the degradation of abnormal proteins in the mouse liver. Decreased degradation during rapid liver growth.

    PubMed Central

    Amils, R; Conde, R D; Scornik, O A

    1977-01-01

    1. The intravenous injection of puromycin to mice 0.5 min after administration of radioactive leucine resulted in the release of labelled ribosome-bound nascent protein chains with the next 0.5 min. 2. During the subsequent 13 min, 40% of the liver protein radioactivity disappeared. The rate of this process was already maximal 0.5 min after the injection of puromycin, with no apparent lag. 3. Evidence is presented that this phenomenon represents the selective degradation of puromycinyl-peptides: (a) the magnitude of this fraction corresponded to the calculated proportion of protein radioactivity in nascent chains at the time of the puromycin effect; (b) the size distribution of the proteins disappearing between 2 and 14 min was smaller than that of those retained at 14 min; and (c) when the injection of puromycin was delayed for 5 min, or when the leucine pulse was interrupted by the injection of cycloheximide (rather than puromycin), the fraction disappearing within 14 min was much smaller. 4. The degradation of puromycinyl-peptides was much slower in the rapidly growing livers of animals recovering from a protein depletion than in the protein-depleted controls. It is concluded that the large decrease in the overall rates of total liver protein degradation previously described during liver growth is a general phenomenon, also affecting the rate of scavenging of abnormal proteins. PMID:880243

  17. Retarded ejaculation - a review.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Daniel; Nalabanda, Ananth; Goldmeier, David

    2006-03-01

    Retarded ejaculation, now termed the male orgasmic disorder is not only difficult to manage, but also the scientific evidence for aetiology, treatment and outcome is poor. This is compounded by incomplete consensus regarding definition from the scientific community. In this review, we intend to collate the available information on this sexual problem including definitions, possible aetiological factors and treatment options.

  18. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  19. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  20. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  1. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  2. Mainstreaming: The Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Marjorie

    Designed for teachers, the book discusses characteristics of retardation and suggests teaching strategies for retarded children in regular classes. Statistics and definitions of the levels of retardation are described, environmental influences are summarized, and diagnostic factors are reviewed. Discussed are physical, intellectual, and…

  3. DNT cell inhibits the growth of pancreatic carcinoma via abnormal expressions of NKG2D and MICA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effects of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) and its ligands major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A(MICA) in DNT cell killing pancreatic carcinoma. Antibodies adsorption was used to separate DNT cell from human peripheral blood. Human pancreatic tumor models were established via implanting BXPC-3 cells into nude mice. Then randomly divided mice into blank group, gemcitabine group and DNT group. Mice weights and mice tumor volumes were measured every 5 days. 50 days later mice were euthanized at cervical dislocation method. Tumor weights were measured. Relative tumor volume and tumor inhibition rate were calculated. Western blot and qPCR were used to detect the expressions of NKG2D and MICA in the transplanted tumors of the three groups. DNT cell significantly increased over time. The blank group tumor volume and weight were significantly larger than the other groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), but there were no significantly difference between DNT group and gemcitabine group (p > 0.05). Gemcitabine and DNT cell tumor inhibition rate were 40.4% and 35.5%. Western blot and qPCR showed that MICA mRNA and protein levels in blank group were significantly higher than DNT group (p = 0.001, p = 0.003). NKG2D mRNA and protein levels in blank group were significantly lower than DNT cells group (p < 0.001, p = 0.001). In conclusion DNT cell can significantly inhibit the growth of pancreatic carcinoma in vivo, and the mechanism may be involved in abnormal expressions of MICA and NKG2D. PMID:26616050

  4. DNT cell inhibits the growth of pancreatic carcinoma via abnormal expressions of NKG2D and MICA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effects of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) and its ligands major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules A(MICA) in DNT cell killing pancreatic carcinoma. Antibodies adsorption was used to separate DNT cell from human peripheral blood. Human pancreatic tumor models were established via implanting BXPC-3 cells into nude mice. Then randomly divided mice into blank group, gemcitabine group and DNT group. Mice weights and mice tumor volumes were measured every 5 days. 50 days later mice were euthanized at cervical dislocation method. Tumor weights were measured. Relative tumor volume and tumor inhibition rate were calculated. Western blot and qPCR were used to detect the expressions of NKG2D and MICA in the transplanted tumors of the three groups. DNT cell significantly increased over time. The blank group tumor volume and weight were significantly larger than the other groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), but there were no significantly difference between DNT group and gemcitabine group (p > 0.05). Gemcitabine and DNT cell tumor inhibition rate were 40.4% and 35.5%. Western blot and qPCR showed that MICA mRNA and protein levels in blank group were significantly higher than DNT group (p = 0.001, p = 0.003). NKG2D mRNA and protein levels in blank group were significantly lower than DNT cells group (p < 0.001, p = 0.001). In conclusion DNT cell can significantly inhibit the growth of pancreatic carcinoma in vivo, and the mechanism may be involved in abnormal expressions of MICA and NKG2D.

  5. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  6. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  7. Polysome arrest restricts miRNA turnover by preventing exosomal export of miRNA in growth-retarded mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Bose, Mainak; Ray, Anirban; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N

    2015-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in metazoan cells, where activity and abundance of miRNAs are tightly controlled. Regulated turnover of these regulatory RNAs is important to optimize cellular response to external stimuli. We report that the stability of mature miRNAs increases inversely with cell proliferation, and the increased number of microribonucleoproteins (miRNPs) in growth-restricted mammalian cells are in turn associated with polysomes. This heightened association of miRNA with polysomes also elicits reduced degradation of target mRNAs and impaired extracellular export of miRNA via exosomes. Overall polysome sequestration contributes to an increase of cellular miRNA levels but without an increase in miRNA activity. Therefore miRNA activity and turnover can be controlled by subcellular distribution of miRNPs that may get differentially regulated as a function of cell growth in mammalian cells.

  8. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population1-2

    PubMed Central

    Berngard, S Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 mo in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. Study Design and Subjects One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 mo. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Results Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 (1.01) to -2.20 (1.05) and -2.26 (1.01) at 3 and 6 mo respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 mo were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 mo was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education*maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 mo. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. Conclusion The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. PMID:24083893

  9. Brief Report: Autistic Symptoms, Developmental Regression, Mental Retardation, Epilepsy, and Dyskinesias in CNS Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Paolo; Peters, Sarika U.; del Gaudio, Daniela; Sahoo, Trilochan; Hyland, Keith; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Hopkin, Robert J.; Peach, Elizabeth; Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, David; Roa, Benjamin; Bacino, Carlos A.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    We studied seven children with CNS folate deficiency (CFD). All cases exhibited psychomotor retardation, regression, cognitive delay, and dyskinesia; six had seizures; four demonstrated neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Two subjects had profound neurological abnormalities that precluded formal behavioral testing. Five subjects…

  10. Enhanced Densification of Carbonyl Iron Powder Compacts by the Retardation of Exaggerated Grain Growth through the Use of High Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kuen-Shyang; Lu, Yung-Chung; Shu, Guo-Jiun; Chen, Bor-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of the effect of heating rates on the densification behavior of carbonyl iron powder compacts, particularly on the exaggerated grain growth during the α- γ phase transformation, was carried out in this study. Compacts heated at 1200 °C/min and then sintered for 90 minutes at 1200 °C attained 7.14 g/cm3, while those heated at 10 °C/min reached only 6.61 g/cm3. Dilatometer curves using heating rates of 2 °C/min, 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, 30 °C/min, and 90 °C/min demonstrate that 90 °C/min yields the highest sintered density. The microstructure analysis shows that high heating rates inhibit exaggerated grain growth during the phase transformation by keeping the interparticle neck size small and pinning the grain boundaries. This explanation is supported by the calculation that shows that the energy barrier preventing the grain boundary from breaking away from the neck is reduced hyperbolically as the neck size and the amount of shrinkage increase. The high heating rate, however, shows little beneficial effect for materials that have no allotropic phase transformation or have less drastic grain growth during heating, such as nickel and copper. Thus, bypassing the low temperatures to suppress the surface diffusion mechanism, which does not contribute to densification, is ruled out as the main reason for the enhanced densification of carbonyl iron powders.

  11. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of the Flame Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Inhibit Growth of Female Zebrafish and Decrease Fecundity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya; Ma, Xufa; Su, Guanyong; Yu, Liqin; Letcher, Robert J; Hou, Jie; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-12-15

    Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males. Exposure to 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) fewer eggs being produced, but the histology of the gonad, plasma concentrations of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, and expression of genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between individuals exposed to TDCIPP and the unexposed control fish. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in shorter body length, lighter body mass, and lower gonadal-somatic index in females. These effects were possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes along the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Correlations between the production of eggs and developmental parameters or expression of genes along the GH/IGF axis further suggested that environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP could have adverse effects on reproduction, possibly due to the inhibition of the growth of females.

  12. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of the Flame Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Inhibit Growth of Female Zebrafish and Decrease Fecundity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya; Ma, Xufa; Su, Guanyong; Yu, Liqin; Letcher, Robert J; Hou, Jie; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-12-15

    Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males. Exposure to 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) fewer eggs being produced, but the histology of the gonad, plasma concentrations of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, and expression of genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between individuals exposed to TDCIPP and the unexposed control fish. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in shorter body length, lighter body mass, and lower gonadal-somatic index in females. These effects were possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes along the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Correlations between the production of eggs and developmental parameters or expression of genes along the GH/IGF axis further suggested that environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP could have adverse effects on reproduction, possibly due to the inhibition of the growth of females. PMID:26512412

  13. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I plasma levels in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Jasper, H; Cassinelli, H

    1993-01-01

    The cause of the growth retardation present in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets has not been totally elucidated. There has been a previous report of a growth hormone deficit in a group of these patients. To verify this abnormality we studied two groups of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, one with (n = 6) and the other without (n = 7) treatment with calcitriol and oral phosphates. All patients in both groups showed a normal growth hormone response (> 10 micrograms/l) to standard stimulatory tests and normal IGF-I plasma levels. Mean IGF-I plasma levels were not significantly different (untreated 1.46 +/- 0.80 U/ml, treated 1.25 +/- 0.69 U/ml) and the mean logarithmic deviation of IGF-I plasma levels from both groups did not differ from normal. In summary, we found no abnormalities of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in our patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

  14. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paththinige, C S; Sirisena, N D; Kariyawasam, U G I U; Saman Kumara, L P C; Dissanayake, V H W

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4.

  15. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saman Kumara, L. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4.

  16. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  17. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  18. Antisense repression of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in severe growth retardation, reduction in tuber number and altered carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Alisdair R; Tauberger, Eva; Lytovchenko, Anna; Roessner, Ute; Willmitzer, Lothar; Trethewey, Richard N

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the role of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase (PGM; EC 5.4.2.2) in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Many in vitro studies have indicated that PGM plays a central role in carbohydrate metabolism; however, until now the importance of this enzyme in plants has not been subject to reverse-genetics investigations. With this intention we cloned the cytosolic isoform of potato PGM (StcPGM) and expressed this in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35 S promoter in potato plants. We confirmed that these plants contained reduced total PGM activity and that loss in activity was due specifically to a reduction in cytosolic PGM activity. These plants were characterised by a severe phenotype: stunted aerial growth combined with limited root growth and a reduced tuber yield. Analysis of the metabolism of these lines revealed that leaves of these plants were inhibited in sucrose synthesis whereas the tubers exhibited decreased levels of sucrose and starch as well as decreased levels of glycolytic intermediates but possessed unaltered levels of adenylates. Furthermore, a broader metabolite screen utilising GC-MS profiling revealed that these lines contained altered levels of several intermediates of the TCA cycle and of amino acids. In summary, we conclude that cytosolic PGM plays a crucial role in the sucrose synthetic pathway within the leaf and in starch accumulation within the tuber, and as such is important in the maintenance of sink-source relationships.

  19. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  20. Homozygosity and linkage-disequilibrium mapping of the syndrome of congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth and mental retardation, and dysmorphism to a 1-cM interval on chromosome 1q42-43.

    PubMed Central

    Parvari, R; Hershkovitz, E; Kanis, A; Gorodischer, R; Shalitin, S; Sheffield, V C; Carmi, R

    1998-01-01

    The syndrome of hypoparathyroidism associated with growth retardation, developmental delay, and dysmorphism (HRD) is a newly described, autosomal recessive, congenital disorder with severe, often fatal consequences. Since the syndrome is very rare, with all parents of affected individuals being consanguineous, it is presumed to be caused by homozygous inheritance of a single recessive mutation from a common ancestor. To localize the HRD gene, we performed a genomewide screen using DNA pooling and homozygosity mapping for apparently unlinked kindreds. Analysis of a panel of 359 highly polymorphic markers revealed linkage to D1S235. The maximum LOD score obtained was 4.11 at a recombination fraction of 0. Analysis of three additional markers-GGAA6F06, D1S2678, and D1S179-in a 2-cM interval around D1S235 resulted in LOD scores >3. Analysis of additional chromosome 1 markers revealed evidence of genetic linkage disequilibrium and place the HRD locus within an approximately 1-cM interval defined by D1S1540 and D1S2678 on chromosome 1q42-43. PMID:9634513

  1. MCT8 Deficiency in Male Mice Mitigates the Phenotypic Abnormalities Associated With the Absence of a Functional Type 3 Deiodinase.

    PubMed

    Stohn, J Patrizia; Martinez, M Elena; Matoin, Kassey; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Mice deficient in the type 3 deiodinase (D3KO mice) manifest impaired clearance of thyroid hormone (TH), leading to elevated levels of TH action during development. This alteration causes reduced neonatal viability, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism. Here we examined how these phenotypes are affected by a deficiency in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), which is a major contributor to the transport of the active thyroid hormone, T3, into the cell. MCT8 deficiency eliminated the neonatal lethality of type 3 deiodinase (D3)-deficient mice and significantly ameliorated their growth retardation. Double-mutant newborn mice exhibited similar peripheral thyrotoxicosis and increased brain expression of T3-dependent genes as mice with D3 deficiency only. Later in neonatal life and adulthood, double-mutant mice manifested central and peripheral TH status similar to mice with single MCT8 deficiency, with low serum T4, elevated serum TSH and T3, and decreased T3-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. In double-mutant adult mice, both thyroid gland size and the hypothyroidism-induced rise in TSH were greater than those in mice with single D3 deficiency but less than those in mice with MCT8 deficiency alone. Our results demonstrate that the marked phenotypic abnormalities observed in the D3-deficient mouse, including perinatal mortality, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism in adult animals, require expression of MCT8, confirming the interdependent relationship between the TH transport into cells and the deiodination processes. PMID:27254003

  2. Abnormal neurodevelopment, neurosignaling and behaviour in Npas3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Ehrman, Lisa A; Williams, Michael T; Klanke, Justin; Hammer, Daniel; Schaefer, Tori L; Sah, Renu; Dorn, Gerald W; Potter, S Steven; Vorhees, Charles V

    2005-09-01

    Npas3 is a member of the bHLH-PAS superfamily of transcription factors that is expressed broadly in the developing neuroepithelium. To study the function of this gene, mice deficient in Npas3 were generated and characterized. Npas3-/- mice were growth-retarded and exhibited developmental brain abnormalities that included a reduction in size of the anterior hippocampus, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and enlargement of the ventricles. A number of behavioural abnormalities were identified in Npas3-/- mice including locomotor hyperactivity, subtle gait defects, impairment of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, deficit in recognition memory and altered anxiety-related responses. Characterization of neurosignaling pathways using several pharmacological agents revealed dysfunctional glutamate, dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter signaling. Consistent with these findings, we identified a significant alteration in cortical PSD-95 expression, a PDZ-containing protein that has been shown to be involved in postsynaptic signal transduction. Together, our observations indicate an important role for Npas3 in controlling normal brain development and neurosignaling pathways. PMID:16190882

  3. Over-expression of Chinese cabbage calreticulin 1, BrCRT1, enhances shoot and root regeneration, but retards plant growth in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheng-Lu; Hong, Joon Ki; Yang, Kyung Ae; Koo, Ja Choon; Choi, Young Ju; Chung, Woo Sik; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je; Lim, Chae Oh

    2005-10-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a ubiquitously expressed, high capacity Ca(2+)-binding protein that is involved in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and molecular chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A cDNA encoding a calreticulin, BrCRT1 (Brassica rapa Calreticulin 1), has been isolated from Chinese cabbage (B. rapa subsp. pekinensis) flower bud. Constitutive over-expression of the BrCRT1 gene promotes robust shoot production and root formation at sub-optimal concentrations of BA/NAA, which are important factors controlling plant regeneration in tissue culture. In contrast, the suppressed BrCRT1 line exhibited a slight reduction of shoot and root regeneration. In spite of enhanced regeneration in tissue culture, the seedling and plant growth rate was inhibited in soil. The steady state level of BrCRT1 transcripts was sensitive to exogenous auxins and cytokinins, and rapidly accumulated within 30 min, and this induction required de novo protein synthesis. Together with the results of transgenic tobacco plants and mRNA analysis in Chinese cabbage, our data suggest that BrCRT1 genes may up-regulate the competency of vegetative tissue to respond to hormonal signals involved in shoot and root regeneration processes.

  4. Loss of Lon1 in Arabidopsis Changes the Mitochondrial Proteome Leading to Altered Metabolite Profiles and Growth Retardation without an Accumulation of Oxidative Damage1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Cory; Li, Lei; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Millar, A. Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Lon1 is an ATP-dependent protease and chaperone located in the mitochondrial matrix in plants. Knockout in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to a significant growth rate deficit in both roots and shoots and lowered activity of specific mitochondrial enzymes associated with respiratory metabolism. Analysis of the mitochondrial proteomes of two lon1 mutant alleles (lon1-1 and lon1-2) with different severities of phenotypes shows a common accumulation of several stress marker chaperones and lowered abundance of Complexes I, IV, and V of OXPHOS. Certain enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle are modified or accumulated, and TCA cycle bypasses were repressed rather than induced. While whole tissue respiratory rates were unaltered in roots and shoots, TCA cycle intermediate organic acids were depleted in leaf extracts in the day in lon1-1 and in both lon mutants at night. No significant evidence of broad steady-state oxidative damage to isolated mitochondrial samples could be found, but peptides from several specific proteins were more oxidized and selected functions were more debilitated in lon1-1. Collectively, the evidence suggests that loss of Lon1 significantly modifies respiratory function and plant performance by small but broad alterations in the mitochondrial proteome gained by subtly changing steady-state protein assembly, stability, and damage of a range of components that debilitate an anaplerotic role for mitochondria in cellular carbon metabolism. PMID:22968828

  5. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro.

  6. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro. PMID:27630050

  7. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  8. Twenty-four-hour osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen rhythms in normal and growth-retarded children.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Baroncelli, G I; Bertelloni, S; Cinquanta, L; DiNero, G

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between spontaneous variations in serum 24-h osteocalcin (OC), carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) concentrations and GH secretion, measured as GH response to provocative pharmacologic stimuli and spontaneous GH secretion during 24 h, were evaluated in prepubertal normal children and in GH-deficient and GH-secreting short normal children (SNC). All the subjects showed a circadian rhythm in smoothed 24-h OC and PICP mean data with higher nocturnal values in comparison with diurnal values. Conversely, serum PIINP concentrations did not vary throughout the day. In children with classic GH deficiency and nonclassic GH deficiency, mean 24-h serum levels and smoothed 24-h mean data for OC, PICP, and PIIINP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) with respect to age-matched controls. SNC showed mean 24-h OC concentrations similar (p = NS) to those we found in age-matched controls, but they had significantly lower (p < 0.001) diurnal 12-h mean data in comparison with controls. SNC also showed both 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data and smoothed 24-h PICP and PIIINP mean data significantly lower (from p < 0.02 to p < 0.001) at all the time points of measurement in comparison with controls. Twenty-four-hour PICP and PIIINP mean data were positively related to spontaneous 24-h GH concentrations (r = 0.77, p < 0.005 and r = 0.69, p < 0.005, respectively) and growth velocity (r = 0.85, p < 0.005, and r = 0.70, p < 0.005, respectively), whereas 24-h OC mean data were not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047377

  9. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  10. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  11. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  12. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  13. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  14. Issues in Defining Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Steven

    1994-01-01

    This paper responds to criticisms of the American Association on Mental Retardation's new definition of mental retardation. Emphasis is on the intent to change from a deficiency model to a support model, with more importance given to the role of the environment. Also addressed are IQ score guidelines, cultural bias, assessment, and public policy.…

  15. Social Work and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Meyer, Ed.

    Of special interest for social work students, teachers, and practitioners, the collection of 94 articles presents a broad survey of the field of mental retardation particularly as it relates to social work. The articles indicate both past work and the current status of social work practice with the mentally retarded. Material includes background…

  16. Non syndromic gingival fibromatosis in a mild mental retardation child

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Mahesh K.; Muppa, Radhika; Reddy, G. S. Prasad; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a benign oral condition characterized by enlargement of gingival tissues. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one of the features of a syndrome. This case report is of a 5-year-old male with severe gingival hyperplasia and mild mental retardation which was complicated by open bite, abnormal occlusion, open lip posture, and disabilities associated with mastication and speech. Full mouth gingivectomy in single sitting under general anesthesia was done with electrocautery. PMID:23230365

  17. Cognitive and Academic Skills in Children with Sex Chromosome Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Bruce G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Follows 46 unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities using intellectual, language, and achievement testing. Notes that, although most children were not mentally retarded, most received special education help. Finds support for the inference that learning disorders were genetically mediated in this group. (RS)

  18. Congenital and Neurological Abnormalities in Infants with Phenylketonuria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined was the occurrence of congenital and neurological abnormalities in 150 children with phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder which may result in mental retardation) age 1 year or older, who have been treated with a restricted phenylalanine diet, according to the protocol used in a nation-wide longitudinal collaborative study.…

  19. Cytogenetic Findings in Mentally Retarded Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, F; Mahjoubi, F; Manouchehry, F; Razazian, F; Mortezapour, F; Rahnama, M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study on 865 individuals with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) who were admitted to the Cytogenetics Department of the Iran Blood Transfusion Organisation (IBTO) Research Centre, Tehran, Iran; these were performed on blood samples using conventional staining methods. Chromosome anomalies were identified in 205 of the patients (23.6%). The majority were Down’s syndrome cases (n = 138). In 33 males, a positive fragile X anomaly was found. The remainder (n = 34) had other chromosomal abnormalities including structural chromosome aberrations (n = 23), marker chromosomes with an unknown origin (n = 3), sex chromosome aneuploidy (n = 6) and trisomy 18 (n = 2). The contribution of chromosome aberrations to the cause of MR in this group of patients is discussed. PMID:24052729

  20. Delayed growth

    MedlinePlus

    Growth - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Weight gain - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; ... A child should have regular, well-baby check-ups with a health care provider. These checkups are usually scheduled ...

  1. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  2. Atypical refsum disease with pipecolic acidemia and abnormal catalase distribution.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, M R; Jansen, G A; Verhoeven, N M; Mooyer, P A; Jakobs, C; Roels, F; Espeel, M; Fourmaintraux, A; Bellet, H; Wanders, R J; Saudubray, J M

    2000-01-01

    We describe an 18-year-old patient with psychomotor retardation and abnormally short metatarsi and metacarpals but no other signs of classic Refsum disease. Molecular analysis of the phytanoyl-coenzyme A hydroxylase gene revealed a homozygous deletion causing a frameshift. Surprisingly, L-pipecolic acid was elevated in plasma, and microscopy of the liver showed a reduced number of peroxisomes per cell and a larger average peroxisome size. These abnormal peroxisomes lacked catalase as did peroxisomes in fibroblasts of this patient. Such generalized peroxisomal abnormalities are not present in classic Refsum disease.

  3. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  4. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  5. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  6. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  7. Transcendental meditation and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Eyerman, J

    1981-01-01

    A 26-year old moderately mentally retarded woman was taught the Transcendental Meditation technique. She experienced spontaneous improvements in her verbal and social behavior and physiological functioning over a period of three years while practicing the technique.

  8. Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Patricia

    Literature on deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded persons is reviewed. Cited are studies showing positive aspects, including improved communication abilities, increased adaptive behavior and personal satisfaction. Community adjustment findings focus on effects of involuntary relocation to another facility, age differences, and…

  9. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  10. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  11. Developmental Problems of the Moderately Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bepko, Raymond A.; And Others

    Hypothesizing that the dimensions of developmental problems faced by the moderately retarded will be analogous to those faced by the mildly retarded, this study considers the appropriateness of the structure of the Social Learning Curriculum (SLC), originally developed for the mildly retarded, for the moderately retarded. The SLC framework…

  12. Abnormal crystal growth in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx using a multi-cycle solution coating process

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qingfeng; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Fang, Yanjun; Wang, Qi; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-06-23

    Recently, the efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells has improved greatly because of improved material qualities with longer carrier diffusion lengths. Mixing chlorine in the precursor for mixed halide films has been reported to dramatically enhance the diffusion lengths of mixed halide perovskite films, mainly as a result of a much longer carrier recombination lifetime. Here we report that adding Cl containing precursor for mixed halide perovskite formation can induce the abnormal grain growth behavior that yields well-oriented grains accompanied by the appearance of some very large size grains. The abnormal grain growth becomes prominent only after multi-cycle coating of MAI : MACl blend precursor. The large grain size is found mainly to contribute to a longer carrier charge recombination lifetime, and thus increases the device efficiency to 18.9%, but without significantly impacting the carrier transport property. As a result, the strong correlation identified between material process and morphology provides guidelines for future material optimization and device efficiency enhancement.

  13. X-linked recessive congenital muscle fiber hypotrophy with central nuclei: abnormalities of growth and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Askanas, V; Engel, W K; Reddy, N B; Barth, P G; Bethlem, J; Krauss, D R; Hibberd, M E; Lawrence, J V; Carter, L S

    1979-10-01

    Muscle cells in cultures established from biopsy specimens of two children with an infantile-fatal form of X-linked recessive muscle fiber smallness with central nuclei showed an unusual ability to proliferate through numerous passages. Ultrastructurally, the cultured muscle fibers appeared very immature even after several weeks. The nuclei were large, the number of ribosomes was greatly increased, the myofibrils remained unstriated, and glycogen was accumulated in large lakes. The plasmalemma bound concanavalin A, alpha-bungarotoxin, and ruthenium red normally, but with tannic acid it did not show the dark binding of mature fibers. Biochemically, in the cultured muscle fibers, beta-adrenergic receptors were quantitatively normal. The level of adenylate cyclase in membranes was less than in cultured normal muscle; this defect could be responsible for impaired control mechanisms resulting in the other abnormalities observed.

  14. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Differential binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 and -7 to basement membrane heparan sulfate: comparison of normal and abnormal human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, A.; Chang, Z.; Tierney, A.; Rapraeger, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play multiple roles during development and in adult tissues as paracrine regulators of growth and differentiation. FGFs signal through transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases, but heparan sulfate is also required for signaling by members of the FGF family. In addition, heparan sulfate may be involved in determining tissue distribution of FGFs. Using biotinylated FGF-2 and FGF-7 (KGF) as probes, we have identified specific interactions between FGFs and heparan sulfates in human tissues. Both FGF species bind to tissue mast cells and to epithelial cell membranes. Binding to basement membrane heparan sulfate is tissue source dependent and specific. Although FGF-2 strongly binds to basement membrane heparan sulfate in skin and most other tissue sites examined, FGF-7 fails to bind to basement membrane heparan sulfate in most locations. However, in subendothelial matrix in blood vessels and in the basement membrane of a papillary renal cell carcinoma, strong FGF-7 binding is seen. In summary, distinct and specific affinities of heparan sulfates for different FGFs were identified that may affect growth factor activation and local distribution. Heparan sulfate may have a gatekeeper function to either restrict or permit diffusion of heparin-binding growth factors across the basement membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9094999

  17. Detection of chromosomal imbalances in children with idiopathic mental retardation by array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH)

    PubMed Central

    Schoumans, J; Ruivenkamp, C; Holmberg, E; Kyllerman, M; Anderlid, B; Nordenskjold, M

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are a common cause of multiple anomaly syndromes that include growth and developmental delay and dysmorphism. Novel high resolution, whole genome technologies, such as array based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH), improve the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities allowing re-investigation of cases where conventional cytogenetic techniques, Spectral karyotyping (SKY), and FISH failed to detect abnormalities. We performed a high resolution genome-wide screening for submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements using array-CGH on 41 children with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphic features. The commercially available microarray from Spectral Genomics contained 2600 BAC clones spaced at approximately 1 Mb intervals across the genome. Standard chromosome analysis (>450 bands per haploid genome) revealed no chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, multi-subtelomeric FISH screening in 30 cases and SKY in 11 patients did not detect any abnormality. Using array-CGH we detected chromosomal imbalances in four patients (9.8%) ranging in size from 2 to 14 Mb. Large scale copy number variations were frequently observed. Array-CGH has become an important tool for the detection of chromosome aberrations and has the potential to identify genes involved in developmental delay and dysmorphism. Moreover, the detection of genomic imbalances of clinical significance will increase knowledge of the human genome by performing genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:16141005

  18. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions. PMID:25816168

  19. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  20. A de novo 0.63 Mb 6q25.1 deletion associated with growth failure, congenital heart defect, underdeveloped cerebellar vermis, abnormal cutaneous elasticity and joint laxity.

    PubMed

    Salpietro, Vincenzo; Ruggieri, Martino; Mankad, Kshitij; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Granata, Francesca; Loddo, Italia; Moschella, Emanuela; Calabro, Maria Pia; Capalbo, Anna; Bernardini, Laura; Novelli, Antonio; Polizzi, Agata; Seidler, Daniela G; Arrigo, Teresa; Briuglia, Silvana

    2015-09-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare and are characterized by great clinical variability according to the deletion breakpoint. We report a on 6-year-old girl with a de novo 0.63 Mb deletion on chromosome 6q25.1 who demonstrated multiple congenital anomalies including a ventricular septal defect and an underdeveloped cerebellar vermis. She presented with severe pre- and post-natal growth failure, hyperextensible small joints (Beighton scores = 8/9; with normal parental scores), and an abnormally elastic, redundant skin. Abnormally high upper/lower segment ratio (i.e., 1.34 = > 3SD), mild dysmorphic facial features and developmental delay were also present. The girl's phenotype was compared with: (i) two girls, each previously reported by Bisgaard et al. and Caselli et al. with similar albeit larger (2.6-7.21 Mb) deletions; (ii) seven additional individuals (6 M; 1 F) harboring deletions within the 6q25.1 region reported in the literature; and (iii) ten further patients (5 M; 4 F; 1 unrecorded sex) recorded in the DECIPHER 6.0 database. We reported on the present girl as her findings could contribute to advance the phenotype of 6q deletions. In addition, the present deletion is the smallest so far recorded in the 6q25 region encompassing eight known genes [vs. 41 of Bisgaard et al., and 23 of Caselli et al.,], including the TAB2 (likely responsible for the girl's congenital heart defect), LATS1 gene, and the UST gene (a regulator of the homeostasis of proteoglycans, which could have played a role in the abnormal dermal and cartilage elasticity).

  1. A de novo 0.63 Mb 6q25.1 deletion associated with growth failure, congenital heart defect, underdeveloped cerebellar vermis, abnormal cutaneous elasticity and joint laxity.

    PubMed

    Salpietro, Vincenzo; Ruggieri, Martino; Mankad, Kshitij; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Granata, Francesca; Loddo, Italia; Moschella, Emanuela; Calabro, Maria Pia; Capalbo, Anna; Bernardini, Laura; Novelli, Antonio; Polizzi, Agata; Seidler, Daniela G; Arrigo, Teresa; Briuglia, Silvana

    2015-09-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare and are characterized by great clinical variability according to the deletion breakpoint. We report a on 6-year-old girl with a de novo 0.63 Mb deletion on chromosome 6q25.1 who demonstrated multiple congenital anomalies including a ventricular septal defect and an underdeveloped cerebellar vermis. She presented with severe pre- and post-natal growth failure, hyperextensible small joints (Beighton scores = 8/9; with normal parental scores), and an abnormally elastic, redundant skin. Abnormally high upper/lower segment ratio (i.e., 1.34 = > 3SD), mild dysmorphic facial features and developmental delay were also present. The girl's phenotype was compared with: (i) two girls, each previously reported by Bisgaard et al. and Caselli et al. with similar albeit larger (2.6-7.21 Mb) deletions; (ii) seven additional individuals (6 M; 1 F) harboring deletions within the 6q25.1 region reported in the literature; and (iii) ten further patients (5 M; 4 F; 1 unrecorded sex) recorded in the DECIPHER 6.0 database. We reported on the present girl as her findings could contribute to advance the phenotype of 6q deletions. In addition, the present deletion is the smallest so far recorded in the 6q25 region encompassing eight known genes [vs. 41 of Bisgaard et al., and 23 of Caselli et al.,], including the TAB2 (likely responsible for the girl's congenital heart defect), LATS1 gene, and the UST gene (a regulator of the homeostasis of proteoglycans, which could have played a role in the abnormal dermal and cartilage elasticity). PMID:25940952

  2. Abnormal immune responses of Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hütteroth, T H; Litwin, S D; German, J

    1975-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome is a rare autosmal recessive disorder, first characterized by growth retardation and asum-sensitive facial telangiectasia and more recently demonstarted to have increased chromosome instability, a predisposition to malignancy, and increased susecptibitily to infection. The present report ocncern the immune function of Bloom's syndrom lymphoctes in vitro. Four affected homozgotes and five heterozygotes were studied. An abnormal serum concentartion of at least one class of immunoglobin was present in three out of four homozgotes. Affected homozgotes were shown capable of both a humoral and cellular response after antigenic challenge, the responses in general being weak but detectable. Blood lymphocytes from Bloom's syndrome individuals were cultured in impaired proliferavite response and synthesized less immunoglobulin at the end of 5 days than did normal controls. In contrast, they had a normal proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin except at highest concentrations of the mitogen. In the mixed lymphocte culture, Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes proved to be poor responder cells but normal stimulator cells. Lmyphoctes from the heterozgotes produced normal responses in these three systems. Distrubed immunity appears to be on of several major consequences of homozygosity for the Bloom's syndrome gene. Although the explanation for this pleiotropism is at present obscure, the idea was advanced that the aberrant immune function is, along with the major clincial feature-small body size, amanifestation of defect in cellular proliferation. PMID:124745

  3. Auto cannibalism in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rohit; Mina, Shaily; Sachdeva, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) deems an individual more vulnerable to psychopathologies. The individual may develop an array of behavioral disturbances manifesting themselves in the form of aggressive and destructive conduct, violent fits of anger, stereotyped, or self-injuring behavior. Self-injurious behavior is heterogeneous in nature ranging from mild to severe variant. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with MR with self-inflicted severe oral injuries of cannibalistic nature presenting as cleft lip and palate. A more extensive research is needed on the problem behaviors in mentally retarded patients for early detection and effective and timely intervention leading to a better outcome. PMID:24891909

  4. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  5. Spontaneous Eye-Blinking and Stereotyped Behavior in Older Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebel, Amanda M.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that abnormal stereotyped movements are associated with central dopamine dysfunction and that eye-blink rate is a noninvasive, in vivo measure of dopamine function. We measured the spontaneous eye-blinking and stereotyped behavior of older adults with severe/profound mental retardation living in a state mental…

  6. Dental Care for the Mentally Retarded; A Handbook for Ward Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Dental Advisory Committee.

    Included in a handbook are discussions on general information for dental health for the institutionalized retarded, their need for dental care, the attendant's role in providing care, dental information for the attendant, how and when to use a toothbrush, care of toothbrushes and equipment, and indications of abnormal mouth conditions. Information…

  7. Advanced Microscopic Imaging Methods to Investigate Cortical Development and the Etiology of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydar, Tarik F.

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human patients and animal models of disease have shown that disruptions in prenatal and early postnatal brain development are a root cause of mental retardation. Since proper brain development is achieved by a strict spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis, cell migration, and patterning of synapses, abnormalities in one or more of these…

  8. Chronic Regurgitation among Persons with Mental Retardation: A Need for Combined Medical and Interdisciplinary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study found chronic regurgitation in 23 of 220 institutionalized adults with severe mental retardation. A high prevalence of dysphagia and gastroesophageal abnormalities was found, suggesting the importance of full evaluation and treatment prior to a diagnosis of rumination in this population. (Author/DB)

  9. Systematic Dyskinesia Examination of Profoundly Mentally Retarded Persons: Cooperation and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Douglas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dyskinesia, abnormal involuntary movements associated with long-term neuroleptic drug use, was evaluated with 344 institutionalized profoundly mentally retarded adults using the Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale. Results indicated performance deficits on activation tasks associated with intelligence quotients, neuroleptic…

  10. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I.

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  11. Mental Retardation Law in 1980: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitello, Stanley J.

    1981-01-01

    Educational and deinstitutionalization law cases decided during 1980 with relevance for mentally retarded persons are reviewed. Noted is the possibility of a period of legal retrenchment regarding the rights of retarded persons. (CL)

  12. The Supreme Court V. Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    The author examines the Supreme Court decisions regarding the rights of retarded children not to be institutionalized and rights of retarded people to have aggressive medical treatment that will help prolong their lives. (SB)

  13. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    The aims and principles of normalization and integration of the mentally retarded in Sweden are discussed in terms of implications for services and programs. The historical background of the present care for the mentally handicapped notes legislative actions, responsibilities of the Board of Provisions and County Councils, the development of the…

  15. Reading Retardation and Antisocial Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge, Claire

    1982-01-01

    Examines the association between reading retardation and antisocial behavior problems in four groups of boys (a total of 129 subjects). Subjects' current behavior and family backgrounds were compared and contrasted. Results show a strong association between the two disorders. (Author/MP)

  16. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  17. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  18. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  19. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  20. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  1. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  2. Social Facilitation of Retardate Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.

    Investigated were the effects of three different social situations on the performance of 48 mildly mentally retarded individuals (12-17 years old). Ss were randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups and were asked to complete simple and complex mazes in one of three audience conditions: no audience, evaluative audience, and non-evaluative…

  3. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  4. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  5. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  6. Overexpression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases causes growth defects possibly due to abnormal auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Gyusik; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Choe, Sunghwa

    2012-07-01

    Sterols play crucial roles as membrane components and precursors of steroid hormones (e.g., brassinosteroids, BR). Within membranes, sterols regulate membrane permeability and fluidity by interacting with other lipids and proteins. Sterols are frequently enriched in detergent-insoluble membranes (DIMs), which organize molecules involved in specialized signaling processes, including auxin transporters. To be fully functional, the two methyl groups at the C-4 position of cycloartenol, a precursor of plant sterols, must be removed by bifunctional 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases (3βHSD/D). To understand the role of 3βHSD/D in Arabidopsis development, we analyzed the phenotypes of knock-out mutants and overexpression lines of two 3βHSD/D genes (At1g47290 and At2g26260). Neither single nor double knock-out mutants displayed a noticeable phenotype; however, overexpression consistently resulted in plants with wrinkled leaves and short inflorescence internodes. Interestingly, the internode growth defects were opportunistic; even within a plant, some stems were more severely affected than others. Endogenous levels of BRs were not altered in the overexpression lines, suggesting that the growth defect is not primarily due to a flaw in BR biosynthesis. To determine if overexpression of the sterol biosynthetic genes affects the functions of membrane-localized auxin transporters, we subjected plants to the auxin efflux carrier inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Where-as the gravity vectors of wild-type roots became randomly scattered in response to NPA treatment, those of the overexpression lines continued to grow in the direction of gravity. Overexpression of the two Arabidopsis 3βHSD/D genes thus appears to affect auxin transporter activity, possibly by altering sterol composition in the membranes.

  7. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  8. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  9. THE TEACHER OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARNEY, LEON; LACROSSE, EDWARD

    BASIC INFORMATION IS PROVIDED FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN. THE FIRST FOUR CHAPTERS ARE DEVOTED TO CLASSROOM CONDITIONS, PARENTAL ATTITUDES, AND TEACHER-PUPIL INTERACTION IN THE SPECIAL CLASS FOR RETARDATES. CHAPTER ONE GIVES A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD AS HE APPEARS TO THE TEACHER. CHAPTER TWO…

  10. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  11. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  12. Supplementation of L-arginine prevents glucocorticoid-induced reduction of bone growth and bone turnover abnormalities in a growing rat model.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Pietra; D'Alcamo, Maria Antonia; Leonetti, Concetta; Clementi, Anna; Cutuli, Vincenza Maria; Riccobene, Stefania; Parisi, Natalia; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on bone turnover and bone mineral density in the growing rat. Because of the recent evidence that nitric oxide (NO) can counteract prednisolone-induced bone loss in mature rats, we examined the effect on bone of the NO donor L: -arginine in young male rats, in which bone mass is increased by the same biological mechanism as in children and adolescents. Thirty-six 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to six groups of six animals each, and treated for 4 weeks with either vehicle (once a week subcutaneous injection of 100 microl of sesame oil); prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week by intramuscular injection (i.m.); L-arginine, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day; prednisolone sodium succinate 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-arginine 10 mg/kg i.p. once a day; or prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-NAME 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (RatLaps) were measured at baseline conditions and after 2 and 4 weeks. Prior to treatment, and after 2 and 4 weeks, the whole body, vertebral, pelvic, and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Prednisolone and prednisolone+L-NAME treated rats had significantly lower ALP and osteocalcin levels than controls at 2 and 4 weeks, and significantly higher levels of Rat-Laps than controls at 4 weeks. Prednisolone, L-NAME, and prednisolone+L-NAME produced a significant inhibition of bone accumulation and bone growth at all sites measured. Supplementation with L-arginine appeared to prevent the inhibition of bone growth and increase in bone resorption induced by prednisolone. These data would suggest, for the first time, that supplementation

  13. Brief report: autistic symptoms, developmental regression, mental retardation, epilepsy, and dyskinesias in CNS folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Paolo; Peters, Sarika U; Del Gaudio, Daniela; Sahoo, Trilochan; Hyland, Keith; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Hopkin, Robert J; Peach, Elizabeth; Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, David; Roa, Benjamin; Bacino, Carlos A; Scaglia, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    We studied seven children with CNS folate deficiency (CFD). All cases exhibited psychomotor retardation, regression, cognitive delay, and dyskinesia; six had seizures; four demonstrated neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Two subjects had profound neurological abnormalities that precluded formal behavioral testing. Five subjects received ADOS and ADI-R testing and met diagnostic criteria for autism or autism spectrum disorders. They exhibited difficulties with transitions, insistence on sameness, unusual sensory interests, and repetitive behaviors. Those with the best language skills largely used repetitive phrases. No mutations were found in folate transporter or folate enzyme genes. These findings demonstrate that autistic features are salient in CFD and suggest that a subset of children with developmental regression, mental retardation, seizures, dyskinesia, and autism may have CNS folate abnormalities. PMID:18027081

  14. Brief Report: Autistic Symptoms, Developmental Regression, Mental Retardation, Epilepsy, and Dyskinesias in CNS Folate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Paolo; Peters, Sarika U.; del Gaudio, Daniela; Sahoo, Trilochan; Hyland, Keith; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Hopkin, Robert J.; Peach, Elizabeth; Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, David; Roa, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We studied seven children with CNS folate deficiency (CFD). All cases exhibited psychomotor retardation, regression, cognitive delay, and dyskinesia; six had seizures; four demonstrated neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Two subjects had profound neurological abnormalities that precluded formal behavioral testing. Five subjects received ADOS and ADI-R testing and met diagnostic criteria for autism or autism spectrum disorders. They exhibited difficulties with transitions, insistence on sameness, unusual sensory interests, and repetitive behaviors. Those with the best language skills largely used repetitive phrases. No mutations were found in folate transporter or folate enzyme genes. These findings demonstrate that autistic features are salient in CFD and suggest that a subset of children with developmental regression, mental retardation, seizures, dyskinesia, and autism may have CNS folate abnormalities. PMID:18027081

  15. Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine.

    PubMed

    Upur, Halmurat; Yusup, Abdiryim; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Umar, Anwar; Berke, Benedicte; Yimit, Dilxat; Lapham, Jaya Conser; Creppy, Edmon E; Moore, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of (3)[H]-leucine and (3)[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.

  16. Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Upur, Halmurat; Yusup, Abdiryim; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Umar, Anwar; Berke, Benedicte; Yimit, Dilxat; Lapham, Jaya Conser; Creppy, Edmon E.; Moore, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of 3[H]-leucine and 3[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis. PMID:18955370

  17. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  18. Practitioner review: physical investigations in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, C

    1997-11-01

    Mental retardation occurs in more than 1% of the child population. A cause can be found in almost 80% of individuals with severe mental retardation, but in fewer than 40% of those with mild mental retardation. A work-up is indicated in all cases of mental retardation. A medical doctor with specific training in the field is needed to make "decision-tree diagnosis" and to suggest the most appropriate physical investigations in each case. This paper provides practical guidelines for diagnosis and work-up both in severe and mild mental retardation. PMID:9413789

  19. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  1. X chromosome inactivation and X-linked mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, H.F. |

    1996-07-12

    The expression of X-linked genes in females heterozygous for X-linked defects can be modulated by epigenetic control mechanisms that constitute the X chromosome inactivation pathway. At least four different effects have been found to influence, in females, the phenotypic expression of genes responsible for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). First, non-random X inactivation, due either to stochastic or genetic factors, can result in tissues in which one cell type (for example, that in which the X chromosome carrying a mutant XLMR gene is active) dominates, instead of the normal mosaic cell population expected as a result of random X inactivation. Second, skewed inactivation of the normal X in individuals carrying a deletion of part of the X chromosome has been documented in a number of mentally retarded females. Third, functional disomy of X-linked genes that are expressed inappropriately due to the absence of X inactivation has been found in mentally retarded females with structurally abnormal X chromosomes that do not contain the X inactivation center. And fourth, dose-dependent overexpression of X-linked genes that normally {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} X inactivation may account for the mental and developmental delay associated with increasing numbers of otherwise inactive X chromosomes in individuals with X chromosome aneuploidy. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  2. [Advances in the identification of the aetiology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Raggio, Víctor; Boidi, María; Tapié, Alejandra; Roche, Leda

    2013-09-01

    Despite the advances made in the field of genetics, neuroimaging and metabolic diseases, half the children with mental retardation remain without an aetiological diagnosis. A genetic base is estimated to be present in 40% of cases, environmental teratogens and prematurity in 20%, metabolic diseases in 1-5% and multifactor causes in 3-12%. The family history, the detailed medical records required by dysmorphology and the neurological examination will make it possible to establish or suspect a diagnosis in two thirds of the cases and, in the others, scanning tests will be able to confirm an aetiology. The order of the studies will be guided by the clinical picture: karyotype if a chromosome pathology is suspected, neuroimaging if there is some abnormality in the neurological examination and specific genetic or neurometabolic studies to confirm the clinical presumption. The estimated diagnostic performance of the different techniques is: karyotype, 9%; fragile X, 5%; subtelomeric abnormalities, 4%; neurometabolic diseases, 1%, and new microarray techniques, 19%. As a result of the higher performance and cost-benefit ratio, today the recommended procedure, as the first line of treatment for unexplainable cases of mental retardation, is the study of microarrays. Although the outcomes of these tests are complex and require confirmation and careful interpretation by a specialist in medical genetics, the advances in their technological development and resolution, together with lower costs make this technique a fundamental tool in the identification of the aetiology in these children.

  3. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  4. Speech acts: sampling the social construction of mental retardation in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Danforth, S; Navarro, V

    1998-02-01

    A sample of speech acts in everyday discourse referring to persons or events having to do with the term mental retardation was analyzed in order to investigate the belief that language use both constructs and reflects cultural norms that define the social roles of persons reduced to object status through categorical membership. Speech acts gathered suggest four emergent themes: the discourse of category membership, the dichotomy of normal and abnormal, issues of place and space, and fear. These themes were explicated from a social constructionist perspective, displaying the way speech acts construct mental retardation and subvert individuals with the label into demeaned and ridiculed objects of cultural fear. PMID:9492516

  5. Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Vandel, Pierre; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management. PMID:24286073

  6. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saman Kumara, L. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4. PMID:27610251

  7. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paththinige, C S; Sirisena, N D; Kariyawasam, U G I U; Saman Kumara, L P C; Dissanayake, V H W

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4. PMID:27610251

  8. 6q22.33 microdeletion in a family with intellectual disability, variable major anomalies, and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Beyer, Anke; Schallner, Jens; Novotna, Barbara; Klink, Barbara; Schröck, Evelin; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2015-11-01

    Interstitial deletions on the long arm of chromosome six have been described for several regions including 6q16, 6q22.1, and 6q21q22.1, and with variable phenotypes such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, major and minor facial anomalies. However, an isolated microdeletion of the sub-band 6q22.33 has not been reported so far and thus, no information about the specific phenotype associated with such a copy number variant is available. Here, we define the clinical picture of an isolated 6q22.33 microdeletion based on the phenotype of six members of one family with loss of approximately 1 Mb in this region. Main clinical features include mild intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities as well as microcephaly, heart defect, and cleft lip and palate.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of foetuses with congenital abnormalities and duplication of the MECP2 region.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Liu, Huan-ling; Li, Ru; Han, Jin; Yang, Xin; Min, Pan; Zhen, Li; Zhang, Yong-ling; Xie, Gui-e; Lei, Ting-ying; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-zhi; Liao, Can

    2014-08-10

    MECP2 duplication results in a well-recognised syndrome in 100% of affected male children; this syndrome is characterised by severe neurodevelopmental disabilities and recurrent infections. However, no sonographic findings have been reported for affected foetuses, and prenatal molecular diagnosis has not been possible for this disease due to lack of prenatal clinical presentation. In this study, we identified a small duplication comprising the MECP2 and L1CAM genes in the Xq28 region in a patient from a family with severe X-linked mental retardation and in a prenatal foetus with brain structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) to screen 108 foetuses with congenital structural abnormalities, we identified additional three foetuses with the MECP2 duplication. Our study indicates that ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, choroid plexus cysts, foetal growth restriction and hydronephrosis might be common ultrasound findings in prenatal foetuses with the MECP2 duplication and provides the first set of prenatal cases with MECP2 duplication, the ultrasonographic phenotype described in these patients will help to recognise the foetuses with possible MECP2 duplication and prompt the appropriate molecular testing.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of foetuses with congenital abnormalities and duplication of the MECP2 region.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fang; Liu, Huan-ling; Li, Ru; Han, Jin; Yang, Xin; Min, Pan; Zhen, Li; Zhang, Yong-ling; Xie, Gui-e; Lei, Ting-ying; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-zhi; Liao, Can

    2014-08-10

    MECP2 duplication results in a well-recognised syndrome in 100% of affected male children; this syndrome is characterised by severe neurodevelopmental disabilities and recurrent infections. However, no sonographic findings have been reported for affected foetuses, and prenatal molecular diagnosis has not been possible for this disease due to lack of prenatal clinical presentation. In this study, we identified a small duplication comprising the MECP2 and L1CAM genes in the Xq28 region in a patient from a family with severe X-linked mental retardation and in a prenatal foetus with brain structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) to screen 108 foetuses with congenital structural abnormalities, we identified additional three foetuses with the MECP2 duplication. Our study indicates that ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, choroid plexus cysts, foetal growth restriction and hydronephrosis might be common ultrasound findings in prenatal foetuses with the MECP2 duplication and provides the first set of prenatal cases with MECP2 duplication, the ultrasonographic phenotype described in these patients will help to recognise the foetuses with possible MECP2 duplication and prompt the appropriate molecular testing. PMID:24914495

  11. Duplication of 5q21 in a mildly retarded male and his non-retarded mother

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, R.; Zurcher, V.; Schwartz, S.

    1994-09-01

    Euchromatic autosomal additions to chromosomal complements are typically associated with global effects including mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphism. We report a familial duplication that does not appear to cause consistent, significant effects. A hyperactive male with mild MR was referred for fra(X) testing at 8 yrs. His karyotype was fra(X) negative and normal except for an addition in one 5q. The abnormal 5 was also in the maternal karyotype, but all other parental chromosomes were normal. The addition (=8.5% the length of a 5) was interpreted as a duplication of band 5q21. FISH with Coatasome 5 (Oncor) showed the addition was from 5. The proband`s karyotype was designated 46,XY,dup(5)(q15q22.1)mat; his mother`s, 46,XX,dup(5)(q15q22.1). Single copy probes are being used to test the cytogenetic interpretation. At 39 yrs, the non-retarded, somewhat inattentive mother, who has a high school diploma and subsequent secretarial courses, cares for the proband and his chromosomally normal, but learning disabled sister at home. The family situation is chaotic with reported paternal psychiatric illness and abuse of the proband and his sister. The mother`s father is dead, but her four younger siblings and mother are reportedly normal. Their chromosomes have not been available. The proband was born at 40 weeks following an uneventful pregnancy, with length and weight at the 5-10th centiles. He walked and talked at about one year. At 9 yrs, his ht/wt ratio was 10th centile. Foot length as <3rd centile; soft masses were present on the anterior ankles. He was otherwise physically normal. His estimated I.Q. was 75 and he was severely hyperactive despite Ritalin. This is the first report of a familial duplication in 5q; no identical, isolated case is known. Although additional family members need evaluation, the presence of the dup(5q) in the non-retarded mother suggests that it may not be associated with the proband`s MR.

  12. Astigmatism among institutionalized and noninstitutionalized mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Courtney, G R

    1977-06-01

    Astigmatism was measured retinoscopically for 709 subjects residing in an institution for the mentally retarded and for 56 noninstitutionalized mentally retarded subjects at a community training center. About 60% of the subjects were between 15 and 45 years old. Compared to an intellectually normal sample of young men, astigmatism in the mentally retarded was greater in frequency and degree. For subjects with greater degrees of mental retardation, the prevalence of high astigmastism was significantly greater for whites than for nonwhites. There was no difference in astigmatism between institutionalized retardates and those living in a community setting, a finding that implies that the institutional environment was not the cause of the astigmatic differences between retarded and normal subjects.

  13. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  14. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  15. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  16. Fire retardancy using applied materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, R.

    1971-01-01

    An example of advanced technology transfer from the Little Joe, Surveyor, Comsat, re-entry and Apollo age to everyday fire protection needs is presented. Utilizing the principle of sublimation cooling for thermostatic temperature control, the material meets a wide range of fire retardancy and heat transmission control requirements. Properties vary from flexible tape for conduits and electrical cables to rigid coatings for column protection, with a broad spectrum of sublimation temperatures available. The material can be applied in the field or in the factory, utilizing mass production techniques, yielding a product that is reliable, effective, widely available and low in cost.

  17. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  18. Equivalence relations in individuals with language limitations and mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Jennifer; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2003-01-01

    The study of equivalence relations exhibited by individuals with mental retardation and language limitations holds the promise of providing information of both theoretical and practical significance. We reviewed the equivalence literature with this population, defined in terms of subjects having moderate, severe, or profound mental retardation. The literature includes 55 such individuals, most of whom showed positive outcomes on equivalence tests. The results to date suggest that naming skills are not necessary for positive equivalence test outcomes. Thus far, however, relatively few subjects with minimal language have been studied. Moreover, we suggest that the scientific contributions of studies in this area would be enhanced with better documentation of language skills and other subject characteristics. With recent advances in laboratory procedures for establishing the baseline performances necessary for equivalence tests, this research area is poised for rapid growth. PMID:13677612

  19. Expanding Concepts in Mental Retardation; Scientific Symposium of the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., Foundation (3rd, Boston, Massachusetts, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, George A., Ed.

    The genetics of mental retardation are discussed in terms of geographical isolates, prospects for prevention of trisomic conditions, population genetics, and cytogenetics of Down's syndrome; problems of neurogenesis described are anabolic pathways of galactose and glucose metabolism, abnormal cell migrations in developing brains, and genetic…

  20. Sibs with mental retardation, supraorbital sclerosis, and metaphyseal dysplasia: frontometaphyseal dysplasia, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, or a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, W; Hall, C M; Dillon, M J; Baraitser, M

    1991-01-01

    A brother and sister are presented with unusual facies, bilateral mixed hearing loss, mental retardation, and widespread radiological abnormalities. The clinical and radiological evidence for and against the two most likely diagnoses of frontometaphyseal dysplasia and craniometaphyseal dysplasia is considered. Images PMID:1956063

  1. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  2. Retarded Children of the Poor: A Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Majorie H.

    Written for welfare and social workers, the publication concerns families which have problems of retardation, usually mild or borderline, and which are heavily represented on welfare rolls. A brief discussion of retardation and family and child welfare services is followed by a list of suggested readings dealing with social and child welfare…

  3. Discrimination Learning in Profoundly Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suib, Michael R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A study investigating the discrimination abilities of two crib-bound, cerebral palsied, profoundly retarded females demonstrates the importance of individual differences among such children and suggests that discriminative responding may be demonstrated by at least some profoundly retarded children, particularly if distributed practice is employed…

  4. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  5. Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.; Butterfield, Earl, Ed.

    The handbook on residential institutions, for professionals and students in the field of mental retardation, attempts to interpret the institution as a part of the culture which it serves, avoiding emotional responses but suggesting formulas for change. Characteristics of contemporary institutions for the mentally retarded are examined and…

  6. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  7. Interaction between Family Violence and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics that make individuals with mental retardation more vulnerable to family violence are discussed in the areas of child, adult, and sexual abuse. Common psychological effects of this trauma are then explored followed by implications for practice. A case study of a female with mental retardation is presented. (Contains references.)…

  8. Computational Errors of Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janke, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Examined computational errors made by educable mentally retarded students on the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. Retarded students had a lower percent of grouping and inappropriate inversion errors and a higher percent of incorrect operation errors than regular students had in Engelhardt's study. (Author)

  9. Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane, Ed.; Filler, John, Ed.

    Fourteen papers examine current issues and practices in the education of students with severe mental retardation (SMR). Papers touch upon the broad context of education for SMR students, programs for the SMR population, and critical issues. The following papers are presented: "The Severely Mentally Retarded Individual: Philosophical and…

  10. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  11. Human Sexuality for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Darryl; And Others

    The Human Sexuality for the Mentally Retarded program sought to provide cognitive awareness of human sexuality for mentally retarded trainable residents (5 to 21 years old) as well as inservice staff training regarding attitudes and cognitive awareness changes. Cognitive awareness training focused on body parts, discrimination of the sexes,…

  12. Operant Conditioning of Mental Retardates' Visual Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Roy E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    To study improvement of visual monitoring of retardates, specialized training methods backed up by incentives were used. The extent to which these training techniques might be expected to produce results which would generalize was explored. Subjects were eight female mental retardates (ages 15-22) with IQs from 38 to 69. (Author/SJL)

  13. Mental Retardation: Update 2002. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourcade, Jack

    This digest provides an overview of mental retardation in children and adults. It begins by discussing the definition of mental retardation and the three components that are required for an accurate diagnosis: an IQ score of approximately 70 or below, a determination of deficits in adaptive behavior, and origins of the disability prior to age 18.…

  14. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  15. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  16. A Case of Pseudo-Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, D. H.

    Review of a case study of a 4-year-old girl who assumed the role of a retardate reveals that the girl probably suffered multiple congenital impairments of a minor character that affected the central nervous system and the structures governing social behavior and maturation. The stated basis for pseudo-retardation is the person's ability to…

  17. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  18. Social development of children with mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Indrabhushan; Singh, Amool R.; Akhtar, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social development of children with mental retardation has implications for prognosis. The present study evaluated whether the social maturity scale alone can reflect on the social maturity, intellectual level and consequent adjustment in family and society of children with mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five mentally retarded children were administered Vineland Social Maturity Scale and Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Results: It was found that there was significant relationship between the measures of social maturity scale and the IQ of the subjects. Further it was found that with increasing severity of retardation, social development also decreases and age does not have any effect on social development. Conclusion: Social quotient increases from profound to mild level of retardation. PMID:21234165

  19. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  20. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  1. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  2. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  3. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  4. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  5. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Characterization of a 5.8-Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 3p in a girl with 46,XX,inv(7)dn karyotype and phenotypic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Mademont-Soler, I; Armengol, L; Milà, M; Badenas, C; Andrés, S; Soler, A; Sánchez, A

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 3 are rare, and a specific clinical phenotype has not been defined. We report the first isolated cryptic proximal interstitial 3p deletion, del(3)(p12.3p13), assessed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization in a girl with an inversion of chromosome 7, whose phenotype includes neurodevelopmental delay, growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, hypophysis hypoplasia, gastroesophageal reflux, clinodactyly, preauricular appendix, and myopia. Her features are similar to those observed in the previously reported cases of proximal 3p deletions overlapping with our imbalance, indicating that her clinical manifestations are likely to be due to the deletion. As our patient's imbalance is the first non-cytogenetically visible proximal interstitial 3p deletion uncomplicated by other imbalances, its characterization has allowed us to narrow the minimal deletion interval associated with growth retardation and neurodevelopmental delay to the 3p12.3-p13 region. Among the genes found in this region, ROBO1, ROBO2, PDZRN3 and CNTN3 might play a role in the neurodevelopmental delay of the patient. This study provides additional evidence that cryptic imbalances anywhere along the genome can be found in patients with phenotypic abnormalities and a balanced chromosome rearrangement.

  9. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) lead to growth retardation, antioxidant depletion, and activation of the ERK signaling pathway but decrease copper bioavailability in the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kang, Hye-Min; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-03-01

    To examine the toxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the marine environment, we first exposed the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus) to MWCNTs in the presence of copper. The acute toxicity of copper decreased significantly with a decrease in copper bioavailability resulting from MWCNT exposure. Furthermore, we examined the effects of MWCNT exposure on reproductive capacity, population growth rate, growth patterns, antioxidant systems, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Reproductive capacity, population growth rate, and body growth rate were significantly suppressed in B. koreanus in response to 1.3-4mg/L MWCNT exposure. Furthermore, MWCNTs induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the antioxidant enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR). However, the enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) was up-regulated after a 24 h-exposure to 100mg/L MWCNTs. Exposure to 100mg/L MCWNTs induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in B. koreanus, suggesting that p-ERK may mediate the adverse effects of MWCNTs in B. koreanus via the MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide insight into the mechanistic basis of the ecotoxicological effects of MWCNTs in the marine environment.

  11. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  12. Biodegradation of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Parsons, John R

    2016-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase their toxicity. Consequently, the production and use of these chemicals has been restricted and alternative products have been developed. Many of these are brominated compounds and share some of the disadvantages of the chemicals they are meant to replace. Therefore, other, nonbrominated, flame retardants such as organophosphorus compounds are also being used in increasing quantities, despite the fact that knowledge of their biodegradation and environmental fate is often lacking.

  13. A polymeric flame retardant additive for rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.; Maiti, S.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis of a polyphosphonate by the interfacial polymerization of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichloro-phenyl phosphine oxide (DCPO) using cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was reported. The polyphosphonate was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, DSC and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The flame retardancy of the polymer was done by OI study. The polymer was used as a fire retardant additive to rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). The efficiency of the fire retardant property of this additive was determined by LOI measurements of the various rubber samples.

  14. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  15. Siblings of children with mental retardation living at home or in residential placement.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, L; Baker, B L; Blacher, J

    1998-03-01

    Severe retardation in a child surely has an effect on all family members. Studies of non-disabled siblings in these families have indicated both emotional risks and perceived benefits. Little is known about how out-of-home placement of the child with retardation affects the siblings. Adolescent siblings of children with retardation living at home (N = 25) or in residential placement (N = 20) were contrasted with siblings of children without retardation (N = 28), on measures obtained from their mothers and themselves. Despite their different situations, these siblings were highly similar on measures of psychological adjustment, self-esteem, and family environment. Sibling relationships, however, were less intense, with less warmth but also lower conflict, in families where the child lived out of the home. Most siblings of children with retardation reported positive personal growth experiences while also expressing realistic concerns about the future. Siblings of children with retardation had beliefs and attitudes about placement that were highly consistent with the child's current living situation. PMID:9670091

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced adrenal developmental abnormality of male offspring rats and its possible intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hegui; He, Zheng; Zhu, Chunyan; Liu, Lian; Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Fetal adrenal developmental status is the major determinant of fetal tissue maturation and offspring growth. We have previously proposed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) suppresses fetal adrenal corticosterone (CORT) synthesis. Here, we focused on PEE-induced adrenal developmental abnormalities of male offspring rats before and after birth, and aimed to explore its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE (4g/kg·d). In PEE fetus, increased serum CORT concentration and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration, with lower bodyweight and structural abnormalities as well as a decreased Ki67 expression (proliferative marker), were observed in the male fetal adrenal cortex. Adrenal glucocorticoid (GC)-metabolic activation system was enhanced while gene expression of IGF1 signaling pathway with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was decreased. Furthermore, in the male adult offspring of PEE, serum CORT level was decreased but IGF1 was increased with partial catch-up growth, and Ki67 expression demonstrated no obvious change. Adrenal GC-metabolic activation system was inhibited, while IGF1 signaling pathway and 3β-HSD was enhanced with the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), and StAR was down-regulated in the adult adrenal. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" mechanism for PEE-induced adrenal developmental toxicity: "the first programming" is a lower functional programming of adrenal steroidogenesis, and "the second programming" is GC-metabolic activation system-related GC-IGF1 axis programming.

  17. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  18. Trends in Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, James W.

    1977-01-01

    A review of national trends in deinstitutionalization of the mentally retarded indicated limited progress toward depopulation of institutions and showed that much of the national effort has been directed toward interinstitutional relocation. (Author/CL)

  19. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  20. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  1. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  2. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  3. Case Study--Weight Control and Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwetter, Charles D.

    1978-01-01

    Through positive reinforcement of good eating habits, it is possible to help mentally retarded children lose weight and remain within the normal limits consistent with their age and body structure. (JD)

  4. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  5. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  6. The consequences of chronic kidney disease on bone metabolism and growth in children

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetta, Justine; Harambat, Jérôme; Cochat, Pierre; Salusky, Isidro B.; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Growth retardation, decreased final height and renal osteodystrophy (ROD) are common complications of childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting from a combination of abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH) axis, vitamin D deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, hypogonadism, inadequate nutrition, cachexia and drug toxicity. The impact of CKD-associated bone and mineral disorders (CKD–MBD) may be immediate (serum phosphate/calcium disequilibrium) or delayed (poor growth, ROD, fractures, vascular calcifications, increased morbidity and mortality). In 2012, the clinical management of CKD–MBD in children needs to focus on three main objectives: (i) to provide an optimal growth in order to maximize the final height with an early management with recombinant GH therapy when required, (ii) to equilibrate calcium/phosphate metabolism so as to obtain acceptable bone quality and cardiovascular status and (iii) to correct all metabolic and clinical abnormalities that can worsen bone disease, growth and cardiovascular disease, i.e. metabolic acidosis, anaemia, malnutrition and 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the mineral, bone and vascular abnormalities associated with CKD in children in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management. PMID:22851629

  7. Influence of Retardants to Burning Lignocellulosic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureková, Ivana; Harangozó, Jozef; Martinka, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with monitoring retardant changes of lignocellulosic materials. Combustion of lignocellulosic materials and fire-technical characteristics are described. In assessing the retarding effect of salt NH4H2PO4, fire-technical characteristics as limiting oxygen index (LOI) were measured, and by using thermoanalytical TG and DSC methods. High-temperature process of cellulose degradation at various flame concentrations was studied.

  8. Defining mental retardation from an instructional perspective.

    PubMed

    Dever, R B

    1990-06-01

    A definition of mental retardation developed under the aegis of the instructional paradigm was presented. Its purpose and use is to (a) clarify the task of personnel who work with persons who have been identified as mentally retarded and (b) provide a concept that unifies apparently discrete instructional constructs. This definition can also help mold the perceptual patterns of young persons entering the field by establishing expectations that focus on the provision of instruction. PMID:2195289

  9. Musical aptitudes, musical interests and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1991-08-01

    A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.

  10. Trends in Classification Usage in the Mental Retardation Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.; Kaufmann, Steve

    1991-01-01

    A total of 685 articles in "Mental Retardation,""American Journal of Mental Deficiency," and "American Journal on Mental Retardation" from 1980 through 1989 were examined. The mental retardation classification system developed by the American Association on Mental Retardation was used in over 50 percent of the articles, whereas the American…

  11. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  12. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  13. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  14. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  15. Curriculum Guide: Educable Mentally Retarded, Senior High Program; Little Rock Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Special Education Section.

    Emphasizing social and economic growth of the educable retarded secondary student, provision is made for lesson and unit plans which give information on vocational and educational opportunities and which develop habits, attitudes and skills necessary for the individual to hold a job. The basic skills to be taught, books and materials useful in…

  16. Residential Programming for Mentally Retarded Persons. Volume II, A Developmental Model for Residential Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Children, Arlington, TX. South Central Regional Office.

    The second of a series of four booklets on residential programing for the mentally retarded (MR) presents a developmental model for residential services based on the premise that MR persons are capable of growth, development, and learning. Architectural factors, staff resistance and financial considerations are described as impediments to…

  17. Overexpression of the chimeric plasmin-resistant VEGF165/VEGF183 (132-158) protein in murine breast cancer induces distinct vascular patterning adjacent to tumors and retarded tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Yong; Fan, Bing-Lin; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Mu, Ling-Min; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zhu, Wu-Ling

    2015-02-01

    A chimeric plasmin‑resistant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165/VEGF183 (132-158) protein, named as VEGF183 (according to the nomenclature of VEGF), designed by a previous study, was demonstrated to have an enhanced affinity for the extracellular matrix (ECM) amongst other bioactivities. However, it is now accepted that mutant VEGFs frequently demonstrate different angiogenic activities and produce different vascular patterning from the parental molecule. The present study hypothesized that VEGF183, due to its enhanced binding affinity to the ECM, would exhibit a different angiogenic activity and produce a different vascular patterning compared to those of VEGF165. Murine breast cancer EMT‑6 cells were manipulated to stably overexpress VEGF165 or VEGF183. These cells were then inoculated intradermally into BALB/c mice in order to monitor the formation of vascular patterning in skin proximal to tumors. In vivo angiogenesis experiments revealed that overexpression of VEGF183 in murine breast cancer cells resulted in irregular, disorganized and dense vascular patterning as well as induced a significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with that of VEGF165. In addition, allograft tumor immunochemical assays of VEGF183‑overexpressing tumors demonstrated significantly lower vascular densities than those of VEGF165‑overexpressing tumors; however, VEGF183 tumors had a significantly enlarged vascular caliber. Conversely, cell wound healing experiments revealed that VEGF183‑overexpressing EMT‑6 cells had significantly decreased migration rates compared with those of VEGF165‑overexpressing EMT‑6 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study supported the hypothesis that the altered ECM affinity of VEGF induced structural alterations to vasculature. In addition, these results provided a novel insight into VEGF design and indirect evidence for the function of exon 8 in VEGF. [Corrected] PMID:25373557

  18. De novo partial duplication 7(q11.2{r_arrow}q21.2) in a dysmorphic, developmentally retarded boy

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Pinsky, L.; Teebi, A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities involving chromosome 7q are rare; we report a case of partial duplication 7q. The propositus was born at 34 weeks by cesarian section, decided because of oligohydramnios, severe intrauterine growth retardation and fetal immobility. At birth, the baby was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference and had dysmorphic features, including slight asymmetry of the face, bilateral epicanthus, hypoplastic nasal bridge, short globular nose, asymmetrical dysplastic ears, fifth finger clinodactyly, short second and fifth toe. Ultrasound examination showed atrial and ventricular septal defects. At 18 months, the child had a fracture of the femur, secondary to a minor trauma; skeletal X-rays showed generalized osteoporosis and normal healing. The karyotype with GTG-banding showed a de novo partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 7 (46,XX,dup(7)(q11.23{r_arrow}q21.2)). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a painting probe specific for chromosome 7 confirmed the intra-chromosomal rearrangement. The patient`s phenotype and his chromosomal abnormality do not match the previously reported cases of partial trisomy 7q. This case confirms the importance of FISH for the delineation of the chromosomal inbalance in structural chromosomal aberrations.

  19. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  20. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  1. A novel syndrome of abnormal striatum and congenital cataract: evidence for linkage to chromosomes 11.

    PubMed

    Al-Owain, M; Al-Zahrani, J; Al-Bakheet, A; Abudheim, N; Al-Younes, B; Aldhalaan, H; Al-Zaidan, H; Colak, D; Almohaileb, F; Abouzied, M E; Al-Fadhli, F; Meyer, B; Kaya, N

    2013-09-01

    We report a consanguineous family of three girls and one boy affected with a novel syndrome involving the lens and the basal ganglia. The phenotype is strikingly similar between affected siblings with cognitive impairment, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), microcephaly, growth retardation, congenital cataract, and dystonia. The magnetic resonance imaging showed unusual pattern of swelling of the caudate heads and thinning of the putamina with severe degree of hypometabolism on the [18F] deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Furthermore, the clinical assessment provides the evidence that the neurological phenotype is very slowly progressive. We utilized the 10K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray genotyping for linkage analysis. Genome-wide scan indicated a 45.9-Mb region with a 4.2353 logarithm of the odds score on chromosome 11. Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 assay did not show any gross chromosomal abnormality. Targeted sequencing of two candidate genes within the linkage interval (PAX6 and B3GALTL) as well as mtDNA genome sequencing did not reveal any putative mutations.

  2. Thiazolidinediones inhibit MDCK cyst growth through disrupting oriented cell division and apicobasal polarity

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhiguo; Streets, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones have been reported to retard cystic disease in rodent models by uncertain mechanisms. We hypothesized that their major effect in retarding cystogenesis was through inhibiting cell proliferation or stimulating apoptosis. In the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell (MDCK) model, rosiglitazone inhibited cyst growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner and this was accompanied by a reduction in basal proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we also observed a striking abnormality in lumen formation resulting in a characteristic multiple lumen or loss of lumen phenotype in treated cells at doses which did not inhibit cell proliferation. These changes were preceded by mislocalization of gp135 and Cdc42, misorientation of the mitotic spindle, and retardation in centrosome reorientation with later changes in primary cilia length and mislocalization of E-cadherin. Cdc42 activation was unaffected by rosiglitazone in monolayer culture but was profoundly inhibited in three-dimensional culture. MDCK cells stably expressing mutant Cdc42 showed a similar mislocalization of gp135 expression and multilumen phenotype in the absence of rosiglitazone. We conclude that rosiglitazone influences MDCK cyst growth by multiple mechanisms involving dosage-dependent effects on proliferation, spindle orientation, centrosome migration, and lumen formation. Correct spatial Cdc42 activation is critical for lumen formation, but the effect of rosiglitazone is likely to involve both Cdc42 and non-Cdc42 pathways. PMID:21429973

  3. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Retarded and Non-Retarded Children at Two Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.; Connor, Catherine

    Cooperative and competitive interaction (interpersonal relationship) between pairs of retarded and nonretarded children of ages 6 to 7 and 11 to 12 were assessed in a situation involving a marble pull apparatus in which competitive interaction was nonadaptive in terms of reward attainment. The retarded group was significantly more cooperative than…

  4. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  5. Birth outcomes of cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities and pregnancy complications in their mothers depending on the number of component defects. Population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E; Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA) represent the most severe category of structural birth defects, (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CA]). Unfortunately, most MCA are not recognized and/or identified as MCA syndromes or MCA associations in the clinical practice. The term unclassified MCA (UMCA) is used for this category of MCA. We decided to evaluate the component CA of UMCA cases. The population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (1980-1996) was evaluated. 'False' MCA, such as complex CA, polytopic field defects and sequences were excluded from the category of MCA. In addition, MCA syndromes caused by chromosomal aberrations and major mutant genes with preconceptional origin were excluded from the dataset of the Surveillance. MCA syndromes caused by teratogens and MCA associations with well-defined component CA were also excluded in the study. Thus, only UMCA cases (i) without the recognition of previously delineated MCA syndromes (ii) and/or without the identification of new MCA syndromes or (iii) caused by random combination of CA were included in the study. We compared data from 1349 cases with UMCA, 2405 matched population controls without any CA, and 21 494 malformed controls with isolated CA. There was a higher rate of stillbirth and a moderate male excess in UMCA cases, a somewhat shorter gestational age at delivery and an obvious reduction in birthweight. The intrauterine fetal growth retardation and rate of low-birthweight newborns showed an association with the number of component CA in UMCA cases. A similar association was not found with gestational age and the rate of preterm birth. UMCA represent one of the most severe categories of CA. The degree of intrauterine fetal growth retardation depends on number of component CA in UMCA cases.

  6. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  7. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  8. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  9. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  11. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  12. Reaching the Retarded Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Bernice B.; Shultz, Joyce B.

    Included in the manual on art are suggestions concerning growth through a good classroom climate, orderly arrangements, displays, and a good visual experience; a view of development through art, concept differentiation, motor and sensory skills, self fulfillment and thought processes, and art as therapy; and the art program itself. The program…

  13. Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P

    1995-09-01

    Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis.

  14. A 4q35.2 subtelomeric deletion identified in a screen of patients with co-morbid psychiatric illness and mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Ben S; Hollox, Edward J; Malloy, M Pat; Porteous, David J; Blackwood, Douglas HR; Armour, John AL; Muir, Walter J

    2004-01-01

    Background Cryptic structural abnormalities within the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes have been the focus of much recent research because of their discovery in a percentage of people with mental retardation (UK terminology: learning disability). These studies focused on subjects (largely children) with various severities of intellectual impairment with or without additional physical clinical features such as dysmorphisms. However it is well established that prevalence of schizophrenia is around three times greater in those with mild mental retardation. The rates of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder have also been reported as increased in people with mental retardation. We describe here a screen for telomeric abnormalities in a cohort of 69 patients in which mental retardation co-exists with severe psychiatric illness. Methods We have applied two techniques, subtelomeric fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to detect abnormalities in the patient group. Results A subtelomeric deletion was discovered involving loss of 4q in a patient with co-morbid schizoaffective disorder and mental retardation. Conclusion The precise region of loss has been defined allowing us to identify genes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype through hemizygosity. Interestingly, the region of 4q loss exactly matches that linked to bipolar affective disorder in a large multiply affected Australian kindred. PMID:15310400

  15. Blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 attenuates early-life stress-induced synaptic abnormalities in the neonatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Dun; Jia, Jiao; Li, Ji-Tao; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yun-Ai; Schmidt, Mathias V; Si, Tian-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Adult individuals with early stressful experience exhibit impaired hippocampal neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. While our knowledge on the persistent effects of early-life stress on hippocampal structure and function and the underlying mechanisms has advanced over the recent years, the molecular basis of the immediate postnatal stress effects on hippocampal development remains to be investigated. Here, we reported that repeated blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) ameliorated postnatal stress-induced hippocampal synaptic abnormalities in neonatal mice. Following the stress exposure, pups with fragmented maternal care showed retarded dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in CA3 pyramidal neurons and reduced hippocampal levels of synapse-related proteins. During the stress exposure, repeated blockade of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by daily administration of RU486 (100 µg g(-1) ) failed to attenuate postnatal stress-evoked synaptic impairments. Conversely, daily administration of the CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin hydrochloride (20 µg g(-1) ) in stressed pups normalized hippocampal protein levels of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95, nectin-1, and nectin-3, but not the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A. Additionally, GR or CRHR1 antagonism attenuated postnatal stress-induced endocrine alterations but not body growth retardation. Our data indicate that the CRH-CRHR1 system modulates the deleterious effects of early-life stress on dendritic development, spinogenesis, and synapse formation, and that early interventions of this system may prevent stress-induced hippocampal maldevelopment.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF LEARNING EFFICIENCY IN ARITHMETIC OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN COMPARISON WITH CHILDREN OF AVERAGE AND HIGH INTELLIGENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUSMEIER, HERBERT J.; AND OTHERS

    A COMPARISON OF THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY IN ARITHMETIC OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AND CHILDREN OF AVERAGE AND HIGH INTELLIGENCE WAS MADE. THIS STUDY TESTED FIVE HYPOTHESES--(1) UNEVEN PHYSICAL GROWTH ACCOMPANIES LOW EFFICIENCY IN LEARNING ARITHMETIC, (2) SLOW PHYSICAL GROWTH ACCOMPANIES LOW EFFICIENCY IN LEARNING ARITHMETIC, (3) THE LEVEL OF…

  17. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  18. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  19. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  20. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  1. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  2. Arch fingerprints, hypotonia, and areflexia associated with X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R E; Häne, B; Arena, J F; May, M; Lawrence, L; Lubs, H A; Schwartz, C E

    1997-06-01

    A syndrome with distinctive facies, poor muscle tone, absent deep tendon reflexes, tapered fingers, excessive fingerprint arches, genu valgum and mild-moderate mental retardation has occurred in four males in two generations of a white family of European ancestry. The facies are characterised by square configuration, tented upper lip, and thickening of the helices, upper eyelids, and alae nasi. At birth and at maturity, growth (head circumference, height, weight) of affected males is comparable to or greater than unaffected male sibs. Moderate impairment of cognitive function was documented (IQ scores between 40-51). Carriers show no heterozygote manifestations. This X linked condition appears to be different from other syndromes with mental retardation, although there are certain similarities with the alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Linkage analysis found tight linkage to DXS1166 and DXS995 in Xq13 and Xq21 respectively.

  3. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP. PMID:24742305

  4. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP.

  5. Employee satisfactions in agencies serving retarded persons.

    PubMed

    Sarata, B P

    1975-01-01

    The work satisfactions of individuals employed by three agencies serving retarded persons were examined. The results contradicted the view held by most administrators that the individual's level of overall satisfaction is determined principally by his attitudes concerning employment in the field of mental retardation. Rather, the data suggest that satisfaction with the specific agency is the chief determinant of overall satisfaction. Extensive contact with clients and the perceived lack of client progress were found to be important sources of staff dissatisfaction. Finally, client-related dissatisfactions were often attributed to agency or staff deficiences. Implications for altering administrative practices were discussed. PMID:1115102

  6. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  7. A live infant with trisomy 14 mosaicism and nuclear abnormalities of the neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dallapiccola, B; Ferranti, G; Giannotti, A; Novelli, G; Pasquini, L; Porfirio, B

    1984-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 14 is described in a patient with severe developmental retardation and congenital malformations. Together with a few previous reports, this case suggests the existence of a syndrome associated with this chromosome imbalance. Hitherto unrecognised manifestations of trisomy 14 mosaicism were, in our patient, abnormalities of the neutrophil nuclei, which consisted of multiple pedunculated or sessile projections, similar to those characteristically associated with trisomy 13 syndrome. Images PMID:6512839

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  9. Refractory ulcerative lupus vulgaris associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia, inversion of chromosome 14, primary amenorrhoea and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ozarmagan, G; Ozgüroglu, E Z; Maden, M U; Oztürk, S

    1997-07-01

    A case of ulcerative lupus vulgaris, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is reported. The initial lesion of our case was a papule on the nose, which progressed during antituberculous treatment and caused cartilage destruction and ectropion. Immunological analysis revealed CD4 lymphocytopenia, and the possibility of idiopathic CD4 lymphocyte deficiency was considered. In addition, the patient had primary amenorrhoea, mental retardation and inversion of chromosome 14. CD4 lymphocytopenia and chromosomal abnormality are the possible causes of antituberculous treatment failure.

  10. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  11. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  12. Alpha Biofeedback Conditioning and Retarded Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Walter; And Others

    1981-01-01

    An experimental group of three institutionalized severely retarded adult males received binary tone feedback for alpha production while a control group (3) followed identical procedures without feedback. Analysis revealed significant difference between groups in alpha percentage increase over baseline, encouraging research on applications for…

  13. Halfway Houses for the Mildly Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gia, Gilbert P.

    Investigated were number and location of community residences or halfway houses (of fewer than 61 persons) for the mildly retarded and their programing practices. Form letters and questionnaires uncovered 68 programs meeting internal delimitations of the study. Programs were categorized for analysis purposes into California Programs, New Programs…

  14. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  15. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  16. Perception of Contingency and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVellis, Robert F.; McCauley, Charley

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that the general learning difficulties exhibited by mentally retarded persons are similar in many respects to the learning difficulties of nonretarded persons who are in a state of learned helplessness (M. Seligman, 1975) or who are external in locus of control orientation. (Author)

  17. Vocational Horticulture for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, William H.; And Others

    The study explored methods and techniques for training mentally retarded adults to perform gardening tasks. A total of 31 subjects ages 21 to 48 (IQ range 32-89) participated in the study, which consisted of three phases. In an initial pilot study, experimentation without subjects resulted in the development of modified tools (e.g., notched…

  18. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  19. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body…

  20. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  1. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  2. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TRAINABLE RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster County Superintendent of Schools Office, Ft. Dodge, IA.

    ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION, ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES, AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES ARE DISCUSSED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN ARE DESCRIBED, AND DAILY SCHEDULES FOR YOUNGER AND OLDER GROUPS ARE LISTED. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS ARE PRESENTED FOR SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT (INCLUDING SELF-CARE), ECONOMIC USEFULNESS, ACADEMIC…

  3. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  4. READINESS AND READING FOR THE RETARDED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNSTEIN, BEBE

    THIS TEACHER'S BOOK AND MANUAL, DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY TWO WORKBOOKS, PRESENTS A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO READINESS AND READING FOR YOUNG EDUCABLE RETARDED CHILDREN. THE WORKBOOKS THEMSELVES OFFER PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN AT THE READINESS LEVEL AND SEQUENTIAL ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS FOR THOSE AT THE BEGINNING READING STAGE. THE TEACHER'S…

  5. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  6. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  7. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  8. Operant conditioning of mental retardates' visual monitoring.

    PubMed

    Perryman, R E; Halcomb, C R; Landers, W F

    1981-10-01

    To study improvement of visual monitoring of retardates, specialized training methods backed up by incentives were used. The extent to which these training techniques might be expected to produce results which would generalize to those situations in which the retardate was required to monitor without the increased signal rate and knowledge of results was explored. Subjects were 8 female mental retardates with IQs from 38 to 69. Detection of an aperiodic pattern change during pre-training was compared with final performance after 4 training sessions. During training, the task difficulty was increased until during the final training session it approximated the test conditions. Immediate knowledge of results was given for correct detections and false positive responses. Tokens were given to the subjects, based on the scores at the end of the session. After the final session these tokens were exchanged for prizes. As predicted, training under these conditions significantly enhanced the retardates' performance and transferred to the condition with no knowledge of results.

  9. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  10. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  11. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  12. Abnormal treating pressures in MHF (massive hydraulic fracturing) treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Fitch, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Abnormal treating pressures are observed during massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatments in the Mesa Verde Formation of the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Data from 3 widely separated wells and in several zones per well all show a pressure increase during MHF treatments, called pressure growth. This pressure growth is at least semi-permanent. The elevated instantaneous shut-in pressures do not return to initial values over periods of several days. The magnitude of this pressure growth is highly variable. One possible cause of pressure growth is fracture branching. Pressure growth seems to be dependent on both pumping rate and fluid viscosity. 16 references.

  13. Complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with peripheral neuropathy, optic atrophy and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miyama, S; Arimoto, K; Kimiya, S; Tomi, H

    2000-08-01

    An 8-year old girl with a not previously described type of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is presented. Spasticity in her lower limbs had already been recognized during infancy and worsened progressively. Severe delay in mental development was observed. Peripheral neuropathy and optic atrophy developed at 5 years of age. On brain magnetic resonance imaging, an abnormally thin corpus callosum was observed. Involvement of the fasciculus gracilis was suggested by somatosensory evoked potentials. To our knowledge, there has been no reported case of complicated HSP with peripheral neuropathy, optic atrophy and mental retardation so far. We postulate that our patient is a sporadic case of not previously described complicated HSP. PMID:11071149

  14. Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

  15. Guidelines for Library Services for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to assist all libraries, including school, public, academic, and specialized libraries such as prison and institutional libraries, to better serve the needs of people of all ages who are mentally retarded. An overview provides a definition of mental retardation, places services for people with mental retardation in…

  16. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for retarders. 201.14 Section... Operations Standards § 201.14 Standard for retarders. Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB...

  17. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  18. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  19. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)