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Sample records for abnormalities urogenital sinus

  1. Female covered urethral duplication with urogenital sinus.

    PubMed

    Philippe-Chomette, Pascale; Zeidan, Smart; Belarbi, Nadia; Van Der Meer, Gretha; Oury, Jean-Francois; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa

    2012-02-01

    We report a covered urethral duplication in a girl presenting prenatally with an enlarged fluid-filled vulvar cyst, genital duplication, and urogenital sinus revealed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serial ultrasounds. Physical examination revealed an enlarged vulvar mass covering the clitoris, a single orifice, and normally sited anus. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was ruled out at birth. MRI in addition showed an accessory duct between the sinus and the urine-filled vulvar pouch with a bifid clitoris. A total urogenital sinus mobilization with resection of the accessory urethra and vulvoplasty was performed with uneventful follow-up. PMID:21601245

  2. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  3. The Surgical Correction of Urogenital Sinus in Patients with DSD: 15 Years after Description of Total Urogenital Mobilization in Children.

    PubMed

    Ludwikowski, Barbara M; González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Total urogenital sinus mobilization has been applied to the surgical correction of virilized females and has mostly replaced older techniques. Concerns have been raised about the effect of this operation on urinary continence. Here we review the literature on this topic since the description of the technique 15 years ago. Technical aspects and correct nomenclature are discussed. We emphasize that the term "total" refers to an en-bloc dissection and not to the extent of the proximal dissection. No cases of urinary incontinence have been reported following this operation. It is yet too early to evaluate results regarding sexual function but it is likely that the use of a posterior skin flap to augment the introitus will minimize the development of introital stenosis. PMID:24400287

  4. Continent cutaneous diversion and external genitalia reconstruction in a child with severe variety urogenital sinus and ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Sajni I

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of a child with ambiguous genitalia and severe variety of urogenital sinus with a high vesico-vaginal confluence is challenging. This 4-year-old female child had solitary right kidney with ectopic ureter opening in high variety of urogenital sinus with hypo-plastic urinary bladder and incontinence. We describe genitourinary reconstruction with complete functional rehabilitation in this child. This complex problem was managed with continent urinary diversion with Penn pouch and refashioning of external genitalia, rendering continence and near normal female external genitalia. The child and parents are happy with continence and aesthetically normal external genitalia. PMID:25829673

  5. Sex specific retinoic acid signaling is required for the initiation of urogenital sinus bud development.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Sarah L; Francis, Jeffrey C; Lokody, Isabel B; Wang, Hong; Risbridger, Gail P; Loveland, Kate L; Swain, Amanda

    2014-11-15

    The mammalian urogenital sinus (UGS) develops in a sex specific manner, giving rise to the prostate in the male and the sinus vagina in the embryonic female. Androgens, produced by the embryonic testis, have been shown to be crucial to this process. In this study we show that retinoic acid signaling is required for the initial stages of bud development from the male UGS. Enzymes involved in retinoic acid synthesis are expressed in the UGS mesenchyme in a sex specific manner and addition of ligand to female tissue is able to induce prostate-like bud formation in the absence of androgens, albeit at reduced potency. Functional studies in mouse organ cultures that faithfully reproduce the initiation of prostate development indicate that one of the roles of retinoic acid signaling in the male is to inhibit the expression of Inhba, which encodes the βA subunit of Activin, in the UGS mesenchyme. Through in vivo genetic analysis and culture studies we show that inhibition of Activin signaling in the female UGS leads to a similar phenotype to that of retinoic acid treatment, namely bud formation in the absence of androgens. Our data also reveals that both androgens and retinoic acid have extra independent roles to that of repressing Activin signaling in the development of the prostate during fetal stages. This study identifies a novel role for retinoic acid as a mesenchymal factor that acts together with androgens to determine the position and initiation of bud development in the male UGS epithelia. PMID:25261715

  6. Fetal ascites and hydrometrocolpos due to persistent urogenital sinus and cloaca: a rare congenital anomaly and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Aruna; Kumar, Manisha; Gulati, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Fetal ascites can occur due to many heterogeneous disorders. Its association with hydrometrocolpos because of persistent urogenital sinus and cloaca is extremely rare. A 29-year-old primigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with ultrasonographic evidence of fetal ascites, a cystic pelvic mass, hydronephrosis and oligohydramnios. Fetal ascites in this case was due to fetal urine draining through fallopian tubes into the abdomen as a result of vesicovaginal fistula and distal vaginal atresia. The antenatal ultrasound results along with autopsy findings are discussed. Though rare, a persistent urogenital sinus is to be suspected in isolated fetal ascites cases where the viral tests are negative and there is no evidence of cardiac anomalies as this is a treatable anomaly if diagnosed at early gestational age. PMID:24554677

  7. Fetal ascites and hydrometrocolpos due to persistent urogenital sinus and cloaca: a rare congenital anomaly and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Aruna; Kumar, Manisha; Gulati, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Fetal ascites can occur due to many heterogeneous disorders. Its association with hydrometrocolpos because of persistent urogenital sinus and cloaca is extremely rare. A 29-year-old primigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with ultrasonographic evidence of fetal ascites, a cystic pelvic mass, hydronephrosis and oligohydramnios. Fetal ascites in this case was due to fetal urine draining through fallopian tubes into the abdomen as a result of vesicovaginal fistula and distal vaginal atresia. The antenatal ultrasound results along with autopsy findings are discussed. Though rare, a persistent urogenital sinus is to be suspected in isolated fetal ascites cases where the viral tests are negative and there is no evidence of cardiac anomalies as this is a treatable anomaly if diagnosed at early gestational age. PMID:24554677

  8. Unusual association between cardiac, skeletal, urogenital and renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Goryaeva, Maria; Sykes, Mark Christopher; Lau, Benjamin; West, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a 33-year-old woman with an array of congenital abnormalities. She has been diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease (PCKD) with no detectable mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, spina bifida occulta, thoracic skeletal abnormalities, a uterus didelphys and a patent foramen ovale (PFO). There are several associations reported in the literature that include abnormalities similar to the patient's, but none describe her presentation in its entirety. The MURCS association is characterised by (MU)llerian duct aplasia, (R)enal dysplasia and (C)ervical (S)omite anomalies and goes some way in explaining these condition. Patients with both MURCS and PCKD have not been described in current literature. Through this report, we hope to bring a potential diagnosis to light and provide the patient with an improved understanding of her health. PMID:27402585

  9. TCDD Inhibition of Canonical Wnt Signaling Disrupts Prostatic Bud Formation in Mouse Urogenital Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    In mice, in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) reduces the number of dorsolateral prostatic buds resulting in a smaller dorsolateral prostate and prevents formation of ventral buds culminating in ventral prostate agenesis. The genes and signaling pathways affected by TCDD that are responsible for disrupting prostate development are largely unknown. Here we show that treatment of urogenital sinus (UGS) organ cultures with known inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits prostatic bud formation. In support of the hypothesis that TCDD decreases canonical Wnt signaling, we identify inhibitory effects of TCDD on multiple components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the UGS that temporally coincide with the inhibitory effect of TCDD on prostatic bud formation: (1) expression of R-spondins (Rspo2 and Rspo3) that promote canonical Wnt signaling is reduced; (2) expression of Lef1, Tcf1, and Wif1, established canonical Wnt target genes, is decreased; (3) expression of Lgr5, a RSPO receptor that activates canonical Wnt signaling, is reduced; and (4) expression of Dickkopfs (Dkks), inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling, is not increased by TCDD. Thus, the TCDD-induced reduction in canonical Wnt signaling is associated with a decrease in activators (Rspo2 and Rspo3) rather than an increase in inhibitors (Dkk1 and Dkk2) of the pathway. This study focuses on determining whether treatment of TCDD-exposed UGS organ cultures with RSPO2 and/or RSPO3 is capable of rescuing the inhibitory effects of TCDD on canonical Wnt signaling and prostatic bud formation. We discovered that each RSPO alone or in combination partially rescues TCDD inhibition of both canonical Wnt signaling and prostatic bud formation. PMID:23429912

  10. Congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract: the clue is in the cord?

    PubMed

    Daoub, Ahmed; Drake, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the female urogenital tract are not uncommon, with an estimated incidence of 2-4% across the female population. Within this population, up to 40% will have associated renal tract abnormalities. A previously well 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting and a palpable pelvic mass. Ultrasound and MR scans were performed. The imaging revealed a didelphys uterus, an obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis, characteristic of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. The patient was noted at birth to have a single umbilical artery, which is associated with an increased risk of congenital abnormalities and useful information for the early identification of abnormalities that have implications for renal function and future fertility. PMID:25465462

  11. FOXA1 and SOX9 Expression in the Developing Urogenital Sinus of the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Gamat, Melissa; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian prostate is a compact structure in humans but multi-lobed in mice. In humans and mice, FOXA1 and SOX9 play pivotal roles in prostate morphogenesis, but few other species have been examined. We examined FOXA1 and SOX9 in the marsupial tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which has a segmented prostate more similar to human than to mouse. In males, prostatic budding in the urogenital epithelium (UGE) was initiated by day 24 postpartum (pp), but in the female the UGE remained smooth and had begun forming the marsupial vaginal structures. FOXA1 was upregulated in the male urogenital sinus (UGS) by day 51 pp, whilst in the female UGS FOXA1 remained basal. FOXA1 was localised in the UGE in both sexes between day 20 and 80 pp. SOX9 was upregulated in the male UGS at day 21-30 pp and remained high until day 51-60 pp. SOX9 protein was localised in the distal tips of prostatic buds which were highly proliferative. The persistent upregulation of the transcription factors SOX9 and FOXA1 after the initial peak and fall of androgen levels suggest that in the tammar, as in other mammals, these factors are required to sustain prostate differentiation, development and proliferation as androgen levels return to basal levels. PMID:26406875

  12. Beta-catenin (CTNNB1) induces Bmp expression in urogenital sinus epithelium and participates in prostatic bud initiation and patterning

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vatsal; Schmitz, Christopher T.; Keil, Kimberly P.; Joshi, Pinak S.; Abler, Lisa L.; Lin, Tien-Min; Taketo, Makoto M.; Sun, Xin; Vezina, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal prostate development is initiated by androgens and patterned by androgen dependent and independent signals. How these signals integrate to control epithelial cell differentiation and prostatic bud patterning is not fully understood. To test the role of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1) in this process, we used a genetic approach to conditionally delete or stabilize Ctnnb1 in urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium from which the prostate derives. Two opposing mechanisms of action were revealed. By deleting Ctnnb1, we found it is required for separation of UGS from cloaca, emergence or maintenance of differentiated UGS basal epithelium and formation of prostatic buds. By genetically inducing a patchy subset of UGS epithelial cells to express excess CTNNB1, we found its excess abundance increases Bmp expression and leads to a global impairment of prostatic bud formation. Addition of NOGGIN partially restores prostatic budding in UGS explants with excess Ctnnb1. These results indicate a requirement for Ctnnb1 in UGS basal epithelial cell differentiation, prostatic bud initiation and bud spacing and suggest some of these actions are mediated in part through activation of BMP signaling. PMID:23396188

  13. Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through: A new approach for congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients with high urogenital sinus

    PubMed Central

    Birraux, Jacques; Mouafo, Faustin Tambo; Dahoun, Sophie; Tardy, Veronique; Morel, Yves; Mouriquand, Pierre; Le Coultre, Claude; Mure, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background: To open vaginal cavity to the pelvic floor is part of surgical treatment for urogenital sinus (UGS) in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). For high UGS, this operative procedure can be challenging and may jeopardise urinary continence. Combined perineal and laparoscopic approaches could be useful to minimise perineal dissection and to facilitate the vaginal lowering. Patients and Methods: We report the procedure of a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through for supra-sphincteric UGS in a 5-year-old girl with CAH. Laparoscopic dissection of the vagina from the posterior wall of the bladder and urethra, division of the confluence and vaginal pull-through to the perineum are described. Discussion: The technique is derived from laparoscopic-assisted treatment for high ano-rectal malformations. Compared with current procedures for treatment for high UGS, laparoscopic-assisted approach allows mobilising vagina with minimal dissection of perineum and complete preservation of urethra. Another major advantage is to provide a direct vision for dissection of the space between rectum and urethra prior to vaginal pull-through. Conclusion: Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through appears to be an interesting approach for high UGS in CAH patients, reducing dissection and risk of urinary incontinence. This new approach needs to be strengthened by other cases. PMID:26612122

  14. Human Prostate Side Population Cells Demonstrate Stem Cell Properties in Recombination with Urogenital Sinus Mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Barbara A.; Gangavarapu, Kalyan J.; Mathew, Grinu; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Morrison, Carl D.; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell enrichment provides a tool to examine prostate stem cells obtained from benign and malignant tissue. Functional assays can enrich stem cells based on common stem cell phenotypes, such as high ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated efflux of Hoechst substrates (side population assay). This functional assay is based upon mechanisms that protect cells from environmental insult thus contributing to the survival and protection of the stem cell population. We have isolated and analyzed cells digested from twelve clinical prostate specimens based on the side population assay. Prostate stem cell properties of the isolated cells were tested by serial recombination with rat urogenital mesenchyme. Recombinants with side population cells demonstrate an increase in the frequency of human ductal growth and the number of glands per recombinant when compared to recombinants with non-side population cells. Isolated cells were capable of prostatic growth for up to three generations in the recombination assay with as little as 125 sorted prostate cells. The ability to reproducibly use cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting from human prostate tissue is an essential step to a better understanding of human prostate stem cell biology. ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2) was expressed in recombinants from side population cells indicating the side population cells have self-renewal properties. Epithelial cell differentiation of recombinants was determined by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of the basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine markers, p63, androgen receptor, prostate specific antigen, and chromogranin A, respectively. Thus, the ABCG2 expressing side population demonstrates multipotency and self-renewal properties indicating stem cells are within this population. PMID:23383057

  15. Human prostate side population cells demonstrate stem cell properties in recombination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Foster, Barbara A; Gangavarapu, Kalyan J; Mathew, Grinu; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Morrison, Carl D; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell enrichment provides a tool to examine prostate stem cells obtained from benign and malignant tissue. Functional assays can enrich stem cells based on common stem cell phenotypes, such as high ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated efflux of Hoechst substrates (side population assay). This functional assay is based upon mechanisms that protect cells from environmental insult thus contributing to the survival and protection of the stem cell population. We have isolated and analyzed cells digested from twelve clinical prostate specimens based on the side population assay. Prostate stem cell properties of the isolated cells were tested by serial recombination with rat urogenital mesenchyme. Recombinants with side population cells demonstrate an increase in the frequency of human ductal growth and the number of glands per recombinant when compared to recombinants with non-side population cells. Isolated cells were capable of prostatic growth for up to three generations in the recombination assay with as little as 125 sorted prostate cells. The ability to reproducibly use cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting from human prostate tissue is an essential step to a better understanding of human prostate stem cell biology. ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2) was expressed in recombinants from side population cells indicating the side population cells have self-renewal properties. Epithelial cell differentiation of recombinants was determined by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of the basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine markers, p63, androgen receptor, prostate specific antigen, and chromogranin A, respectively. Thus, the ABCG2 expressing side population demonstrates multipotency and self-renewal properties indicating stem cells are within this population. PMID:23383057

  16. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... my acute sinusitis is caused by viruses or bacteria? Acute viral sinusitis is likely if you have ... to tell if my sinusitis is caused by bacteria? Because sinusitis is treated differently based on cause. ...

  17. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can get from viral sinusitis or allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nose and sinuses due to ... doctor just in case. Viral sinusitis and allergic rhinitis are more common, but bacterial sinusitis often needs ...

  18. Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxillofacial region allow the inspection of the entire volume of the maxillary sinus (MS), identifying anatomic variations and abnormalities in the image volume, this is frequently neglected by oral radiologists when interpreting images of areas at a distance from the dentoalveolar region, such as the full anatomical aspect of the MS. The aim of this study was to investigate maxillary sinus abnormalities in asymptomatic patients by using CBCT. Methods 1113 CBCT were evaluated by two examiners and identification of abnormalities, the presence of periapical lesions and proximity to the lower sinus wall were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. Results Abnormalities were diagnosed in 68.2% of cases (kappa = 0.83). There was a significant difference between genders (p < 0.001) and there was no difference in age groups. Mucosal thickening was the most prevalent abnormality (66%), followed by retention cysts (10.1%) and opacification (7.8%). No association was observed between the proximity of periapical lesions and the presence and type of inflammatory abnormalities (p = 0.124). Conclusions Abnormalities in maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentomaxillofacial radiologist to undertake an interpretation of the whole volume of CBCT images. PMID:22883529

  19. Recurrence of split hand/foot malformation, cleft lip/palate, and severe urogenital abnormalities due to germline mosaicism for TP63 mutation.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Annabelle; Krivanek, Michael; Flöttmann, Ricarda; Peters, Hartmut; Wilson, Meredith

    2016-09-01

    We describe two sibling fetuses with urogenital abnormalities detected by prenatal ultrasound, in which post-delivery examination showed split hand and foot malformation, and bilateral cleft lip and palate. These findings are consistent with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip with or without cleft palate syndrome (EEC). Both fetuses were found to have the same missense mutation in TP63 (c.1051G > A; p.D351N). Parental clinical examinations and lymphocyte DNA analyses were normal. This report illustrates the potential severity of urogenital defects in TP63-related disorders, which may be detectable with fetal ultrasonography. It highlights the need to counsel for the possibility of germline mosaicism in TP63-associated disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27351625

  20. Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

  1. Abnormal veins around the heart with the closure of the coronary sinus ostium.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Ryoji; Zhou, Ming; Abe, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    In a cadaveric dissection course at Akita University Graduate School of Medicine in 2014, we observed abnormal veins in a 72-year-old male who died of prostate cancer. The abnormality consisted of the following: closure of the opening of the coronary sinus (closure of the coronary sinus ostium), a persistent left superior vena cava (Lsvc), and a postaortic left brachiocephalic vein (Palbv). The shunt between the coronary sinus and left atrium was not observed. The blood of the coronary sinus flowed into an oblique vein of the left atrium, which was wide and reverse-funnel shaped, penetrated the pericardial sac then continued to the Lsvc. The anastomotic veins between the Lsvc and the (right) superior vena cava were seen to consist of two veins as follows: one was a left brachiocephalic vein, the other a dorsal postaortic left brachiocephalic vein (dorsal Palbv). The dorsal Palbv passed dorsally on the ligamentum arteriosum, and then passed between the ascending aorta and the trachea. The dorsal Palbv was thicker than the left brachiocephalic vein. We discuss the process of formation of these variations. PMID:26329835

  2. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... will develop sinusitis: Allergic rhinitis or hay fever Cystic fibrosis Going to day care Diseases that prevent the ... Nasal culture Nasal cytology Sweat chloride tests for cystic fibrosis Treatment SELF CARE Try the following steps to ...

  4. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brow area Ethmoid sinuses—just behind the bridge of the nose, between the eyes Maxillary sinuses—inside each cheekbone Sphenoid sinuses—behind the ethmoids in the upper region of the nose and behind the eyes There are two basic types of sinusitis: Acute, which lasts up to 4 ...

  5. Prevalence of left atrial abnormalities in atrial fibrillation versus normal sinus patients

    PubMed Central

    Ketai, Loren H; Teague, Shawn D; Rissing, Stacy M

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) may be the cause or sequela of left atrial abnormalities and variants. Purpose To determine the prevalence of left atrial (LA) abnormalities in AF patients compared to normal sinus rhythm (NSR) patients. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 281 cardiac CT examinations from 2010 to 2012, excluding patients with prior pulmonary vein ablation, known coronary artery disease, prior coronary stent placement, or coronary artery bypass grafts. The first group consisted of 159 AF patients undergoing cardiac CT prior to pulmonary vein ablation and the second group consisted of 122 NSR patients evaluated with coronary CT angiography. Demographic data were collected. LA abnormalities were analyzed. Left atrial diameter was measured on an axial view. Results A total of 281 patients were included. The male gender has significantly higher prevalence of AF than female gender, P value <0.001. Patients with AF were significantly older (mean age, 57.4 years; standard deviation [SD], 11.8 years) than NSR patients (mean age, 53.4 years; SD, 13.6 years), P value, 0.01. The left atrial diameter was greater in the AF patients (mean diameter, 4.3 cm; SD, 0.82 cm) versus the NSR patients (3.4 cm; SD, 0.58 cm), P value, <0.0001. LA diverticulum was the most prevalent variant, occurring in 28.4% of the entire patient population followed by LA pouch, occurring in 24%. There was no significant between group differences in the prevalence of these or the remainder of the LA variants. Conclusion AF patients differed significantly from NSR patients in LA size, gender, and mean age. There was no statistical significance between the two groups with regard to the LA morphologic abnormalities other than size. PMID:27358747

  6. New horizons at the caudal embryos; coordinated urogenital/reproductive organ formation by growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Economides, Aris; Yanagita, Motoko; Graf, Daniel; Yamada, Gen

    2009-01-01

    Summary The cloaca/urogenital sinus and its adjacent region differentiate into the urogenital/reproductive organs. Caudal regression syndrome (CRS; including Mermaid syndrome), a type of severe cloacal malformation displays hindlimb fusion and urogenital organ defects, thus suggesting that such defects are caused by several morphogenetic alterations during early development. The attenuation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (Bmp) signaling at the posterior primitive streak of embryos leads to the caudal dysmorphogenesis including the cloaca and fusion of both hindlimbs. Genetic tissue lineage studies indicate the presence of coordinated organogenesis. Hedgehog (HH)-responding cells derived from peri-cloacal mesenchyme (PCM) contribute to the urogenital/reproductive organs. These findings indicate the existence o f developmental programs for the coordinated organogenesis of urogenital/reproductive tissues based on growth factor function and crosstalk. PMID:19765973

  7. Efficacy of prenatal ultrasonography in diagnosing urogenital developmental anomalies in newborns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Showing a prevalence rate of 0.5-0.8%, urogenital malformations discovered in newborns is regarded relatively common. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of ultrasound diagnostics in detecting developmental disorders in the urogenital system. Methods We have processed the prenatal sonographic and postnatal clinical details of 175 urogenital abnormalities in 140 newborns delivered with urogenital malformation according to EUROCAT recommendations over a 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. The patients were divided into three groups; Group 1: prenatal sonography and postnatal examinations yielded fully identical results. Group 2: postnatally detected urogenital changes were partially discovered in prenatal investigations. Group 3: prenatal sonography failed to detect the urogenital malformation identified in postnatal examinations. Urogenital changes representing part of certain multiple disorders associated with chromosomal aberration were investigated separately. Results Prenatal sonographic diagnosis and postnatal results completely coincided in 45%, i.e. 63/140 of cases in newborns delivered with urogenital developmental disorders. In 34/140 cases (24%), discovery was partial, while in 43/140 patients (31%), no urogenital malformation was detected prenatally. No associated malformations were observed in 108 cases, in 57 of which (53%), the results of prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal examinations showed complete coincidence. Prenatally, urogenital changes were found in 11 patients (10%), whereas no urogenital disorders were diagnosed in 40 cases (37%) by investigations prior to birth. Urogenital disorders were found to represent part of multiple malformations in a total of 28 cases as follows: prenatal diagnosis of urogenital malformation and the findings of postnatal examinations completely coincided in three patients (11%), partial coincidence was found in 22 newborns (79%) and in another three patients (11%), the disorder was not

  8. Probiotics for urogenital health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection, and yeast vaginitis afflict an estimated 1 billion women each year. Once investigation has ruled out complicated underlying causes, the only therapeutic option is antimicrobial agents. In many cases, this is effective at clearing infection. However, recurrences, side effects, and secondary infections are frequent. Coinciding with infection is a disruption of the normal commensal microflora in the vagina, primarily a loss of lactobacilli. The exogenous application of lactobacilli to the host as probiotic agents appears to offer hope as an alternative management regimen to antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis. Although commercial probiotics specifically selected and proven to be effective for urogenital infections are not yet available, there is growing in vitro and human data to suggest that certain strains could confer health benefits on a large number of women. Given that depleted vaginal lactobacilli and recurrent infection is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and preterm labor, multiple antibiotic resistance, and significant reduction in quality of life, the need for probiotic therapeutics has never been greater. PMID:12134717

  9. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  10. Urogenital Applications of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Gregor

    The urogenital tract extends from the perineal skin close to the anus, to the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, urethra, bladder and kidneys. The uterus, bladder and kidneys are regarded as being sterile, although it will not be surprising if molecular techniques discover that this is not necessarily the case. The importance of the urogenital tract in the health of women cannot be understated. Given its proximity to potential pathogens emerging from the rectum, exposure to sexually transmitted organisms, hormonal fluctuations that affect cells, use of tampons, contraceptives and douches, and the birthing process, it is remarkable that this area is not constantly infected. Nevertheless, it has been estimated that almost every female will have a vaginal or bladder infection at some point in her life.

  11. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

    PubMed

    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women. PMID:25858665

  12. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  13. Adult Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  14. Sinusitis: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Sinusitis Overview What are sinuses? Sinuses are the air chambers in the bone behind your cheeks, eyebrows and jaw. They make mucus, a fluid that cleans bacteria and other particles out of the air you breathe. Tiny hairs called cilia (say: “sill-ee-ah”) sweep mucus out of your ...

  15. Pediatric Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan may help to determine how completely your child's sinuses are developed, where any blockage has occurred, and confirm the diagnosis of sinusitis. The doctor may look for factors that make your child more likely to get sinus infection, including structural ...

  16. The urogenital system and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Agius, J; Brincat, M P

    2015-10-01

    The major cause of urogenital atrophy in menopausal women is estrogen loss. The symptoms are usually progressive in nature and deteriorate with time from the menopausal transition. The most prevalent urogenital symptoms are vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation and itching. The genitourinary syndrome of menopause includes vulvovaginal atrophy and the postmenopausal modifications of the lower urinary tract. Dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding from fragile atrophic skin are common problems. Other urogenital complaints include frequency, nocturia, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections. Atrophic changes of the vulva, vagina and lower urinary tract can have a large impact on the quality of life of the menopausal woman. However, hormonal and non-hormonal treatments can provide patients with the solution to regain the previous level of function. Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately. PMID:26366796

  17. Sinus pericranii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tammy L

    2012-01-01

    Sinus pericranii is a rare anomaly that occurs when there is communication between the intracranial and extracranial venous systems. Accurate diagnosis is complicated because several other cranial masses can mimic sinus pericranii. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessments are all essential for identifying the anomaly. This article examines the comparative advantages of various diagnostic imaging modalities, current imaging techniques, and typical findings associated with sinus pericranii. Treatment and management options also are discussed. PMID:22461344

  18. Challenging Case of Postmenopausal Bleeding and Complete Urogenital Duplication.

    PubMed

    Grechukhina, Olga; English, Diana P; Miller, Devin; Ratner, Elena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Müllerian duct anomalies represent a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities ranging from simple uterine anomalies to more complex multisystem derangements. Complete duplication of uterus, cervix, and vagina may be associated with urologic and caudal gastrointestinal malformations. CASE REPORT We present a case report detailing the management of a morbidly obese patient with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrial stripe who had a very rare condition of pelvic organ duplication, including 2 hemiuteri, 2 vaginas, 2 hemibladders, and 2 each of ovaries, fallopian tubes, kidneys, and ureters. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was complicated by difficulties understanding urinary system anatomy requiring intraoperative urology consultation and imaging. CONCLUSIONS Management of patients with urogenital duplication and abnormal uterine bleeding requires a thorough understanding of possible associated malformations. Thorough preoperative evaluation, careful surgical exploration, and multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to avoid urologic injury in such patients. PMID:27180733

  19. Molecular Imaging of Urogenital Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Steve Y.; Szabo, Zsolt; Morgan, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    There is an expanding and exciting repertoire of PET imaging radiotracers for urogenital diseases, particularly in prostate cancer, renal cell cancer, and renal function. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. With growing therapeutics options for the treatment of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer, improved functional imaging of prostate cancer beyond the limitations of conventional computed tomography (CT) and bone scan (BS) is becoming increasingly important for both clinical management and drug development. PET radiotracers beyond 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for prostate cancer include 18F-Sodium Fluoride, 11C-Choline and 18F-Fluorocholine and 11C-Acetate. Other emerging and promising PET radiotracers include a synthetic L-leucine amino acid analog (anti-18F-FACBC), dihydrotestosterone analog (18F-FDHT) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) based PET radiotracers (ex. 18F-DCFBC, 89Zr-DFO-J591, 68Ga(HBED-CC)). Larger prospective and comparison trials of these PET radiotracers are needed to establish the role of PET/CT in prostate cancer. Renal cell cancer imaging with FDG PET/CT although available can be limited, especially for detection of the primary tumor. Improved renal cell cancer detection with carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) based antibody (124I-girentuximab) and radioimmunotherapy targeting with 177Lu-cG250 appear promising. Evaluation of renal injury by imaging renal perfusion and function with novel PET radiotracers include p-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-PFH) and hippurate m-cyano-p-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-CNPFH) and Rubidium-82 chloride (typically used for myocardial perfusion imaging). Renal receptor imaging of the renal renin angiotensin system with a variety of selective PET radioligands are also becoming available for clinical translation. PMID:24484747

  20. Sinus aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    De Foer, C; Fossion, E; Vaillant, J M

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of Aspergillus sinusitis is often underestimated because the vast majority of cases are classified as "unspecified sinusitis". Two possible aetio-pathogenic mechanisms can be involved in the development of this fungal infection. Traditionally, the literature emphasised the "anglophone" hypothesis which is based on the inhalation of spores. More recently, the "french" model, based on oro-sinusal fistula and/or the perforation of the maxillary sinus by root canal-filling material, is believed to explain the majority of cases in our industrialised environments. Still, neither model explains the totality of cases and several remain beyond comprehension. The disease most commonly presents as a chronic bacterial sinusitis. The process can however become invasive, thus resembling malignancy, with eventually a fatal outcome. Doctors and dentists should know the possible danger, presented by zinc-oxide-eugenol-paste in the sinus. Radical surgery is the treatment of choice, since a prolonged conservative approach (antibiotics, corticosteroids) can only worsen the prognosis. This paper discusses different aspects of the disease, and presents 10 cases, observed at the University Hospitals of Paris (France) and Leuven (Belgium). PMID:2406288

  1. Post-Traumatic Pneumocele of the Frontal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Calisir, Cuneyt; Adapinar, Baki

    2008-01-01

    A pneumocele is an abnormal dilatation of a paranasal sinus, most commonly affecting the frontal sinus. Although the etiology of pneumocele is not entirely known, several causative factors have been suggested including trauma, surgery, tumor and infection. We report here a case of post-traumatic pneumocele of the frontal sinus following a head trauma. PMID:18682678

  2. Multimodal Eph/Ephrin signaling controls several phases of urogenital development.

    PubMed

    Peuckert, Christiane; Aresh, Bejan; Holenya, Pavlo; Adams, Derek; Sreedharan, Smitha; Porthin, Annika; Andersson, Louise; Pettersson, Hanna; Wölfl, Stefan; Klein, Rüdiger; Oxburgh, Leif; Kullander, Klas

    2016-08-01

    A substantial portion of the human population is affected by urogenital birth defects resulting from a failure in ureter development. Although recent research suggests roles for several genes in facilitating the ureter/bladder connection, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Signaling via Eph receptor tyrosine kinases is involved in several developmental processes. Here we report that impaired Eph/Ephrin signaling in genetically modified mice results in severe hydronephrosis caused by defective ureteric bud induction, ureter maturation, and translocation. Our data imply that ureter translocation requires apoptosis in the urogenital sinus and inhibition of proliferation in the common nephric duct. These processes were disturbed in EphA4/EphB2 compound knockout mice and were accompanied by decreased ERK-2 phosphorylation. Using a set of Eph, Ephrin, and signaling-deficient mutants, we found that during urogenital development, different modes of Eph/Ephrin signaling occur at several sites with EphrinB2 and EphrinA5 acting in concert. Thus, Eph/Ephrin signaling should be considered in the etiology of congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. PMID:27344203

  3. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... 2014:chap 67. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  4. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Gomes, Helena; Velasco-Garrido, Marcial; Busse, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1].The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica[9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26), availability of test (n=1), effectiveness of screening (n=11), acceptance of the programme (n=11), economical issues (n=7). Discussion The main limitation

  5. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  6. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  7. Urogenital infections in women: can probiotics help?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A

    2003-01-01

    Urogenital infections not caused by sexual transmission, namely yeast vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and urinary tract infection remain a major medical problem in terms of the number of women afflicted each year. Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective at eradicating these infections, there is still a high incidence of recurrence. The patient's quality of life is affected and many women become frustrated by the cycle of repeated antimicrobial agents whose effectiveness is diminishing due to increasing development of microbial resistance. There is good clinical evidence to show that the intestinal and urogenital microbial flora have a central role in maintaining both the health and wellbeing of humans. Furthermore, the use of "good bacteria" to replace or augment bacterial populations is gradually achieving scientific acceptance. This application is termed probiotics: "live micro-organisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host". The role of the intestinal, vaginal, and urethral flora and probiotics in urogenital health will be the focus of this review. PMID:12954951

  8. Venous sinus occlusive disease: MR findings

    SciTech Connect

    Yuh, W.T.C.; Simonson, T.M.; Tali, E.T.; Fisher, D.J. ); Wang, A.M. ); Koci, T.M. ); Simon, J.H. ); Jinkins, J.R. ); Tsai, Fong )

    1994-02-01

    To study MR patterns of venous sinus occlusive disease and to relate them to the underlying pathophysiology by comparing the appearance and pathophysiologic features of venous sinus occlusive disease with those of arterial ischemic disease. The clinical data and MR examinations of 26 patients with venous sinus occlusive disease were retrospectively reviewed with special attention to mass effect, hemorrhage, and T2-weighted image abnormalities as well as to abnormal parenchymal, venous, or arterial enhancement after intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Follow-up studies when available were evaluated for atrophy, infraction, chronic mass effect, and hemorrhage. Mass effect was present in 25 of 26 patients. Eleven of the 26 had mass effect without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Fifteen patients had abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, but this was much less extensive than the degree of brain swelling in all cases. No patient showed abnormal parenchymal or arterial enhancement. Abnormal venous enhancement was seen in 10 of 13 patients who had contrast-enhanced studies. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage was seen in nine patients with high signal on T2-weighted images predominantly peripheral to the hematoma in eight. Three overall MR patterns were observed in acute sinus thrombosis: (1) mass effect without associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images, (2) mass effect with associated abnormal signal on T2-weighted images and/or ventricular dilatation that may be reversible, and (3) intraparenchymal hematoma with surrounding edema. MR findings of venus sinus occlusive disease are different from those of arterial ischemia and may reflect different underlying pathophysiology. In venous sinus occlusive disease, the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (vasogenic edema and abnormal parenchymal enhancement) does not always occur, and brain swelling can persist up to 2 years with or without abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Challenging Case of Postmenopausal Bleeding and Complete Urogenital Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Grechukhina, Olga; English, Diana P.; Miller, Devin; Ratner, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Congenital duplication of genitourinary system Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic hysterectomy Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Müllerian duct anomalies represent a wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities ranging from simple uterine anomalies to more complex multisystem derangements. Complete duplication of uterus, cervix, and vagina may be associated with urologic and caudal gastrointestinal malformations. Case Report: We present a case report detailing the management of a morbidly obese patient with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrial stripe who had a very rare condition of pelvic organ duplication, including 2 hemiuteri, 2 vaginas, 2 hemibladders, and 2 each of ovaries, fallopian tubes, kidneys, and ureters. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was complicated by difficulties understanding urinary system anatomy requiring intraoperative urology consultation and imaging. Conclusions: Management of patients with urogenital duplication and abnormal uterine bleeding requires a thorough understanding of possible associated malformations. Thorough preoperative evaluation, careful surgical exploration, and multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to avoid urologic injury in such patients. PMID:27180733

  10. Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chambers is a common cause of sick sinus syndrome. Coronary artery disease , high blood pressure, and aortic and ... pressure may be normal or low. Sick sinus syndrome may cause symptoms of heart failure to start or get worse. Sick sinus ...

  11. Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Share | Saline Sinus Rinse Recipe Saline sinus rinses can bring relief to patients ... at a fraction of the cost. Saline Rinse Recipe Ingredients 1. Pickling or canning salt-containing no ...

  12. The silent sinus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Jalalian, Faranak

    2013-01-01

    The silent sinus syndrome (SSS) involves painless facial asymmetry and enophthalmos, which is the result of chronic maxillary sinus atelectasis. In most cases, it is diagnosed clinically, however, using the characteristic imaging features including maxillary sinus outlet obstruction, sinus opacification, and sinus volume loss caused by inward retraction of the sinus walls. Obstruction of the maxillary ostium appears to play a critical role in the development of SSS. Treatment involves functional endoscopic surgery. PMID:23946747

  13. [Sonography of the lower urogenital system].

    PubMed

    Schmoller, H; Forstner, R; Sattlegger, P

    1993-12-01

    A suprapubic transvesical sonography of the lower urogenital tract performed by a radiologist is part of a complete investigation of the abdomen. The application of endosonographical methods is mainly subject-related in gynecology and obstetrics as well as in urology. The ranking rate of suprapubic transvesical sonography is compared with endosonographical methods, and, as indicated, also with CT und MRI. Concerning pathological-sonographical details, it is referred to the relevant literature. The diagnostic accuracy depends on the experience and ability of the investigator. PMID:8118192

  14. Sinus pericranii: advantages of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bigot, J L; Iacona, C; Lepreux, A; Dhellemmes, P; Motte, J; Gomes, H

    2000-10-01

    Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular anomaly involving an abnormal communication between the extracranial and intracranial circulations. A 3-year-old girl presented with a 2 x 2-cm, midline soft-tissue mass at the vertex. Plain skull films and CT using bone windows showed erosion of the parietal bones. MRI confirmed the clinical diagnosis by identifying communication of the vascular mass with the intracranial dural venous sinus. The advantages of MRI are discussed. PMID:11075608

  15. Cavernous sinus gas.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Shao, K N; Chiang, J H; Chang, C Y; Luo, C B; Lirng, J F; Teng, M M

    2000-07-01

    Gas within the cavernous sinus is an unusual finding. We report three patients who demonstrated gas in the cavernous sinus on computerized tomography (CT). The clinical information of these patients was reviewed for the possible source of the gas and the symptoms induced by the gas. Cavernous sinus gas was seen in two patients with sphenoid sinus fracture and in one patient after intravenous fluid infusion. None of the patients had symptoms referable to the cavernous sinus gas, but one patient had a grave prognosis due to trauma. Identification of cavernous sinus gas on CT and correlation with the clinical information is mandatory for further management. PMID:10934814

  16. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Odegaard, Justin I.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium worm infection, afflicts millions of people with egg-triggered, fibrotic bladder granulomata. Despite the significant global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, the mechanisms of bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis are ill defined due to the prior lack of tractable animal models. We combined a mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis with macrophage-depleting liposomal clodronate (LC) to define how macrophages mediate bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis. Mice were injected with eggs purified from infected hamsters or vehicle prepared from uninfected hamster tissues (xenoantigen and injection trauma control). Empty liposomes were controls for LC: 1) LC treatment resulted in fewer bladder egg granuloma-infiltrating macrophages, eosinophils, and T and B cells, lower bladder and serum levels of eotaxin, and higher bladder concentrations of IL-1α and chemokines (in a time-dependent fashion), confirming that macrophages orchestrate leukocyte infiltration of the egg-exposed bladder; 2) macrophage-depleted mice exhibited greater weight loss and bladder hemorrhage postegg injection; 3) early LC treatment postegg injection resulted in profound decreases in bladder fibrosis, suggesting differing roles for macrophages in fibrosis over time; and 4) LC treatment also led to egg dose-dependent mortality, indicating that macrophages prevent death from urogenital schistosomiasis. Thus, macrophages are a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating the bladder sequelae of urogenital schistosomiasis.—Fu, C.-L., Odegaard, J. I., Hsieh, M. H. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis. PMID:25351984

  17. [Maxillary sinus hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    Plaza, G; Ferrando, J; Martel, J; Toledano, A; de los Santos, G

    2001-03-01

    Maxillary sinus hypoplasia is rare, with an estimated prevalence of 1-5%. Out of the CT scans performed in sinusal patients between March 1998 and June 1999, we report on 4 isolated maxillary sinus hypoplasia, 4 maxillary sinus hypoplasia associated to concha bullosa, and 10 isolated conchae bullosas. All cases were evaluated by nasosinusal endoscopy and CT scan. Size, location and uni/bilateral presentation of concha bullosa is correlated to maxillary sinus hypoplasia presence, specially with regards to uncinate process presence, medial or lateral retraction. The pathogenesis of maxillary sinus hypoplasia is reviewed, and its relation to concha bullosa, evaluating how this could explain some cases of the so called chronic maxillary sinus atelectasia, as an acquired and progressive variant of maxillary sinus hypoplasia in adults. PMID:11428268

  18. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder. PMID:24192597

  19. Complications of Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ... Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste Upper Respiratory Infections Nasal Congestion & Snoring CSF ...

  20. Carotid sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Mark

    2003-02-01

    This article reviews the recent literature about carotid sinus syndrome. It looks principally at the various ways in which it may present, the limited knowledge of its pathophysiology, and the role of carotid sinus massage in the investigation of carotid sinus syndrome. PMID:12619336

  1. Sinus x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Paranasal sinus radiography; X-ray - sinuses ... sinus x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department. Or the x-ray may be taken ... Brown J, Rout J. ENT, neck, and dental radiology. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH Schaefer- ...

  2. A Microfiltration Device for Urogenital Schistosomiasis Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This study reports the design and development of a microfiltration device for isolating schistosome eggs in urine for rapid diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis. The design of the device comprises a linear array of microfluidic traps to immobilize and separate schistosome eggs. Sequential loading of individual eggs is achieved autonomously by flow resistance, which facilitates observation and enumeration of samples with low-abundance targets. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and experimental characterization are performed to optimize the trapping performance. By optimizing the capture strategy, the trapping efficiency could be achieved at 100% with 300 μl/min and 83% with 3000 μl/min, and the filtration procedure could be finished within 10 min. The trapped eggs can be either recovered for downstream analysis or preserved in situ for whole-mount staining. On-chip phenotyping using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy identifies the microstructure of the trapped schistosome eggs. The device provides a novel microfluidic approach for trapping, counting and on-chip fluorescence characterization of urinal Schistosoma haematobium eggs for clinical and investigative application. PMID:27124499

  3. A Microfiltration Device for Urogenital Schistosomiasis Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuan; Lu, Yi; Hsieh, Michael; Liao, Joseph; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This study reports the design and development of a microfiltration device for isolating schistosome eggs in urine for rapid diagnostics of urogenital schistosomiasis. The design of the device comprises a linear array of microfluidic traps to immobilize and separate schistosome eggs. Sequential loading of individual eggs is achieved autonomously by flow resistance, which facilitates observation and enumeration of samples with low-abundance targets. Computational fluid dynamics modeling and experimental characterization are performed to optimize the trapping performance. By optimizing the capture strategy, the trapping efficiency could be achieved at 100% with 300 μl/min and 83% with 3000 μl/min, and the filtration procedure could be finished within 10 min. The trapped eggs can be either recovered for downstream analysis or preserved in situ for whole-mount staining. On-chip phenotyping using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy identifies the microstructure of the trapped schistosome eggs. The device provides a novel microfluidic approach for trapping, counting and on-chip fluorescence characterization of urinal Schistosoma haematobium eggs for clinical and investigative application. PMID:27124499

  4. The power and perils of animal models with urogenital anomalies: Handle with care

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, J.M.; Baskin, L.S.; Risbridger, G.; Cunha, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tracts form a major part of clinical practice for paediatric urologists, but their knowledge of normal and abnormal development is often limited. Advances in understanding frequently come from studying experimental findings from animal models, however, most clinicians underestimate both the power and perils of extrapolating scientific knowledge from animals. In this review, the key issues that urologists need to understand in order to link animal studies to clinical practice are discussed. Urologists must avoid the traps of anthropomorphism (assuming humans are always the same as animal models) or anthropocentrism (assuming humans are too different from animal models). This review used two common disorders: hypospadias and undescended testes. PMID:24768568

  5. Prevalence of bony septa, antral pathology, and dimensions of the maxillary sinus from a sinus augmentation perspective: A retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Elnaz; Al-Salman, Wesam; Jambhekar, Shantanu; Katechia, Bina; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sinus elevation procedures have become a routine and reliable way to gain bone volume in the edentulous maxilla for dental implant placement. Presence of bony septations and pathology in the maxillary sinus often cause complications leading to graft or implant failure or both. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of pathology, direction of the septa, and sinus width measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor in maxillary sinuses using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Seventy-two sinuses from 36 random preoperative CBCT scans referred for implant therapy were retrospectively evaluated for the number, prevalence, and direction of bony septations and presence of pathology. Width of the sinus was also measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor to account for the amount of bone available for implant placement. Results Maxillary sinus septa were found in 59.7%. Presence of a single septum was noted in 20 sinuses (27.7%), followed by two septa in 17 sinuses. The most common direction of the septum was the transverse direction. Retention pseudocyst and mucosal thickening were the most commonly seen abnormality/pathology. Conclusion Based on the high prevalence of septa and sinus pathology in this sample, a preoperative CBCT scan might be helpful in minimizing complications during sinus augmentation procedures for dental implant therapy. PMID:27358818

  6. Urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a child.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ayşegül Doğan; Iraz, Meryem; İpek, Duygu Neval Sayın

    2015-03-01

    Urogenital myiasis results when flies lay their eggs near the exit of the urethra and the larvae proceed upward along the urogenital tract. In this case report, a 10 year-old female patient diagnosed with urogenital myiasis was reported. The patient presented with complaints including painful and frequent urination, genital pruritus and moving larvae in urine. The patient had received Enterobius vermicularis treatment previously for two times. A 24-hour urine sample was collected and two black larvae were found in the urine. It was found that these larvae were fourth-stage larvae of Psychoda albipennis. Although there was no risk factor, the patient was affected with this rare parasitological disease. This case was presented to draw attention to myiasis in children. Myiasis may be observed in individuals with a favourable hygiene status and a high socioeconomical level. If a detailed history is not taken and appropriate laboratory tests are not performed, the diagnosis may be missed. PMID:26078699

  7. [The characteristic of biocenosis of urogenital tract in women].

    PubMed

    Andosova, L D; Kontorshchikova, K N; Kachalina, O V; Belov, A V; Gonova, E S; Kudel'kina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the study of characteristics of biocenosis of urogenital tract in women of reproductive age with using of "Femoflor" test. The scrapings of posterolateral wall of vagina were analyzed using the technique of real-time polymerase chain reaction using the reagents "Femoflor". The complex evaluation of urogenital biota identified three main types of biocenosis of vagina: type I--normocenosis (n = 50 or 11.5%): type II--mild dysbiosis (n = 88 or 21%); type III--marked dysbiosis (n = 133 or 30.6%). In the structure of alterations of biocenosis of urogenital tract the main role play the anaerobic bacteria with involvement of candida, ureoplasma and mcoplasma. PMID:23807998

  8. Urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a child

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Ayşegül Doğan; Iraz, Meryem; İpek, Duygu Neval Sayın

    2015-01-01

    Urogenital myiasis results when flies lay their eggs near the exit of the urethra and the larvae proceed upward along the urogenital tract. In this case report, a 10 year-old female patient diagnosed with urogenital myiasis was reported. The patient presented with complaints including painful and frequent urination, genital pruritus and moving larvae in urine. The patient had received Enterobius vermicularis treatment previously for two times. A 24-hour urine sample was collected and two black larvae were found in the urine. It was found that these larvae were fourth-stage larvae of Psychoda albipennis. Although there was no risk factor, the patient was affected with this rare parasitological disease. This case was presented to draw attention to myiasis in children. Myiasis may be observed in individuals with a favourable hygiene status and a high socioeconomical level. If a detailed history is not taken and appropriate laboratory tests are not performed, the diagnosis may be missed. PMID:26078699

  9. Diseases masking and delaying the diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Kholtobin, Denis

    2015-01-01

    As urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) has no specific clinical features, it is often overlooked. To identify some of the reasons for misdiagnosing UGTB we performed a systematic review. We searched in Medline/PubMed papers with keywords ‘urogenital tuberculosis, rare’ and ‘urogenital tuberculosis, unusual’. ‘Urogenital tuberculosis, rare’ presented 230 articles and ‘urogenital tuberculosis, unusual’ presented 81 articles only, a total of 311 papers. A total of 34 papers were duplicated and so were excluded from the review. In addition, we excluded from the analysis 33 papers on epidemiological studies and literature reviews, papers describing non-TB cases and cases of TB another than urogenital organs (48 articles), cases of congenital TB (three articles), UGTB as a case of concomitant disease (16 articles), and UGTB as a complication of BCG-therapy (eight articles). We also excluded 22 articles dedicated to complications of the therapy, which made a total of 164 articles. Among the remaining 147 articles we selected 43 which described really unusual, difficult to diagnose cases. We also included in our review a WHO report from 2014, and one scientific monograph on TB urology. The most frequent reasons for delayed diagnosis were absence typical clinical features of UGTB, and the tendency of UGTB to hide behind the mask of another disease. We can conclude that actually UGTB is not rare disease, but it is often an overlooked disease. The main reasons for delayed diagnosis are vague, atypical clinical features and a low index of suspicion. PMID:26622318

  10. Examining the Relationship between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mbabazi, Pamela Sabina; Andan, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Downs, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. Conclusions/Significance Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital

  11. Advances in urinary protein biomarkers for urogenital and non-urogenital pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza-Díaz, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of protein biomarkers that reflect the biological state of the body is of vital importance to disease management. Urine is an ideal source of biomarkers that provides a non-invasive approach to diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of diseases. Consequently, the study of the human urinary proteome has increased dramatically over the last 10 years, with many studies being published. This review focuses on urinary protein biomarkers that have shown potential, in initial studies, for diseases affecting the urogenital tract, specifically chronic kidney disease and prostate cancer, as well as other non-urogenital pathologies such as breast cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. PubMed was searched for peer-reviewed literature on the subject, published in the last 10 years. The keywords used were “urine, biomarker, protein, and/or prostate cancer/breast cancer/chronic kidney disease/diabetes/atherosclerosis/osteoarthritis”. Original studies on the subject, as well as a small number of reviews, were analysed including the strengths and weaknesses, and we summarized the performance of biomarkers that demonstrated potential. One of the biggest challenges found is that biomarkers are often shared by several pathologies so are not specific to one disease. Therefore, the trend is shifting towards implementing a panel of biomarkers, which may increase specificity. Although there have been many advances in urinary proteomics, these have not resulted in similar advancements in clinical practice due to high costs and the lack of large data sets. In order to translate these potential biomarkers to clinical practice, vigorous validation is needed, with input from industry or large collaborative studies. PMID:25672464

  12. Global Health: Urogenital Schistosomiasis in the Adolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sharise T; Franklin, Ashley L; Rome, Ellen S; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2016-08-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis affects millions of women in sub-Saharan Africa. Infection by the causative organism, Schistosoma hematobium, commonly occurs during childhood and adolescence and can lead to anemia from hematuria, inflammation on the cervix which can increase risk of HIV transmission, and pelvic infection leading to infertility. Fortunately treatment is not costly, but early diagnosis is important to reduce long-term morbidity. Our objective is to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis as well as treatment to improve the reproductive health of girls where this infection is endemic. PMID:26173381

  13. Microbiology of sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2011-03-01

    Most sinus infections are viral, and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. Rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, and parainfluenza viruses are the most common causes of sinusitis. The most common bacteria isolated from pediatric and adult patients with community-acquired acute purulent sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp.) are the main isolates in chronic sinusitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic and facultative gram-negative rods are commonly isolated from patients with nosocomial sinusitis, the immunocompromised host, those with HIV infection, and in cystic fibrosis. Fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common isolates in neutropenic patients. The microbiology of sinusitis is influenced by the previous antimicrobial therapy, vaccinations, and the presence of normal flora capable of interfering with the growth of pathogens. PMID:21364226

  14. Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistula: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Korkmazer, Bora; Kocak, Burak; Tureci, Ercan; Islak, Civan; Kocer, Naci; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Carotid cavernous sinus fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid system and the cavernous sinus. Several classification schemes have described carotid cavernous sinus fistulas according to etiology, hemodynamic features, or the angiographic arterial architecture. Increased pressure within the cavernous sinus appears to be the main factor in pathophysiology. The clinical features are related to size, exact location, and duration of the fistula, adequacy and route of venous drainage and the presence of arterial/venous collaterals. Noninvasive imaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, Doppler) is often used in the initial work-up of a possible carotid cavernous sinus fistulas. Cerebral angiography is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis, classification, and planning of treatment for these lesions. The endovascular approach has evolved as the mainstay therapy for definitive treatment in situations including clinical emergencies. Conservative treatment, surgery and radiosurgery constitute other management options for these lesions. PMID:23671750

  15. Urogenital Mycoplasmas and Human Papilloma Virus in Hemodialysed Women

    PubMed Central

    Ekiel, Alicja; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Mazanowska, Natalia; Kamiński, Paweł; Martirosian, Gayane

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20–48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required. PMID:24363622

  16. Urogenital mycoplasmas and human papilloma virus in hemodialysed women.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, Alicja; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Wiechuła, Barbara; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Mazanowska, Natalia; Rady, Dominika; Kamiński, Paweł; Martirosian, Gayane

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20-48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required. PMID:24363622

  17. Management of primary melanoma of the female urogenital tract.

    PubMed

    Piura, Benjamin

    2008-10-01

    Primary melanoma of the urogenital tract in women is rare, but biologically aggressive. They usually affect elderly women and account for less than 10% of all cancer of the urogenital tract in women and less than 10% of all melanoma diagnosed in women. Tumours originate from melanocytes that are present in the urogenital mucosal epithelium of about 3% of women. Tumour staging can be challenging; however, the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system has been recommended for use in vulvar and vaginal melanoma. Surgery is the treatment of choice; less-extensive surgery can be a sensible approach because satisfactory locoregional control might be obtained from wide local excision and radiotherapy, without the morbidity and disfigurement associated with radical surgery. Complete regional lymphadenectomy does not seem necessary if a sentinel lymph-node biopsy sample is negative; however, this decision should be made with caution. Various chemotherapy and biotherapy (ie, immunotherapy and biological-response modifiers) regimens have been used in advanced or metastatic melanoma. However, the role of chemotherapy for women with urogenital-tract melanoma has not been established, and biotherapy methods presented to date have been anecdotal. PMID:19071254

  18. Quadricuspid aortic valve with ruptured sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Akerem Khan, Shamruz Khan; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Burkhart, Harold M; Araoz, Philip A; Young, Phillip M

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with quadricuspid aortic valve with ruptured sinus of Valsalva. Quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. The recognition of quadricuspid aortic valve has clinical significance as it causes aortic valve dysfunction, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac abnormalities. We showed the important role of multimodality imaging in diagnosing a quadricuspid aortic valve associated with ruptured sinus of Valsalva. PMID:22874066

  19. Estrogenic Environmental Chemicals and Drugs: Mechanisms for Effects on the Developing Male Urogenital System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julia A.; Richter, Catherine A.; Ruhlen, Rachel L.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2011-01-01

    Development and differentiation of the prostate from the fetal urogenital sinus (UGS) is dependent on androgen action via androgen receptors (AR) in the UGS mesenchyme. Estrogens are not required for prostate differentiation but do act to modulate androgen action. In mice exposure to exogenous estrogen during development results in permanent effects on adult prostate size and function, which is mediated through mesenchymal estrogen receptor (ER) alpha. For many years estrogens were thought to inhibit prostate growth because estrogenic drugs studied were administered at very high concentrations that interfered with normal prostate development. There is now extensive evidence that exposure to estrogen at very low concentrations during the early stages of prostate differentiation can stimulate fetal/neonatal prostate growth and lead to prostate disease in adulthood. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical that binds to both ER receptor subtypes as well as to AR. Interest in BPA has increased because of its prevalence in the environment and its detection in over 90% of people in the USA. In tissue culture of fetal mouse UGS mesenchymal cells, BPA and estradiol stimulated changes in the expression of several genes. We discuss here the potential involvement of estrogen in regulating signaling pathways affecting cellular functions relevant to steroid hormone signaling and metabolism and to inter- and intra-cellular communications that promote cell growth. The findings presented here provide additional evidence that BPA and the estrogenic drug ethinylestradiol disrupt prostate development in male mice at administered doses relevant to human exposures. PMID:21827855

  20. Frontal Sinus Mucopyocele Presenting as a Subcutaneous Forehead Mass.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Ryan A; Kang, David R

    2015-11-01

    Mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses are benign, chronic, expanding lesions that characteristically develop because of obstruction of the sinus ostium. The frontal sinus is the most common sinus to be affected by a mucocele, which usually results from trauma or inflammatory processes. Patients with these lesions frequently present with visual complaints of decreased visual acuity, visual field abnormalities, proptosis, ptosis, displacement of the globe, or restricted ocular movements secondary to erosion through the thin bone of the superior orbit and compression on the globe. Often, intracranial extension of frontal sinus mucoceles is also present from erosion through the posterior table of the frontal sinus. Very rarely, they will present as a subcutaneous forehead mass or swelling. To the best of our knowledge, only 5 cases of a frontal sinus mucocele presenting as a forehead subcutaneous mass has been previously reported. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman with a history of remote forehead trauma who presented with a frontal sinus mucopyocele manifesting as a subcutaneous forehead mass eroding through the skin. PMID:26044600

  1. Congenital dermal sinuses, dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Schijman, E; Monges, J; Cragnaz, R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal sinuses are abnormal communications between the skin and deeper tissues. Seven cases are presented of occipital dermal sinuses associated with dermoid or epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa. The cysts were interdural, subdural and intracerebellar. Although they are benign lesions, there is a high incidence of complications, especially infections such as bacterial or aseptic meningitis and cerebellar abscess. The clinical features, radiological and tomographical characteristics, and the relationship to meningeal structures, dural sinuses and cerebellar parenchyma are described. PMID:3731173

  2. How Is Sinusitis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blood test to rule out cystic fibrosis Tests on the material inside the sinuses to detect a bacterial or fungal infection An aspirin challenge to test for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. In an aspirin ...

  3. Complications of Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... further intracranial surgeries. Impaired sense of taste or smell : The sense of smell usually improves after the procedure because airflow is ... in their voice after sinus surgery. Impairment of smell or taste: (see above) Infection: The most common ...

  4. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... The nasal endoscope is a small, lighted metal telescope placed into the nostril. The endoscope allows the ... sinus surgery involves the use of a small telescope (nasal endoscope) that is inserted through the nostril ...

  5. Sinusitis Q and A

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hydration. Medications, such as decongestants, mucolytics and pain relievers, may be offered by your physician to help decrease the severity of your symptoms. The mainstay of treatment for acute bacterial sinusitis is an appropriate antibiotic, ...

  6. Examination of PACAP-Like Immunoreactivity in Urogenital Tumor Samples.

    PubMed

    Tamas, Andrea; Javorhazy, Andras; Reglodi, Dora; Sarlos, Donat Peter; Banyai, Daniel; Semjen, David; Nemeth, Jozsef; Lelesz, Beata; Fulop, Daniel Balazs; Szanto, Zalan

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies investigated the localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors in different tumors and described the effects of analogs on tumor growth to show its potential role in oncogenesis. Recently, our research group has found significantly lower levels of PACAP27-like immunorreactivity (LI) and PACAP38-LI in different human samples of primary small cell lung cancer and colon cancer compared to normal healthy tissues. There are only few human studies showing the presence of PACAP and its receptors in urogenital tumors; therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare PACAP-LI in different healthy and pathological human samples from urogenital organs (kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. Similar to our earlier observations, the PACAP27-LI was significantly lower compared to PACAP38-LI in all samples. We did not find significant alterations in PACAP-LI between healthy and tumoral samples from the urinary bladder and testis. On the other hand, we found significantly lower PACAP38-LI level in kidney tumors compared with healthy tissue samples, and we showed higher PACAP27-LI in prostatic cancer compared to samples from benign prostatic hyperplasia. These data indicate that PACAP levels of different tissue samples are altered under pathological conditions suggesting a potential role of PACAP in the development of different urogenital tumors. PMID:26454744

  7. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Allroggen, H.; Abbott, R.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a challenging condition because of its variability of clinical symptoms and signs. It is very often unrecognised at initial presentation. All age groups can be affected. Large sinuses such as the superior sagittal sinus are most frequently involved. Extensive collateral circulation within the cerebral venous system allows for a significant degree of compensation in the early stages of thrombus formation. Systemic inflammatory diseases and inherited as well as acquired coagulation disorders are frequent causes, although in up to 30% of cases no underlying cause can be identified. The oral contraceptive pill appears to be an important additional risk factor. The spectrum of clinical presentations ranges from headache with papilloedema to focal deficit, seizures and coma. Magnetic resonance imaging with venography is the investigation of choice; computed tomography alone will miss a significant number of cases. It has now been conclusively shown that intravenous heparin is the first-line treatment for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis because of its efficacy, safety and feasability. Local thrombolysis may be indicated in cases of deterioration, despite adequate heparinisation. This should be followed by oral anticoagulation for 3-6 months. The prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is generally favourable. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose this uncommon condition so that appropriate treatment can be initiated.


Keywords: cerebral venous sinus thrombosis PMID:10622773

  8. [Anorexia with sinus bradycardia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang-fang; Xu, Ling; Chen, Bao-xia; Cui, Ming; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-02-18

    As anorexia patients always go to the psychiatric clinic, little is concerned about the occurrence of sinus bradycardia in these patients for cardiologists and psychiatrists. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between anorexia and sinus bradycardia, and the feature analysis, differential diagnosis and therapeutic principles of this type of sinus bradycardia. We report a case of sinus bradycardia in an anorexia patient with the clinical manifestations, laboratory exams, auxiliary exams, therapeutic methods, and her prognosis, who was admitted to Peking University Third Hospital recently. The patient was a 19-year-old female, who had the manifestation of anorexia. She lost obvious weight in a short time (about 15 kg in 6 months), and her body mass index was 14.8 kg/m(2). The patient felt apparent palpitation, chest depression and short breath, without dizziness, amaurosis or unconsciousness. Vitals on presentation were notable for hypotension, and bradycardia. The initial exam was significant for emaciation, but without lethargy or lower extremity edema. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with her heart rate being 32 beats per minute. The laboratory work -up revealed her normal blood routine, electrolytes and liver function. But in her thyroid function test, the free thyroid (FT) hormones 3 was 0.91 ng/L (2.3-4.2 ng/L),and FT4 was 8.2 ng/L (8.9-18.0 ng/L), which were all lower; yet the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was normal 1.48 IU/mL (0.55-4.78 IU/mL). Ultrasound revealed her normal thyroid. Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, fear of gaining weight or distorted perception of body image, and amenorrhea. Anorexia patients who lose weight apparently in short time enhance the excitability of the parasympathetic nerve, and inhibit the sympathetic nerve which lead to the appearance of sinus bradycardia, and functional abnormalities of multiple systems such as hypothyroidism. But this kind of sinus

  9. Cultured High-Fidelity Three-Dimensional Human Urogenital Tract Carcinomas and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are propagated under in vitro-microgravity conditions from carcinoma cells. Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are also propagated from a coculture of normal urogenital tract cells inoculated with carcinoma cells. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  10. Sinus node function in first three weeks after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Mackintosh, A F; Carmichael, D J; Wren, C; Cory-Pearce, R; English, T A

    1982-01-01

    Donor sinus node function was studied in 10 patients from day 4 to day 24 after cardiac transplantation. Cycle length, atrial arrhythmias, corrected sinus node recovery time, and estimated sinoatrial conduction time were recorded daily. Five patients had at least two sets of results suggesting sinus node dysfunction (group A) while five patients had no such abnormalities (group B). The prognosis in group A was poor, with four of the five patients dying within four months of the operation; one unexpected death from arrhythmias was recorded by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. All five patients in group B survived for at least eight months. In nine patients sinus node function varied from day to day, with corrected sinus node recovery time reaching a peak at 11 to 18 days after operation. The longest corrected sinus node recovery time was 11 160 ms. Neither the differences between the patients, nor the day to day variation, could be explained solely by the degree of rejection as assessed by biopsy or by the ischaemia time of the heart during procurement. Sinus node dysfunction soon after transplantation is associated with a poorer prognosis and might be the terminal event in some cases. Images PMID:6756446

  11. [Sinus barotrauma and the functional endoscopic sinus surgery].

    PubMed

    Hermanowski, Maciej; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Adamiak, Grzegorz; Grochulska, Ewa

    2003-12-01

    Sinus barotrauma is quite common illness, which affects the passengers of the planes and the air staff. The authors describe possibilities of the course of treatment these patients with special regard to the functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:15058260

  12. Traumatic Dural Venous Sinus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, You-Sub; Jung, Seung-Hoon; Lim, Dong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Sun; Kim, Jae-Hyoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The importance of traumatic dural venous sinus injury lies in the probability of massive blood loss at the time of trauma or emergency operation resulting in a high mortality rate during the perioperative period. We considered the appropriate methods of treatment that are most essential in the overall management of traumatic dural venous sinus injuries. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all cases involving patients with dural venous sinus injury who presented to our hospital between January 1999 and December 2014. Results Between January 1999 and December 2014, 20 patients with a dural venous sinus injury out of the 1,200 patients with severe head injuries who had been operated upon in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. There were 17 male and 3 female patients. In 11 out of the 13 patients with a linear skull fracture crossing the dural venous sinus, massive blood loss from the injured sinus wall could be controlled by simple digital pressure using Gelfoam. All 5 patients with a linear skull fracture parallel to the sinus over the venous sinus developed massive sinus bleeding that could not be controlled by simple digital pressure. Conclusion When there is a linear skull fracture parallel to the sinus over the dural venous sinus or a depressed skull fracture penetrating the sinus, the surgeon should be prepared for the possibility of potentially fatal venous sinus injury, even in the absence of a hematoma. PMID:27169076

  13. Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Le, Christopher; McCrary, Hilary C; Chang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene(CFTR) resulting in impaired ion transport. Nearly all people with CF will develop chronic rhino-sinusitis (CRS) and present with the characteristic viscous mucus, impaired mucociliary clearance and chronic inflammation/infection of the sinonasal cavity. While some individuals with CF can appear relatively asymptomatic in terms of their sinus disease, commonly reported symptoms include anosmia, headache, facial pain, nasal obstruction, chronic congestion and nasal discharge. Nasal endoscopy typically reveals mucosal edema, purulent discharge and nasal polyposis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging classically demonstrates the distinguishing findings of sinus hypoplasia or aplasia with generalized opacification, medial bulging of the lateral sinonasal sidewall and a demineralized uncinate process. Current treatment for CF sinusitis includes the use of hypertonic saline, topical and systemic steroids, antibiotics and endoscopic surgery. Research investigating novel therapies designed at targeting the primary defect of CF is showing promise for reversal of CF sinus disease, in addition to potential for disease prevention. PMID:27466844

  14. Unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm involving all three sinuses.

    PubMed

    Altarabsheh, Salah Eldien I; Araoz, Philip A; Deo, Salil V; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2011-02-01

    In contrast to generalized aneurysmal dilatation of the aortic root, discrete sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is an uncommon condition most often affecting the right coronary sinus. We recently treated a patient without the known connective tissue disorder having discrete aneurysms of all three sinuses. PMID:21256260

  15. Hemangioma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Most, D S

    1985-11-01

    Hemangiomas of the maxillary sinus are rare. Hemangiomas of the maxillary sinus with an associated phlebolith have not been previously reported. Severe bleeding can occur upon surgical removal of hemangiomas. PMID:3864111

  16. Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

  17. Mucopyocele of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Kshar, Avinash; Patil, Abhijeet; Umarji, Hemant; Kadam, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Mucoceles are defined as chronic, cystic lesions in the paranasal sinuses. When the mucocele content becomes infected, the lesion is defined as mucopyocele. Most mucoceles are located in the frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses and normally they involve the frontal-ethmoid complex, expanding to the superior-medial region of the orbit, leading to ocular disorders; maxillary sinus presentation is rare. In the present article, the authors described a rare case of mucopyocele in the maxillary sinus. PMID:24688571

  18. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, William M.; Uniyal, Apurva; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Johnson, Shacondra; Perry, Raymond C.W.; Kadrnka, Carmel M.; Kerndt, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin (1 g in one dose) to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). The treatment was directly observed. The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A (OmpA) genotyping of C. trachomatis strains. RESULTS Among the 567 participants enrolled, 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. A total of 155 participants in each treatment group (65% male) made up the per-protocol population. There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 7.4%). The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3.2 percentage points, with an upper boundary of the 90% confidence interval of 5.9 percentage points, which exceeded the prespecified absolute 5-percentage-point cutoff for establishing the noninferiority of azithromycin. CONCLUSIONS In the context of a closed population receiving directly observed treatment for urogenital chlamydia infection, the efficacy of azithromycin was 97%, and the efficacy of doxycycline was 100%. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00980148.) PMID:26699167

  19. [Gorlin syndrome with osteoma in the maxillary sinus (case report)].

    PubMed

    Sevinç, Halil; Oztürk, Mustafa; Mavili, Ertuğrul; Ozyazgan, Irfan

    2004-12-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw, various skeletal abnormalities, and lamellar falx calsifications. Many associated lesions have been reported. In this report, we present a case of Gorlin syndrome with an osteoma in the maxillary sinus which has never been reported in the literature. PMID:15611914

  20. Urinary incontinence and related urogenital symptoms in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Molander, U

    1993-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and related urogenital symptoms (UGS) in a representative sample of elderly women (Papers I & II), and to investigate factors (Papers II & III) influencing the prevalence of UI in these women. The effects of treatment with oral estriol and placebo on the vaginal bacterial flora, vaginal cytology and urogenital symptoms in elderly women suffering from the urogenital estrogen deficiency syndrome were compared (Paper IV). A health care programme, based on an algorithm model, for the investigation and treatment of elderly women suffering from UI and related UGS, was designed and applied to a large group of elderly women (Paper V). The prevalence of UI increased in a linear fashion from 12% in the 1940 birth cohort to 25% in the 1900 birth cohort (Papers I & II). There was similar increase in the prevalence of UTI from 14% in the 1920 birth cohort to 23% in the 1900 birth cohort. In contrast, the reported prevalence of UGS such as vaginal discomfort, discharge and pruritus did not increase with age. The prevalence of UI increased with increasing parity and after hysterectomy, but was unaffected by the duration of previous oral contraceptive usage. There was no evidence to suggest that the prevalence of UI increased at the time of the last menstrual period. Neurological illnesses were an uncommon cause of UI in women < or = to 75 years of age (Paper III). Oral estriol (3 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 2 mg/day for a further 6 weeks) had a positive influence on vaginal pH, cytology and the vaginal bacteria flora, and on UGS in elderly women suffering from the urogenital estrogen deficiency syndrome (Paper IV). Using objective techniques of evaluation (Paper V) it was possible to demonstrate successful treatment of elderly women with urge and mixed incontinence using a simple health care programme. There was however no evidence of improvement in women

  1. [Investigation of subalin effect on urogenital microflora of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Sirokvasha, E A; Paran'ko, S I; Kozitskaia, S N; Vinnikov, A I

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of 30 women with incomplete pregnancy has been conducted. Representatives of 18 genera of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as yeast-like fungi of Candida genus were found. It has been established that spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus genus from subalin preparation have antagonistic activity in respect of the strains of pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria with characteristic zones of growth depression of 12-15 mm. This demonstrates that the agents of infectional urogenital process are effectively suppressed by subalin. PMID:11944342

  2. First Record of Urogenital Myiasis Induced by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Mohammad Bagher; Djalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of organs and tissues of human and animals with fly larvae. This article reports an 18 year-old man with urogenital myiasis, the passing of live Megaselia scalaris larvae in the urine, from Zanjan City, northwest of Iran. We discourse the importance of diagnosis and management of urogenital myiasis in medicine. PMID:26623439

  3. The unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA) rat: a new mutant strain associated with unilateral renal agenesis, cryptorchidism, and malformations of reproductive organs restricted to the left side.

    PubMed

    Amakasu, Kohei; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2009-06-01

    We established an inbred rat strain with unilateral urogenital anomalies from an incidentally identified male rat with unilateral renal agenesis and an undescended left testis. These rats were characterized by unilateral renal agenesis in both sexes, undescended testes with agenesis and hypoplasia of the accessory sex organs in male rats, and complete and partial agenesis of the uterine horn in female rats. All of these urogenital anomalies were unilateral and restricted to the left side; we named this phenotype unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA). Breeding tests showed that these abnormalities were inherited as polygenic traits. The weight of right kidneys of affected rats was 1.7-fold higher than that of normal rats; histologically, glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilations, and tubular casts were detected at 30 wk of age. These alterations may have resulted from compensatory renal adaptation to the lack of 1 kidney. The cryptorchid left testes of affected male rats showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatocytes and spermatids. These results indicate that the UUA rat may be a good model to study the etiology of unilateral renal agenesis accompanied by agenesis of the reproductive tract and to study compensatory alterations resulting from the congenital loss of 1 kidney. PMID:19619415

  4. When Sinuses Attack!

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a cold? continue When Good Sinuses Go Bad What about that cold that won't go away? A cold virus can: damage the delicate ... if you are feeling well enough, you can go to school or go outside and play. In ...

  5. Can Sinusitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Prevention There ...

  6. How Is Sinusitis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Credit: NIAID Sinusitis ...

  7. Chronic odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ugincius, Paulius; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gervickas, Albinas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate average age of the patients in both sexes treated for MS, distribution by sex, amount of dexter and sinister MS with and without the fistulas into the maxillary sinus, with and without the foreign-bodies, length of stay in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine during the period from 1999 till 2004. The retrospective data analysis of the patients' treated from chronic MS was made. 346 patients (213 females and 133 males) were treated for chronic MS. 55 cases of chronic dexter MS with a fistula into maxillary sinus, 98 cases of chronic dexter MS without a fistula, 45 cases of chronic sinister MS with a fistula, 112 cases chronic sinister MS without a fistula, 16 cases of foreign-bodies in dexter maxillary sinus, 20 cases of foreign-bodies in sinister maxillary sinus have been detected. The main age of the female was 46.6+/-15.0, the main age of the men was 42.1+/-14.4. Statictically significant difference in the age difference of the women and the men was found (p=0.0024). It was determined, that females diagnosed and treated with chronic MS were 1.6 times more than males during the period from 1999 till 2004 in Kaunas Hospital of University of Medicine. Females treated for chronic MS were 4.5 years older than males. PMID:16861848

  8. Congenital sternoclavicular dermoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Willaert, Annelore; Bruninx, Liesje; Hens, Greet; Hauben, Esther; Devriendt, Koen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We report a case series of 8 patients, presenting with a congenital sinus in the region of the sternoclavicular joint. This rare malformation has only been reported in the Japanese dermatological literature under the name of "congenital dermoid fistula of the anterior chest region". It has to be distinguished from other congenital anomalies and requires complete excision. PMID:26810293

  9. The interpretation of urogenital findings in children with straddle injuries.

    PubMed

    Dowd, M D; Fitzmaurice, L; Knapp, J F; Mooney, D

    1994-01-01

    Because urogenital trauma frequently raises the question of sexual abuse, it is important to be able to relate the mechanism of injury to expected examination findings. This study was undertaken to characterize the trauma that results from straddling and correlate such injuries with the history, examination, and patient characteristics. The charts of 100 patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department were reviewed; their conditions met the criteria of straddle injury--a blow to the perineum as a result of falling or striking a surface or an object with the force of one's own body weight. Ages ranged from 9 to 187 months (mean, 77.9; median, 67.2); 72% were female. Most injuries were minor lacerations and abrasions of the genitalia. Eleven percent had injury to the posterior fourchette. Hymenal and vaginal injuries were primarily caused by penetrating mechanisms. Five patients who presented with a history of straddling subsequently received the diagnosis of sexual assault based on disclosure by the patient or a witness and inconsistency of physical findings. There were no urethral or perianal injuries resulting from nonpenetrating straddle mechanisms. Straddle injuries include a variety of mostly minor urogenital injuries. Perianal, hymenal, or vaginal trauma suggests a penetrating mechanism, either unintentional or from sexual assault. An investigation for sexual assault should be initiated in the following cases: infants younger than 9 months of age; perianal, hymenal, or vaginal injury; extensive or severe injury; concurrent nonurogenital injuries; and whenever there is lack of correlation between history and physical findings. PMID:8120766

  10. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm with retrograde approach.

    PubMed

    Narin, Nazmi; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Baykan, Ali; Uzüm, Kazım

    2014-04-01

    A three-year-old girl with multiple heart malformations admitted to the pediatric cardiology unit because of excessive sweating and fatigue. Abnormal color Doppler flow was detected into the right atrium from the dilated coronary sinus on the echocardiographic examination, and ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) was diagnosed. Although in most such cases, an antegrade transcatheter approach has been used, a retrograde approach can be used as a cost-effective treatment modality in those cases with selective high-risk surgery. In this report, we present a patient with ruptured SVA, which was closed via Amplatzer vascular plug-4 by retrograde approach. PMID:24769826

  11. Cavernous sinus thrombosis revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Yarington, C T

    1977-01-01

    In summary, cavernous sinus thrombosis is still with us. Patients now survive the disease more often than not, and therapy and diagnosis are reasonably clear cut. An increasing array of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been balanced by an increasing army of antibiotics. The controversy over anticoagulation has not changed since reviewed by Parsons (1967). Ancillary measures remain more of value in diagnosis than in therapy. It is a disease primarily diagnosed by physical signs and symptoms, which requires prompt treatment. In our modern age of computerization and laboratory-based medical care, cavernous sinus thrombosis demands the diagnostic skill of the clinician, whose prompt ministrations should usually yield a favourable result. PMID:331338

  12. Septic Lateral Sinus Thrombosis: Sinus Exploration Is Unnecessary

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam Bir; Arora, Rubeena; Garg, Sunil; Kumar, Deepak; Ranjan, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    The algorithm of treatment of septic lateral sinus thrombosis (SLST) has undergone a paradigm shift with the understanding of the natural history of sigmoid sinus thrombosis. Thus, the recent medical literature promulgates the management of these cases with no sinus exploration. However, in view of marked paucity of literature on the cited subject, not much is known about this form of treatment. We present our experience of treating two paediatric cases of SLST with mastoid surgery and no sinus exploration: both cases had excellent recovery. Finally, conclusions are drawn in light of contemporary literature on this subject. PMID:26881164

  13. [One case of fungal sinusitis foreign body in nasal sinus].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xudong; Li, Na; Liu, Pei

    2015-08-01

    A young female complained repeated nasal discharge for over three months with discomfort of right cheek, and oral antibiotics had less effect. She has a history of "root canal therapy" five years before. Physical examination found purulent secretion in the right middle nasal meatus, and light tenderness in the right side of the maxillary sinus area. The CT scan of paranasal sinus shown possible fungal infection of right maxillary sinus. Finally the nasal endoscopic surgery confirmed the fungus ball of right maxillary sinus with foreign body (the root canal filling material). PMID:26685411

  14. Sinus Sabaeus Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows old, light-toned, large ripples on a smoothly mantled surface in the Sinus Sabaeus region, south of Schiaparelli Basin. This image is located near 6.4oS, 341.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Anterior perineal sinus.

    PubMed

    Oliver, G C; Rubin, R J; Salvati, E P; Eisenstat, T E; Lott, J

    1991-09-01

    Each year we treat several patients with an anterior perineal sinus tract. They do not conform to commonly encountered perineal problems such as pilonidal disease, epidermal cysts, hidradenitis, fistulous abscess, or inflammatory bowel disease. In an effort to improve understanding of the problem and its clinical significance, we reviewed our practice records for the period from 1968 through 1988. Fifty-six patients underwent surgery for an anterior perineal sinus tract. In 31 patients, the clinical and pathologic condition defied classical diagnostic categorization. We have termed these lesions "anterior perineal sinuses." Their clinical characteristics, treatment, and pathologic assessment from the body of this report. Male predominance (87 percent) and midlife presentation (average age, 44 years) characterized this group. Local symptoms were present from several weeks to several years prior to treatment. Local anesthesia (74 percent) and limited surgery (100 percent) resulted in complete healing in all patients (average, 7 weeks). A 15 percent recurrence rate was noted. The pathologic evaluation demonstrated acute and chronic dermal and subcutaneous inflammation. The etiology of this process remains uncertain. Its predominance along the median raphe suggests a congenital midline inclusion disorder. PMID:1914743

  16. Bacteria in chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Karma, P; Jokipii, L; Sipilä, P; Luotonen, J; Jokipii, A M

    1979-07-01

    Sixty-one chronically inflamed maxillary sinuses produced 131 bacterial strains from mucosal pieces that were taken during a Caldwell-Luc operation and cultured aerobically and anaerobically. Sinus secretions showed only 62 and nasal secretions 106 bacterial strains. Fourteen mucosal strains, including 11 Haemophilus influenzae, grew heavily. None of 24 mucosal anaerobes showed heavy growth. Of 52 antral mucosae with culturable bacteria, 37 disclosed mixed and 15 pure growth. The bacteriological characteristics of the diseased sinus and the nose did not correlate. The duration or extent of the disease, the macroscopic appearance of the diseased sinus, or the presence or absence of allergy were unrelated to bacteriological findings, except that H influenzae was concentrated in purulent sinuses. Intraoperative culture of antral mucosa seems to give the most reliable picture of the bacteriological condition in chronic maxillary sinusitis. PMID:313206

  17. No more fear of the cavernous sinuses!

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, F; Williams, M; Lafitte, F; Héran, F

    2013-10-01

    After a review of the anatomy of the cavernous sinuses (CS), this work presents the clinical picture and imaging protocol of lesions which occur in this area. It outlines extension and imaging features of these lesions. It emphasises MRI appearance, such as T1, T2 and diffusion signal, type of contrast medium uptake. A complementary CT scan is performed if an associated abnormality of the base of the skull is suspected on MRI (lysis, condensation). This paper proposes a straightforward classification system depending on imaging and sets out the principal symptoms of the main aetiologies of CS lesions which are represented by various diseases such as tumours, inflammations, vascular abnormalities. Complementary to imaging, their diagnosis is based on clinical data i.e. known cancer, signs suggesting inflammation. Its rich iconography allows this article to be used as a reference in current clinical practice. PMID:24099909

  18. Sinusitis. A review for generalists.

    PubMed Central

    Reuler, J B; Lucas, L M; Kumar, K L

    1995-01-01

    A frequent complication of the common cold, sinusitis is one of the most prevalent problems seen in general medical and emergency department practices. In addition, nosocomial sinus infection, particularly in intensive care units, is being recognized more frequently. Decision making about managing patients with sinusitis is based primarily on the history and, to a lesser extent, the findings of the physical examination. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:7667982

  19. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin is a well-known condition in both the dental and otolaryngology communities. It occurs when the Schneiderian membrane is violated by conditions arising from dentoalveolar unit. This type of sinusitis differs in its pathophysiology, microbiology, diagnostics and management from sinusitis of other causes, therefore, failure to accurately identify a dental cause in these patients usually lead to persistent symptomatology and failure of medical and surgical therapies directed toward sinusitis. Unilateral recalcitrant disease associated with foul smelling drainage is a most common feature of odontogenic sinusitis. Also, high-resolution CT scans and cone-beam volumetric computed tomography can assist in identifying dental disease. Sometimes dental treatment alone is adequate to resolve the odontogenic sinusitis and sometimes concomitant or subsequent functional endoscopic sinus surgery or Caldwell-Luc operation is required. The aim of this article is to give a review of the most common causes, symptoms, diagnostic and treatment methods of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Search on Cochrane Library, PubMed and Science Direct data bases by key words resulted in 35 articles which met our criteria. It can be concluded that the incidence of odontogenic sinusitis is likely underreported in the available literature. PMID:25209225

  20. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation. PMID:26758863

  1. Clinical presentation of inappropriate sinus tachycardia and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Peyrol, Michael; Lévy, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is a syndrome characterized by a sinus tachycardia not related to a medical condition, to a physiological response, or to medication or drugs and associated with symptoms, often invalidating and altering the quality of life of affected patients. It occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults, and in the female sex. The diagnosis requires a complete work-up in order to exclude other causes of sinus tachycardia and one or several additional tests: 24-h ECG ambulatory recordings, echocardiogram, exercise testing, and autonomous nervous system assessment. It should be differentiated from the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, with which it shares a number of symptoms, and other supraventricular tachycardias originating in the high right atrium. An electrophysiological study should be considered in selected cases in order to differentiate IST from other supraventricular tachycardias. The mechanism is still unclear, and possible etiologies may include intrinsic abnormality of the sinus node, autonomic dysfunction, hypersensitivity of the sinus node to catecholamines, blunted vagal system, or a combination of the above. The authors emphasize the wide spectrum of clinical presentations and the need to better define the IST and the criteria required to ascertain its diagnosis. PMID:26329720

  2. Spinal dorsal dermal sinus tract: An experience of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ishwar; Rohilla, Seema; Kumar, Prashant; Sharma, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal dorsal dermal sinus is a rare entity, which usually comes to clinical attention by cutaneous abnormalities, neurologic deficit, and/or infection. The present study was undertaken to know the clinical profile of these patients, to study associated anomalies and to assess the results of surgical intervention. Methods: Medical records of 21 patients treated for spinal dorsal dermal sinus from September 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed. Results: We had 21 patients with male: female ratio of 13:8. Only 2 patients were below 1-year of age, and most cases (15) were between 2 and 15 years (mean age = 8.2 years). Lumbar region (11 cases) was most frequently involved, followed by thoracic (4 cases), lumbosacral, and cervical region in 3 patients each. All of our patients presented with neurological deficits. Three patients were admitted with acute meningitis with acute onset paraplegia and had intraspinal abscess. The motor, sensory, and autonomic deficits were seen in 14, 6, and 8 patients, respectively. Scoliosis and congenital talipes equinovarus were the common associated anomalies. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of dysraphic state and excision of the sinus. Overall, 20 patients improved or neurological status stabilized and only 1 patient deteriorated. Postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 cases. Conclusions: All patients with spinal dorsal dermal sinuses should be offered aggressive surgical treatment in the form of total excision of sinus tract and correction of spinal malformation, as soon as diagnosed. PMID:26539316

  3. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  4. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years.

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Paranasal sinus cancer.

    PubMed

    Jégoux, F; Métreau, A; Louvel, G; Bedfert, C

    2013-12-01

    Paranasal sinus cancers are rare, aggressive tumours that are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. They differ from other upper aerodigestive tract tumours in terms of risk factors (wood dust exposure) and premalignant lesions (inverted papillomas). The diagnosis should be suspected in the presence of unilateral and continuous nasal sinus symptoms or bone lysis or a heterogeneous opacity on imaging. The definitive positive diagnosis is based on histological examination. Staging must comprise face, brain, neck and chest CT as well as face and brain MRI. Tumours are stage T3-T4 in two-thirds of cases and are associated with cervical lymph node involvement in 10% of squamous cell carcinomas and 4% of adenocarcinomas. These tumours must be managed in reference centres experienced in all of the various treatment modalities. Treatment decisions must be based on a multidisciplinary approach comprising local, regional and national REFCOR expertise (French rare head and neck cancer network). Optimal treatment is surgical resection with clear margins associated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Although it has been improved over recent decades, the prognosis remains poor with local recurrences occurring in 38% of cases and a five-year overall survival of about 63%. PMID:23523040

  7. The Role of Screening Sinus Computed Tomography in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Carlos A.; Oppenheimer, Avi G.; Dave, Hema; Symons, Heather; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Izbudak, Izlem

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate pretransplant sinus computed tomography (CT) as predictor of post–hematopoietic stem cell transplant sinusitis. Methods We evaluated pretransplant and posttransplant CT findings in 100 children using the Lund-Mackay system and “common-practice” radiology reporting and correlated these with the presence of acute sinusitis. Results Fourteen percent of patients with normal screening CT developed posttransplant sinusitis, compared with 23%with radiographic abnormalities and 22% with clinical sinusitis alone, not statistically significant. Sensitivity of CT findings for clinical sinusitis ranged between 19% and 56%. Except for mucosal thickening (71% specificity), other findings had high specificity between 92% and 97%, particularly when combined. Lund-Mackay score change of 10 or greater from baseline was associated with a 2.8-fold increased likelihood of having sinusitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions Screening CT can serve as a baseline, with a Lund-Mackay score change of 10 or greater constituting a significant threshold. The strongest correlation with the presence of acute sinusitis was seen with combined CT findings. PMID:25474147

  8. [Neonatal pilonidal sinuses and screening by medullary ultrasonography: preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Avni, E F; Matos, C; Grassart, A; Christophe, C; Pardou, A; Baleriaux, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on their preliminary experience with ultrasound as a screening examination in neonates presenting pilonidal sinuses. Of the 100 patients examined over the 2 previous years, three pathological cases were found (1 tethered cord, 1 lipoma of the filum terminale and one localized hydromelia). Abnormal or doubtful cases were confirmed or further investigated by magnetic resonance. Ultrasound seems to be an accurate technique for the detection of malformation of spinal canal content in neonates under one month of age. PMID:1660120

  9. Racial disparities in preterm births. The role of urogenital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk for preterm birth were extracted from published studies for the following infections: N. gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B streptococcal vaginal colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, genital mycoplasmas, and bacterial vaginosis. Estimates of the prevalence among black and white women by race for each of these infections were extracted from published studies. The attributable risk for preterm birth for selected infections was then calculated for the black and white populations and the impact on the racial gap in preterm births was estimated. RESULTS: Only bacterial vaginosis and bacteriuria appear to be established risk factors for preterm births. Significantly higher rates of bacterial vaginosis among black women may account for nearly 30% of the racial gap in preterm births. Higher rates of bacteriuria among black women may account for roughly 5% of the gap. CONCLUSION: Although these findings are limited by the reliability of published estimates of prevalence and relative risk for these infections, treatment of infections during pregnancy, particularly bacterial vaginosis, offers hope for reducing the racial gap in preterm births. Images p104-a p110-a PMID:8606905

  10. Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, this is often hard to prove. An ECG may show abnormal heart rhythms related to this ... do so. You may need a permanent implanted pacemaker if your symptoms are related to bradycardia (slow ...

  11. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  12. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  13. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  14. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  15. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  16. Management of Frontal Sinus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Selleck, Anne Morgan; Desai, Dipan; Thorp, Brian D; Ebert, Charles S; Zanation, Adam M

    2016-08-01

    The most common primary tumors of the frontal sinus are osteomas and inverted papillomas, although a variety of other tumors involving this space have been reported. With the advent of new surgical techniques and instrumentation, an endoscopic approach to this region has become feasible. The preoperative assessment and decision making must take into account the complexity of frontal sinus anatomy, tumor type, tumor location, and associated attachments. These procedures allow adequate visualization, tumor removal, and postoperative monitoring, and preserve fairly normal sinus function. Open techniques may also be required and should be in the surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:27450620

  17. Maxillary sinusitis with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Prakash, Ved; Singh, Abhishek Bahadur; Saheer, S

    2014-01-01

    Tubercular infection of the nasal cavity is an infrequently encountered condition. More so, after the discovery of relevant antibiotics, nasal sinus tuberculosis is not commonly seen. Few cases have reported tuberculosis of the paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx. With the increasing incidence of HIV, these rare forms of infection have started re-emerging. We present a case of a middle aged man presenting with nasal cavity lesion along with pulmonary tuberculosis, which came to light only after the diagnosis of maxillary sinus tuberculosis. PMID:25085948

  18. MRI Findings of Otic and Sinus Barotrauma in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zhai, Zhao-Hua; Li, Pei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study the MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and examine the discrepancies of otic and sinus abnormalities on MRI between barotrauma and acute otitis media with effusion. Materials and Methods Eighty patients with CO-poisoning diagnosed with otic and sinus barotrauma after HBO therapy were recruited. Brain MRI was performed to predict delayed encephalopathy. Over the same period, 88 patients with acute otitis media with effusion on MRI served as control. The abnormalities of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses on MRI were noted and were compared between groups. Nine patients with barotrauma were followed up by MRI. Results In the barotrauma group, 92.5% of patients had bilateral middle ear abnormalities on MRI, and 60% of patients had both middle ear cavity and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in both ears. Both rates were higher than those in the control group (p = 0.000). In the two groups, most abnormalities on MRI were observed in the mastoid cavity. The rate of sinus abnormalities of barotrauma was 66.3%, which was higher than the 50% in the control group (p = 0.033). In the nine patients with barotrauma followed up by MRI, the otic barotrauma and sinus abnormalities had worsened in 2 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Conclusion MRI is able to depict the abnormalities of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with CO-poisoning during HBO therapy and to differentiate these from acute otitis media with effusion. PMID:23776523

  19. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  20. Paranasal sinus obliteration in Wegener granulomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Roberts, R.L.; Fauci, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The authors report 14 cases of Wegener granulomatosis in which one or more paranasal sinuses were obliterated by bone. The maxillary antra were involved in all cases, with the other sinuses being affected less frequently. These changes are thought to result from chronic bacterial sinusitis superimposed on the granulomatous vasculitic process. Computed tomography dramatically demonstrated the bone changes, consisting of a combination of sinus wall thickening and trabeculated new bone formation within the sinuses.

  1. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Hiroyuki; Takeshima, Toshikazu; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver

    1998-01-01

    Sinus-vein thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a much more frequent neurological disorder than was anticipated before. We examined the pathophysiology of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) from 19 patients and a rat SSST model. We treated 19 cases with SSST who were diagnosed by angiography. The symptoms of nine patients, who suffered multiple intracerebral hemorrhage, were abrupt. In another ten patients who recovered satisfactorily, the condition progressed slowly and they were treated with heparin and urokinase. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that female, sudden onset (<24 hours) and posterior 1/3 occlusion are related to bad outcome. Experimentally, SSST was induced by ligation and slow injection of kaolin-cephalin suspension into SSS in rats. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Hb Sao2) using a “scanning” technique were measured at 48 locations, and fluorescence angiography was performed before and until 90 min after SSST induction. After 48 hours the animals were sacrificed for histological studies. Decrease of rCBF and tissue Hb SO2 and brain damage were seen in group B (n = 10) with an extension of thrombosis from SSS into cortical veins. Brain injury was not observed in group A (n = 8) with SSS thrombus alone and sham-operated animals (n = 5). In conclusion, a brain with acute extension of thrombus from SSS into cortical veins becomes critical for cerebral blood supply and metabolism. CBF, tissue HbSO2 and repeated angiography can be helpful monitors for the early detection of critical conditions after SSST. As to the therapy, restraint on the ongoing thrombus is essential to protect the brain with SSST, and we encourage the use of combination therapy of heparin and urokinase as early as possible in cases without intracerebral hemorrhage. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171061

  2. Sinus Rinsing and Neti Pots

    MedlinePlus

    ... irrigate their sinuses (nose) 3-5 using contaminated tap water. If you are making a solution for irrigating, ... amebic meningoencephalitis death with culturable Naegleria fowleri in tap water from a U.S. treated public drinking water system. ...

  3. Laparoscopic repair of urogenital fistulae: A single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sumit; Rizvi, Syed Jamal; Bethur, Santhosh Shivanandaiah; Bansal, Jyoti; Qadri, Syed Javid Farooq; Modi, Pranjal

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Sparse literature exists on laparoscopic repair of urogenital fistulae (UGF). AIMS: The purpose of the following study is to report our experience of laparoscopic UGF repair with emphasis on important steps for a successful laparoscopic repair. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Data of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of UGF from 2003 to 2012 was retrospectively reviewed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was reviewed as to the aetiology, prior failed attempts, size, number and location of fistula, mean operative time, blood loss, post-operative storage/voiding symptoms and episodes of urinary tract infections (UTI). RESULTS: Laparoscopic repair of 22 supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF) (five recurrent) and 31 ureterovaginal fistulae (UVF) was performed. VVF followed transabdominal hysterectomy (14), lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) (7) and oophrectomy (1). UVF followed laparoscopy assisted vaginal hysterectomy (18), transvaginal hysterectomy (2) and transabdominal hysterectomy (10) and LSCS (1). Mean VVF size was 14 mm. Mean operative time and blood loss for VVF and UVF were 140 min, 75 ml and 130 min, 60 ml respectively. In 20 VVF repairs tissue was interposed between non-overlapping suture lines. Vesico-psoas hitch was done in 29 patients of urterovaginal fistulae. All patients were continent following surgery. There were no urinary complaints in VVF patients and no UTI in UVF patients over a median follow-up of 3.2 years and 2.8 years respectively. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic repair of UGF gives easy, quick access to the pelvic cavity. Interposition of tissue during VVF repair and vesico-psoas hitch during UVF repair form important steps to ensure successful repair. PMID:25336817

  4. Sinus Balloon Dilation as Treatment for Acute Sphenoid Sinusitis with Impaired Vision for a Child

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yin; Chen, Kangbing; Wang, Zonggui

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of acute left sphenoid sinusitis with left impaired vision in a child. Balloon catheter dilatation (BCD) of the sinus ostia is a new technique. It has been shown to be a minimally invasive technique to manage chronic sinusitis. However, this method is rarely used in the treatment of acute sinusitis. So far, we know of no reported cases of sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of this case, especially for children. PMID:27006660

  5. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  6. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira E Silva, Cléverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  7. MC-19 Margaritifer Sinus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-19 quadrangle, Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands, which dominate the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle, are marked by large expanses of chaotic terrain. In the northwestern part, the major rift zone of Valles Marineris connects with a broad canyon filled with chaotic terrain. Latitude range -30 to 0, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  8. MC-20 Sinus Sabeus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-20 quadrangle, Sinus Sabeus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle. The northern part is marked by a large impact crater, Schiaparelli. Schiaparelli is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0.

  9. Could probiotics be an option for treating and preventing urogenital infections?

    PubMed

    Reid, G; Bruce, A W

    2001-10-01

    Considering the enormity of the problem in terms of women infected per year, urogenital infections receive far too little attention from scientists, government funding agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. A recent resurgence in interest among clinicians is a result of consumer demands for better therapies, problems resulting from drug resistance, and the prospect of new diagnostics and treatments on the horizon. It is now recognized that the intestinal and urogenital microflora are critical for the health and well-being of humans. The concept of replenishing these flora with probiotic organisms seems to be an option that has a growing scientific basis. Although few strains have been selected and targeted for urogenital applications, and none are currently available on the market, evidence shows that probiotic therapy has the potential to make an impact on women's health. PMID:11698931

  10. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  11. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  12. Endoscopic sinus surgery for orbital subperiosteal abscess secondary to sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, D; Sankhla, D; Ganesan, A; Chand, P

    2001-09-01

    Subperiosteal orbital abscess (SPA) is a serious complication of paranasal sinusitis, which can lead to blindness or even death. A quick response is necessary as this condition is treatable. Early surgical intervention is indicated if there is risk of visual loss, or if no improvement is observed within 48 hours of starting medical therapy. Three patients with orbital SPA secondary to sinusitis treated successfully by Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) are presented in this case series. The surgical indications were impending visual loss with an abscess and cellulitis impinging on the optic nerve in one child and in the other two patients, a lack of clinical response within 48 hours after starting systemic antibiotic. CT scans, nasal endoscopy, and ophthalmologic examinations are mandatory during the evaluation process. The advantages of FESS in these patients were the avoidance of external ethmoidectomy and its external facial scar, an early drainage of the affected sinuses, SPA, and the eradication of the disease from the fronto-ethmoidal region leading to an enhanced recovery and a reduced hospital stay. FESS is also a safe, convenient and minimally invasive procedure in patients presenting with serious complications of sinusitis. PMID:11721506

  13. Giant Unruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm: An Unusual Cause of Right Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jugpal, Tejeshwar Singh; Dixit, Rashmi; Lohchab, Samta; Garg, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva is a rare cardiac abnormality. Unruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva is usually asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally. However, a large aneurysm can, in rare cases, cause compression of the ventricular outflow tract. We report a case of 17-year-old male with congestive right heart failure with a large, partially thrombosed unruptured aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva. The aneurysmal sac was compressing the right ventricular outflow tract causing marked dilatation of the right ventricle and atrium that was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging. Unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm causing right heart failure in adolescence has been rarely reported in literature. PMID:26713180

  14. Economic implications of chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Gliklich, R E; Metson, R

    1998-03-01

    An approach to cost analysis useful in understanding the economic implications of surgical intervention on chronic sinusitis is break-even time analysis. The break-even time is the time until cost savings associated with improved health status after surgery equal the up-front costs of the operation itself. Data from 100 consecutive patients undergoing sinus operation were obtained by survey before surgery and at quarterly intervals for 1 year with statistically validated outcome measures (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey, Chronic Sinusitis Survey). Direct and indirect costs were obtained or derived for this cohort. The cost of sinus medications, including over-the-counter remedies, nasal steroid sprays, and antibiotics, averaged $1220 per patient per year before surgery and $629 after surgery (p < 0.0001), which is a 48% reduction. Surgical costs averaged $6490 per patient. Economic modeling predicted a break-even time of approximately 7 years assuming a 3% surgical revision rate per year, a 3% decrease in sickness-related disability, and a 5% discount rate. The model was sensitive to changes in the total cost of operation, the surgical revision rate, and the anticipated disability benefit. We conclude that significant direct and indirect medical cost savings may be achieved after surgical intervention for chronic sinusitis and these savings eventually break even with the total cost of surgery itself. PMID:9527115

  15. Conventional management of inappropriate sinus tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, Brian; Sullivan, Renee M

    2016-06-01

    Inappropriate sinus tachycardia is a challenging problem to manage. There are limited data on the best method to evaluate and treat the problem. Here, we consider a conventional approach to inappropriate sinus tachycardia. PMID:26164138

  16. Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal crusting Vague facial pressure Decreased sense of smell and taste For the most part, sinusitis symptoms, ... to “sinus trouble”), and a decreased sense of smell and taste. However, it is a mistake to ...

  17. Retrobulbar optic neuropathy secondary to isolated sphenoid sinus disease

    PubMed Central

    Chafale, Vishal Annaji; Lahoti, Satish Arunkumar; Pandit, Alak; Gangopadhyay, Goutam; Biswas, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    Paranasal sinus disease can cause a condition that mimics optic neuritis. Simultaneous appearance of both diseases would create etiological dilemma. We report two cases of retrobulbar optic neuropathy secondary to isolated sphenoid sinus disease. In the case of a 65-year-old female who had presented with acute loss of vision in the left eye associated with left-sided frontal headache which subsequently turned out to be caused by optic nerve compression at the orbital apex due to collection in abnormally pneumatized left lesser wing of the sphenoid. In another case, a 65-year-old lady had presented with symptoms of bilateral retrobulbar optic neuropathy which was found to be due to direct compression of optic nerves at the orbital apex secondary to metastases from breast carcinoma. PMID:25883489

  18. Sudden Hemianopsia Secondary to Ethmoid Sinus Mucocele

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Ligia; Evangelista, Leandro; Guimaraes, Roberto; Crosara, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Paranasal sinus mucoceles are benign cystic lesions, filled with mucus, occurring due to an obstruction of involved sinus ostium. They are indolent, locally expansive, and destructive. Surgical treatment must be performed and, when done at the correct time, may prevent sequelae. We present a case of ethmoid sinus mucocele with orbit involvement and permanent optical nerve injury. PMID:25992113

  19. Sphenoid sinus barotrauma after free diving.

    PubMed

    Bourolias, Constantinos; Gkotsis, Antonios

    2011-01-01

    We report 2 cases of a 29- and a 37-year-old male patient both having sphenoid sinus barotrauma associated with free diving at about 12-m depth. A unilateral occupation of the sphenoid sinus was revealed in both cases by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination of the paranasal sinuses. PMID:20022669

  20. RIGHT SINUS OF VALSALVA ANEURYSM RUPTURE INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM: PRE- AND POSTOPERATIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Pablo; Marino, Pedro

    1978-01-01

    Echocardiographic features of a patient with sinus of Valsalva aneurysm rupture into the right atrium are discussed. An abnormal echo representing the aneurysmal sac was seen in the anterior aortic root. Other abnormal echoes were demonstrated in the right atrium. Flutter was visible in systole and diastole in the tricuspid area. The pulmonic valve echogram was normal. After surgical repair, the above findings disappeared. Images PMID:15216083

  1. An illustrated anatomical ontology of the developing mouse lower urogenital tract

    PubMed Central

    Georgas, Kylie M.; Armstrong, Jane; Keast, Janet R.; Larkins, Christine E.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Cohn, Martin J.; Batourina, Ekatherina; Dan, Hanbin; Schneider, Kerry; Buehler, Dennis P.; Wiese, Carrie B.; Brennan, Jane; Davies, Jamie A.; Harding, Simon D.; Baldock, Richard A.; Little, Melissa H.; Vezina, Chad M.; Mendelsohn, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of the urogenital tract represents a considerable paediatric burden, with many defects affecting the lower urinary tract (LUT), genital tubercle and associated structures. Understanding the molecular basis of such defects frequently draws on murine models. However, human anatomical terms do not always superimpose on the mouse, and the lack of accurate and standardised nomenclature is hampering the utility of such animal models. We previously developed an anatomical ontology for the murine urogenital system. Here, we present a comprehensive update of this ontology pertaining to mouse LUT, genital tubercle and associated reproductive structures (E10.5 to adult). Ontology changes were based on recently published insights into the cellular and gross anatomy of these structures, and on new analyses of epithelial cell types present in the pelvic urethra and regions of the bladder. Ontology changes include new structures, tissue layers and cell types within the LUT, external genitalia and lower reproductive structures. Representative illustrations, detailed text descriptions and molecular markers that selectively label muscle, nerves/ganglia and epithelia of the lower urogenital system are also presented. The revised ontology will be an important tool for researchers studying urogenital development/malformation in mouse models and will improve our capacity to appropriately interpret these with respect to the human situation. PMID:25968320

  2. Facial Sinuses from Dental Pathosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, A.; Chasmar, L. R.; Lanigan, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Sinus tracts presenting on the face may be the result of dental pathosis. This etiologic possibility should be ruled out before such lesions are treated by prolonged antibiotic therapy or surgical excision. The diagnosis can often be confirmed by a good clinical intraoral examination supplemented by appropriate radiographs. Four cases are presented in which treatment of the underlying pathology resulted in resolution of the sinus tract. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:21286180

  3. Idiopathic sphenoid sinus CSF rhinorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Gupta, Monica; Bindra, Gavinder; Singh, Sunder

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea results from a direct communication between the CSF-containing subarachnoid space and the mucosa-lined space of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. We present a case of 40-year-old woman, presenting with clear, watery discharge through the right nostril spontaneously. The CT cisternography confirmed the diagnosis of sphenoid sinus CSF rhinorrhoea, with no intracranial pathology. The patient was managed by transnasal endoscopic procedure, wherein bath plug technique was followed using temporalis fascia and overlay grafting with fascia lata and fibrin glue. The patient has been symptom free for the last year. PMID:23616328

  4. Overview of Frontal Sinus Pathology and Management.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Alejandro; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The frontal sinus is the most complex of all paranasal sinuses. Given its proximity to the cranial vault and orbit, frontal sinus pathology can progress to involve these structures and lead to significant morbidity, or even mortality. Surgical management of the frontal sinus is technically challenging. Various open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to the otolaryngologist. This article presents an overview of the major disease entities that affect the frontal sinus, with a special emphasis on treatment principles and surgical management. PMID:27329984

  5. Origin of the sinus impulse.

    PubMed

    Schuessler, R B; Boineau, J P; Bromberg, B I

    1996-03-01

    It was generally accepted that the site of normal impulse origin within the atria was a single static focus within the sinus node. This review will examine how this model of impulse origin came about and has evolved. Early on, conflicting data suggested that the sinus node focus was not static and changed with interventions that changed heart rate, such as vagal stimulation. Furthermore, even with removal of the sinus node, a normal atrial rhythm was generated. High-resolution mapping in humans and dogs showed that the initiation of the impulse was dynamic and could be multicentric, with more than one focus initiating a single beat. Shifts in the site of origin correlated with changes in rate and were consistent with P wave changes routinely observed in the standard ECG. These studies suggested multiple pacemakers were responsible for impulse initiation. However, it was not clear how these widespread pacemakers were coordinated to function synchronously. Recent canine data suggest that the node may be partially insulated from the surrounding atrium, resulting in multicentric origin starting from a single site within the node. What has evolved is a model of impulse origin with a sinus node having discrete exit sites and a dominant pacemaker within the node that can shift to other nodal sites. Complex and changing conduction out of the node, coupled with extranodal pacemakers, which can assume dominance over the node, combine with the autonomic nervous system to control heart rate and the pattern of impulse origin within the atria. PMID:8867301

  6. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  7. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  8. Complicated unroofed coronary sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Ghulam; Ahmed, Bilal; Suleman, Naeem; Khan, Ghufranullah

    2005-03-01

    A young boy planned for the surgical closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) and mitral valve regurgitation (MR) was found peroperatively as having a complete unroofed coronary sinus (URCS). Intracardiac re-routing of left superior vena cava (LSVC) and mitral valve replacement (MVR) were performed concomitantly with success. PMID:15808100

  9. Interdural cavernous sinus epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Vivek; Goel, Atul

    2008-02-01

    We report a patient with an uncommon interdural epidermoid tumor, located within the confines of dural layers of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. The tumor was resected by a basal subtemporal extradural-interdural approach. Following the surgery, the 45-year-old female patient recovered completely from her symptoms of atypical neuralgic facial pains. PMID:18083573

  10. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Pastakia, B.; Weiss, S.H.

    1987-11-01

    Gallium uptake corresponding to the extent of the disease in a patient with histologically proven sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) is reported. Computerized tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral retrobulbar masses, involvement of both lateral recti, erosion of the bony orbital floor with encroachment of tumor into the right maxillary antrum, and retropharyngeal involvement.

  11. Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Terra, E R; Guedes, F R; Manzi, F R; Bóscolo, F N

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus in the pterygoid process and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, observed on a panoramic radiograph. Conventional radiographs and computerized tomography in axial and coronal sections confirmed the presence of the pneumatization of these structures. PMID:16421265

  12. Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Ismail A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, once a common and deadly disease, has fortunately become rare now. Not only that the incidence has fallen significantly after the antibiotic era, the morbidity and mortality has also decreased substantially. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is by far the commonest form of septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Due to its rare occurrence, a lot of current generation clinicians have not encountered the entity in person. Despite all the advances in diagnostic modalities, a high index of clinical suspicion remains the mainstay in prompt diagnosis and management of this potentially lethal condition. Keeping this in view, the authors have reviewed the subject including the old literature and have summarized the current approach to diagnosis and management. Septic cavernous thrombosis is a fulminant disease with dramatic presentation in most cases comprised of fever, periorbital pain and swelling, associated with systemic symptoms and signs. The preceding infection is usually in the central face or paranasal sinuses. The disease rapidly spreads to contralateral side and if remains undiagnosed and untreated can result in severe complications or even death. Prompt diagnosis using radiological imaging in suspected patient, early use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and judicial use of anticoagulation may save the life and prevent disability. Surgery is used only to treat the nidus of infection. PMID:26944152

  13. Histological and histomorphometric study using an ultrasonic crestal sinus grafting procedure. A multicenter case study

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Marcel; Pérez-Dorao, Beatriz; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Gutierrez-Perez, José-Luis; Troedhan, Angelo; Kurrek, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hydrodynamic ultrasonic driven transcrestal sinus grafting procedure (Intralift ®, Acteon Company, Bordeaux, France) and the use of a bovine high temperature sintered grafting material in sinus sites with less than 5 mm remaining bone height with no additional autogenous bone in order to create a sufficient recipient site for implants. Material and Methods 12 patients (16 sinus) in this multicenter case study were included. Using a crestal approach, bone under the sinus was prepared with ultrasonic tips until the Schneiderian membrane was reached. With a trumpet shaped instrument, the Schneiderian membrane was elevated. In the new created subantral space a high temperature sintered bovine grafting material was introduced (Bego Oss, BEGO Implant Systems GmbH & Co. KG, Bremen, Germany). After 6 months biopsies were taken with a trephine bur and histologies were generated following histomorphometric analysis. Results The results showed new vital bone in average of 33.4% ± 17.05%, and 43.6% ± 16.70 of bone substitute material. No signs of abnormal inflammation were observed. Conclusions This procedure (Intralift ®) allows, using a bovine material with no additional autogenous bone, new bone formation in the sinus in order to allow place implant subantraly. Key words:Bone regeneration, sinus, intralift ®, xenogenic bone graft PMID:26946203

  14. [Progressive Intracranial Hypertension due to Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Following Mild Head Trauma: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Suto, Yuta; Maruya, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after mild head trauma without skull fracture or intracranial hematoma is exceptionally rare. We describe an unusual case of progressive intracranial hypertension due to superior sagittal sinus thrombosis following mild head trauma. A 17-year-old boy presented with nape pain a day after a head blow during a gymnastics competition (backward double somersault). On admission, he showed no neurological deficit. CT scans revealed no skull fractures, and there were no abnormalities in the brain parenchyma. However, his headache worsened day-by-day and he had begun to vomit. Lumbar puncture was performed on Day 6, and the opening pressure was 40 cm of water. After tapping 20 mL, he felt better and the headache diminished for a few hours. MR venography performed on Day 8 revealed severe flow disturbance in the posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus with multiple venous collaterals. Because of the beneficial effects of lumbar puncture, we decided to manage his symptoms of intracranial hypertension conservatively with repeated lumbar puncture and administration of glycerol. After 7 days of conservative treatment, his symptoms resolved completely, and he was discharged from the hospital. Follow-up MR venography performed on Day 55 showed complete recanalization of the superior sagittal sinus. The exact mechanism of sinus thrombosis in this case is not clear, but we speculate that endothelial damage caused by shearing stress because of strong rotational acceleration or direct impact to the superior sagittal sinus wall may have initiated thrombus formation. PMID:26136327

  15. Primary cerebellar endodermal sinus tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chun; Gong, Honghan; Guo, Linghong; Yu, Chen; Zeng, Xianjun

    2014-10-01

    Endodermal sinus tumors are rare malignant germ cell tumors that usually originate from the gonads and are rarely observed extragonadally. Pure primary endodermal sinus tumors of the cerebellar hemisphere are extremely rare and patients diagnosed with the disease often have a poor prognosis. The symptoms of YSTs are unspecific and associated with the location of tumors. Intracranial YSTs (such as cerebellar hemispheres) always present with symptoms including headache and poor vision. The present study reports the case of a three-year-old male who presented to The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (Nanchang, China) with a headache that had persisted for one month, and then worsened for the last 10 days. This was accompanied by vomiting and gait disturbance. An abnormal signal mass was identified in the left cerebellar hemisphere on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The case initially presented as a medulloblastoma and the patient was followed up for six months. The final pathology report revealed an endodermal sinus tumor, also known as a yolk sac tumor. Six months following resection of the left cerebellar tumor, the patient succumbed to recurrence of the disease, due to acute vomiting and severe headache. PMID:25202397

  16. Unruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm Obstructing the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract: An Uncommon Presentation in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Murli, Lakshmi; Shah, Prashant; Sekar, Prem; Surya, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Congenital aneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva are uncommon abnormalities that are usually silent and slowly progressive without symptoms of cardiac dysfunction unless catastrophic rupture occurs. However, in rare cases, unruptured aneurysms can produce symptoms resulting from compression of adjacent structures, ventricular outflow tract obstruction, heart block, and coronary and valvular insufficiency. We report a case of a single unruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm producing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in an 8-year-old boy who presented with chest pain on exertion. PMID:26694306

  17. Anomalous Right Coronary Artery Arising from the Left Sinus of Valsalva in a Young Athlete.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Hata, Yoshihiro; Ueyama, Takanao; Kinoshita, Tatsuomi; Kuwauchi, Shintaro; Takami, Yoshiyuki; Kawazoe, Kohei; Shiojima, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac events associated with congenital coronary abnormalities are rare but potentially life-threatening in a young population. Most of these patients are not diagnosed before their initial cardiac event. Amongst such coronary artery anomalies, sudden death is frequently seen in an anomalous origination of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus. We herein present the case of a patient who presented with sudden cardiac arrest associated with an anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of Valsalva. Surgical treatment was selected because there was evidence of reversible ischemia based on the findings of a stress test. PMID:26726086

  18. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Abigail A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2014-11-01

    Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly. We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole. However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Moreover, we suggest that the ability to form frontal sinuses allows species to modify skull function without compromising the performance of more functionally constrained regions such as the nasal chamber (heat/water conservation, olfaction), and braincase (housing the brain and sensory structures). PMID:25312364

  19. Imaging Diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome- An Extremely Rare Urogenital Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Shibani; Chamaria, Komal; Garga, U C; Kataria, Ankur; Ahuja, Ashim

    2015-05-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract resulting from maldevelopment of both Mullerian and Wolffian ducts. It is characterized by the triad of uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It generally presents at puberty shortly following menarche with the symptom of acute pelvic pain. Management of these cases is surgical and consists mainly of vaginoplasty with excision of the vaginal septum in order to release the obstruction and prevent the long term complication of recurrent pyocolpos and infertility. We report here a case of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 13-year-old adolescent girl, emphasizing the role of imaging in the accurate and prompt diagnosis of this rare developmental urogenital anomaly. Only a few hundred such cases have been reported in literature till date. PMID:26155531

  20. Trends in the aetiology of urogenital fistula: a case of 'retrogressive evolution'?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Paul

    2016-06-01

    It has long been held as conventional wisdom that urogenital fistulae in low-income and middle-income countries are almost exclusively of obstetric aetiology, related to prolonged neglected obstructed labour, whereas those seen in high-income countries are largely iatrogenic in nature. There is, however, a growing perception amongst those working in the field that an increasing proportion of urogenital fistulae in low-income and middle-income countries may be iatrogenic, resulting from caesarean section. Recent studies suggest that adverse patterns of care may also be emerging in high-income countries; an increase in the risk of both vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistulae following hysterectomy has been reported, concurrently with the reduction in overall use of the procedure. These apparent secular trends are discussed in the context of evolution of practice, teaching and training in obstetrics and gynaecology. PMID:26744338

  1. Imaging Diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome- An Extremely Rare Urogenital Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Chamaria, Komal; Garga, UC; Kataria, Ankur; Ahuja, Ashim

    2015-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract resulting from maldevelopment of both Mullerian and Wolffian ducts. It is characterized by the triad of uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It generally presents at puberty shortly following menarche with the symptom of acute pelvic pain. Management of these cases is surgical and consists mainly of vaginoplasty with excision of the vaginal septum in order to release the obstruction and prevent the long term complication of recurrent pyocolpos and infertility. We report here a case of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 13-year-old adolescent girl, emphasizing the role of imaging in the accurate and prompt diagnosis of this rare developmental urogenital anomaly. Only a few hundred such cases have been reported in literature till date. PMID:26155531

  2. The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention of urogenital infections--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2009-06-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being used to treat and prevent urogenital infections. However, a critical assessment of their efficacy in major urogenital infections is lacking. We report the results of a systematic review to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention or treatment of three major urogenital infections: bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and urinary tract infection. Using multiple computerized databases, we extracted data from clinical trials using a lactobacillus-containing preparation to either prevent or treat a urogenital infection. Of 25 included studies, 18 studies used lactobacillus preparations for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections and seven studies focused solely on vaginal colonization. Four studies included patients with vaginal candidiasis, five included patients with urinary tract infections, and eight included patients with bacterial vaginosis. One included several types of genitourinary infections. Overall, lactobacilli were beneficial for the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis. No clear benefit was seen for candidiasis or urinary tract infection. Studies were heterogeneous, with some limited by a small population size. In conclusion, the use of certain lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri for prevention and treatment of recurrent urogenital infection is promising, especially for recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Scant data on the use of probiotics for urinary tract infection and vulvovaginal candidiasis precludes definitive recommendations. Further research and larger studies on types of lactobacilli strains, dosage of lactobacilli, optimal route and vehicle of administration are needed. PMID:19567343

  3. Immunological evaluation of allergic respiratory children with recurrent sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Costa Carvalho, Beatriz T; Nagao, Aparecida Tiemi; Arslanian, Cristina; Carneiro Sampaio, Magda M S; Naspitz, Charles K; Sorensen, Ricardo U; Leiva, Lily; Solé, Dirceu

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate humoral immunity of allergic respiratory children with chronic/recurrent sinusitis. Twenty-seven allergic respiratory (persistent mild/moderate asthma and persistent allergic rhinitis) children (7-15-year old) with chronic or recurrent sinusitis were evaluated. Patients had symptoms and abnormal computer tomography scan even after two adequate treatments (long-lasting antibiotics, decongestants, and short-term oral corticosteroids). clinical examination, sweat test, total blood cell count, measurement of serum levels of: total and specific IgE, immunoglobulins (G, M, A), IgG subclasses, antibodies to Haemophilus influenza type b (IgG anti-Ps Hib) and pneumococcal serotypes (IgG anti-Ps 1, 3, 5, 6B, 9V, and 14) before and after active immunization (Act-Hib and Pneumo23, Aventis Pasteur SA, Lyon, France), Rubella neutralizing antibody titers and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Specific IgE to inhalant allergens higher than class III were observed in 24/27 patients. One patient had IgA plus IgG2 deficiency and other an IgG3 deficiency. Eight and 12 of 27 patients had IgG2 and IgG3 serum levels below 2.5th percentile, respectively. Immunological responses to protein and polysaccharide antigens were normal in all patients. Although our patients have been appropriately treated of their allergic diseases, they persisted with chronic/recurrent sinusitis and 60% of them had a documented osteomeatal complex blockade. In spite of the diagnosis of IgA plus IgG2 deficiency and an isolated IgG3 deficiency, in all patients an adequate response to Ps antigens was observed. Primary and/or secondary humoral immunodeficiency seems not to be the main cause of chronic/recurrent sinusitis in patients with respiratory allergic disease. PMID:16176402

  4. Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Iran: past history and the current situation.

    PubMed

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Ghomeshi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, through a national programme for schistosomiasis control, this infection has been eliminated from Iran. The aim of this study was to report the process of significant decrease of urogenital schistosomiasis in southwestern Iran. During national programme surveillance for urogenital schistosomiasis control which was implemented by Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Khuzestan province from 1975 to 2013, more than 1·3 million urine samples were taken from inhabitants of high risk foci. All urine samples were gathered between 10:00 a.m and 02:00 p.m and, after centrifuging, specimens were tested under optical microscope in order to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software. In this retrospective study significant reduction was seen in number of infections between 1975 and 2013. During the years 1975-1980, 1981-1990 and 1991-2000 there were 1582, 761 and 79 cases of S. haematobium, respectively. In 2001 only one case was reported from Ahvaz and indeed this was the last case of urogenital schistosomiasis in Khuzestan and of course, in Iran. Prevalence from 1·064% between 1975 and 1980 slumped to 0% in 2012-2013. During several projects for surveillance of urogenital schistosomiasis, selective population chemotherapy, snail control, population education, environmental improvement, etc were carried out throughout the surveillance period. According to elimination of S. haematobium in Khuzestan province, the only endemic region of Iran, control of disease, especially the campaign with intermediate host snails should be continued. Iran can be a successful model for countries suffering from this disease. PMID:27279000

  5. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    John, Roy M; Kumar, Saurabh

    2016-05-10

    Although sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial arrhythmias frequently coexist and interact, the putative mechanism linking the 2 remain unclear. Although SND is accompanied by atrial myocardial structural changes in the right atrium, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disease of variable interactions between left atrial triggers and substrate most commonly of left atrial origin. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the development and progression of SND and AF. Although some patients manifest SND as a result of electric remodeling induced by periods of AF, others develop progressive atrial structural remodeling that gives rise to both conditions together. The treatment strategy will thus vary according to the predominant disease phenotype. Although catheter ablation will benefit patients with predominantly AF and secondary SND, cardiac pacing may be the mainstay of therapy for patients with predominant fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy. This contemporary review summarizes current knowledge on sinus node pathophysiology with the broader goal of yielding insights into the complex relationship between sinus node disease and atrial arrhythmias. PMID:27166347

  6. Comprehensive review on endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282

  7. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite. PMID:24887872

  8. Sphenoid sinus barotrauma after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Kuk; Cho, Seok Hyun; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old male patient operated on for sphenoid sinus barotrauma after scuba diving. The patient attended our emergency department because of intractable headache but did not improve with conservative treatment. After computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination, he was diagnosed with sphenoid sinusitis that extended to the nasal septum. He therefore underwent surgery for sinus ventilation and abscess drainage. PMID:22133966

  9. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  10. Sinus Hypoplasia Precedes Sinus Infection in a Porcine Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Eugene H; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Meyerholz, David K; Potash, Andrea E; Wallen, Tanner J; Reznikov, Leah R; Sieren, Jessica C; Karp, Philip H; Ernst, Sarah; Moninger, Thomas O; Gansemer, Nicholas D; McCray, Paul B; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Chronic sinusitis is nearly universal in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is accompanied by sinus hypoplasia (small sinuses). However, whether impaired sinus development is a primary feature of loss of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) or a secondary consequence of chronic infection remains unknown. Our objective was to study the early pathogenesis of sinus disease in CF. Study Design Animal/basic science research. Methods Sinus development was studied in a porcine CF model. Results Porcine sinus epithelia expressed CFTR and exhibited transepithelial anion transport. Disruption of the CFTR gene eliminated both. Sinuses of newborn CF pigs were not infected and showed no evidence of inflammation, yet were hypoplastic at birth. Older CF pigs spontaneously developed sinus disease similar to that seen in humans with CF. Conclusions These results define a role for CFTR in sinus development and suggest the potential of the CF pig as a genetic model of CF-sinus disease in which to test therapeutic strategies to minimize sinus-related CF morbidity. PMID:22711071

  11. Frontal sinus cholesterol granuloma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Nicholas L.; Chaaban, Mohamad R.; Chaudhry, Ajaz L.

    2014-01-01

    A case report of a massive cholesterol granuloma (CG) of the frontal sinus in a 15-year-old male subject treated endoscopically is reported. CGs are slowly expanding, cystic lesions that are rarely observed in the frontal sinus. Frontal sinus CGs characteristically present with proptosis, diplopia, and a unilateral painless expanding mass above the orbit. Patients frequently report a history of chronic nasal obstruction or head trauma. Although the pathogenesis is unclear, it is likely multifactorial in etiology. Surgical resection via endoscopic sinus surgery has been gaining popularity because of the minimally invasive approach and lower rates of recurrence. PMID:24612824

  12. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis obscured by midfacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Simuntis, Regimantas; Kubilius, Ričardas; Ryškienė, Silvija; Vaitkus, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis whose sinonasal symptomatology was thought to be the consequence of a previous midfacial trauma. The patient was admitted to the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery after more than 10 years of exacerbations of sinonasal symptoms, which began to plague soon after a facial contusion. We decided to perform CT of paranasal sinuses, and despite the absence dental symptomatology, the dental origin of sinusitis was discovered. The majority of sinonasal symptoms resolved after appropriate dental treatment, and there was no need for nasal or sinus surgery. PMID:26183855

  13. Maxillary sinus disease of odontogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Pushkar; Murad, Haitham

    2004-04-01

    Odontogenic sinusitis is a well-recognized condition and accounts for approximately 10% to 12% of cases of maxillary sinusitis. An odontogenic source should be considered in patients with symptoms of maxillary sinusitis who give a history positive for odontogenic infection or dentoalveolar surgery or who are resistant to standard sinusitis therapy. Diagnosis usually requires a thorough dental and clinical evaluation with appropriate radiographs. Common causes of odontogenic sinusitis include dental abscesses and periodontal disease perforating the Schneidarian membrane, sinus perforations during tooth extraction, or irritation and secondary infection caused by intra-antral foreign bodies. The typical odontogenic infection is now considered to be a mixed aerobic-anaerobic infection, with the latter outnumbering the aerobic species involved. Most common organisms include anaerobic streptococci, Bacteroides, Proteus, and Coliform bacilli. Typical treatment of atraumatic odontogenic sinusitis is a 3- to 4- week trial of antibiotic therapy with adequate oral and sinus flora coverage. When indicated, surgical removal of the offending odontogenic foreign body (primary or delayed) or treatment of the odontogenic pathologic conditions combined with medical therapy is usually sufficient to cause resolution of symptoms. If an oroantral communication is suspected, prompt surgical management is recommended to reduce the likelihood of causing chronic sinus disease. PMID:15064067

  14. Catheter ablation of inappropriate sinus tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Gianni, Carola; Di Biase, Luigi; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Gökoğlan, Yalçın; Güneş, Mahmut F; Horton, Rodney; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Burkhardt, J David; Natale, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Catheter ablation for inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is recommended for patients symptomatic for palpitations and refractory to other treatments. The current approach consists in sinus node modification (SNM), achieved by ablation of the cranial part of the sinus node to eliminate faster sinus rates while trying to preserve chronotropic competence. This approach has a limited efficacy, with a very modest long-term clinical success. To overcome this, proper patient selection is crucial and an epicardial approach should always be considered. This brief review will discuss the current role and limitations of catheter ablation in the management of patients with IST. PMID:26310299

  15. Treating Sinusitis: Don't Rush to Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... AAAAI) Treating Sinusitis (AAAAI) Don’t rush to antibiotics DOWNLOAD PDF The sinuses are small, hollow spaces ... or teeth. Each year, millions of people use antibiotic drugs to treat sinus problems. However, they usually ...

  16. Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Padma; Baker, Kelly K; Dutta, Ambarish; Swain, Tapoja; Sahoo, Sunita; Das, Bhabani Sankar; Panda, Bijay; Nayak, Arati; Bara, Mary; Bilung, Bibiana; Mishra, Pravas Ranjan; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Cairncross, Sandy; Torondel, Belen

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices vary worldwide and depend on the individual's socioeconomic status, personal preferences, local traditions and beliefs, and access to water and sanitation resources. MHM practices can be particularly unhygienic and inconvenient for girls and women in poorer settings. Little is known about whether unhygienic MHM practices increase a woman's exposure to urogenital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and urinary tract infection (UTI). This study aimed to determine the association of MHM practices with urogenital infections, controlling for environmental drivers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 486 women at Odisha, India. Cases and controls were recruited using a syndromic approach. Vaginal swabs were collected from all the participants and tested for BV status using Amsel's criteria. Urine samples were cultured to assess UTI status. Socioeconomic status, clinical symptoms and reproductive history, and MHM and water and sanitation practices were obtained by standardised questionnaire. A total of 486 women were recruited to the study, 228 symptomatic cases and 258 asymptomatic controls. Women who used reusable absorbent pads were more likely to have symptoms of urogenital infection (AdjOR=2.3, 95%CI1.5-3.4) or to be diagnosed with at least one urogenital infection (BV or UTI) (AdjOR=2.8, 95%CI1.7-4.5), than women using disposable pads. Increased wealth and space for personal hygiene in the household were protective for BV (AdjOR=0.5, 95%CI0.3-0.9 and AdjOR=0.6, 95%CI0.3-0.9 respectively). Lower education of the participants was the only factor associated with UTI after adjusting for all the confounders (AdjOR=3.1, 95%CI1.2-7.9). Interventions that ensure women have access to private facilities with water for MHM and that educate women about safer, low-cost MHM materials could reduce urogenital disease among women. Further studies of the effects of specific practices for managing hygienically

  17. Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Padma; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Swain, Tapoja; Sahoo, Sunita; Das, Bhabani Sankar; Panda, Bijay; Nayak, Arati; Bara, Mary; Bilung, Bibiana; Mishra, Pravas Ranjan; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Cairncross, Sandy; Torondel, Belen

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices vary worldwide and depend on the individual’s socioeconomic status, personal preferences, local traditions and beliefs, and access to water and sanitation resources. MHM practices can be particularly unhygienic and inconvenient for girls and women in poorer settings. Little is known about whether unhygienic MHM practices increase a woman’s exposure to urogenital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and urinary tract infection (UTI). This study aimed to determine the association of MHM practices with urogenital infections, controlling for environmental drivers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 486 women at Odisha, India. Cases and controls were recruited using a syndromic approach. Vaginal swabs were collected from all the participants and tested for BV status using Amsel’s criteria. Urine samples were cultured to assess UTI status. Socioeconomic status, clinical symptoms and reproductive history, and MHM and water and sanitation practices were obtained by standardised questionnaire. A total of 486 women were recruited to the study, 228 symptomatic cases and 258 asymptomatic controls. Women who used reusable absorbent pads were more likely to have symptoms of urogenital infection (AdjOR=2.3, 95%CI1.5-3.4) or to be diagnosed with at least one urogenital infection (BV or UTI) (AdjOR=2.8, 95%CI1.7-4.5), than women using disposable pads. Increased wealth and space for personal hygiene in the household were protective for BV (AdjOR=0.5, 95%CI0.3-0.9 and AdjOR=0.6, 95%CI0.3-0.9 respectively). Lower education of the participants was the only factor associated with UTI after adjusting for all the confounders (AdjOR=3.1, 95%CI1.2-7.9). Interventions that ensure women have access to private facilities with water for MHM and that educate women about safer, low-cost MHM materials could reduce urogenital disease among women. Further studies of the effects of specific practices for managing

  18. The Healing Effects of Autologous Mucosal Grafts in Experimentally Injured Rabbit Maxillary Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Topdag, Murat; Kara, Ahmet; Konuk, Esma; Demir, Necdet; Ozturk, Murat; Calıskan, Sebla; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ulubil, Arif; Keskin, Ibrahim Gurkan; Iseri, Mete

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Healing processes of the nose and paranasal sinuses are quite complex, and poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of mucosal autologous grafts on the degenerated rabbit maxillary sinus mucosa with spontaneous wound healing. It is hypothesized that mucosal grafts will enhance ciliogenesis and improve the morphology of regenerated cilia. Methods Ten female New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. They underwent external maxillary sinus surgery through a transcutaneous approach. A total of 20 maxillary sinuses were randomly divided into 2 groups: ‘spontaneous healing group’ and ‘autologous graft group.’ The animals were sacrificed at the 14th day after the surgery. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and light microscope were used for the evaluation. Results Cellular composition of the graft group is better than the spontaneous healing group. The graft group had larger areas covered with ciliary epithelium than the spontaneous healing group, and the mean length of the cilias were also longer. Additionally, there were wider cilia with abnormal morphology areas in the spontaneous healing group. Conclusion In our opinion, covering of the denuded areas with a graft improves re-epithelization, and may prevent the early complications after sinus surgeries. PMID:26976026

  19. Pseudomeningoceles of the sphenoid sinus masquerading as sinus pathology

    PubMed Central

    Vaezi, Alec; Snyderman, Carl H.; Saleh, Hesham A.; Carrau R., Ricardo L.; Zanation, Adam; Gardner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology and treatment of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks of the sphenoid bone, with an emphasis on a previously undescribed form in this location, in which CSF is trapped under the mucosa of the sinonasal cavity or in the soft tissue of the skull base. Study design Case series and literature review. Level of evidence 4. Methods Analysis of cases through medical records and literature review. Results Four examples of unusual spontaneous CSF leaks of the skull base are presented. In each case, a CSF collection was contained behind the sinonasal mucosa of the sphenoid sinus, resembling a nasal polyp or mucocele on exam or imaging. In one case, the fluid collection was also associated with significant bone resorption and extravasation into the soft tissue of the infratemporal fossa. In each case, small defects of the ventral skull base (sphenoid bone) were the source of the CSF leaks. Successful treatment was achieved after transnasal endoscopic repair of the skull base defects using a combination of free abdominal fat grafts, free fascial grafts and pedicled nasoseptal flaps. Postoperatively, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed if the intracranial pressure was elevated. Conclusions Spontaneous CSF leaks arising in the sphenoid sinus may not always present with overt CSF rhinorrhea but with a submucosal fluid collection (pseudomeningocele) that may mimic a mucocoele or nasal polyp. These bona fide pseudomeningoceles of the skull base may be associated with elevated intracranial pressure and can be managed using endoscopic endonasal surgery. PMID:22052361

  20. Hemostasis in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pant, Harshita

    2016-06-01

    Intraoperative bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery poses an additional dimension to an already technically challenging surgical approach because of the narrow sinonasal surgical field, single working hand, and the use of endoscopic instruments. Poor visualization is one of the most important factors that increase the risk of intraoperative complications such as inadvertent injury to major vessels and nerves, and incomplete surgery. This article provide a logical approach to improving the surgical field, minimizing risk of inadvertent vascular injury, and managing intraoperative bleeding. PMID:27267017

  1. The surgery of frontal sinus infection.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, S F; Collard, W M; Sellars, S L

    1975-11-01

    A clinical and surgical review of 37 patients treated for acute and chronic frontal sinusitis at Groote Schuur Hospital during the 6-year period 1967-1972, is presented. The mode of clinical presentation of this disease and its complications are discussed, and the surgical management of frontal sinus disease as practised at this hospital is described. PMID:1198214

  2. Paranasal sinus mucoceles: our clinical experiments

    PubMed Central

    Topdag, Murat; Iseri, Mete; Sari, Fatih; Erdogan, Selvet; Keskin, I Gurkan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We present the clinical and radiological features, treatment protocols, and medium-long-term results of our patients following surgery for paranasal sinus mucocele, along with a review of the relevant literature. Materials and methods: A total of 18 patients (11 women and 7 men) who underwent surgery for paranasal sinus mucocele at Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, between 2006 and 2013 were examined retrospectively. The mean patient age was 41 (range 4-73). Demographic and radiological features, symptoms, treatment protocols, and postoperative outcomes were recorded. Results: The most frequently affected sinus was the maxillary sinus (n=9, 50%) followed by the frontal sinus (n=6, 33%) and sphenoidal sinus (n=3, 16%). The main symptom was headache. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele was applied in all 18 patients, while frontal sinus exploration with the osteoplastic flap procedure was performed in one patient and the Caldwell-Luc operation was performed in another patient. The Caldwell-Luc procedure was subsequently required in one patient (6%) and endoscopic revision surgery was required in another patient (6%). Conclusion: Sinus mucocele that enlarges, eroding the surrounding bone tissue, and induces various clinical symptoms due to the impression of the expansile mass, is treated surgically, and must be planned carefully to prevent serious complications. PMID:26770462

  3. Straight sinus thrombosis during neurosurgical operation

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Hiroto; Nitta, Naoki; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perioperative straight sinus thrombosis is extremely rare. Case Description: A 59-year-old female was admitted to our department because of incidentally found small anterior cerebral artery (A1) aneurysm with microbleeding. After clipping the cerebral aneurysm, she had delayed emergence from anesthesia, total aphasia, and right hemiparesis. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed hyperintensity in the bilateral caudate nuclei, putamina, and thalami, and computed tomography of the head showed a hyperdense straight sinus, suggesting straight sinus thrombosis. Her neurologic symptoms improved gradually, and she achieved a full clinical recovery, with radiological evidence of recanalization of the straight sinus at follow-up. Conclusion: The possibility of straight sinus thrombosis should be considered in postoperative patients with unexplained postoperative deficits when MRI demonstrates hyperintensity in the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami on FLAIR signal images. PMID:27213104

  4. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  5. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  6. Presentation of Preauricular Sinus and Preauricular Sinus Abscess in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adegbiji, W. A.; Alabi, B. S.; Olajuyin, O. A.; Nwawolo, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preauricular sinus abscess is a common congenital external ear disease. This abscess is usually misdiagnosed because it is commonly overlooked during physical examination. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 9.3% in Ilorin, north central Nigeria This study is to determine the distribution and clinical presentation of the preauricular sinus abscess in Ekiti, south west Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective hospital based study of all patients with diagnosis of preauricular sinus abscess seen in our clinic carried out between April 2008 to March 2010. Detailed clinical history, administered interviewer’s assisted questionnaires full examination and. Data obtained were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Preauricular sinus were noticed in 184 (4.4%) out of 4170 patients seen during the study period. Preauricular sinus abscess were noticed in 21 (11.4%) of the preauricular sinuses especially in children. Unilateral preauricular sinus abscess accounted for 90.5%. Common presenting complaints were preauricular swelling (81.0%), 90.5% with recurrent earaches, 76.2% with ear discharges. All patients had antibiotic / analgesic while 17 out of 21 (81.0%) had surgical excisions. CONCLUSION: Preauricular sinus abscess were noticed among 11.4% of the preauricular sinuses especially in children, unilateral preauricular sinus abscess accounted for 90.5%. Common complaints were otorrhoea, earaches, and swelling and they were mostly managed surgically. PMID:24711764

  7. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas and concomitant urogenital malformations in a young woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor with low malignant potential. It occurs characteristically more often in young women. SPT associated with extra- and pancreatic anomalies are occasionally reported. Here we report a case of pancreatic SPT with concomitant urogenital malformations including solitary kidney and uterus didelphys in a 25-year-old woman. The patient underwent central pancreatectomy, and SPT was confirmed with pathological results. Recurrence or metastasis was not found after 14 months of follow-up. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4264758678755142 PMID:23445554

  8. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas and concomitant urogenital malformations in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Lu; Wang, Yan-Qiu; Xu, Bai-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor with low malignant potential. It occurs characteristically more often in young women. SPT associated with extra- and pancreatic anomalies are occasionally reported. Here we report a case of pancreatic SPT with concomitant urogenital malformations including solitary kidney and uterus didelphys in a 25-year-old woman. The patient underwent central pancreatectomy, and SPT was confirmed with pathological results. Recurrence or metastasis was not found after 14 months of follow-up. PMID:23445554

  9. Genome-wide array data and next generation sequencing unravel the etiology of urogenital malformations

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Development of the genitourinary tract requires spatiotemporal expression of a myriad of genes involved in various cascades and signaling events. To date, researchers have put great efforts into defining the etiology of these malformations. However, many aspects remain unsolved. This paper reviews the most recent progress in identifying causally related genes and novel loci assumed to harbor genes involved in the formation of urogenital malformations. These investigations have been considerately accelerated by the implementation of molecular karyotyping using array techniques and next generation sequencing strategies.

  10. Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... need imaging tests. Treatments include antibiotics, decongestants, and pain relievers. Using heat pads on the inflamed area, saline nasal sprays, and vaporizers can also help. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  11. Basilar Artery Territory Stroke Secondary to Invasive Fungal Sphenoid Sinusitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Katherine A.; Nguyen, Peggy L.; Sanossian, Nerses

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucormycosis is a fungal infection with the following 5 classic forms: cutaneous, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, disseminated, and rhinocerebral. The rhinocerebral form can be rapidly progressive and invasive with a high mortality rate. We present a case of a 38-year-old man with invasive mucormycosis that led to a basilar artery territory stroke. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is an unusual cause of stroke. Case Report A 38-year-old man with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus presented with altered mental status. A lumbar puncture revealed eosinophilic pleocytosis with a mildly elevated total protein and borderline low glucose level. CT revealed a left medullary and cerebellar infarct confirmed by MRI. MRI also displayed a diffuse marrow signal abnormality in the clivus with contiguous sinus disease. Endoscopic sinus surgery confirmed that the fungal sinusitis was mucormycosis of the Rhizopus genus, which had affected the left sphenoid sinus, invaded through the skull base, and involved the basilar artery. He was given liposomal amphotericin (500 mg i.v.) with posaconazole (400 mg i.v. twice daily). Due to the severity of the invasion and poor prognosis, the patient was discharged with comfort care measures. Discussion Clinicians should be aware of invasive sinusitis as a rare cause of stroke in diabetics. Once the subarachnoid space and basal arteries of the brain have been invaded, the prognosis is very poor. The key to improvement of outcomes is early recognition and treatment, and examination of the sinuses on neuroimaging in all cases of stroke is vital. PMID:25873889

  12. Fracture of the frontal sinus in children.

    PubMed

    Weber, S C; Cohn, A M

    1977-04-01

    Two juvenile patients, ages 5 and 8, had traumatic fractures of the frontal sinus that included involvement of the nasal-frontal ducts and posterior tables. Principles of management are discussed and the techniques for the operative procedures described. While rare in occurrence in children, it is felt that traumatic involvement of the nasal-frontal ducts or posterior tables of the frontal sinus requires an osteoplastic flap--fat obliteration of the frontal sinus cavity in order to preclude subsequent mucocele development or mucosal ingrowth into the anterior fossa. PMID:849204

  13. Coronary Sinus to Left Atrial Communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Vandhana; Mazur, Wojciech; Kong, James; Chung, Eugene S.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital coronary sinus anomalies are rare in clinical practice, partly due to the lack of symptoms. We present a case of coronary sinus anomaly causing a right-to-left intracardiac shunt in a 46 years/old African American female with a past medical history of obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and ischemic cardiomyopathy who presented with hypoxia. In the months prior to her presentation, she had suffered an inferior myocardial infarction with right ventricular involvement, as well as resulting severe tricuspid regurgitation. In conclusion, further investigations revealed a communication between the coronary sinus (CS) and left atrium (LA). PMID:19730747

  14. Neurological consequences of scuba diving with chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Parell, G J; Becker, G D

    2000-08-01

    Sinus barotrauma from scuba diving is relatively common, usually self-limiting, and often the result of transient nasal pathology. We describe serious neurological sequelae occurring in two scuba divers who had chronic sinusitis We suggest guidelines for evaluating and treating divers who have chronic sinusitis. Divers with nasal or sinus pathology should be aware of the potentially serious consequences associated with scuba diving even after endoscopic sinus surgery to correct this condition. PMID:10942141

  15. Primary cilia function regulates the length of the embryonic trunk axis and urogenital field in mice.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Elanor N; Svingen, Terje; Ng, Ee Ting; Wicking, Carol; Koopman, Peter

    2014-11-15

    The issues of whether and how some organs coordinate their size and shape with the blueprint of the embryo axis, while others appear to regulate their morphogenesis autonomously, remain poorly understood. Mutations in Ift144, encoding a component of the trafficking machinery of primary cilia assembly, result in a range of embryo patterning defects, affecting the limbs, skeleton and neural system. Here, we show that embryos of the mouse mutant Ift144(twt) develop gonads that are larger than wild-type. Investigation of the early patterning of the urogenital ridge revealed that the anterior-posterior domain of the gonad/mesonephros was extended at 10.5 dpc, with no change in the length of the metanephros. In XY embryos, this extension resulted in an increase in testis cord number. Moreover, we observed a concomitant extension of the trunk axis in both sexes, with no change in the length of the tail domain or somite number. Our findings support a model in which: (1) primary cilia regulate embryonic trunk elongation; (2) the length of the trunk axis determines the size of the urogenital ridges; and (3) the gonad domain is partitioned into a number of testis cords that depends on the available space, rather than being divided a predetermined number of times to generate a specific number of cords. PMID:25224227

  16. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  17. Late-stage clinical development in lower urogenital targets: sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Usman

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, late-stage clinical drug development that primarily focuses on urogenital targets has centered around four areas of medical need (both unmet need and aiming to improve on existing therapies). These include male sexual dysfunction (MSD), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), prostatic pathology (neoplastic, pre-neoplasitic, and non-neoplastic), and improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite the regulatory approval of compounds to treat erectile dysfunction (ED), benign prostatic hyperplasia, a number of treatments for overactive bladder, and stress urinary incontinence, there remains a deficiency in addressing a number of conditions that arise out of pathophysiological dysfunction resulting in lower urogenital tract sexual conditions. In terms of late-stage clinical development, significant progress has most recently been made in MSD development, especially in understanding further a common and complex sexual dysfunction – that of premature ejaculation. The search also continues for compounds that improve ED in terms of better efficacy and superior safety profile compared to the currently marketed phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Whilst there are no approved medications to treat the subtypes of FSD, there has been significant progress in attempting to better understand how to appropriately assess treatment benefit in clinical trial settings for this difficult to diagnose and treat condition. This review will focus on late-stage human clinical development pertaining to MSD and FSD. PMID:16465180

  18. Urinary Incontinence in Juvenile Female Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers: Hospital Prevalence and Anatomic Urogenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Callard, Jason; McLoughlin, Mary A; Byron, Julie K; Chew, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in juvenile female dogs is often associated with urogenital anatomic anomalies. Study objectives include: (1) determine hospital prevalence of urinary incontinence in juvenile female soft-coated wheaten terriers (SCWTs) compared to other affected dogs; (2) characterize anatomic anomalies affecting urinary incontinent juvenile female SCWTs utilizing uroendoscopy; and (3) compare incidence of ectopic ureters, paramesonephric remnants, and short urethras in juvenile female urinary incontinent SCWTs to other juvenile female dogs with urinary incontinence. We hypothesize juvenile SCWTs have an increased prevalence of urinary incontinence and an increased incidence of ectopic ureters, paramesonephric remnants, and short urethras compared to non-SCWTs with urinary incontinence within our hospital population. Medical records of female dogs 6 mo of age and younger with clinical signs of urinary incontinence and video uroendoscopic evaluation presenting to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Twelve juvenile SCWTs and 107 juvenile non-SCWTs met the inclusion criteria. Juvenile SCWTs were found to have an increased hospital prevalence of urinary incontinence compared to other affected breeds. Observed anomalies in SCWTs include: ectopic ureters, shortened urethras, paramesonephric remnants, and bifid vaginas. This information will help guide veterinarians in recognizing a breed-related disorder of the lower urogenital tract in SCWTs. PMID:26606208

  19. Late prevertebral abscess with sinus following anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion.

    PubMed

    Bhise, Swapnil D; Mathesul, Ambarish A; Deokate, Pravin; Chandanwale, Ajay S; Bartakke, Girish D

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy/corpectomy and fusion is performed in degenerative, traumatic and neoplastic etiologies of the cervical spine. This procedure is highly successful and associated with fewer complications. The rates of early and late postoperative infection have been reported to be between 0.1% and 1.6%, the late infections are being very rare. We report a rare case of a 30-year-old HIV negative, non-diabetic male who developed a late prevertebral cervical abscess with discharging sinus over posterior triangle of neck 3 years after an anterior cervical C6 corpectomy with fibular grafting and buttress screw fixation performed elsewhere for traumatic fracture C6 vertebra. The abscess was drained using radical neck dissection approach with complete excision of sinus track and removal of the infected implant. On culture, the organism was found to be beta-hemolytic streptococci, for which appropriate antibiotics were administered postoperatively. The sinus tract completely healed in 3 months time. Late infection as a complication of anterior cervical spine surgeries is rare and is associated with esophageal perforation, implant migration, seeding of the deep prevertebral space with oropharyngeal flora, or from surgical site/bacteremia or with Zenker's diverticulum. Few cases have been reported till date, but none have presented with a sinus tract. We present a case of delayed prevertebral abscess after cervical spine instrumentation that followed abnormal path causing sinus track to be developed in the site (the posterior triangle of the neck) other than previous incision site. Exploring both triangles of the neck using radical neck dissection approach was essential for complete excision of sinus track, removal of screw and debridement. PMID:26396628

  20. Late prevertebral abscess with sinus following anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Swapnil D.; Mathesul, Ambarish A.; Deokate, Pravin; Chandanwale, Ajay S.; Bartakke, Girish D.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy/corpectomy and fusion is performed in degenerative, traumatic and neoplastic etiologies of the cervical spine. This procedure is highly successful and associated with fewer complications. The rates of early and late postoperative infection have been reported to be between 0.1% and 1.6%, the late infections are being very rare. We report a rare case of a 30-year-old HIV negative, non-diabetic male who developed a late prevertebral cervical abscess with discharging sinus over posterior triangle of neck 3 years after an anterior cervical C6 corpectomy with fibular grafting and buttress screw fixation performed elsewhere for traumatic fracture C6 vertebra. The abscess was drained using radical neck dissection approach with complete excision of sinus track and removal of the infected implant. On culture, the organism was found to be beta-hemolytic streptococci, for which appropriate antibiotics were administered postoperatively. The sinus tract completely healed in 3 months time. Late infection as a complication of anterior cervical spine surgeries is rare and is associated with esophageal perforation, implant migration, seeding of the deep prevertebral space with oropharyngeal flora, or from surgical site/bacteremia or with Zenker's diverticulum. Few cases have been reported till date, but none have presented with a sinus tract. We present a case of delayed prevertebral abscess after cervical spine instrumentation that followed abnormal path causing sinus track to be developed in the site (the posterior triangle of the neck) other than previous incision site. Exploring both triangles of the neck using radical neck dissection approach was essential for complete excision of sinus track, removal of screw and debridement. PMID:26396628

  1. Blood and Sputum Eosinophil Levels in Asthma and Their Relationship to Sinus Computed Tomographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vinay; Campeau, Norbert G.; Kita, Hirohito; Hagan, John B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship among blood and sputum eosinophil levels, sinus mucosal thickening, and osteitis in patients with asthma. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted an observational study of 201 patients with asthma who underwent sinus computed tomographic (CT) imaging and induced sputum analysis at Mayo Clinic's site in Rochester, MN, from November 1, 2000, through December 31, 2005. Sinus CT scans were reviewed by an investigator blinded to patients' identity and chart information (J.B.H.) to assess for mucosal thickening. Each scan was assigned a CT score based on the Lund-Mackay staging scale. Approximately 20% of the scans were reviewed at random by a radiologist (N.G.C.) to ensure quality control. Bone changes consistent with osteitis were ascertained from radiology reports. Lung function was measured, and sputum was analyzed by conventional methods. RESULTS Sinus CT scans revealed abnormalities in 136 (68%) of the 201 study patients. Severe mucosal thickening (CT score, ≥12) was found in 60 patients (30%) and osteitis in 18 patients (9%). There was a positive correlation between CT scores and eosinophil levels in both peripheral blood (ρ=0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.56; P<.001) and induced sputum (ρ=0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.57; P<.001). Further, elevated blood and sputum eosinophil levels were associated with the presence of osteitis on CT scan and previous sinus surgery. CONCLUSION Blood and sputum eosinophil levels in patients with asthma are directly correlated with sinus mucosal thickening and are associated with osteitis, lending further support to the hypothesis that asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are mediated by similar inflammatory processes. PMID:18533084

  2. Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu

    2008-03-01

    Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Examination and Intervention for Sinus Tarsi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Athletes with persistent anterolateral ankle discomfort may have developed sinus tarsi syndrome (STS). Sinus tarsi syndrome develops from excessive motions of the subtalar joint that results in subtalar joint synovitis and infiltration of fibrotic tissue into the sinus tarsi space. Physical therapists treating athletes with ankle conditions should examine the talocrural and subtalar joints for signs of hypermobility as injuries can affect both of these important articulations of the lower extremity. Localized ankle discomfort to the sinus tarsi space and feelings of instability with pronation and supination movements of the subtalar joint will help identify STS. Intervention for this condition will focus on enhancing subtalar joint stability and function of the lower extremities. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the etiologies and signs of STS and describe the components of an intervention plan appropriate for athletes with STS. PMID:21509118

  4. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  5. Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, M L; Ellenbogen, K A; Eckberg, D L

    1992-12-01

    Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position. PMID:1290922

  6. Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

  7. Alprostadil Urogenital

    MedlinePlus

    ... cartridges at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Read the manufacturer's instructions for information about how long alprostadil solution may be stored after mixing and where it ...

  8. Alprostadil Urogenital

    MedlinePlus

    ... the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  9. The significance of ultrastructural abnormalities of human cilia.

    PubMed

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Makey, A R; Rawbone, R

    1981-12-01

    The electronmicroscopic structure of cilia was studied from the inferior turbinate of the nose in 22 adults, and in 84 biopsies from the bronchial tree of 40 adults. The incidence of compound cilia and abnormal microtubular structures was assessed. There were significant variations in the incidence of abnormalities in different parts of the airways and even within different areas of the same electronmicroscopic section. The focal nature of differences in structure of cilia indicate that abnormalities found in a single biopsy do not necessarily reflect a generalized change in the bronchial tree. Thus, such a finding should not be used as evidence that the abnormalities of cilia are the cause of decrease in mucociliary clearance or that they play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis and sinusitis. PMID:7307613

  10. Anatomic Considerations in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Folbe, Adam J; Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Comprehension of the complex anatomic variants comprising the frontal sinus outflow tract is essential for successful surgical intervention. Deviation from sound technique increases the potential for a variety of deleterious sequelae, including recurrent disease as well as catastrophic intracranial and orbital injury. Furthermore, incomplete removal of elements occluding the frontal recess can result in severe stenosis that can increase the difficulty of further interventions. This review covers anatomic considerations that should be kept in mind when performing frontal sinus surgery. PMID:27329978

  11. Cavernous sinus thrombosis progression from trismus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Yong; Kim, Hyeon Min

    2015-01-01

    In the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, patients with trismus can be easily identified. If the cause of trismus is infection of the masticatory space near the pterygoid plexus, the possibility of cavernous sinus thrombosis should be considered. We report the case of a patient who presented with limited mouth opening and progressed to cavernous sinus thrombosis, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25741468

  12. Frontal Sinus Fractures: A Conservative Shift

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, William M.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Hatef, Daniel A.; Lee, Edward I.; Brown, Rodger H.; Hollier, Larry H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the changing management of frontal sinus fractures. Severity of these injuries has decreased tremendously since the universal adoption of seat belts and air bags. Recently, there has been a shift from aggressive surgical management to more conservative management strategies, some forgoing surgery all together. New technologies, such as bioabsorbable plates and endoscopic sinus surgery, are leading the way in improved surgical management strategies and offer promising alternatives to the more traditional approaches. PMID:24436753

  13. Rationale for Management of Frontal Sinus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    BANICA, Bogdan; ENE, Patricia; DABU, Aurelia; ENE, Razvan; CIRSTOIU, Catalin

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The optimal treatment of frontal sinus fractures remains controversial. Multiple treatment options and algorithms have been proposed by multiple specialties throughout the years; however, the optimal method of frontal sinus repair has yet to be discovered. Overwhelming complications such as meningitis, encephalitis or brain abscess are quite uncommon nowadays. Nevertheless, late development of invasive mucoceles is not a rarity and therefore long-term follow-up is mandatory. PMID:24790677

  14. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Still a killer.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, C L; Rathe, R J

    1988-01-01

    Following treating a case of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, we did an extensive search of the literature, eliciting 795 cases of the disorder. An analysis showed that even after the introduction of antibiotics, the preponderance of these cases have been diagnosed at autopsy. Our findings raise questions about the current methods of diagnosis and management of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: Can the correct diagnosis be made earlier? Does a distinction between partial and complete thrombosis call for a different management? Images PMID:3051676

  15. The first report of otarine herpesvirus-1-associated urogenital carcinoma in a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis).

    PubMed

    Dagleish, M P; Barrows, M; Maley, M; Killick, R; Finlayson, J; Goodchild, R; Valentine, A; Saunders, R; Willoughby, K; Smith, K C; Stidworthy, M F

    2013-07-01

    Otarine herpesvirus (OtHV)-1-associated urogenital carcinoma has been well documented in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus, CSL), but this is the first report of this tumour in a captive South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis, SAFS). The gross and microscopical morphology of the tumour in the SAFS was identical to that described previously in CSLs and the tumour in the present case had metastasized within the urogenital tract and draining lymph nodes and to the lungs and one kidney. Immunohistochemistry revealed intra- and extracytoplasmic labelling of herpesvirus antigen in the cells of the tumour tissue and transitional epithelium of the urethra. OtHV-1 nucleic acids were detected within tumour tissue and from a urogenital swab by polymerase chain reaction. The ranges of these two species of pinniped do not overlap normally in the wild, suggesting that transmission of OtHV-1 probably occurred in captivity. This confirmed susceptibility of the SAFS to the development of OtHV-1-associated urogenital carcinoma suggests that all species of Otariidae should be screened for OtHV-1 infection prior to movement within and between zoological collections. PMID:23218410

  16. Automatic segmentation and statistical shape modeling of the paranasal sinuses to estimate natural variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Ayushi; Leonard, Simon; Reiter, Austin; Ishii, Masaru; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.

    2016-03-01

    We present an automatic segmentation and statistical shape modeling system for the paranasal sinuses which allows us to locate structures in and around the sinuses, as well as to observe the variability in these structures. This system involves deformably registering a given patient image to a manually segmented template image, and using the resulting deformation field to transfer labels from the template to the patient image. We use 3D snake splines to correct errors in this initial segmentation. Once we have several accurately segmented images, we build statistical shape models to observe the population mean and variance for each structure. These shape models are useful to us in several ways. Regular registration methods are insufficient to accurately register pre-operative computed tomography (CT) images with intra-operative endoscopy video of the sinuses. This is because of deformations that occur in structures containing erectile tissue. Our aim is to estimate these deformations using our shape models in order to improve video-CT registration, as well as to distinguish normal variations in anatomy from abnormal variations, and automatically detect and stage pathology. We can also compare the mean shapes and variances in different populations, such as different genders or ethnicities, in order to observe differences and similarities, as well as in different age groups in order to observe the developmental changes that occur in the sinuses.

  17. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  18. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  19. Blunt urogenital trauma in prepubescent female patients: more than meets the eye!

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Gardner, M J; Albanese, C T

    1995-12-01

    Blunt traumatic injury to the urogenital region in the prepubescent girl is commonly evaluated in pediatric emergency departments (ED). The purpose of this study is: 1) to establish recommendations for an accurate, painless (both physically and psychologically), and timely diagnosis, and 2) to determine whether the ED examination can accurately determine the extent of the injury. Over a 24-month period (January 1991 through December 1992), 22 girls with blunt trauma to the urogenital region (mean age 5.7 years, range 2-9 years) were retrospectively evaluated. Initial ED evaluations were by both an emergency physician and a pediatric surgeon. All 22 patients underwent an examination under anesthesia (EUA) in the operating room to evaluate the extent of the injury and to repair the injury as needed. Follow-up was obtained in all patients and averaged 18 months. The findings at EUA demonstrated a significant disagreement with the preoperative ED evaluation. In only five patients was there agreement between the preoperative ED assessment and the findings during the EUA (24% concurrence). Thus, 16 patients (76%) had injuries of greater extent than was appreciated during the preoperative examination in the ED. Partial or complete disruption of the perianal sphincters occurred in six patients (27%) and was unrecognized preoperatively in each. Twenty-one of the 22 patients required suture repair of lacerations, the remaining patient did not require surgical therapy. Three patients had contusions or lacerations to the urethral area requiring repair and/or prolonged bladder catheter drainage for two to 14 days (average seven days). The average hospital stay was 19.3 hours. There were three minor wound complications following surgery: two required repeat EUA with suturing or cauterization, and one required no further therapy. This study clearly demonstrates that the ED examination, by both emergency physicians and pediatric surgeons, of young girls who have suffered blunt

  20. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid

  1. Impact of Annual Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in a Seasonal Transmission Focus in Central Senegal.

    PubMed

    Senghor, Bruno; Diaw, Omar Talla; Doucoure, Souleymane; Seye, Mouhamadane; Diallo, Adiouma; Talla, Idrissa; Bâ, Cheikh T; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-03-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a

  2. Impact of Annual Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in a Seasonal Transmission Focus in Central Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Senghor, Bruno; Diaw, Omar Talla; Doucoure, Souleymane; Seye, Mouhamadane; Diallo, Adiouma; Talla, Idrissa; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital schistosomiasis remains a significant public health problem, causing 150.000 deaths/year with approximately 112 million cases diagnosed. The Niakhar district is a disease hotspot in central Senegal where transmission occurs seasonally with high prevalences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual treatment over 3 years on the seasonal transmission dynamics of S. haematobium in 9 villages in the Niakhar district. Adults and children aged between 5 and 60 years were surveyed from 2011 to 2014. Urine samples were collected door-to-door and examined for S. haematobium eggs at baseline in June 2011, and all participants were treated in August 2011 with PZQ (40 mg/kg). After this initial examination, evaluations were conducted at 3 successive time points from September 2011 to March 2014, to measure the efficacy of the annual treatments and the rates of reinfection. Each year, during the transmission period, from July to November-December, malacological surveys were also carried out in the fresh water bodies of each village to evaluate the infestation of the snail intermediate hosts. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 57.7%, and the proportion of heavy infection was 45.3%, but one month after the first treatment high cure rates (92.9%) were obtained. The overall infection prevalence and proportion of heavy infection intensities were drastically reduced to 4.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The level of the first reinfection in February-March 2012 was 9.5%. At follow-up time points, prevalence levels varied slightly between reinfection and treatment from 9.5% in June 2012 to 0.3% in March 2013, 11.2 in June 2013, and 10.1% April 2014. At the end of the study, overall prevalence was significantly reduced from 57.7% to 10.1%. The overall rate of infested Bulinid snails was reduced after repeated treatment from 0.8% in 2012 to 0.5% in 2013. Repeated annual treatments are suggested to have a

  3. Absence of pulmonary aspiration of sinus contents in patients with asthma and sinusitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bardin, P.G.; Van Heerden, B.B.; Joubert, J.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The frequent association of asthma and paranasal sinusitis has been ascribed to a nasobronchial reflex, aspiration of sinus secretions, or enhanced beta-adrenergic blockade. We investigated possible pulmonary aspiration in a pilot study (eight patients) and follow-up study (13 patients) by means of a radionuclide technique. In the pilot study, the aim was to demonstrate aspiration as well as visibility of the radionuclide in the thorax during a period of 24 hours. The radionuclide was initially placed bronchoscopically in the bronchial tree in four patients and was still clearly visible in the same position after 24 hours in three patients. Aspiration from the nasopharynx was unequivocally demonstrated in two of four patients with depressed consciousness. The follow-up study population consisted of four patients with maxillary sinusitis only and nine patients with sinusitis and asthma. The radionuclide was placed in a maxillary sinus during therapeutic puncture. In the patients with only sinusitis as well as patients with asthma and sinusitis the radionuclide could be demonstrated in the maxillary sinus, nasopharynx, esophagus, and lower gastrointestinal tract during a 24-hour period. However, no pulmonary aspiration of radionuclide could be demonstrated in any patient. We conclude that seeding of the lower airways by mucopurulent secretions is unlikely to account for coexistent pulmonary disease. The association is probably related to generalized mucosal disease affecting both upper and lower airways.

  4. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M.; A’Kadir, Faiza M.; Ali, Jamal N.; Mohammed, Ulfat A.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology In 2011, we conducted 35 children’s discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Principal Findings Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys’ disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students. Conclusions/Significance Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child’s well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar. PMID:27399310

  5. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital

  6. Urogenital fistulae: A prospective study of 50 cases at a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rajkumar; Joshi, Nitin; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Raikwar, Ramsharan; Shrivastava, Vaibhav; Mathur, Poonam; Raikwar, Poonam; Joshi, Rupali

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The misfortunate incident of formation of a urogenital fistula remains a major challenge for surgical urologists worldwide. Such fistulae may not be a life-threatening problem, but surely the women face demoralization, social boycott and even divorce and separation. The fistula may be vaginal, recto-vaginal or a combination of the two. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that in the developing nations, nearly 5 million women annually suffer severe morbidity with obstetric fistulae being the foremost on the list. The objective of our study was to enunciate the patient demography, patient profile, incidence, type of surgery, as well as the long-term outcomes encountered in the management of all types of genital fistulae at a tertiary care centre. Materials and Methods: 50 consecutive patients, attending the outpatient department with urogenital fistulae, were studied during the period of 5 years from July 2005 to July 2009. All female patients with complaints of urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence and dribbling, patients having a history of obstructed labor, radiotherapy, instrumental delivery, foreign body or trauma and with a history of hysterectomy (abdominal/ vaginal) and lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) were included. A thorough urological examination included a dye study using methylene blue, Renal function tests, X-ray KUB and intravenous urography (IVU). Cystoscopy along with examination under anaesthesia (EUA) were done to assess the actual extent of injury. All patients were subjected to appropriate surgical interventions via the same combination of surgeons . Post operatively, prophylactic antibiotics were administered to all patients and patients were managed till discharge and followed thereafter via regular outpatient visits for a period of 3 years. Results: Age of patients ranged from 21 to 40 years. 64% patients hailed from rural areas, 76% were from the lower socio-economic strata, 40% illiterate and 69% were

  7. [DYNAMICS OF CHANGES IN THE NUMERICAL DENSITY OF PLACENTAL MACROPHAGES DURING UROGENITAL INFECTION IN EARLY PREGNANCY].

    PubMed

    Mustafina, L R; Logvinov, S V; Yuriyev, S Yu

    2015-01-01

    The changes in the numerical density of macrophages of maternal (basal decidua) and fetal (Kashchenko-Hofbauer cells) origin were studied in the placenta of women with opportunistic (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis) and pathogenic (Chlamydia trachomatis) urogenital microflora. Histological study of placenta was performed and CD68-immunoreactive cells were detected immunohistochemically in the basal decidua and in the chorionic villi obtained during artificial abortions for non-medical reasons in the 6-8th week of pregnancy (n=136). The results showed no changes in the numerical density of macrophages of maternal origin and a significant decrease in the numerical density of macrophages in the stroma of the chorionic villi, which was associated in Chlamydial infection with a delayed, and in Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma infection - with an accelerated development of the villous tree. PMID:26234041

  8. [Minimally invasive interventional techniques involving the urogenital tract in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Heilmann, R M

    2016-04-18

    Minimally invasive interventional techniques are advancing fast in small animal medicine. These techniques utilize state-of-the-art diagnostic methods, including fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Minimally invasive procedures are particularly attractive in the field of small animal urology because, in the past, treatment options for diseases of the urogenital tract were rather limited or associated with a high rate of complications. Most endourological interventions have a steep learning curve. With the appropriate equipment and practical training some of these procedures can be performed in most veterinary practices. However, most interventions require referral to a specialty clinic. This article summarizes the standard endourological equipment and materials as well as the different endourological interventions performed in dogs and cats with diseases of the kidneys/renal pelves, ureters, or lower urinary tract (urinary bladder and urethra). PMID:26998909

  9. The emerging role of extracellular vesicles as biomarkers for urogenital cancers.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Camussi, Giovanni; Valadi, Hadi; Nazarenko, Irina; Ekström, Karin; Wang, Xiaoqin; Principe, Simona; Shah, Neelam; Ashraf, Naeem M; Fatima, Farah; Neder, Luciano; Kislinger, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge gained from comprehensive profiling projects that aim to define the complex genomic alterations present within cancers will undoubtedly improve our ability to detect and treat those diseases, but the influence of these resources on our understanding of basic cancer biology is still to be demonstrated. Extracellular vesicles have gained considerable attention in past years, both as mediators of intercellular signalling and as potential sources for the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers. In general, research on extracellular vesicles investigates either the basic mechanism of vesicle formation and cargo incorporation, or the isolation of vesicles from available body fluids for biomarker discovery. A deeper understanding of the cargo molecules present in extracellular vesicles obtained from patients with urogenital cancers, through high-throughput proteomics or genomics approaches, will aid in the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and can potentially lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:25403245

  10. Potential of sulfasalazine as a therapeutic sensitizer for CD44 splice variant 9-positive urogenital cancer.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tatsuya; Kubo, Taro; Morikawa, Ai; Morita, Tatsuo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) with high expression of CD44 splice variant (CD44v) have an enhanced capacity for intracellular reduced glutathione synthesis and defense against reactive oxygen species, resulting in resistance to various therapeutic stresses. Sulfasalazine (SSZ), a drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inhibits glutamate-cystine transport, and suppressed CD44v-dependent tumor growth and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs in an in vivo study. Here, we present two cases of CD44v9-positive urogenital cancer with concomitant treatment with SSZ for RA. Patient 1 was a 62-year-old man who had received SSZ for RA beginning 2 months before the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer. Although he had multiple metastases to the bladder, abdominal, left cervical and left axillary lymph nodes, and brain, complete response with multidisciplinary therapy was maintained for more than 2 years. Patient 2 was a 74-year-old man with castration-resistant prostate cancer who was diagnosed with RA during chemotherapy and a gradual increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. When SSZ was added, his PSA value (ng/mL) decreased from 12.93 to 5.58 in only 2 weeks and then quickly rebounded, whereas levels of neuron-specific enolase, a neuroendocrine differentiator and CSC marker, remained almost unchanged. We therefore speculate that SSZ treatment may represent a new adjuvant treatment option for patients with CD44v9-positive urogenital cancer. PMID:27044355

  11. Clinical comparison of 10q26 overlapping deletions: delineating the critical region for urogenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Vera-Carbonell, Ascensión; López-González, Vanesa; Bafalliu, Juan Antonio; Ballesta-Martínez, María J; Fernández, Asunción; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; López-Expósito, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The 10q26 deletion syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. The most common phenotypic characteristics include pre- and/or postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, developmental delay/intellectual disability and a facial appearance consisting of a broad nasal bridge with a prominent nose, low-set malformed ears, strabismus, and a thin vermilion of the upper lip. In addition, limb and cardiac anomalies as well as urogenital anomalies are occasionally observed. In this report, we describe three unrelated females with 10q26 terminal deletions who shared clinical features of the syndrome, including urogenital defects. Cytogenetic studies showed an apparently de novo isolated deletion of the long arm of chromosome 10, with breakpoints in 10q26.1, and subsequent oligo array-CGH analysis confirmed the terminal location and defined the size of the overlapping deletions as ∼ 13.46, ∼ 9.31 and ∼ 9.17 Mb. We compared the phenotypic characteristics of the present patients with others reported to have isolated deletions and we suggest that small 10q26.2 terminal deletions may be associated with growth retardation, developmental delay/intellectual disability, craniofacial features and external genital anomalies whereas longer terminal deletions affecting the 10q26.12 and/or 10q26.13 regions may be responsible for renal/urinary tract anomalies. We propose that the haploinsufficiency of one or several genes located in the 10q26.12-q26.13 region may contribute to the renal or urinary tract pathogenesis and we highlight the importance of FGFR2 and probably of CTBP2 as candidate genes. PMID:25655674

  12. Epidemiologic Factors and Urogenital Infections Associated With Preterm Birth in a Midwestern U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Agger, William A.; Siddiqui, Danish; Lovrich, Steven D.; Callister, Steven M; Borgert, Andrew J.; Merkitch, Kenneth W.; Mason, Tina C.; Baumgardner, Dennis J.; Burmester, James K.; Shukla, Sanjay K.; Welter, Joseph D.; Stewart, Katharina S.; Washburn, M.J.; Bailey, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To correlate epidemiologic factors with urogenital infections associated with preterm birth. Methods Pregnant women were sequentially included from four Wisconsin cohorts: large urban, midsize urban, small city, and rural city. Demographic, clinical, and current pregnancy data were collected. Cervical and urine specimens were analyzed by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for potential pathogens. Results Six hundred seventy-six women were evaluated. Fifty-four (8.0%) had preterm birth: 12.1% (19/157) large urban, 8.8% (15/170) midsize urban, 9.4% (16/171) small city, and 2.3% (4/178) rural city. Associated host factors and infections varied significantly among sites. Urogenital infection rates, especially Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum, were highest at the large urban site. Large urban site, minority ethnicity, multiple infections, and certain historical factors were associated with preterm birth by univariable analysis. By multivariable analysis, preterm birth was associated with prior preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–6.02) and urinary tract infection (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.32–519), and negatively associated with provider-assessed good health (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.76) and group B streptococcal infection treatment (surrogate for healthcare utilization) (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–.99). Risk and protective factors were similar for women with birth at < 35 weeks, and additionally associated with M hominis (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4–9.7). Conclusion These measured differences between sites are consistent with observations that link epidemiologic factors, both environmental and genetic, with minimally pathogenic vaginal bacteria, inducing preterm birth, especially at less than 35 weeks of gestation. PMID:25437726

  13. The development of the tympanic sinus.

    PubMed

    Bollobás, B; Hajdu, I

    1975-01-01

    On the examination of 200 embryonal petrous bones the factors affecting the morphology of the tympanic sinus under physiological conditions are discussed. The development of the tympanic sinus begins during the fourth month of embryonic life. In an embryo of 5 months the floor of the tympanic sinus developing between the cochlea and the vestibulum consists of lamellae resembling a wicker basket. Caudally, its floor reaches at first the lower part of the tympanum, for at this stage the styloid prominence and the pavimentum pyramidis are not yet fully developed. In the eighth and ninth month of foetal life the tympanic sinus is narrowed by the styloid prominence, from the floor and from the cranial side it is bordered by the fully developed ponticulus medialis. In postnatal life the development of the membranous bony substance of the promontory, subiculum promontorii and styloid prominence, each narrows the tympanic sinus in some degree. Under the influence of vascular factors highly developed trabeculae and lamellae are formed in them. The cavity is deeper in the dolichocephalics and is more shallow in brachycephalics. PMID:1168885

  14. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  15. A novel technique to close large perforation of sinus membrane

    PubMed Central

    CLEMENTINI, M.; OTTRIA, L.; PANDOLFI, C.; BOLLERO, P.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Maxillary sinus floor elevation is generally accepted as a regenerative procedure to facilitate dental implants placement in the posterior atrophic maxilla. Although the sinus lift procedure is relatively safe, some potential problems could be occur. The most prevalent intraoperative complication is perforation of sinus membrane, which can lead to graft infection and early failure. The Aim of this work Is to present a new technique to repair large perforation of sinus membrane. This case report Is focused on a 10 mm perforation of sinus membrane occurred during preparation of the sinus window. The obliteration of the perforation was obtained by means of suturing sinus membrane with a resorbable material to the bone directly lateral to the osteotomy site. Sinus augmentation procedure could complete and the insertion of a graft was permitted. PMID:23991280

  16. Gamma knife surgery for a hemangioma of the cavernous sinus in a child.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rory K J; Reynolds, Matthew R; Mansur, David B; Smyth, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Cavernous sinus (CS) hemangiomas are rare vascular abnormalities that constitute 0.4%-2% of all lesions within the CS. Cavernous sinus hemangiomas are high-flow vascular tumors that tend to hemorrhage profusely during resection, leading to incomplete resection and high morbidity and mortality. While Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has proven to be an effective treatment of CS hemangiomas in the adult population, few reports of GKS for treatment of CS hemangiomas exist in the pediatric literature. Here, the authors present the first case of a 15-year-old girl with a biopsy-proven CS hemangioma who achieved complete resolution of her symptoms and a complete imaging-defined response following GKS. If suspicion for a CS hemangioma is high in a pediatric patient, GKS may be considered as an effective treatment modality, thus avoiding the morbidities of open resection. PMID:23082966

  17. [Torsades de Pointes: a cause of syncope in sinus node dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Velázquez Rodríguez, E; Rangel Rojo, J; Ortega Sánchez, A; Zamudio Villafuerte, A; González Gallardo, S

    1998-01-01

    Torsade de Pointes (TdP) is an atypical ventricular tachycardia that occurs in the setting of QT interval prolongation which may be an inherited or acquired abnormality. TdP is a recognized complication of bradyarrhythmias, specifically atrioventricular block. However, sinus node dysfunction is a rare cause of syncope associated with TdP. Experimental studies have suggested that the acquired long QTU interval and TdP may be due to bradycardia or pause-dependent early after depolarizations that give rise to triggered activity. This report describes a patient with sinus bradycardia and intermittent AV nodal rhythm induced long QT interval and repetitive syncope related to TdP and successfully treated with temporal and long-term pacing. PMID:10365226

  18. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595

  19. Endovascular Management of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, Srinivasan; Furtado, Sunil; Shigamatsu, Tomoyoshi; Smouha, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Sigmoid sinus diverticulum (SSD) is a rare vascular disorder due to dehiscence of the sigmoid plate. It may be associated with prediverticular venous sinus stenosis (SS) and usually presents as pulsatile tinnitus. The mechanism of development of the SSD and tinnitus from a sinus diverticulum and associated SS is unclear. Previous case reports have suggested that remodeling of the venous system targeting the stenosis, elimination of the diverticulum, or both, have resulted in symptom relief. We present a case of SSD with SS, treated by stenting of the stenosis along with coil embolization of the diverticulum, resulting in complete relief of symptoms. We have also reviewed the literature and discussed the evolution of management from open surgical treatment to endovascular treatment. PMID:27610124

  20. Endovascular Management of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivam, Srinivasan; Furtado, Sunil; Shigamatsu, Tomoyoshi; Smouha, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid sinus diverticulum (SSD) is a rare vascular disorder due to dehiscence of the sigmoid plate. It may be associated with prediverticular venous sinus stenosis (SS) and usually presents as pulsatile tinnitus. The mechanism of development of the SSD and tinnitus from a sinus diverticulum and associated SS is unclear. Previous case reports have suggested that remodeling of the venous system targeting the stenosis, elimination of the diverticulum, or both, have resulted in symptom relief. We present a case of SSD with SS, treated by stenting of the stenosis along with coil embolization of the diverticulum, resulting in complete relief of symptoms. We have also reviewed the literature and discussed the evolution of management from open surgical treatment to endovascular treatment. PMID:27610124

  1. Epidural Abscess Masquerading as Lateral Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Brodner, David C.; Cutler, Jeff; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants, the evacuation of the sinus, or the use of medical treatment alone surrounds the treatment of lateral sinus thrombosis. Treatment of an epidural abscess associated with coalescent mastoiditis is much less controversial-drainage is usually recommended. The differing treatments of these complications mandate accurate diagnosis. The advent of more sophisticated radiological studies has facilitated diagnosis of these complications; however, tests are not infallible. We present three cases in which preoperative imaging demonstrates an epidural abscess mimicking lateral sinus thrombosis by compression of the vessel. A false-positive computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study may lead to the wrong diagnosis and, consequently, improper treatment. In light of this possibility, we recommend surgical exploration in all such cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171148

  2. [Surgery of the nose and paranasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Hofer, M; Dacho, A; Dietz, A

    2016-01-01

    A compromised overview of surgical techniques regarding the nose (functional) and para nasal sinus inflammation surgical treatment is exposed in this article. The nasal septum is within the focus for function, form and stability for the nasal structure (especially for tip and back of the nose) and for success of a rhinoplasty. An important role play the lower nasal turbinates regulating nasal air flow and thus having a great effect after turbinate surgery (submucosal resection and lateral fracturing).The endonasal endoscopy is of utmost importance for diagnosis, therapy and detection of recurrence. In severe cases of nasal polyps, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) remains the ultimate therapy. However, the indication to operate will be carried out after exhaustion of medical treatment. The most important recurrent prophylaxis for rhino sinusitis and nasal polyps is an appropriate post operative nasal care. PMID:26756658

  3. Surfactant improves irrigant penetration into unoperated sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Joseph W.; Dion, Greg R.; Brenner, Pryor S.; Abadie, Wesley M.; McMains, Kevin C.; Thomas, Roy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Saline irrigations are proving to be a valuable intervention in the treatment of chronic sinusitis. The use of surfactants is a well established additive to topical treatments known to reduce surface tension and may prove to be a simple, nonoperative intervention to improve intrasinus douching penetration. Methods: Six 30-mL, flat-bottomed medicine cups with circular holes cut through the bottom center and varying in diameter from 1 to 6 mm were created with punch biopsies. Water, saline, saline/dye, and saline/dye/surfactant were compared for maximum holding pressure via these modeled ostia. Holding pressures also were determined for cups with septal mucosa fused to the bottom with holes ranging from 1 to 6 mm. In addition, analysis was carried out with blood and blood/surfactant. Finally, five thawed, fresh-frozen cadaver heads were evaluated before any sinus surgery with water/dye and water/dye/surfactant for intrasinus penetration. Results: Surfactant significantly improved the ability of all solutions to penetrate ostia in both the plastic cup and fused septal mucosa model. All nonsurfactant-containing solutions were not statistically different from one another, nor did surfactant change the ostial penetration of blood. Surfactant significantly improved the ability of sinus irrigant to penetrate unoperated sinus cavities (3.12 vs 3.5, p = .021). Conclusions: The addition of surfactant to saline irrigation improves ostial penetration in undissected and undiseased cadavers. This has practical implications for unoperated patients seeking care for sinus-related symptoms in that we have now described a method for improving topical treatment of target sinus mucosa prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22643945

  4. Spatiotemporal complexity of the aortic sinus vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-07-01

    The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calcific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus vortex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High-resolution time-resolved (2 kHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in timescales as revealed using time bin-averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small timescale vortices and a large timescale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatiotemporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200 Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and timescales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.

  5. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carotid sinus nerve stimulator. 870.3850 Section... nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. A carotid sinus nerve stimulator is an implantable device used to decrease arterial pressure by stimulating Hering's nerve at the carotid sinus. (b) Classification....

  6. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carotid sinus nerve stimulator. 870.3850 Section... nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. A carotid sinus nerve stimulator is an implantable device used to decrease arterial pressure by stimulating Hering's nerve at the carotid sinus. (b) Classification....

  7. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carotid sinus nerve stimulator. 870.3850 Section... nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. A carotid sinus nerve stimulator is an implantable device used to decrease arterial pressure by stimulating Hering's nerve at the carotid sinus. (b) Classification....

  8. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node. PMID:27142063

  9. A simplified classification and repair system for sinus membrane perforations.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, Paul A; Vlassis, James

    2003-10-01

    A classification and repair system is presented for the management of sinus membrane perforations, based upon membrane location and severity. The results of 19 consecutively treated cases are presented. All cases of sinus membrane perforation were appropriately managed, resulting in successful sinus augmentation therapy, implant placement, and restoration. All implants were functioning successfully at the time of statistical compilation. PMID:14653401

  10. Relationship of optic neuritis to disease of the paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, J; Maisel, R H; Berlinger, N T; Wirtschafter, J D

    1984-11-01

    The relationship of paranasal sinusitis to optic neuritis remains an intriguing curiosity to both the otolaryngologist and the ophthalmologist. The literature is replete with anecdotal case reports of patients whose sinusitis appears to have caused optic neuritis. There is much speculation about the pathophysiological mechanisms which relate these two distinct disease entities. Five new cases are described which highlight distinct pathophysiologic routes through which paranasal sinus disease has caused optic neuritis. These include compressive optic neuropathy secondary to mucoceles and/or pyoceles; direct extension of sinus infection to the optic nerve from suppurative paranasal sinusitis; and, in one case, from osteomyelitis of the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. The usefulness of computerized axial tomography of the orbits and paranasal sinuses to evaluate optic neuritis and to elucidate in detail the pathophysiology of its relationship to disease of the paranasal sinuses is emphasized. Currently, optic neuritis is felt to be a rare complication of paranasal sinusitis. Paranasal sinus surgery is advocated in those cases where sinus suppuration is suspected, or when a compressive optic neuropathy is caused by a sinus mucocele or pyocele. Since in most cases, however, optic neuritis is self-limited, it is difficult to evaluate the results of surgery in circumstances other than those mentioned already. Continued careful evaluation, management, and documentation of this group of patients is necessary to help better define the relationship between these two disease entities. PMID:6492975

  11. Thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin; Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Ymeri, Halit; Hundozi, Hajrije; Vranica, Sylen; Hasani, Antigona; Shala, Nexhmedin

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis of the sinuses is a distinct cerebrovascular disorder that, unlike arterial stroke, most often affects young adults and children. The symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. During the past decade, increased awareness of the diagnosis, improved neuro-imaging techniques, and more effective treatment have improved the prognosis. More than 80% of all patients now have a good neurologic outcome. This review summarizes recent insights into the pathogenesis of sinus thrombosis, risk factors, and clinical and radiological diagnosis and discusses the current evidence and controversies about the best treatment. PMID:20422831

  12. Complications of sinusitis: what to watch for.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, R W; Cassisi, N J; Karlan, M S

    1978-03-01

    Sinus infection remains a common cause of orbital inflammatory disease, and prompt diagnosis is essential. A team approach early in the course of the disease, with an otolaryngologist serving as coordinator, is recommended. If vigorous medical therapy fails, abscess formation should be suspected and surgical drainage instituted without delay. Of 24 patients hospitalized with complications of sinusitis, 13 were found to have acute inflammatory disease and 11 had mucocele formation. Mortality in patients with acute inflammatory was 30%; in those with intracranial extension of infection it was 67%. PMID:628655

  13. MR imaging appearance of frontal sinus barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Segev, Yoram; Landsberg, Roee; Fliss, Dan M

    2003-03-01

    We present the case of a flight passenger who experienced acute and severe headache during landing. MR imaging was performed because the patient had a history of vascular malformation and revealed an incidental venous angioma. A mass lesion in the frontal sinus, consistent with submucosal hematoma secondary to barotrauma, was thought to be the cause of the headache. To our knowledge, this is the first case of sinus barotrauma described in the radiologic literature and the first to describe the associated MR imaging findings. PMID:12637280

  14. Epidemiology and definition of inappropriate sinus tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Cara N; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2016-06-01

    Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome lacking formal diagnostic criteria. It is generally defined as an elevated resting heart rate (HR; >90-100 bpm) with an exaggerated response to physical or emotional stress and a clearly sinus mechanism. Clinical manifestations are broad from a complete lack of symptoms to incapacitating incessant tachycardia. Now understood to be relatively prevalent, it is observed to have a generally benign prognosis, though symptoms may persist for years. Whether IST is a single discrete entity or a heterogeneous condition with overlap to other syndromes such as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome remains a matter of debate. PMID:26310298

  15. Rhinoplasty and Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, George L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of patients are opting for combining sinus surgery and cosmetic rhinoplasty. The author has been performing rhinoplasty with FESS since April of 1990. The technique and equipment used in early cases is much different than that used in more recent surgeries. Specific advances include high definition monitor, intraoperative navigation system, and powered dissecting instruments. The benefits of these advances are illustrated by a review of the more recent cases performed by the author. Combined rhinoplasty and FESS can be performed with good results (functional and cosmetic) and minimal complications. Advances in sinus surgery technique and equipment have made the procedure safer, faster, more precise, and more comfortable. PMID:22567242

  16. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  17. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  18. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  19. Complex malformations of the urogenital tract in a female dog: Gartner duct cyst, ipsilateral renal agenesis, and ipsilateral hydrometra.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2016-05-01

    A 10-month-old female toy poodle was referred to the University of Tokyo Veterinary Medical Center with a urogenital anomaly found during sterilization. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a cyst adhering to the cervix and a unilateral renal agenesis. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of the cyst was consistent with remnants of the Wolffian duct or a Gartner duct cyst. This is a rare case of a canine Gartner duct cyst with renal agenesis and uterine anomaly. We discuss the similarity of this case to that of humans and introduce a classification in the literature for these complex urogenital malformations for further clinical research into the precise diagnosis and appropriate surgical planning. PMID:27506089

  20. Traumatic combined valve lesions with aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva causing late onset of heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Nawa, S; Kurozumi, K; Teramoto, S

    1987-01-01

    A 23 year old man was operated on because severe incompetence of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve caused congestive heart failure five months after a violent steering wheel injury. The following abnormalities were found at operation: a disrupted right coronary cusp, a torn chorda of the anterior mitral leaflet, a dilated tricuspid annulus, and an intimal tear on the aortic root near the right coronary ostium that had developed into an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. PMID:3580226

  1. Evaluation and Decision Making in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Saini, Alok T; Govindaraj, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Management of frontal sinusitis can be challenging for even the most experienced otolaryngologists. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the frontal sinus is essential to properly manage disease affecting the frontal sinus. Being able to distinguish acute viral from acute bacterial and acute from chronic sinusitis is crucial because these distinctions guide appropriate management. Nasal endoscopy can confirm diagnosis, and radiologic imaging, including computed tomography and MRI, is often a necessary adjunct that aids in determining appropriate therapeutic decisions. One must be aware of the many procedures used in the surgical treatment of frontal sinusitis. PMID:27450615

  2. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 Cause Hydrocephalus, Laterality Defects, and Sinusitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seungshin; Lindsay, Anna M.; Timms, Andrew E.; Beier, David R.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously described a forward genetic screen in mice for abnormalities of brain development. Characterization of two hydrocephalus mutants by whole-exome sequencing after whole-genome SNP mapping revealed novel recessive mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48. Mouse mutants of these two genes have not been previously reported. The Dnaaf1 mutant carries a mutation at the splice donor site of exon 4, which results in abnormal transcripts. The Lrrc48 mutation is a missense mutation at a highly conserved leucine residue, which is also associated with a decrease in Lrrc48 transcription. Both Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 belong to a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein family and are components of the ciliary axoneme. Their Chlamydomonas orthologs are known to be required for normal ciliary beat frequency or flagellar waveform, respectively. Some Dnaaf1 or Lrrc48 homozygote mutants displayed laterality defects, suggesting a motile cilia defect in the embryonic node. Mucus accumulation and neutrophil infiltration in the maxillary sinuses suggested sinusitis. Dnaaf1 mutants showed postnatal lethality, and none survived to weaning age. Lrrc48 mutants survive to adulthood, but had male infertility. ARL13B immunostaining showed the presence of motile cilia in the mutants, and the distal distribution of DNAH9 in the axoneme of upper airway motile cilia appeared normal. The phenotypic abnormalities suggest that mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 cause defects in motile cilia function. PMID:27261005

  4. Mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 Cause Hydrocephalus, Laterality Defects, and Sinusitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seungshin; Lindsay, Anna M; Timms, Andrew E; Beier, David R

    2016-01-01

    We have previously described a forward genetic screen in mice for abnormalities of brain development. Characterization of two hydrocephalus mutants by whole-exome sequencing after whole-genome SNP mapping revealed novel recessive mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 Mouse mutants of these two genes have not been previously reported. The Dnaaf1 mutant carries a mutation at the splice donor site of exon 4, which results in abnormal transcripts. The Lrrc48 mutation is a missense mutation at a highly conserved leucine residue, which is also associated with a decrease in Lrrc48 transcription. Both Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 belong to a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein family and are components of the ciliary axoneme. Their Chlamydomonas orthologs are known to be required for normal ciliary beat frequency or flagellar waveform, respectively. Some Dnaaf1 or Lrrc48 homozygote mutants displayed laterality defects, suggesting a motile cilia defect in the embryonic node. Mucus accumulation and neutrophil infiltration in the maxillary sinuses suggested sinusitis. Dnaaf1 mutants showed postnatal lethality, and none survived to weaning age. Lrrc48 mutants survive to adulthood, but had male infertility. ARL13B immunostaining showed the presence of motile cilia in the mutants, and the distal distribution of DNAH9 in the axoneme of upper airway motile cilia appeared normal. The phenotypic abnormalities suggest that mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 cause defects in motile cilia function. PMID:27261005

  5. Whole-Brain Computed Tomographic Perfusion Imaging in Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mokin, Maxim; Ciambella, Chelsey C.; Masud, Muhammad W.; Levy, Elad I.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (VST) can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical presentation. The utility of perfusion imaging for diagnosing VST is not well understood. Summary We retrospectively reviewed cases of acute VST in patients who underwent whole-brain (320-detector-row) computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging in combination with craniocervical CT venography. Perfusion maps that were analyzed included cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time, and time to peak. Among the 10 patients with acute VST included in this study, 9 had perfusion abnormalities. All perfusion abnormalities were localized in areas adjacent to the occluded sinus and did not match typical anterior or posterior circulation arterial territories. Bilateral perfusion deficits were seen in 4 cases. In 2 cases, parenchymal hemorrhage was diagnosed on noncontrast CT imaging; in those cases, focal CBV and CBF were reduced. Key Messages Whole-brain CT perfusion imaging with 320-detector-row scanners can further assist in establishing the diagnosis of VST by detecting perfusion abnormalities corresponding to venous and not arterial territories. CT perfusion could assist in the differentiation between focal reversible changes, such as those caused by vasogenic edema, and irreversible changes due to infarction. PMID:27051406

  6. Metronomic palliative chemotherapy in maxillary sinus tumor

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijay M.; Noronh, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Karpe, Ashay; Talreja, Vikas; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Dhumal, Sachin; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metronomic chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate and celecoxib recently has shown promising results in multiple studies in head and neck cancers. However, these studies have not included patients with maxillary sinus primaries. Hence, the role of palliative metronomic chemotherapy in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma that is not amenable to radical therapy is unknown. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of carcinoma maxillary sinus patients who received palliative metronomic chemotherapy between August 2011 and August 2014. The demographic details, symptomatology, previous treatment details, indication for palliative chemotherapy, response to therapy, and overall survival (OS) details were extracted. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics have been performed. Survival analysis was done by Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Five patients had received metronomic chemotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range 37–64 years). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months were 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. The estimated median OS was 126 days (95% confidence interval 0–299.9 days). The estimated median survival in patients with an event-free period after the last therapy of <6 months was 45 days, whereas it was 409 days in patients with an event-free period postlast therapy above 6 months (P = 0.063). Conclusion: Metronomic chemotherapy in carcinoma maxillary sinus holds promise. It has activity similar to that seen in head and neck cancers and needs to be evaluated further in a larger cohort of patients.

  7. Stent hypersensitivity and infection in sinus cavities

    PubMed Central

    Soufras, George D.; Hahalis, George

    2013-01-01

    Persistent mucosal inflammation, granulation tissue formation, hypersensitivity, and multifactorial infection are newly described complications of retained drug-eluting stents from endoscopic sinus surgery for refractory rhinosinusitis. In an important report published in Allergy and Rhinology, a 45-year-old male patient suffering from recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery and was found, for the first time, to have steroid-eluting catheters that were inadvertently left in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The retained catheters had caused persistent mucosal inflammation and formation of granulation tissue denoting hypersensitivity reaction. These consequences had induced perpetuation of symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Meticulous removal of the retained stents with the nitinol wings from inflamed tissues of the frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoethmoidal recesses in which they were completely imbedded was successfully performed without polypoid regrowth. Cultures of specimens taken from both left and right stents showed heavy growth of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and moderate growth of Klebsiella oxytoca, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus. Fungal infection was not detected. The current knowledge and experience regarding stent hypersensitivity and infection in relation with the use of stents in sinus cavities is reviewed. PMID:24498522

  8. What Are the Symptoms of Sinusitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Symptoms Most ...

  9. What Causes the Symptoms of Sinusitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Cause Colds, ...

  10. Acute Necrotizing Sinusitis Caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philippa C.; Lazarus, Rajeka; Protheroe, Andrew; Milford, Christopher; Bowler, Ian C. J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is most commonly associated with infections arising from the inguinal region, but here we report this organism as a cause of bacterial sinusitis, highlighting its potential niche as a commensal of the upper airways. The severity of necrosis demonstrates the potential for destructive pathology mimicking Staphylococcus aureus disease. PMID:21593256

  11. Giant-cell granuloma of the sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, J.T.; Weber, A.L.

    1983-04-01

    Three cases are presented which illustrate giant-cell granulomas in the maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. The radiographic features are nonspecific, and the lesion can mimic carcinoma. Ossification can be demonstrated, especially with computed tomography, and may indicate a benign lesion.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 65. The incidence of this condition increases with age. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics ... adults, sick sinus syndrome is often associated with age-related changes in the heart. Over time, the SA node may ... Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  13. Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva: uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Raja Saravanan; Vaidyanathan, Kirthivasan; Nainar, Madhu Sankar; Balasubramaniam, Govini; George, Susan

    2011-12-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with acute onset of chest pain. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva dissecting into the interventricular septum. During the next 12 h, the aneurysm enlarged to involve the entire interventricular septum, and the patient developed features of cardiac tamponade. He underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:22160415

  14. Repeated loss of frontal sinuses in arctoid carnivorans.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Abigail A; Lai, George; Wei, Fuwen; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2015-01-01

    Many mammal skulls contain air spaces inside the bones surrounding the nasal chamber including the frontal, maxilla, ethmoid, and sphenoid, all of which are called paranasal sinuses. Within the Carnivora, frontal sinuses are usually present, but vary widely in size and shape. The causes of this variation are unclear, although there are some functional associations, such as a correlation between expanded frontal sinuses and a durophagous diet in some species (e.g., hyenas) or between absent sinuses and semiaquatic lifestyle (e.g., pinnipeds). To better understand disparity in frontal sinus morphology within Carnivora, we quantified frontal sinus size in relationship to skull size and shape in 23 species within Arctoidea, a clade that is ecologically diverse including three independent invasions of aquatic habitats, by bears, otters, and pinnipeds, respectively. Our sampled species range in behavior from terrestrial (rarely or never forage in water), to semiterrestrial (forage in water and on land), to semiaquatic (forage only in water). Results show that sinuses are either lost or reduced in both semiterrestrial and semiaquatic species, and that sinus size is related to skull size and shape. Among terrestrial species, frontal sinus size was positively allometric overall, but several terrestrial species completely lacked sinuses, including two fossorial badgers, the kinkajou (a nocturnal, arboreal frugivore), and several species with small body size, indicating that factors other than aquatic habits, such as space limitations due to constraints on skull size and shape, can limit sinus size and presence. PMID:25069818

  15. Barotrauma secondary to inflammatory maxillary sinus polyp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Steven M; Brennan, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Sinus barotrauma, secondary to mucosal disturbances, is a common finding within the aviation community. Multiple etiologies have all led to mucosal inflammation and thickening with potential obstruction of the sinus osteomeatal complex, especially during the barometric changes of flight. Obstruction can, therefore, lead to problems with sinus pressure equilibration with atmospheric pressure, and can lead to barosinusitis. We present a case of a U.S. Air Force Command Pilot with acute left sinus barotrauma during descent while flying a T-37 aircraft, along with a brief review of the pathophysiologic processes involved during barotrauma. An inflammatory polyp within his sinus was identified by plain radiography, confirmed with computed tomography, and subsequently excised. The patient had complete resolution and clearance to fly after an uneventful 4-wk convalescence and altitude chamber flight. This is the first case of sinus barotrauma secondary to an inflammatory maxillary sinus polyp, confirmed by histologic diagnosis, reported in the aeromedical literature. PMID:12433240

  16. Evaluation of reuterin production in urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Peter; Wind, Anette; Sommer, Philip; Schaefer, Laura; Crowley, Kate; Britton, Robert A; Reid, Gregor

    2008-08-01

    Classified as a distinct species in 1980, Lactobacillus reuteri strains have been used in probiotic formulations for intestinal and urogenital applications. In the former, the primary mechanism of action of L. reuteri SD2112 (ATCC 55730) has been purported to be its ability to produce the antibiotic 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), also known as reuterin. In the vagina, it has been postulated that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 does not require reuterin production but mediates a restoration of the normal microbiota via hydrogen peroxide, biosurfactant, lactic acid production, and immune modulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strain RC-14 produced reuterin. Using PCR and DNA dot blot analyses, numerous Lactobacillus species, including RC-14, were screened for the presence of the gene encoding the large subunit of glycerol dehydratase (gldC), the enzyme responsible for reuterin production. In addition, lactobacilli were grown in glycerol-based media and both high-performance liquid chromatography and a colorimetric assay were used to test for the presence of reuterin. L. reuteri RC-14 was determined to be negative for gldC sequences, as well as for the production of reuterin when cultured in the presence of glycerol. These findings support that the probiotic effects of L. reuteri RC-14, repeatedly demonstrated during numerous studies of the intestine and vagina, are independent of reuterin production. PMID:18539802

  17. Is there a role for lactobacilli in prevention of urogenital and intestinal infections?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Bruce, A W; McGroarty, J A; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1990-01-01

    This review describes the importance of microbial adhesion in the ecology of the urogenital and intestinal tracts and the influence of host and microbial factors in bacterial interference. In a recent revival of interest in bacterial interference, lactobacillus administration has been studied as a means of treating and preventing disease. Although evidence is conflicting, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to be involved in beneficial antagonistic and cooperative reactions that interfere with establishment of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms of action are believed to involve competitive exclusion and production of inhibitory substances, including bacteriocins. These characteristics, as well as demonstrated adherence abilities in vitro, led to selection of certain Lactobacillus strains for clinical studies of cystitis. Weekly intravaginal Lactobacillus therapy reduced the recurrence rate of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in women. Use of Lactobacillus strains resistant to Nonoxynol-9, a spermicide that kills members of the protective normal vaginal flora, may have potential for use in women with recurrent cystitis using this contraceptive agent. In veterinary studies, bacterial interference by administration of probiotics has also been beneficial in disease prevention in animals. Carefully selected bacterial mixtures integrate with the gastrointestinal flora of the animals and can confer disease resistance and improve physiological function. Additional human and animal trials are needed to determine the practical, long-term usefulness of bacterial interference as a protective mechanism against infectious diseases. Images PMID:2224835

  18. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion.

    PubMed

    Browning, Helen M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances M D; Hall, Ailsa J; Finlayson, Jeanie; Dagleish, Mark P; Billington, Karen J; Colegrove, Kathleen; Hammond, John A

    2014-12-01

    Although neoplasia is a major cause of mortality in humans and domestic animals, it has rarely been described in wildlife species. One of the few examples is a highly prevalent urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (CSLs). Although the aetiology of this carcinoma is clearly multifactorial, inbreeding depression, as estimated using levels of microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, is identified as predictive for this neoplasia. On further analysis, this relationship appears to be largely driven by one marker, suggesting that a single locus might be associated with the occurrence of this disease in CSLs. In a case-control study, carcinoma was significantly associated with homozygosity at the Pv11 microsatellite locus. Pv11 was mapped to intron 9 of the heparanase 2 gene (HPSE2) locus, a very large gene encoding heparanase 2, which in humans is associated with multiple carcinomas. Correspondingly, immunohistochemical labelling in tissues was present in carcinoma cases within a single homozygous Pv11 genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual locus being associated with cancer in any wildlife species. This adds emphasis to the study of HPSE2 in other species, including humans and will guide future studies on this sentinel species that shares much of its diet and environment with humans. PMID:25339718

  19. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Helen M.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Hall, Ailsa J.; Finlayson, Jeanie; Dagleish, Mark P.; Billington, Karen J.; Colegrove, Kathleen; Hammond, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Although neoplasia is a major cause of mortality in humans and domestic animals, it has rarely been described in wildlife species. One of the few examples is a highly prevalent urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (CSLs). Although the aetiology of this carcinoma is clearly multifactorial, inbreeding depression, as estimated using levels of microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, is identified as predictive for this neoplasia. On further analysis, this relationship appears to be largely driven by one marker, suggesting that a single locus might be associated with the occurrence of this disease in CSLs. In a case–control study, carcinoma was significantly associated with homozygosity at the Pv11 microsatellite locus. Pv11 was mapped to intron 9 of the heparanase 2 gene (HPSE2) locus, a very large gene encoding heparanase 2, which in humans is associated with multiple carcinomas. Correspondingly, immunohistochemical labelling in tissues was present in carcinoma cases within a single homozygous Pv11 genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual locus being associated with cancer in any wildlife species. This adds emphasis to the study of HPSE2 in other species, including humans and will guide future studies on this sentinel species that shares much of its diet and environment with humans PMID:25339718

  20. Treatment of urogenital and anal condylomata acuminata with Neodym: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dann, Thomas; Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Condylomata acuminata of the urogenital and anal region are sexually transmitted warts caused by infection of human papilloma virus. In the literature different treatment modalities are reported. We report the treatment of 323 patients (315 male, 8 female) with a mean age of 27.9 years using the Nd:YAG laser. In 65% the lesions were located in the fossa navicularis, in 37% at the glans, in 30% at the foreskin. Thirty-five percent of all patients required endoscopic treatment of the distal urethra. Two-hundred-seventy-nine patients had recurrence after unsuccessful pretreatment with surgical and chemical therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months (2 - 43 months) of 95 evaluable patients 15 showed recurrences all within the first 6 months. The advantages of Nd:YAG laser treatment of condylomata acuminata, which might be done in local anaesthesia, are a low rate of recurrences and complications, the option of endoscopic treatment and the excellent cosmetic results.

  1. Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania's Lake Victoria Region

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Mguta, Charles; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Mitchell, Katrina B.; Bang, Heejung; Simplice, Harusha; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Changalucha, John M.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a community-based study of 457 women aged 18–50 years living in eight rural villages in northwest Tanzania. The prevalence of female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) was 5% overall but ranged from 0% to 11%. FUS was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–13.5) and younger age (OR = 5.5 and 95% CI = 1.2–26.3 for ages < 25 years and OR = 8.2 and 95% CI = 1.7–38.4 for ages 25–29 years compared with age > 35 years). Overall HIV prevalence was 5.9% but was 17% among women with FUS. We observed significant geographical clustering of schistosomiasis: northern villages near Lake Victoria had more Schistosoma mansoni infections (P < 0.0001), and southern villages farther from the lake had more S. haematobium (P = 0.002). Our data support the postulate that FUS may be a risk factor for HIV infection and may contribute to the extremely high rates of HIV among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21363971

  2. Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium sp. nov. Commensals of the human male and female urogenital tracts.

    PubMed

    Furness, G; Sambury, S; Evangelista, A T

    1979-01-01

    Antisera to Corynebacterium genitalium Types C-1 to C-6 were prepared in rabbits and the titers of complement fixing antibodies to the homologous strains, to the heterologous strains, to C. genitalium Types I to V, and to the reference species Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum ascertained. Five Types stimulated low levels of cross-reacting antibodies to all corynebacteria tested including Type C-3. In contrast the antiserum to Type C-3 had antibodies to only two heterologous strains suggesting that these corynebacteria usually shared more than one minor cell wall antigen. The biologic reactions and serotypes of C. genitalium Types C-1 to C-6 have been compared with those of Types I to V. It is considered that C. genitalium should be retained for corynebacteria having the properties of Types I to V whereas corynebacteria having the characteristics of Types C-1 to C-6 that are commensals of the male and female urogenital tracts should be incorporated in a new species Corynebacteria pseudogenitalium sp. nov. The differences in the biologic characteristics of the two species have been discussed and summarized. PMID:429123

  3. Factors related to sinus rhythm at discharge after radiofrequency ablation of permanent atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, Carlo; Gelsomino, Sandro; Capecchi, Irene; Rossi, Alessandra; Montesi, Gian Franco; Stefàno, Pier Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Late recovery of sinus rhythm is unusual in patients with permanent AF treated by (radiofrequency) RF maze procedure during mitral valve surgery. Identification of clinical and instrumental preoperative factors predictive of early success of RF ablation in patients with permanent AF undergoing mitral valve surgery may improve selection of subjects to obtain long-term results. Hundred and thirty consecutive patients with permanent AF and mitral valve disease underwent modified RF maze procedure during concomitant mitral valve surgery. Rheumatic valve disease (61 pts) and mitral valve prolapse (41 pts) were the more common aetiology of valve abnormalities. Mitral valve replacement was performed in 54 % of patients and mitral valve repair in the remaining 46 %. Four patients died after surgery. At discharge, 87 patients (69 %) were in sinus rhythm (group 1) and 43 patients in AF persisted (group 2). At an average 24-month follow-up, sinus rhythm was present in 67 % of patients, and 33 % were in atrial fibrillation. In this period, late recovery of sinus rhythm was observed only in five patients, while eight discharged in sinus rhythm developed again atrial fibrillation. Among preoperative parameters at univariate analysis female sex, atrial fibrillation >24 months, left atrial diameter >54 mm, left atrial area >24 cm(2), rheumatic valve disease and NYHA class were associated with persistence of AF. At Cox regression multivariate analysis, increased left atrial area (OR 1.07 per unit increase-95 % CI 1.01-1.131) and rheumatic aetiology of valve disease (OR 4.52, 95 % CI 1.65-12.4) were associated with persistence of AF at hospital discharge. Persistence of AF after RF ablation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery is related to aetiology, e.g. rheumatic valve disease, and to increasing left atrial diameter. Due to low rate of late recovery of sinus rhythm, indication to RF ablation associated with MV surgery should be carefully considered in patients with large

  4. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  7. Klotho protein lowered in senile patients with brady sinus arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Ernv; Zhang, Wei; Su, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between brady sinus arrhythmia and the levels of serum klotho protein in aged. Methods: 104 patients over 75 years old with brady sinus arrhythmia (experiment group) were enrolled, including 34 cases of sinus arrest, 43 cases of sinus bradycardia and 25 cases of atrioventricular block. 109 patients over 75 years old without brady sinus arrhymia were chosen as control group. All subjects were monitored by Holter. The levels of serum klotho protein were detected and compared among three groups. The correlation between the frequency of sinus arrest and the levels of serum klotho protein was analyzed simultaneously. Results: The levels of serum klotho protein in experiment group were lower than that in control group (P<0.01); the sinus arrest frequency was negatively correlated with the levels of serum klotho protien. The levels of serum klotho protein in patients with sinus arrest were lower than that with sinus bradycardia and atrioventricularblock (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between sinus bradycardia group and atrioventricular block group. Conclusion: The levels of serum klotho protein may reflect the function of sinoatrial node and could be used as an index to estimate the function of sinoatrial node. PMID:26550342

  8. Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Mitra; Bakhtavar, Khadijeh; Moarefdoost, Jhale; Kamali, Artin; Rafeifar, Shahram

    2016-03-01

    The frontal sinus is a sturdy part of the skull that is likely to be retrieved for forensic investigations. We evaluated frontal sinus parameters in paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images for sex determination. The study was conducted on 200 normal paranasal sinus CT images of 100 men and 100 women of Persian origin. We categorized the studied population into three age groups of 20-34, 35-49 and ⩾ 50 years. The number of partial septa in the right frontal sinus and the maximum height and width were significantly different between the two sexes. The highest precision for sex determination was for the maximum height of the left frontal sinus (61.3%). In the 20-34 years age-group, height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly different between the two sexes and the height of the left sinus had the highest precision (60.8%). In the 35-49 years age-group, right anterior-posterior diameter had a sex determination precision of 52.3%. No frontal sinus parameter reached a statistically significant level for sex determination in the ⩾ 50 years age-group. The number of septa and scallopings were not useful in sex determination. Frontal sinus parameters did not have a high precision in sex determination among Persian adults. PMID:26980249

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Sharif; Mohan, Yedathore; Malik, Asif; Malik, Ghaus; Gonik, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications. PMID:26199797

  11. Paranasal sinus metastasis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pittoni, P; Di Lascio, S; Conti-Beltraminelli, M; Valli, MC; Espeli, V; Bongiovanni, M; Richetti, A; Pagani, O

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with symptoms suggestive of acute sinusitis. Previously, her breast carcinoma was treated with right lumpectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy and breast radiotherapy. She remained free from recurrence for the following 8 years. After initial treatment with antibiotics, the local symptom worsened with exophthalmos, eye blindness and development of an ulceration of the hard palate. MRI showed irregular enhancement of the nasal cavity extended to the maxillary sinus and ethmoidal lamina and concomitant infiltration of the orbit and skull base. A biopsy of the palatal ulcer showed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and was compared with the histology of the primary breast tumour and it was concluded for the same morphology. After discussion at the multidisciplinary team, a specific chemotherapy has been activated with an initial local response. Further surgical resection was not thought appropriate and the patient has subsequently undergone palliative radiotherapy to the right paranasal lesions to improve local disease control. PMID:24973353

  12. Cavernous sinus syndrome: need for early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Toro, Jaime; Burbano, Lisseth Estefania; Reyes, Saúl; Barreras, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is a rare condition characterised by ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, ocular and conjunctival congestion, trigeminal sensory loss and Horner's syndrome. These signs and symptoms result from the involvement of the cranial nerves passing through the cavernous sinus. We report the case of a 53-year-old man with a history of daily stabbing headache associated with dizziness, progressive blurred vision, right ocular pain, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. After working up the patient, a meningioma was identified as the cause of the CSS. Despite advances in neuroimaging techniques, in some cases, the aetiology of CSS remains difficult to determine. We highlight the clinical and radiological features of a meningioma, one of the causes of CSS. Early diagnosis and treatment of CSS play a key role in a better prognosis. PMID:25819816

  13. Sinus Pause in Association with Lyme Carditis

    PubMed Central

    Dibs, Samer R.; Friedman, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the United States. It is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cardiac involvement is seen in 4% to 10% of patients with Lyme disease. The principal manifestation of Lyme carditis is self-limited conduction system disease, with predominant involvement of the atrioventricular node. On rare occasions, Lyme carditis patients present with other conduction system disorders such as bundle branch block, intraventricular conduction delay, and supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia. We report the unusual case of a 59-year-old man who presented with new-onset symptomatic sinus pauses one month after hiking in upstate New York. To our knowledge, this is the first case report from North America that describes the relationship between symptomatic sinus pause and Lyme carditis. PMID:26175640

  14. [Topical treatment of maxillary sinusitis. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, R; Fassauer, H; Horsch, W; Pässler, H

    1976-09-01

    The representation of fundamental ideas is followed by the description of a new instillation preparation for the local treatment of sinusitis. The sterile filling material contains chloramphenicol, sulphanilamide and prednisolone in an organic, absorbable carrier substance based on gelatin. The indication, the technique of application and the results obtained up to now are mentioned. An average of 2.4 instillations was sufficient to achieve healing in 78.5% of the patients. Spontaneous closure of a great perforation occurred in some cases. It is emphasized that the surgical intervention nevertheless remains an integral part of sinusitis therapy and that the results obtained up to now should be corroborated by a greater number of cases and additional investigations. PMID:1068575

  15. A different disease: extrasacrococcygeal pilonidal sinuses etiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Çiftci, Fatih; Abdurrahman, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pilonidal sinuses (PS) predominantly affect young male adults, usually occurring in the sacrococcygeal region. However, PS occasionally occurs in other parts of the body, referred to as extrasacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (ESPS). We herein evaluate ESPS ethiopathogenesis and treatment. Of a total of 949 PS cases treated between 2006 and 2011, 21 were of ESPS (2.2% of the total), which were evaluated retrospectively. The affected regions were the breast (n = 1), scalp (n = 2), sternum (n = 2), abdominal wall (n = 5), neck (n = 2), groin (n = 4), and axilla (n = 5). Lesions of the abdominal wall are rare, but less so than lesions in other regions. PS may mimic hidradenitis suppurativa histologically. To our knowledge, PS of the breast and groin have not previously been reported. Twelve of our patients reported shaving the affected region; we suggest this may have played a role in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:26379983

  16. Ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract: case report.

    PubMed

    Krahulík, David; Karhanová, Marta; Vaverka, Miroslav; Brychtová, Světlana; Pospíšilová, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Ectopic cilia are extremely rare congenital anomalies in which eyelash follicles appear in an abnormal place on the eyelid, most typically on the lateral quadrant of the anterior surface of the upper eyelid. In the majority of cases, simple surgical excision of ectopic cilia is indicated because of its cosmetic aspect. There is usually no associated medical co-morbidity with this anomaly. The authors report an unusual case of ectopic cilia associated with an orbital dermoid cyst and sinus tract. A 3-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with ectopic cilia on the left upper eyelid. There was no history of inflammation or swelling of the eyelid. An ophthalmological examination revealed only 1 mm of ptosis; no proptosis, inferior displacement, or palpable orbital mass was present. During surgical excision of the ectopic cilia, a thin sinus tract was identified, leading posteriorly to the orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging performed after the excision showed a supraorbital extraconal mass just below the roof of the left orbit. A supraorbital 2-piece craniotomy was performed with total extirpation of the dermoid cyst. The cyst was removed en bloc without damage to the extraocular muscles, but the sinus tract could no longer be identified. Follow-up MRI was performed 6 months after surgery and showed no evidence of recurrence. A follow-up ophthalmological examination showed no signs of inferior displacement or proptosis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of ectopic cilia associated with a dermoid cyst and sinus tract in which no typical clinical signs and symptoms of possible orbital pathology were present. This case highlights the value of radiological examination in all cases of ectopic cilia prior to surgical excision. PMID:25978533

  17. Sinus tracts: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover articles related to endodontic sinus tracts. PMID:18457701

  18. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R

    2016-05-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  19. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  20. Renal Sinus Lipomatosis in Transplanted Kidneys: An Unusual Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Luca; Vallone, Gianfranco; Vitale, Sossio; Garofalo, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Gallo, Riccardo; Federico, Stefano; Sabbatini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Renal sinus lipomatosis (RSL) represents an abnormal proliferation of the adipose tissue surrounding the renal pelvis of uncertain origin, associated with aging, obesity, steroid excess, infections, and calculosis. It represents a rare complication in transplanted kidneys, and, despite the accurate and prolonged radiological followup of transplanted organs, only a few cases of RSL have been described in graft recipients, with no remarkable effects on renal function. The diagnosis relies on ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and, finally, percutaneous biopsy. We describe the case of an extensive RSL in a 38-year-old renal transplant recipient, diagnosed by ultrasonography and computed tomography. The patient underwent a radiologic study because of an acute, asymptomatic renal impairment, that led to the diagnosis of a RSL of unusual dimensions, associated with a discrete hydronephrosis. Paradoxically, after a short course of steroids, the recovery of renal function and the partial resolution of calyceal dilatation were observed. The rarity of this affection, the need of a differential diagnosis with fat-containing tumors, and the possibility of parenchymal inflammation associated with RSL, potentially responsive to steroids, are also discussed. PMID:23213599

  1. Etiologies and Treatments of Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Fahimeh; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Safai, Pooria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maxillary sinusitis is an important issue in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. This study aims to present a systematic review of etiologies and treatments of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic database search was performed based on related MeSH keywords. Articles published between January 2001 and December 2014 was selected according to the inclusion criteria. The information extracted from various studies was categorized in various tables. Results: The study selected 19 studies. In most studies, oroantral fistula (OAF) was the most common etiology of odontogenic sinusitis. Alpha-hemolytic streptococcus was the most common flora in sinusitis with dental origin. The literature shows that the Caldwell-Luc approach may be the best method for treating sinusitis in cases of displaced teeth. Conclusions: OAF is a common cause of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis and may easily be treated by endoscopy and fistula closure. Maxillofacial surgeons and dentists should consider this problem to avoid misdiagnosis and prevent complications. PMID:26756016

  2. Current Status of the Application of Intracranial Venous Sinus Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Yuan, Yongjie; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    The intracranial venous sinus is an important component of vascular disease. Many diseases involve the venous sinus and are accompanied by venous sinus stenosis (VSS), which leads to increased venous pressure and high intracranial pressure. Recent research has focused on stenting as a treatment for VSS related to these diseases. However, a systematic understanding of venous sinus stenting (VS-Stenting) is lacking. Herein, the literature on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), venous pulsatile tinnitus, sinus thrombosis, high draining venous pressure in dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and tumor-caused VSS was reviewed and analyzed to summarize experiences with VS-Stenting as a treatment. The literature review showed that satisfactory therapeutic effects can be achieved through stent angioplasty. Thus, the present study suggests that selective stent release in the venous sinus can effectively treat these diseases and provide new possibilities for treating intracranial vascular disease. PMID:26516306

  3. A Case of Orbital Emphysema Associated with Frontal Sinus Pneumocele

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takahiro; Yamoto, Toshikazu; Fujita, Koji; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Orbital emphysema is usually caused by trauma and fracture of an orbital bone, allowing air to pass from the sinuses into the orbit. Orbital emphysema without any significant trauma is rare. We present a case of a 67-year-old-woman who complained of left exophthalmos without any history of trauma, sneezing, or sinus surgery. Computed tomography scanning showed left orbital emphysema protruding the eyeball forward. The left frontal sinus was remarkably enlarged associated with a partial defect of the orbital roof, allowing air entry into the orbit. In addition, the frontal sinus ostium was occluded with the mucocele that served as a one-way valve between the frontal and the ethmoidal sinuses. We performed frontal craniotomy and removed the mucocele and the inner table of frontal bone to communicate the frontal sinus with the nasal cavity. After operation, her exophthalmos was improved. PMID:23943722

  4. A case of orbital emphysema associated with frontal sinus pneumocele.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takahiro; Yamoto, Toshikazu; Fujita, Koji; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2013-06-01

    Orbital emphysema is usually caused by trauma and fracture of an orbital bone, allowing air to pass from the sinuses into the orbit. Orbital emphysema without any significant trauma is rare. We present a case of a 67-year-old-woman who complained of left exophthalmos without any history of trauma, sneezing, or sinus surgery. Computed tomography scanning showed left orbital emphysema protruding the eyeball forward. The left frontal sinus was remarkably enlarged associated with a partial defect of the orbital roof, allowing air entry into the orbit. In addition, the frontal sinus ostium was occluded with the mucocele that served as a one-way valve between the frontal and the ethmoidal sinuses. We performed frontal craniotomy and removed the mucocele and the inner table of frontal bone to communicate the frontal sinus with the nasal cavity. After operation, her exophthalmos was improved. PMID:23943722

  5. Prediction of maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation by analysis of serial signal-averaged P waves.

    PubMed

    Stafford, P J; Kamalvand, K; Tan, K; Vincent, R; Sulke, N

    1998-07-01

    After cardioversion from atrial fibrillation (AF) many patients develop early recurrence of the arrhythmia. While these patients may be appropriate for immediate prophylaxis against AF recurrence their identification at the time of cardioversion is not possible. Since the signal-averaged P wave (SAPW) is abnormal in individuals with atrial arrhythmia, we assessed its utility for predicting early AF recurrence after cardioversion. Seventy-five cardioversions in 31 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 59 (range 28-79) years; 26 were male. Fifty-eight cardioversions were internal using low energy biphasic DC shocks delivered via electrodes placed in the right atrial appendage and coronary sinus. P wave specific signal averaging was performed at 3 and 24 hours after each cardioversion to estimate filtered P wave duration and energy from 20, 40, and 60 to 150 Hz. Follow-up was by regular clinic visits and transtelephonic ECG monitoring. Early recurrence of AF (prospectively defined as sinus rhythm duration < 1 week) occurred after 30 cardioversions. No differences were found in any P wave variable measured at 3 hours between these cardioversions and those that resulted in a longer duration of sinus rhythm. Paired 3- and 24-hour signal-averaged data were available in 47 cardioversions. There were significant falls in P wave energy from 3 to 24 hours after 31 cardioversions that resulted in sinus rhythm for > 1 week, (P40: 3 hours 11.2 [+/- 1.5] micro V2.s, 24 hours 8.6 [+/- 1.2] micro V2.s, P < 0.001), but not following the 16 after which AF returned within 1 week (P40: 3 hours 9.0 [+/- 1.2] micro V2.s, 24 hours 8.5 [+/- 1.2 micro V2.s, P = NS). A fall in P40 of > 25% had a positive predictive accuracy for maintenance of sinus rhythm of 87%; negative predictive accuracy was only 37%. Similar falls in P wave energy occurred after cardioversions that resulted in longer term (> 4 weeks) sinus rhythm, but not in those that did not. However, the predictive accuracy of a

  6. Unusual metastases of lung cancer: bulbus oculi and maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Ates, I; Yazici, O; Ates, H; Ozdemir, N; Zengin, N

    2015-09-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma often makes metastasis to the brain, liver, kidneys, bone, bone marrow and adrenal glands. It can also make metastasis to other parts of the body rarely for example eye, nose, parotid gland and paranasal sinus. We did not encounter with combined ocular bulbus and the maxillary sinus metastases of lung cancer in the accessible literature. In this case report, a patient who was combined ocular bulbus and the maxillary sinus metastases of lung adenocarcinoma will be discussed. PMID:26928715

  7. Bilateral paranasal sinus mucopyoceles in a child with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Aubry, K; Orsel, S; Menetrey, C; Bessède, J P; Sauvage, J P

    2009-01-01

    Mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses are well-described complication of chronic sinusitis in adults. They are extremely rare in children and the main predisposing factor is cystic fibrosis (CF). We report a case of bilateral ethmoid and maxillary sinus mucopyoceles, associated with CF occurring in a six months old boy. The main symptom was a complete nasal obstruction. The marsupialization of mucocele was performed by endoscopic surgery. One year follow-up showed no recurrence. PMID:20597414

  8. Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus masquerading as a mucocele.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yok Kuan; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sushil; Chong, Aun Wee; Prepageran, Narayanan; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Khairuzzana, Baharudin; Lingham, Omkara Rubini

    2015-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of benign salivary gland tumor. It can also be found in the larynx, ear, neck, and nasal septum. It is rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and it has never been reported in the frontal sinus. We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus that masqueraded as a mucocele. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this patient, and we review the literature. PMID:26670764

  10. Sigmoid sinus thrombosis after closed head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Taha, J M; Crone, K R; Berger, T S; Becket, W W; Prenger, E C

    1993-04-01

    In the literature, clinical descriptions of sigmoid sinus thrombosis occurring after closed head injury in children are rare. One to 5 days after trauma to the back of the head, five children (aged 1 to 7 yr) presented with gait ataxia, vomiting, and headache. Trauma was mild in four children. Computed tomography of all the children, performed within 5 days after the injury, showed focal hyperdensity in the region of the left sigmoid sinus. Four children had extra-axial hyperdense collections along the left transverse sinus, and three had skull fractures adjacent to the left sigmoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of all the children, performed 2 to 6 days after injury, showed left sigmoid-sinus thrombosis and decreased flow or thrombosis within the lateral third of the left transverse sinus. All the children had MRI scans 4 to 6 weeks after their diagnosis and were followed up for 1 to 12 months. In four children whose symptoms subsided completely within 2 to 10 weeks, MRI showed recanalization of the sigmoid sinus within 4 to 6 weeks after injury. In one child whose symptoms resolved after 6 months, sigmoid-sinus thrombosis persisted with the formation of collateral flow. We conclude that traumatic sigmoid-sinus thrombosis should be suspected when a child has persistent or delayed gait ataxia and vomiting after injury to the back of the head. Computed tomography characteristically demonstrated focal hyperdensity within the sigmoid sinus that we term the dense sigmoid-sinus sign. Because the sinus recanalized and the symptoms subsided in most children within 6 weeks, we conclude that prophylactic medical or surgical intervention is not indicated. PMID:8474644

  11. [Two rare case report of maxillary sinus foreign body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongliang; Zhu, Jiajing; Ma, Zhancheng

    2015-11-01

    The maxillary sinus is the largest paranasal sinuses. Foreign bodies of nosal sinus can caused by car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogeniccause. We reported two rare cases of foreign body of pulp needle and loach. The clinical manifestations might include facial numbness, facial paresthesia, swelling, nasal congestion, facial pain, eye discomfort, limited mouth opening and relapse and etc. Both CT scan and the medical history were helpful in diagnosis. Functional endoscopic surgery would be the first choice of treatment. PMID:26911073

  12. Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Barczak, Michael; Jung, Jae; Basu, Saonli; Olin, Paul S; Conrad, Heather J

    2013-12-01

    Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a group of patients who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla, calculate the prevalence of sinus augmentation, and identify factors related to sinus augmentation. With institutional review board approval, dental records from a population of patients who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region between January 2000 and December 2004 were used to create a database. Independent variables were classified as continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery [S1], time between extraction and S1, time between extraction and sinus augmentation, and time between sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each factor on the presence of sinus augmentation (P < .05). The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants, 272 (54.2%) were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among variables, residual crestal bone height (P < .001), implant position (P < .001), implant proximity (P < .001), prosthesis type (P < .001), implant failure (P < .01), and implant diameter (P < .01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus augmentation procedure. The

  13. Computerised tomographic detection of intracranial complications of paranasal sinus infections.

    PubMed

    Ogunseyinde, A O; Obajimi, M O; Agunloye, A M

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-four patients were referred for CT examination of the paranasal sinuses within a five year period. Only 11 (11.7%) of them had intracranial complications. These include cerebral, subdural and epidural abscesses, frontal bone osteomyelitis. The maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses were mostly involved and can be implicated as the sinogenic causes of intracranial infections. Sphenoidal sinus was not involved in any of the patients. PMID:15730085

  14. Two-stage closed sinus lift: a new surgical technique for maxillary sinus floor augmentation.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Kornel; Krasny, Marta; Kamiński, Artur

    2015-12-01

    Bone tissue atrophy may constitute a relative contraindication for implantation. The methods used in reconstruction of the alveolar ridge within the lateral section of the maxilla have been well known but not perfect. Presentation of the two-stage, closed sinus lift technique as well as efficacy evaluation of reconstruction of the alveolar ridge in the maxilla within its vertical dimension with the use of this technique. The total procedure was performed in 26 out of 28 patients qualified for the study. The height of the alveolar ridge at the site of the planned implantation was no <3 mm, the width of the ridge was no <5 mm. During the treatment stage 1 the sinus lift was performed for the first time. The created hollow was filled with allogeneic granulate. After 3-6 months stage 2 was performed consisting in another sinus lift with simultaneous implantation. The treatment was completed with prosthetic restoration after 6 months of osteointegration. In 24 out of 26 cases stage 1 was completed with the average ridge height of 7.2 mm. In stage 2, simultaneously with the second sinus lift, 26 implants were placed and no cases of sinusitis were found. In the follow-up period none of the implants were lost. The presented method is efficient and combines the benefits of the open technique-allowing treatment in cases of larger reduction of the vertical dimension and the closed technique-as it does not require opening of the maxillary sinus. PMID:25754426

  15. Morphological Characteristics of the Sphenoid Sinus and Endoscopic Localization of the Cavernous Sinus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youxiong; Zhan, Guowen; Liao, Jianchun; Dang, Ruishan; Wang, Hongli; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaote

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the sphenoid sinus and endoscopic localization of the cavernous sinus (CS) using an extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Thirty sides of CS in 15 adult cadaver heads were dissected to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach, and the morphology of the sphenoid sinus and anatomic structures of CS were observed. The opticocarotid recess (OCR), ophthalmomaxillary recess (V1V2R), and maxillomandibular recess (V2V3R) in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus were presented in 16 sides (53.3%), 6 sides (20%), and 4 sides (13.3%) of the 30 sides, respectively. OCR is a constant anatomic landmark in endoscopy and coincides with the anterior portion of the clinoidal triangle. The C-shaped internal carotid artery (ICA) in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus was presented in 11 sides (36.7%), the upper one-third of which corresponds to the middle portion of the clinoidal triangle, and the lower two-thirds of which correlates to the supratrochlear triangle, infratrochlear triangle, and ophthalmic nerve in CS, around which the medial, lateral, and anteroinferior interspaces are distributed. From a front-to-behind perspective, the C-shaped ICA consists of inferior horizontal segment, anterior vertical segment, clinoidal segment as well as partial subarachnoid segment of the ICA. OCR and C-shaped ICA in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus are the 2 reliable anatomic landmarks in the intraoperative location of the parasellar region of CS. PMID:26221856

  16. Lateral Orbital Wall Destruction Due to Pilonidal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Emine Çiğdem; Toy, Hatice; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2016-07-01

    Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly observed in the sacrococcygeal region. The authors report a patient of a pilonidal sinus in a rare location-the lateral orbital region. The authors' patient was misdiagnosed with an epidermal cyst, and the subsequent incomplete excision of the sinus tract led a pilonidal sinus with a high morbidity resulting in the destruction of bone tissue in the lateral orbital wall. It was, therefore, crucial to accurately diagnose and treat before the infection progressed through the bone and caused osteomyelitis. PMID:27391513

  17. Cholesteatoma of Maxillary Sinus: What Is the Best Surgical Approach?

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun; Shin, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-06-01

    Cholesteatoma is a relatively common disease entity within the middle ear or mastoid cavity but cholesteatoma of the paranasal sinuses is a rare diseases entity, especially in the maxillary sinus. As the authors recently experienced a patient of maxillary sinus cholesteatoma, the authors tried to review all the literatures previously reported on the "Cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus." The aim of this study was to describe authors' recent experience and review previously reported patients of cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus. Additionally, it is to describe the clinical features focusing on the computed tomography findings and to elucidate which approach may be best for complete excision. The authors thoroughly reviewed 10 patient reports written in English regarding the cholesteatoma of maxillary sinus which have been published since the 1980s. Based on authors' review, the authors suggest some conclusions. First, the diagnosis of cholesteatoma, although rare, should be considered for any slowly expansile lesion of the maxillary sinus. Second, there was no specific computed tomography finding that was helpful for the diagnosis of maxillary sinus cholesteatoma. Last, the surgical approach to cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus should be chosen to allow visibility and complete removal according to the size, location, and extent of diseases. PMID:27171957

  18. Trichomonal sinusitis in an adolescent patient with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi

    2009-03-01

    Trichomonal disease typically involves the genital and occasionally respiratory tracts. Although exposure of the upper respiratory tract to infected genital secretions is not uncommon with contemporary sexual practices, trichomonal sinus disease has been rarely described. The present report describes the case of a healthy 17-year-old male admitted to an intensive care unit following multiple trauma, who developed purulent sinusitis on the 4th day of hospitalization. Numerous trichomonads were noted on microscopic examination of sinus aspirate. Further investigation revealed orofacial sexual exposure of the patient to a partner with trichomoniasis. The patient's sinusitis resolved following a course of parenteral metronidazole-containing antibiotics. PMID:19204647

  19. Coronary Flow Impacts Aortic Leaflet Mechanics and Aortic Sinus Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon L.; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stresses on aortic valve leaflets are well-known mediators for initiating processes leading to calcific aortic valve disease. Given that non-coronary leaflets calcify first, it may be hypothesized that coronary flow originating from the ostia significantly influences aortic leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics. High resolution time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted to map the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus blood flow and leaflet motion with and without physiological coronary flow in a well-controlled in vitro setup. The in vitro setup consists of a porcine aortic valve mounted in a physiological aorta sinus chamber with dynamically controlled coronary resistance to emulate physiological coronary flow. Results were analyzed using qualitative streak plots illustrating the spatiotemporal complexity of blood flow patterns, and quantitative velocity vector and shear stress contour plots to show differences in the mechanical environments between the coronary and non-coronary sinuses. It is shown that the presence of coronary flow pulls the classical sinus vorticity deeper into the sinus and increases flow velocity near the leaflet base. This creates a beneficial increase in shear stress and washout near the leaflet that is not seen in the non-coronary sinus. Further, leaflet opens approximately 10% farther into the sinus with coronary flow case indicating superior valve opening area. The presence of coronary flow significantly improves leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics in a manner that would reduce low wall shear stress conditions while improving washout at the base of the leaflet. PMID:25636598

  20. Endoscopic treatment of the isolated sphenoid sinus lesions.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Paolo; Pagella, Fabio; Semino, Lucia; De Bernardi, Francesca; Delù, Giovanni

    2005-02-01

    Presenting symptoms of the isolated sphenoid sinus lesion are often vague and non-specific. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy procedures and imaging techniques are of great value for an early and precise diagnosis. Moreover, endoscopic sinus surgery is a safe and effective technique that allows a direct route to the sphenoid sinus. Because of its close vicinity to important and vulnerable structures of the skull base, delay in diagnosis and treatment can be potentially lethal. Endoscopically controlled procedures for the sphenoid sinus provide the surgeon with an obvious alternative to the traditional approaches. From November 1994 to May 2001 the authors operated on 41 patients with isolated sphenoid lesions. The pathology spectrum was rather wide and included 11 cases of isolated fungal sinusitis, 10 mucoceles, 7 bacterial sinusitis, 7 cerebrospinal fluid leaks, 3 inverted papillomas, 1 chondrosarcoma, 1 ossifying fibroma and 1 foreign body. The sphenoid sinus was the only sinus involved, and lesions arising from adjacent tissues were excluded. In this paper, the authors present clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings and imaging data as well as endoscopic surgical techniques for the treatment of sphenoid sinus disease. PMID:15060830

  1. Variation in maxillary sinus anatomy among platyrrhine monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi D; Takai, Masanaru; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Egi, Naoko; Shigehara, Nobuo

    2005-09-01

    Variations in the maxillary sinus anatomy of extant and fossil catarrhine primates have been extensively examined using computed tomography (CT), and have potential utility for phylogenetic analyses. This approach has also been used to demonstrate its anatomical variation in eight of the 16 extant genera of platyrrhines and the absence of the sinus in Saimiri and Cacajao. We used this approach to evaluate the three-dimensional anatomy of the maxillary sinus in all extant platyrrhine genera, and here argue the phylogenic implications of this variation. This study confirms, for the most part, previous CT studies and augments them with the six genera not studied previously: Ateles, Lagothrix, Callithrix, Cebuella, Pithecia and Chiropotes. The entire maxilla is pneumatized by the sinus in the atelines, Cebus, and Callicebus, whereas the sinus pneumatizes only the medial part of the maxilla in the callitrichines and Aotus. Pithecia has a unique conformation in which the maxillary sinus and the expanded inferior meatus pneumatize the posteromedial and anterolateral parts of the entire maxilla, respectively. Chiropotes has no sinus, and the inferior meatus possibly expands into the area between the middle meatus and medial surface of the maxilla to disturb sinus formation, as in the case of its close relative Cacajao. Finally, we argue that the sinus that pneumatizes the entire maxilla is a primitive feature in extant platyrrhines and was probably shared by the last common ancestor of the anthropoids. PMID:16009397

  2. A Diagnostic Dilemma: Chronic Sinusitis Diagnosed by Non-Otolaryngologists

    PubMed Central

    Novis, Sarah J.; Akkina, Sarah R.; Lynn, Shana; Kern, Hayley E.; Keshavarzi, Nahid R.; Pynnonen, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambulatory care visits for chronic sinusitis outnumber visits for acute sinusitis. The majority of these visits are with non-otolaryngologists. In order to better understand patients diagnosed with chronic sinusitis by non-otolaryngologists, we sought to determine if incident cases of chronic sinusitis diagnosed by primary care (PC) or emergency medicine (EM) providers meet diagnostic criteria. Methods Retrospective cohort. Patients were identified using administrative data, 2005–2006. The dataset was then clinically annotated based on chart review. We excluded prevalent cases. Results We identified 114 patients with newly diagnosed chronic sinusitis in EM (75) or PC settings (39). Rhinorrhea (EM 61%, PC 59%) and nasal obstruction (EM 67%, PC 64%) were common in both settings but facial fullness (EM 80%, PC 39%) and pain (EM 40%, PC 18%) were more common in the EM setting. Few patients reported symptoms of 90 days or longer (EM 6.0%, PC 24%) and no patient had evidence of inflammation on physical examination. A minority of patients received a sinus CT scan (22.8%) or nasal endoscopy (1.8%). In total only 1 patient diagnosed with chronic sinusitis met the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions Most patients diagnosed with chronic sinusitis by non-otolaryngologists do not have the condition. Caution should be used in studying chronic sinusitis using administrative data from non-otolaryngology providers as a large proportion of the patients may not actually have the disease. PMID:26750399

  3. Malignant fungal infection of the cavernous sinus: case report.

    PubMed

    Neil, Jayson A; Orlandi, Richard R; Couldwell, William T

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial spread of fungal infection is a life-threatening condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients. Here the authors present a case of biopsy-proven Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the paranasal sinuses in an immunocompetent patient with documented spread to the orbit, cavernous sinus, and petrous apex despite medical antifungal treatment. As a life-saving treatment, cavernous sinus resection with external carotid artery-middle cerebral artery bypass was performed. The authors discuss the literature regarding the intracranial spread of paranasal sinus fungal infections in immunocompetent patients and management strategies. PMID:26315007

  4. Penetrating intracranial gunshot wound transecting the right transverse sinus

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Narlin Bennet; Diaz, Cara; Crandall, Kenneth; Sansur, Charles

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man sustained a gunshot wound to the posterior head. Imaging demonstrated a transection of the right transverse sinus, a retained bullet fragment and significant cerebellar oedema. The patient emergently underwent suboccipital decompression associated with brisk bleeding from the transverse sinus. Reported examples of surgical management of cerebral venous sinuses include: packing, grafting, patching and ligation. Our patient had a codominant transverse sinus and underwent successful unilateral ligation. His postoperative course was uneventful, however, he did require a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. He was subsequently discharged to rehab with a favourable outcome. PMID:22987903

  5. Drug delivery to paranasal sinuses using pulsating aerosols.

    PubMed

    Möller, Winfried; Schuschnig, Uwe; Bartenstein, Peter; Meyer, Gabriele; Häussinger, Karl; Schmid, Otmar; Becker, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is the major disorder of the upper airways, affecting about 10-15% of the total population. Topical treatment regimens show only modest efficacy, because drug delivery to the posterior nose and paranasal sinuses is still a challenge. Therefore, there is a high rate of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in CRS patients. Most nasally administered aerosolized drugs, like nasal pump sprays, are efficiently filtered by the nasal valve and do not reach the posterior nasal cavity and the sinuses, which are poorly ventilated. However, as highlighted in this review, sinus ventilation and paranasal aerosol delivery can be achieved by using pulsating airflow, offering new topical treatment options for nasal disorders. Radioaerosol inhalation and imaging studies in nasal casts and in healthy volunteers have shown 4-6% of the nasally administered dose within the sinuses. In CRS patients, significant aerosol deposition in the sinus cavities was reported before sinus surgery. After surgery, deposition increased to the amount observed in healthy volunteers. In addition, compared with nasal pump sprays, retention kinetics of the radiolabel deposited in the nasal cavity was prolonged, both in healthy volunteers and in CRS patients. These efficiencies may be sufficient for topical aerosol therapies of sinus disorders and, due to the prolonged retention kinetics, may reduce application modes, but have to be proven in future clinical trials. Pulsating aerosols may offer additional new topical treatment options of nasal and sinus disorders before as well as after surgery. PMID:25084017

  6. First Case Report of Sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Berenji, Fariba; Parian, Mahmoud; Fata, Abdolmajid; Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Fattahi, Fereshte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. PMID:26966601

  7. First Case Report of Sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Fariba; Parian, Mahmoud; Fata, Abdolmajid; Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Fattahi, Fereshte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. PMID:26966601

  8. Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas in Iran and Their Effects on Fertility Potential: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    AHMADI, Mohammad Hossein; MIRSALEHIAN, Akbar; BAHADOR, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urogenital mycoplasmas are potentially pathogenic species causing genitourinary tract infections that may be initially asymptomatic but can progress and lead to severe complications and threaten reproductive health. However, the overall prevalence rate of this bacterium and its probable impacts on fertility potential have yet to be determined. Methods: We searched both English and Persian electronic databases using key words such as “Mycoplasma,” “Ureaplasma,” “M. hominis,” “M. genitalium,” “U. urealyticum,” “U. parvum,” “prevalence,” and “Iran”. Finally, after some exclusion, 29 studies from different regions of Iran were included in our study, and a meta-analysis was performed on collected data. Results: Urogenital mycoplasmas prevalence for women and men was high and ranged from 2%–40.5% and 2%–44.3%, respectively. The pooled prevalence in the male population was 11.1% (95% CI, 7.4%–16.4%) and in female was 12.8% (95% CI, 9.8%–16.5%). The prevalence of these bacteria was significantly higher in infertile men compared with that in fertile men. A high level of heterogeneity was observed for both men (I2 = 92.4%; P<0.001) and women (I2 = 93.3%; P<0.001). Some evidence for publication bias was observed in both men [Egger’s test (two-tailed P=0.0007), and Begg’s test (two-tailed P=0.0151)] and women [Egger’s test (two-tailed P=0.0006), and Begg’s test (two-tailed P=0.0086)] analysis. Conclusion: Since urogenital mycoplasmas may play a role in male infertility, screening strategies, particularly for asymptomatic individuals, and treatment of infected ones, which can reduce consequent complications, looks to be necessary. PMID:27252910

  9. Management of urogenital atrophy in breast cancer patients: a systematic review of available evidence from randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Mazzarello, Sasha; Hutton, Brian; Ibrahim, Mohammed F K; Jacobs, Carmel; Shorr, Risa; Smith, Stephanie; Ng, Terry; Clemons, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Symptoms of urogenital atrophy are common in breast cancer survivors. Its optimal management is currently unknown. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating treatments for urogenital atrophy in breast cancer patients was performed. EMBASE, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1946 to November 2014. Outcomes included improvements in both vaginal symptoms (e.g., dryness, pain, dyspareunia and itching) and vaginal hormone response measured by validated scales [e.g., Vaginal Health Index (VHI) and Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI)]. Of 430 unique citations identified, 4 studies (n = 196) met inclusion criteria. Interventions included pH-balanced gel, Replens(®), lidocaine, Estring(®) and Vagifem(®). Sample sizes ranged from 7 to 98 patients. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis of results was performed. One study of 98 patients suggested that vaginal pH-balanced gel (mean VHI 5.00 ± 0.816, mean VMI 51.18 ± 3.753) was more efficient than placebo (VHI 16.98 ± 3.875, p < 0.001, VMI 47.87 ± 2.728, p < 0.001) at 12 weeks in providing vaginal symptom relief. In patients who used lidocaine, 90 % had reduced dyspareunia compared to saline in a study of 46 patients. Although increased serum estradiol occurred, both Estring(®) and Vagifem(®) were shown to improve quality of life and VMI in a study of seven patients. Treatment of urogenital atrophy remains a challenging issue and there is a paucity of RCT evidence addressing this knowledge gap. It is evident that more prospective trials are needed. PMID:26003182

  10. What Are the Key Statistics about Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and paranasal sinus cancers? What are the key statistics about nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers? Cancers ... rare in the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Survival statistics for these cancers are discussed in the section “ ...

  11. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers What’s new in nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer research ... Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research? ...

  12. A rare case of sinus of valsalva-right atrial fistula secondary to an abscess perforation from underlying aortic valve endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sinus of Valsalva-right atrial fistulas are abnormal connections between the aorta and the right atrium, and present challenging surgical conditions. An extremely rare etiology of aorto-right atrial fistula is infective endocarditis. This case report presents a 21 year old Caucasian female patient who had native aortic valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis complicated by sinus of Valsalva abscess perforation associated with an acute heart block, an aorto-right atrial fistula, severe heart failure, and cardiogenic shock. She underwent emergent aortic valve replacement and complex sinus of Valsalva fistula pericardial patch reconstruction and repair. This case report further explores the advantages and disadvantages of different valves for different patient populations, and evaluates the patient’s prosthesis mismatch and effective orifice area. PMID:25022608

  13. Nasal endoscopy and paranasal sinus computerised tomography (CT) findings in an Irish cystic fibrosis adult patient group.

    PubMed

    Casserly, P; Harrison, M; O'Connell, O; O'Donovan, N; Plant, B J; O'Sullivan, P

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited disorder in Caucasians in Ireland having the highest reported incidence. CF has well-recognised clinical sequelae in several physiological systems. Its' impact on the sinonasal system is less well established. We evaluated symptoms, endoscopic and computerised tomographic (CT) findings in an Irish adult CF group with the aim of characterising the relationship between these clinical features in an Irish CF group. Adult CF patients attending a specialist clinic underwent prospective evaluation of sinonasal symptoms using a specifically designed questionnaire. They subsequently underwent nasoendoscopy and CT scanning of their paranasal sinuses. Abnormalities identified were quantified using established radiological (Lund-Mackay) and endoscopic (Lund-Kennedy) scoring systems. The relationship between symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), endoscopic findings and CT abnormalities were then compared. Sixty-three CF patients (n = 63) were studied. 29 patients had a CT scan. Thirty-three CF patients (52%) had no symptoms of CRS. Fifty CF patients (80% of CF group) had evidence of CRS on nasoendoscopy including thirteen patients (20%) with nasal polyposis. 98% of patients scanned have positive findings on CT scan. There was no significant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic CF groups with respect to their Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score or their Lund-Mackay CT score. 86% demonstrated one or more hypoplastic sinus. There was no increased incidence of hypoplastic sinuses amongst Δf508 homozygotes than other mutation groups. PMID:25537816

  14. Detailed Anatomical Analysis of the Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Sinus Ostium by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Nesibe; Kose, Evren; Dedeoglu, Numan; Colak, Cemil; Ozbag, Davut; Durak, Mehmet Akif

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the anatomical structures of sphenoid sinus ostium used as a reference point for transsphenoidal surgery by cone beam computed tomography. The authors' study was performed using the cone-beam computed tomography images of 16 to 82-year old 200 (112 female, 88 male) patients (Newton 5G, Verona, Italy). Septum deviation of sphenoid sinus and the distance between 2 ostia were evaluated by coronal and axial sections, respectively. Pneumatization degree of sphenoid sinus, diameter of sphenoid sinus ostium, and distance lower edge of superior turbinate to sphenoid sinus ostium were measured by using sagittal sections. The sellar type was the most common pneumatization type of sphenoid sinus in authors' study. While the C-type septum deviation was observed as the most common, T-type deviation was the least type. Sphenoid sinus ostium was bilaterally in 71.5% of individuals, and it was not found in 10% of individuals included in the study. A significant decrease was determined in diameter of the left sphenoid sinus ostium with aging. The distances between 2 sphenoid sinus ostia were 7.30 ± 2.77 mm for women and 6.09 ± 2.58 mm for men, respectively. No statistical differences were found in women and men in terms of distances between the lower edge of the right and left superior turbinate and sphenoid sinus ostium on their sides. Consequently, making detailed preoperative radiological evaluation of anatomic variations of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid sinus ostium is important in terms of guiding the surgeon in the process of a successful transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:27428910

  15. Successful sinus restoration for transverse-sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistula complicated by multiple venous sinus occlusions: The usefulness of preoperative computed tomography venography

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Koichiro; Higashi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Seisaburo; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although sinus restoration for transverse-sigmoid sinus (TSS) dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) has rarely been reported over the past decade, its advantage and indication still remain unclear. Herein, we discuss the indications and technical aspects of this therapy with a review of the literature. Case Description: A 79-year-old female was referred to our department with generalized convulsion. An angiogram revealed a DAVF at the junction of the right TSS. The right sigmoid and left transverse sinuses were occluded, which resulted in remarkable leptomeningeal venous reflux and cerebral venous congestion. A preoperative computed tomography (CT) venogram precisely revealed the occluded segment of the right sigmoid sinus, which facilitated the sinus restoration with balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting. Conclusion: Sinus restoration is preferable in patients with severe cerebral venous congestion due to multiple sinus occlusions and/or a restricted collateral venous outlet. CT venography is useful for precise evaluation of the length and configuration of the occluded segment, which thus make it possible to evaluate the feasibility of stenting. PMID:26392914

  16. Bacterial Communities Vary between Sinuses in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Joss, Tom V.; Burke, Catherine M.; Hudson, Bernard J.; Darling, Aaron E.; Forer, Martin; Alber, Dagmar G.; Charles, Ian G.; Stow, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common and potentially debilitating disease characterized by inflammation of the sinus mucosa for longer than 12 weeks. Bacterial colonization of the sinuses and its role in the pathogenesis of this disease is an ongoing area of research. Recent advances in culture-independent molecular techniques for bacterial identification have the potential to provide a more accurate and complete assessment of the sinus microbiome, however there is little concordance in results between studies, possibly due to differences in the sampling location and techniques. This study aimed to determine whether the microbial communities from one sinus could be considered representative of all sinuses, and examine differences between two commonly used methods for sample collection, swabs, and tissue biopsies. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was applied to both swab and tissue samples from multiple sinuses of 19 patients undergoing surgery for treatment of CRS. Results from swabs and tissue biopsies showed a high degree of similarity, indicating that swabbing is sufficient to recover the microbial community from the sinuses. Microbial communities from different sinuses within individual patients differed to varying degrees, demonstrating that it is possible for distinct microbiomes to exist simultaneously in different sinuses of the same patient. The sequencing results correlated well with culture-based pathogen identification conducted in parallel, although the culturing missed many species detected by sequencing. This finding has implications for future research into the sinus microbiome, which should take this heterogeneity into account by sampling patients from more than one sinus. PMID:26834708

  17. Parasitological and malacological surveys reveal urogenital schistosomiasis on Mafia Island, Tanzania to be an imported infection.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Ameri, Haji; Khamis, I Simba; Blair, Lynsey; Nyandindi, Ursuline S; Kane, Richard A; Johnston, David A; Webster, Bonnie L; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    To confirm the local endemicity of Schistosoma haematobium on Mafia Island, Tanzania, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys were undertaken in July 2006 with parasitological investigations supplemented with case-history questionnaires. A total of 238 children (125 girls and 113 boys, mean age of 13.9 years) across 9 primary schools were examined. The prevalence of micro-haematuria and egg-patent infection was 18.1% (CI95=9.6-33.6) and 4.2% (CI95=1.9-7.6), respectively but a strong female bias was observed for micro-haematuria (5.6F:1M) contrasting with a strong male bias for the presence of eggs (1F:4M). All egg-patent infections were of light-intensity (<10eggs/10ml). No clear associations between infection prevalence and local water-contact, by school, were found and all 10 of the egg-positive children had a travel history to the nearby mainland or Zanzibar. Inspection of community diagnostic registers at Kilindoni Hospital revealed a low proportion (<2%) of egg-patent infection for 20,306 samples tested in the 2000-2005 period. A total of 43 freshwater sites, a third of which were previously sampled in 1999 and 2002, were surveyed and 11 species of freshwater mollusc were found. Four species of Bulinus (B. nasutus, B. forskalii, B. barthi and B. sp.) were encountered across 13 sites with B. nasutus restricted to 3 of these towards the north of the island. No collected snail was observed to shed schistosome cercariae. Further characterisation of B. nasutus and S. haematobium included infection challenge on two occasions, with miracidia obtained from egg-patent children from Mafia and Unguja islands as well as DNA barcoding of snails and schistosomes. B. nasutus was shown refractory to infection. With the substantial travel to and from Mafia, the refractory nature of local snails and evidence from DNA barcoding in schistosomes and snails, we conclude that urogenital schistosomiasis is an imported infection. PMID:23010161

  18. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  19. [An advantage of T2*-weighted MRI for early detection of straight sinus thrombosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Saito, Satoshi; Takahashi, Makio; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Jun A; Matsumoto, Sadayuki

    2009-10-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a 12-day history of severe non-throbbing headache. He showed no physical abnormality but obesity. On day 12, ring-shaped low intensity lesions inside straight sinus were revealed on T2*-weighted MRI image (T2*WI). On the following day (day 13), he was found unresponsive at home, and ambulated with disturbed consciousness. FLAIR and diffusion-weighted MRI image disclosed high intensity signals in bilateral thalamus which were postulated as vasogenic edema. MR venography and conventional cerebral angiography showed an absence of flow in inferior sagittal sinus, vein of Galen, and straight sinus. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Anticoagulant treatment was introduced and his consciousness level was gradually improved. On day 43, he was discharged with no neurological sequelae. A delay of correct diagnosis and treatment with CVT can lead to devastating disability or even to death. An early diagnosis of CVT is often dismissed owing to the nonspecific symptoms such as headache and nausea. Recent reports described high sensitivity of T2*WI for detecting CVT. Alterations in blood flow and oxyhemoglobin reduced products, deoxyhemoglobin, in thrombosed veins often produce the magnetic susceptibility on T2*WI. A detection of ring-shaped low intensity lesions within venous sinus on T2*WI were quite rare, and the signal changes of these sinus lesions were successfully visualized by chronological T2*WI. Taken together, our case implies that T2*WI is the powerful tool for the early detection of CVT, even before the critical symptoms might happen. PMID:19999146

  20. Symptomatic 5-fluorouracil-induced sinus bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Lee, A D; McKay, M J

    2011-07-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a commonly used anti-neoplastic agent. 5-FU has been not uncommonly associated with cardiotoxicity, although the many potentially causative mechanisms are yet to be established. Here, we present the case of a 61-year-old gemstone miner who developed symptomatic sinus bradycardia while receiving a continuous 5-FU infusion combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. This dysrhythmia is an unusual type of 5-FU toxicity, our case being the second described. We review the actions of 5-FU and the various proposed mechanisms of its cardiotoxic effects. PMID:21762335

  1. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Neves, Victor Ribeiro; Peltola, Mirja; Huikuri, Heikki; Rocha, Manoel Otávio da Costa; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz

    2014-10-01

    We applied the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) quantification algorithm to 24-hour ECG recordings of Chagas disease (ChD) patients with (G1, n=148) and without left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) (G2, n=33), and in control subjects (G0, n=28). Both ChD groups displayed a reduced RSA index; G1=299 (144-812); G2=335 (162-667), p=0.011, which was correlated with vagal indexes of heart rate variability analysis. RSA index is a marker of vagal modulation in ChD patients. PMID:25130950

  2. [Endonasal paranasal sinus surgery with the binocular magnifier].

    PubMed

    Tolsdorff, P

    1992-11-01

    The Keeler panoramic magnifiers can be worn in connection with a well-focussed head lamp system and permit stereoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses with 3 x 0 magnification. Operations under panoramic magnifier control are time-sparing and economical. Operations on the paranasal sinuses under binocular magnifiers are a useful alternative to microscopic surgery. PMID:1463561

  3. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of valsalva to left ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Devi A; Lahiri, Anandaroop; George, Oommen K

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of ruptured right sinus of valsalva into the left ventricle (LV). Transthoracic echocardiography showed a marked turbulent flow from the right aortic sinus to the LV. We describe a novel technique of closure of this defect with duct occluder, involving the formation of an arterio-arterial loop, without resorting to the usual arteriovenous loop. PMID:27011698

  4. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of valsalva to left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Devi A; Lahiri, Anandaroop; George, Oommen K

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of ruptured right sinus of valsalva into the left ventricle (LV). Transthoracic echocardiography showed a marked turbulent flow from the right aortic sinus to the LV. We describe a novel technique of closure of this defect with duct occluder, involving the formation of an arterio-arterial loop, without resorting to the usual arteriovenous loop. PMID:27011698

  5. Mucus extravasation into the orbit during frontal sinus irrigation.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nicholas; Pirbhai, Adnan; Moffat, David; Rajapaksa, Suresh; Wormald, Peter-John; Reid, Michael; Selva, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    During minitrephination and irrigation of the frontal sinus, mucus extravasated into the orbit through a defect in the sinus floor. The mucus incited a foreign body reaction and became encapsulated within the orbit necessitating excision via an anterior orbitotomy. PMID:22955342

  6. A Case of Sphenoid Sinus Metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Rangan, Vikram; Khallafi, Hicham

    2016-06-01

    Sphenoid sinus metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported only rarely. We present a case of solitary sphenoid sinus metastasis of a 2.7 × 2.3 cm single HCC lesion. (Hepatology 2016;63:2050-2053). PMID:26928869

  7. [Personal experience in the surgery of nasal sinus polyps].

    PubMed

    García Juncal, J; Soto Sánchez, C; Farina Conde, J; Rodríguez Alvarez, E; Estrada Gromaz, J

    1994-01-01

    Personal opinions on surgery of polyps of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, including from simple polypectomy to ethmoid microsurgery and nasal endoscopic surgery. The diagnostic importance of tomodensitometry and the essential postsurgical care are emphasized. The results of 29 patients with polyps of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses treated with intranasal microsurgery and endoscopic surgery are reported. PMID:8068361

  8. Solitaire FR device for treatment of dural sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Pukenas, Bryan Anthony; Kumar, Monisha; Stiefel, Michael; Smith, Michelle; Hurst, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Dural venous sinus thrombosis is a rare and potentially devastating disease. Several predisposing factors exist, including oral contraceptive therapy and colitis. First-line therapy consists of systemic anticoagulation. If first-line therapies fail, more aggressive endovascular therapies may be performed. We report our initial experience with the Solitaire FR device for treatment of refractory symptomatic dural venous sinus thrombosis. PMID:23257943

  9. Maxillary odontogenic sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess--case report.

    PubMed

    Onişor-Gligor, F; Lung, T; Pintea, B; Mureşan, O; Pop, P B; Juncar, M

    2012-01-01

    Maxillary sinus inflammation, when untreated or incorrectly treated, may extend locoregionally, the remaining paranasal sinuses being the first affected anatomical structures. This is why the understanding of the inflammatory pathology of the maxillary sinus, and particularly of the complications it can generate, is extremely important. The purpose of this presentation is to point out that inflammations of the paranasal sinuses are susceptible to develop complications in certain conditions and threaten the patient's life due to the proximity of vital structures. This is the case of a 16 years old male patient who developed a left maxillary and frontal sinusitis, complicated with cerebral abscess. Early detection, multidisciplinary approach and proper indication of surgical treatment, as well as early suspicion of complication, especially in young male adolescents, are extremely important. PMID:22712359

  10. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

  11. Unusual cause of maxillary sinus mass with proptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Regi; Babu, Telugu Ramesh; Rupa, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 21-year-old Indian man with an 8-month history of left-sided headache, maxillary sinus mass, proptosis and swelling of the left temple, whose contrast-enhanced CT scans of the paranasal sinuses showed an enhancing, destructive soft tissue mass involving the left maxillary sinus, orbit, infratemporal fossa and anterior cranial fossa, suggestive of a malignancy or chronic granulomatous disease. Histopathological examination of the sinus mass, which was debulked and partially excised via an endoscopic approach, suggested a diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease of the maxillary sinus. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining and biochemical tests confirmed the diagnosis. We highlight the importance of considering this increasingly recognised but rare entity that can mimic a malignant lesion with its clinical and radiological features but which, unlike the latter, has a very good prognosis with appropriate treatment. PMID:26392443

  12. Unsuccessful frontal balloon sinuplasty for recurrent sinus barotrauma.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jamie N; Weitzel, Erik K; Eller, Robert; McMains, Christopher K

    2010-05-01

    The standard of care treatment for diffuse recurrent sinus barotrauma (RSB) is an endoscopic sphenoethmoidectomy with a complete frontal dissection. Successful healing leaves the RSB patient with no ethmoid sinuses and endoscopically patent frontal, sphenoid, and maxillary ostia. In persistent cases, patients with small frontal ostia will go on to require a frontal drillout. Patients presenting for surgical management of RSB generally have minimal sinus disease despite significant symptoms during flight and the prospect of extensive surgical management can be unappealing. With the advent of balloon sinuplasty, military otolaryngologists anticipated this technology would permit therapeutic dilation of sinus ostia without the extensive surgical dissection and prolonged recovery typical for standard of care management. This case report is a cautionary note to the wider flight community to recognize a mechanism for recurrence of the underlying pathology when balloon sinuplasty is used that is not possible after properly performed standard of care sinus surgery for RSB. PMID:20464821

  13. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  14. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  15. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  16. Configuration of Fibrous and Adipose Tissues in the Cavernous Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qunyuan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54–89 years; mean age, 75 years) were prepared as transverse (6 sets), coronal (3 sets) and sagittal (10 sets) plastinated sections that were examined at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results Two types of the web-like fibrous networks were identified and localized in the cavernous sinus. A dural trabecular network constituted a skeleton-frame in the sinus and contributed to the sleeves of intracavernous cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2 and VI. A fine trabecular network, or adipose tissue, was the matrix of the sinus and was mainly distributed along the medial side of the intracavernous cranial nerves, forming a dumbbell-shaped adipose zone in the sinus. Conclusions This study revealed the nature, fine architecture and localization of the fine and dural trabecular networks in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with intracavernous cranial nerves and vessels. The results may be valuable for better understanding of tissue patterning in the cranial base and better evaluation of intracavernous disorders, e.g. the growth direction and extent of intracavernous tumors. PMID:24586578

  17. Creation of coronary sinus using left atrial diaphragm in the patient with cor triatriatum and unroofed coronary sinus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kiyoharu; Ayusawa, Keiich; Gome, Akihiko; Nakatani, Hayao; Nakamura, Yositsugu; Sughimoto, Koich; Sato, Atsuhiko

    2006-05-01

    Surgical correction of cor triatriatum with unroofed coronary sinus consisted of creation of the coronary sinus using the left atrial diaphragm and closure of the atrial septal defect in an adult patient. No materials other than intracardiac components were used to repair all anomalies. PMID:16631701

  18. Near-infrared imaging of the sinuses: preliminary evaluation of a new technology for diagnosing maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Usama; Cerussi, Albert; Dehdari, Reza; Nguyen, Quoc; Kelley, Timothy; Tromberg, Bruce; Wong, Brian

    2010-05-01

    Diagnosing sinusitis remains a challenge for primary care physicians. There is a need for a simple, office-based technique to aid in the diagnosis of sinusitis without the cost and radiation risk of conventional radiologic imaging. We designed a low-cost near-infrared (NIR) device to transilluminate the maxillary sinuses. The use of NIR light allows for greater interrogation of deep-tissue structures as compared to visible light. NIR imaging of 21 patients was performed and compared with computed tomography (CT) scans. Individual maxillary sinuses were scored on a scale from 0 to 2 based on their degree of aeration present on CT and similarly based on the NIR signal penetration into the maxilla on NIR images. Our results showed that air-filled and fluid/tissue-filled spaces can be reasonably distinguished by their differing NIR signal penetration patterns, with average NIR imaging scores for fluid-filled maxillary sinuses (0.93+/-0.78, n=29) significantly lower than those for normal maxillary sinuses (1.62+/-0.57, n=13) (p=0.003). NIR imaging of the sinuses is a simple, safe, and cost-effective modality that can potentially aid in the diagnosis of sinusitis. Long-term, significant device refinement and large clinical trials will be needed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of this technique.

  19. PAX2 in 192 Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities: mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Han; Sun, Mei; Li, Yuan; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The paired box gene 2 (PAX2) has been proven to be a crucial gene during organogenesis of the urogenital system in mice models. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between PAX2 mutations and human Müllerian duct abnormalities (MDA). A total of 192 Chinese MDA patients (15 cases of uterine aplasia and 177 of incomplete Müllerian fusion) and 192 ethnic-matched controls were recruited from 2009 to 2011. Coding regions of PAX2 of MDA cases were amplified and sequenced. One rare novel synonymous variant (c.320G>A) was discovered in one patient with uterus didelphys, whereas this variant was not found in the control group. Mutations in PAX2 may be not a common cause of MDA. PMID:22683154

  20. Sick sinus syndrome: strategies for reducing mortality.

    PubMed

    Cosín, J; Hernandiz, A; Solaz, J; Andres, F; Olagüe, J

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of sick sinus syndrome is slow, and its clinical and electrocardiographic manifestations are intermittent. A-V and I-V conduction disturbances often arise, but incidence of defects with clinical consequences is too low. Death rate, when large groups are considered, is slightly higher than that of the general population of the same age and with similar pathologies. Mortality depends on concomitant pathologies, on the development of congestive heart failure, on the arterial thromboembolism and on the type of sinus disease. The use of ventricular pacemakers (VVI) did not reduce mortality. Atrial pacing (AAI) gives the auricles electrical stability preventing fibrillation and systemic embolism. The hemodynamic role of the auricles is also preserved. As a consequence, death rate is reduced when AAI is used. In cases with a-v conduction disturbances or with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, dual chamber pacing (DDD) is preferable because it permits ventricular pacing to be continued even if a-v block or paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation appears. When using ventricular pacing and in cases in which pacing is not considered, warfarin or aspirin can prevent strokes and systemic embolism. In bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome requiring treatment of arrhythmias dual chamber pacemaker must be implanted. PMID:1304454

  1. Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of the Maxillary Sinus.

    PubMed

    Avadhani, Vaidehi; Loftus, Patricia Anne; Meltzer, Daniel; Wang, Beverly; Tabaee, Abtin

    2016-06-01

    The clinical course and pathologic features of a 72 year old female who presented with epistaxis are presented. Radiographic findings were notable for a large, soft tissue lesion filling the maxillary sinus with significant bony erosion and expansion. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) and underwent endoscopic resection. She has no evidence of local, regional or distant recurrence 14 months post-surgery. The rarity of this neoplasm, the unusual anatomic location and non-specific symptoms present diagnostic and management challenges. Epithelioid vascular tumors encompass a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors. EHE itself is thought to have an intermediate malignant behavior pattern, though cases with indolent behavior have been reported. Differentiation of EHE from other lesions has historically based on histopathology. Additionally, recent studies have described a recurrent genetic fusion WWTR1-CAMTA1 in EHE, involving t(1;3) (p36;q25). This represents the second reported case of EHE arising in a paranasal sinus. The histopathologic findings of this lesion are reviewed. PMID:25963905

  2. Complications of cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Canhâo, P

    2008-01-01

    Thrombosis of the dural sinus and encephalic veins (CVT) is an infrequent condition accounting for less than 1% of all strokes. Several recent prospective series, in particular the large International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis cohort, definitely have shown a more benign prognosis compared with that of arterial strokes: CVT has an acute case fatality of less than 5%, and almost 80% of patients recover without sequelae. However, patients surviving the acute phase of CVT are at risk of a number of complications such as recurrence of any thrombotic events in about 7%, recurrence of CVT in about 2-12%, seizures in 5 to 32%, visual loss due to optic atrophy in percentages that range from less than 1 to 5%, presence of dural fistula (there are no data available about exact frequency) and neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric sequelae characterized by aphasia, abulia and depression. However, there is only little information on the long-term neuropsychological outcome. Studies investigating professional status, cognitive performance, depressive symptoms and quality of life evidenced depression and anxiety in 2/3 of CVT patients despite an apparent good recovery in 87% of these patients. Thus, patients should be encouraged to return to previous occupations and hobbies and reassured about the very low risk of recurrence. PMID:18004061

  3. Ruptured aneurysms of sinuses of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Jugdutt, B. I.; Fraser, R. S.; Rossall, R. E.; Lee, S. J. K.

    1974-01-01

    At least one additional cardiac lesion was present in 18 consecutive patients with ruptured aneurysms of the sinuses of Valsalva who were investigated between 1956 and 1973 at the University of Alberta Hospital. Clinical diagnosis was made in 78% (14/18) of the patients. Confirmation at cardiac catheterization, operation or autopsy was obtained in all but one. The main sites of rupture were the right ventricle (seven cases), right atrium (five) and left ventricle (five). Fifty percent (9/18) are alive and well following prompt operative repair, an average of 8.2 years later (range, six months to 15 years). Replacement of the aortic valve was associated with a high mortality (50% early, 13% late, total 63%) which could be explained by the higher operative risk in this group of very ill patients. Eight patients (44.4%) had had bacterial endocarditis prior to presentation and this may have played a significant role in the rupture of the sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4278257

  4. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: result of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, H.; Horiuchi, J.; Suzuki, S.; Shioda, S.; Enomoto, S.

    1984-07-01

    This hundred and sixteen patients with carcinoma of the maxillary sinus received primary therapy consisting of external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy at the Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, between 1953 and 1982. In our institution, methods of treating cancer of the maxillary sinus have been changed from time to time and showed different control rates and clinical courses. An actuarial 10-year survival rate of 21% has been obtained by the megavoltage irradiation alone as well as 34% actuarial 10-year survival rate by megavoltage irradiation with surgery. After the introduction of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, the local control rate has been improved. The amount of functional, cosmetic, and brain damages have been remarkably decreased by this mode of therapy. The actuarial five year survival rate was 67%. In addition, along with the improvement of the local control rate, the control of nodal and distant organ metastases have been emerging as one of the important contributions to the prognosis of this disease.

  5. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  6. Frequency of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Tramadol Poisoned Patients; a Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghamsari, Anahita; Dadpour, Bita; Najari, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have raised the probably of cardiac manifestation in tramadol poisoning. However, conclusive information on electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities of tramadol overdose remains to be explained. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of ECG abnormalities in tramadol poisoned patients. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, all patients with tramadol poisoning, who were admitted to the emergency department of Loghman Hospital during 2012 – 2013, were evaluated. Patients’ baseline characteristics and ECG findings including axis, rate, rhythm, PR interval, QRS duration, QTc interval, evidence of Brugada pattern, and evidence of blocks were recorded. Obtained Data were descriptively analyzed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software. Results: 1402 patients with the mean age of 24 ± 6 years were studied (71.1% male). Sinus tachycardia was detected in 463 (33%) patients, sinus bradycardia in one patient (0.07%), right axis deviation in 340 (24.2), QRS widening in 91 (6.5%), long QTc interval in 259 (18.4%), dominant S wave in either I or aVL lead in 395 (28.1%), and right bundle branch block in 73 (5.2%). Increased PR interval was not detected in any cases. The evidence of Brugada pattern was observed in 2 (0.14%) patients (100% male), both symptomatized with seizure. All abnormalities had same sex distribution. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most common types of ECG changes were sinus tachycardia, a deep S wave in leads I and aVL, right axis deviation, and long QTc interval, respectively. Brugada pattern and sinus bradycardia were rarely presented. PMID:27299145

  7. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  8. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Paranasal sinus surgery planning using CT virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Kenneth D.

    2001-05-01

    CT virtual reality using volumetric rendering can tag such structures as the nasofrontal ducts, osteomeatal complexes, the middle turbinates, as well as the planned surgical sites in patients undergoing endoscopic surgery for inflammatory disease. Frequently, anatomical landmarks are obscured by overlying disease, making the endoscopic surgeon's job difficult. We have evaluated the use of CT virtual reality of the paranasal sinuses in assisting the surgeon in these types of cases. This paper reviews 25 patients with 40 sites with significant paranasal sinus disease in whom endoscopic surgery was planned. The ability of volumetric virtual reality with the various surgical sites chosen from the preoperative 2D CT's dramatically improved the accuracy of the endoscopic surgeon in localizing their surgical window. In the sphenoid sinus, the addition of CT endoscopy would have allowed the endoscopist to operate on the correct sinus an additional 28% of the time and help them miss vital structures in 25%. In the frontal sinus, CT endoscopy correctly directed the endoscopist to the correct sinus in an additional 44%. The results of this study indicate CT endoscopy may significantly improve the accuracy of endoscopic surgery into the frontal and sphenoid sinuses.

  11. Cholesterol Granule of the Ethmoid Sinus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Praweswararat, Puangmali

    2016-02-01

    Cholesterol granuloma (CG) is common in the mastoid air cells, less common in the skull base and orbit, and uncommon in the paranasal sinuses. The most commonly affected sinus is the maxillary sinus, and it is very rare in the ethmoid and sphenoid sinus. CG is thought to be due to impair the venous and lymphatic drainage from the sinus cavity. In the early period of the disease, the patient has no symptoms but when the expanding cysts compress the surrounding structures, they cause bony erosion that leads to clinical symptoms such as nasal blockage, eye pain or visual loss. If the patients' presentation does not correlate with physical examination, concerns are raised, and imaging should be performed. This study reports a case of cholesterol granuloma of the ethmoid sinus treated with the endoscopic marsupialization technique. This paper will remind physicians of the characteristics of cholesterol granuloma, which are useful for differential diagnosis of patients with this condition. In addition, it is the first reported case of cholesterol granuloma of the ethmoid sinus in the Thai literature. PMID:27266241

  12. Cutaneous sinus tracts (or emerging sinus tracts) of odontogenic origin: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Jones, Robert; Feimster, Tawana; Sam, Frances E

    2010-01-01

    Three cases are presented in which patients presented with either cutaneous swelling or cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin. A cutaneous sinus tract of odontogenic origin is a pathway through the alveolar bone that typically begins at the apex of an infected tooth or of an infected portion of the dental alveolus and empties infected material (pus) through the skin. Where as the more common finding of an oral fistula is a pathway from the apical periodontal area of a tooth to the surface of the oral mucous membrane, permitting the discharge of suppurative material. Diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed with reference to patient history, clinical examinations, imaging, and treatment perspectives. PMID:23662083

  13. Comparative Study of Diagnostic Nasal Endoscopy and CT Paranasal Sinuses in Diagnosing Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Lohiya, Sweta S; Patel, Seema V; Pawde, Apurva M; Bokare, Bhagyashree D; Sakhare, Prafulla T

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of objective diagnostic modalities for chronic rhinosinusitis and their comparison to each other to reach the correct diagnosis with minimum cost and highest accuracy. Prospective diagnostic cohort study. Academic medical center. Subjects more than 10 years of age presenting for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis, not responding to 12 weeks of medical treatment, suffering from at least 2 or more of the following symptoms- nasal obstruction, anterior and or posterior nasal discharge, headache or facial pains, and abnormalities of smell were prospectively studied. All selected patients were subjected to nasal endoscopy and CT paranasal sinuses. Endoscopic findings were scored according to Lund Kennedy scoring system. Sinus CT scans were scored with the Lund Mackay scoring system. The clinical diagnosis of CRS was determined on the basis of the published adult sinusitis guideline criteria and nasal endoscopic findings were compared with the diagnostic gold standard CT. A total of 100 patients were studied. Endoscopy was able to diagnose 87 % as CRS based on Lund-Kennedy score ≥2. 93 % patients could be labeled as CRS based on Lund-Mackey score ≥4. On correlating endoscopy and CT PNS it was found that sensitivity was 88.04 %, specificity was 28.57 %, PPV was 94.19 %, NPV was 15.38 %. Positive likelihood ratio of 1.23 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.42 was found p value was found to be 0.10565, thereby confirming that there is no significant difference in diagnosing CRS by either modality. The addition of nasal endoscopy helps reduce the use of CT, reducing costs and radiation exposure. PMID:27340642

  14. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to a bifid frontal sinus septum.

    PubMed

    Plikaitis, Christina M; Purzycki, Adam R; Couture, Daniel; David, Lisa R

    2010-09-01

    A mucocele is a mucus-containing sac lined with epithelium that arises within a sinus when its drainage is compromised. The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes obstructed because of polyps, bone tumors, prior surgery, sinusitis, trauma, or anatomic variation. We report an unusual case of a sterile pediatric frontal mucocele presenting as a slowly enlarging forehead mass due to a bifid frontal sinus septum. A 9-year-old girl presented to the craniofacial clinic for evaluation of a right frontal mass that had been slowly growing over the past year. She was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous trauma or sinus infections. Computed tomography (CT) scan results revealed a localized frontal fluid collection with protrusion and thinning of the anterior frontal bone between 2 midline bony septii. Surgical cranialization of the frontal sinus was performed. The anatomy of her lesion seen both on CT scan and intraoperatively likely explains this unusual case presentation. Instead of the usual inciting event of an intact frontal sinus drainage system becoming blocked, this patient seemed to have a primary developmental lack of any drainage system that led to her mucocele. During formation of her frontal sinus, she developed a bifid septum within the midline that excluded a portion of her frontal sinus from the lateral nasofrontal ducts. With mucus-producing epithelium trapped within these bony confines, pressure began to mount with expansion and thinning of the bone both anteriorly and posteriorly. The lack of any infectious symptoms and sterile culture results may support that this space developed primarily and was never in continuity with the external drainage system. Only 4 other patients have been reported with asymptomatic forehead swelling as the only presenting symptom, with the age ranging from 33 to 79 years. This patient represents the first clinical report of a congenital

  15. Near-infrared imaging for management of chronic maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Joon S.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Kim, James; Ison, Sean; Wong, Brian; Cui, Haotian; Bhandarkar, Naveen

    2015-03-01

    Efficient management of chronic sinusitis remains a great challenge for primary care physicians. Unlike ENT specialists using Computed Tomography scans, they lack an affordable and safe method to accurately screen and monitor sinus diseases in primary care settings. Lack of evidence-based sinusitis management leads to frequent under-treatments and unnecessary over-treatments (i.e. antibiotics). Previously, we reported low-cost optical imaging designs for oral illumination and facial optical imaging setup. It exploits the sensitivity of NIR transmission intensity and their unique patterns to the sinus structures and presence of fluid/mucous-buildup within the sinus cavities. Using the improved NIR system, we have obtained NIR sinus images of 45 subjects with varying degrees of sinusitis symptoms. We made diagnoses of these patients based on two types of evidence: symptoms alone or NIR images along. These diagnostic results were then compared to the gold standard diagnosis using computed tomography through sensitivity and specificity analysis. Our results indicate that diagnosis of mere presence of sinusitis that is, distinguishing between healthy individuals vs. diseased individuals did not improve much when using NIR imaging compared to the diagnosis based on symptoms alone (69% in sensitivity, 75% specificity). However, use of NIR imaging improved the differential diagnosis between mild and severe diseases significantly as the sensitivity improved from 75% for using diagnosis based on symptoms alone up to 95% for using diagnosis based on NIR images. Reported results demonstrate great promise for using NIR imaging system for management of chronic sinusitis patients in primary care settings without resorting to CT.

  16. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  17. Management of Frontal Sinus Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks and Encephaloceles.

    PubMed

    Illing, Elisa A; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2016-08-01

    Encephaloceles and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks of the frontal sinus may result from congenital, traumatic, spontaneous, or neoplastic causes. Paramount to success is adequate preoperative planning with accurate history, physical exam, endoscopy, imaging, and testing to confirm location of the leak and origin of the disease. Generally, frontal sinus CSF leaks may be addressed endoscopically with favorable anatomy, proper surgical technique, and appropriate equipment. Open surgical approaches (eg, osteoplastic flap) are often required for superior/lateral defects or if the surgeon is not experienced with endoscopic frontal sinus techniques. PMID:27450619

  18. Utility of Image-Guidance in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gretchen M; Barham, Henry P; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The frontal sinus can present a challenging surgical dissection for the endoscopic surgeon. Image guidance as a surgical adjunct has become widely accepted for surgeries in this area. It can help verify vital structures and manage disorienting surgical conditions, improving surgeon confidence in performing safer and more complete surgery. It is relied upon heavily for placement of limited external frontal sinusotomies for disease beyond the endoscopic reach, and for mapping the frontal sinus for osteoplastic flap bony cuts. Its use has contributed to the expanding role of endoscopic surgical approaches for paranasal sinus inflammatory and neoplastic disease. PMID:27329979

  19. Outcomes After Frontal Sinus Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    DeConde, Adam S; Smith, Timothy L

    2016-08-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery is an effective intervention at improving quality of life for patients with medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. The evidence supporting frontal sinusotomy is limited to single institution case series. However, the data for Draf IIa frontal sinusotomy do demonstrate that most patients experience lasting frontal sinus patency on postoperative endoscopic examination and improvements in quality of life. Salvage endoscopic frontal sinus surgery via a Draf III shows high rates of neo-ostium patency and subjective improvements in symptoms at a 2-year time point in case series. PMID:27450618

  20. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Electrocardiogram Abnormalities in the Elderly: A Population Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Sachin Khane, Rupali; Surdi, Anil D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The health transition in India reflects the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases. It is well-known that there are significant and meaningful differences in the measured electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters between females and males. Specific to ECG diagnosis and ischemia, reports have indicated a higher number of false positive results in female patients than in male patients. This study was aimed at examining gender difference in the prevalence of ECG abnormality in older people who were free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its associated risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in Solapur city using 400 apparently healthy asymptomatic subjects with an age range of 45 to 74 years. A resting 12-lead ECG was recorded in supine position in accordance with classical recommendations. The various ECG abnormalities were defined according to Minnesota code. The findings were analyzed using Chi Square test at P<0.05. Results: Out of 400 ECGs recorded, 152 showed abnormalities. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was significantly (P<0.001) more in males than in females. Major prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males observed were LAD, LVH, sinus bradycardia, LBBB and Q/QS patterns. There was no significant gender difference in the prevalence of other ECG abnormalities. Conclusion: This study has outlined the overall prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males as well as in females in Solapur city. We found highly significant (P<0.001) increase in the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males as compare to females. PMID:23115437

  1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the sphenoid sinus mimicking fibrous dysplasia in CT and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Shintaro; Kondo, Kenji; Ochi, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We present a 70-year-old man with lymphoma who presented with a right eye movement disorder. CT examinations showed ‘ground-glass’ appearance extending around the right sphenoid sinus which suggested fibrous dysplasia. However, biopsy from the mass histologically proved it to be diffusing large B-cell lymphoma and positron emission tomography examinations revealed increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake around the right sphenoid bone and multiple spinal bones. After chemotherapy for lymphoma, abnormal FDG uptake disappeared from the body. PMID:25100815

  2. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169–diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph. PMID:25872742

  3. Evolving trends in powered endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Bruggers, Seth; Sindwani, Raj

    2009-10-01

    The modern rhinologist has a wide variety of powered tools at his or her disposal. Innovations in powered instrumentation include the suction-irrigation drill, the coblator, and the introduction of a bone-cutting ultrasonic aspirator. The primary drawback of powered instruments continues to be the higher costs associated with their use, whereas their main advantage is the ability to accomplish multiple functions, such as bone removal, suction, and irrigation, with one tool. The effective use of any powered instrument requires an intimate understanding of its capabilities and limitations. This article provides a brief review of powered instrumentation used in endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery and explores the history, technical details, and potential applications of these exciting tools. Evolution in the design and functioning of the microdebrider are discussed elsewhere. PMID:19909859

  4. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination.

    PubMed

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph. PMID:25872742

  5. Immunodeficiency in chronic sinusitis: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Whitney W; Peters, Anju T

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is estimated to affect over 35 million people. However, not all patients with the diagnosis respond to standard medical and surgical treatments. Although there are a variety of reasons a patient may be refractory to therapy, one possible etiology is the presence of an underlying immunodeficiency. This review will focus on the description, recognition, and treatment of several antibody deficiencies associated with CRS, including common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), selective IgA deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, and specific antibody deficiency (SAD). The diagnosis of antibody deficiency in patients with CRS is important because of the large clinical implications it can have on sinus disease management. CVID is treated with immunoglobulin replacement, whereas SAD may be managed symptomatically and sometimes with prophylactic antibiotics and/or immunoglobulin replacement. PMID:25785751

  6. Assessment of sinus node function in asymptomatic subjects with sinus bradycardia and in symptomatic patients with sino-atrial disease.

    PubMed

    Franchi, F; Padeletti, L; Brat, A; Michelucci, A; Arcangeli, C; Fantini, F

    1979-01-01

    Sinus node function was evaluated in 18 patients with sinus bradycardia without complaints (Group I), in 16 patients with sinus bradycardia and/or sinoatrial block with complaints (subgroup IIa) and in 14 patients with the bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome (subgroup IIb). Mean values of corrected sinus node recovery time (CSRT), atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and atrial functional refractory period (AFRP) differentiated significatively asymptomatic subjects of group I from the two subgroups of patients with sinoatrial disease, but failed to differentiate each subgroup from the other one. There was no significative difference in mean sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) between group I and each of the two subgroups. Three patients of subgroup IIa and 1 patient of subgroup IIb had a false negative response after both overdrive and premature programmed atrial pacing. Spontaneous cycle length was directly correlated with the sinus node recovery time and the atrial refractoriness in group I, and with the only sinus node recovery time in subgroup IIb. No direct correlations were observed in subgroup IIa. This suggests a less disturbed sinus node automaticity in bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome. PMID:317407

  7. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Narendra; Kumar, Yogesh; Upreti, Vimal; Singh, Amandeep; Garg, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females) meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS. PMID:27186561

  8. [Distant metastases to maxillary sinus from an unknown lung adenocarcinoma: a cases report].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenqing; Li, Qianqian; Zhang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was admitted to the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat with a complaint of six-month history of left facial numbness and toothache. There was no special previous medical history in addition to smoking. No obvious abnormality in routine electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, abdominal B ultrasound were found. (1) CT scans showed heterogeneous shadows in maxillary sinus with the lesions on the left max- illary bone and evidently destruction of alveolar bone. The histopathological examination revealed bone tissue which was partly covered by an intact adenocarcinoma cell. (2) Immunohistochemical staining foe CK7, CD117, thyroid transcription factor-1, and novel aspartic proteinase A were positive and thus compatible with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. (3) Chest CT scans showed a 1 cm x 2 cm mass on the superior lobe of the left lung, with destruction of sternum and rib, confirming that the lesions in the paranasal sinuses were lung cancer metastases. Therefore, this patient conclusively diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma with multiple bone metastases. PMID:27197464

  9. The role of hyperthyroidism as the predisposing factor for superior sagittal sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong-Uk; Kwon, Ki-Young; Hur, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Koo

    2012-09-01

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) is an uncommon cause of stroke, whose symptoms and clinical course are highly variable. It is frequently associated with a variety of hypercoagulable states. Coagulation abnormalities are commonly seen in patients with hyperthyroidism. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports on the association between hyperthyroidism and cerebral venous thrombosis. We report on a 31-year-old male patient with a six-year history of hyperthyroidism who developed seizure and mental deterioration. Findings on brain computed tomography (CT) showed multiple hemorrhages in the subcortical area of both middle frontal gyrus and cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed irregular intra-luminal filling defects of the superior sagittal sinus. These findings were consistent with hemorrhagic transformation of SSST. Findings on clinical laboratory tests were consistent with hyperthyroidism. In addition, our patient also showed high activity of factors IX and XI. The patient received treatment with oral anticoagulant and prophylthiouracil. His symptoms showed complete improvement. A follow-up cerebral angiography four weeks after treatment showed a recanalization of the SSS. In conclusion, findings of our case indicate that hypercoagulability may contribute to development of SSST in a patient with hyperthyroidism. PMID:23210057

  10. Is Prolactin Measurement of Value during Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling in Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. T.; Nieman, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard test to distinguish between Cushing’s disease (CD) and ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). Anomalous venous drainage, abnormal venous anatomy and lack of expertise can lead to false-negative IPSS results and thereby misclassification of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. Prolactin measurement during IPSS can improve diagnostic accuracy and decrease false negative results. A baseline prolactin inferior petrosal sinus to peripheral (IPS/P) ratio (ipsilateral to the dominant post-CRH ACTH IPS/P ratio) of 1.8 or more suggests successful catheterization during IPSS. Prolactin-normalized ACTH IPS/P ratios can then be used to differentiate between a pituitary and ectopic source of ACTH. Values ≤ 0.7 are suggestive of EAS and those ≥ 1.3 are indicative of CD but the implication of values between 0.7 and 1.3 remains unclear and needs further investigation. Larger prospective studies are also needed for further evaluation of the role of contralateral prolactin IPS/P ratios, post-CRH prolactin values and prolactin-adjusted ACTH inter-sinus ratios for tumor localization in CD. PMID:23887034

  11. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  12. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  13. Seizure in Pregnancy Following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Abdollahzadeh, Mehrsima; Faraji, Roya; Chavoushi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seizure involves less than 1% of pregnancies; however it is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of seizure during pregnancy, presenting primarily as seizure in 12% - 31.9% of cases. Pregnancy and puerperium are known as the risk factors of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case Presentation: Here is presented a case of seizure after delivery by cesarean section in an otherwise healthy woman. The final diagnosis was cerebral venous sinus thrombosis probably due to hypercoagulable state in pregnancy. Conclusions: If seizure occurs during the peripartum period, along with providing complete cardiovascular and respiratory support, advanced diagnostic measures are needed and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. PMID:26161329

  14. How Are Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses Cancer + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ... other structures such as the skin of the cheek, the front part of the eye socket, the ...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice... sinus nerve stimulator shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3850 - Carotid sinus nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice... sinus nerve stimulator shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before...

  17. Nasal Sinus Tract of Odontogenic Origin: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Sagar; Pathak, Anjani Kumar; Purwar, Parth; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Divya; Sajjanhar, Isha; Goel, Kopal; Gupta, Vaibhav Sheel

    2015-01-01

    Extraoral sinus tract often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician owing to its rare occurrence and absence of symptoms. The accurate diagnosis and comprehensive management are inevitable as the aetiology of such lesions is often masked and requires holistic approach. The present case report encompasses the management of an extraoral discharging sinus tract at the base of the right nostril in a chronic smoker. The lesion which was earlier diagnosed to be of nonodontogenic origin persisted even after erratic treatment modalities. Our investigations showed the aetiology of sinus tract to be odontogenic. Initially, a five-step program as recommended by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality was used for smoking cessation followed by root canal therapy (RCT) and surgical management of the sinus tract. The patient has been under stringent follow-up and no reoccurrence has been noted. PMID:26649208

  18. Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in treating the initial stages of a common cold or viral infection. Nasal decongestant sprays are safe ... and to halt progression of sinus infections following colds. However, they should only be utilized for 3- ...

  19. Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit associated with sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Woo, K I; Kim, Y D

    1997-12-01

    Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit is a rare but well-recognized entity, usually caused by trauma. Two cases of subperiosteal hematoma associated with sinusitis are presented. A 44-year-old woman experienced the sudden onset of proptosis, and decreased visual acuity. Computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a frontoethmoidal mucocele and a biconvex mass in the upper part of the left orbit. The mucocele was drained during nasal endoscopic surgery and the subperiosteal hematoma was evacuated during superior orbitotomy. A 42-year-old man had a headache and proptosis. Computed tomographic scan revealed sinusitis and subperiosteal orbital hematoma of the left orbit. Subperiosteal orbital hematoma associated with sinusitis is extremely rare but should be suspected in a patient with acute onset of proptosis in whom computed tomographic scanning reveals paranasal sinusitis. PMID:9510655

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M. K.; El-Sersy, Hesham A. A.; Mahmoud, Mohammed S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  1. Barotrauma of the ears and sinuses after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Becker, G D; Parell, G J

    2001-05-01

    The pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and currently available management of barotrauma affecting the ears and sinuses after scuba diving are reviewed, along with medical standards for resuming scuba diving after barotrauma has resolved. PMID:11407445

  2. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis complicating typhoid Fever in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Okunola, P O; Ofovwe, G E; Abiodun, M T; Azunna, C P

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous) thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST). We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present. PMID:23227403

  3. Anomalous origin of RCA from left coronary sinus presenting as PSVT and recurrent acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Al Shamkhani, Warkaa; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva and coursing between the aorta and pulmonary artery is a rare congenital abnormality representing less than 3% of the congenital coronary anomalies. Patients can present with myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, or sudden cardiac death (SCD). This diagnosis should be suspected in young patients without risk factors for coronary artery disease and the diagnosis can be confirmed easily by 64-slice MDCT angiography. Surgery is generally recommended in symptomatic patients whereas conservative management in asymptomatic patients. Incidence of SCD is rare after the age of 35 years and hence conservative treatment may be advised in asymptomatic patients over the age of 35 years. PMID:27133342

  4. Retrograde approach for closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Jayaranganath, M; Subramanian, Anand; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2010-07-01

    Though ruptured sinuses of Valsalva have been traditionally managed surgically, they are amenable to transcatheter closure. Various devices have been used for closure of these defects. We describe a novel technique of closure of a ruptured right sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricular outflow tract. A muscular ventricular septal defect occluder was deployed retrogradely, without resorting to the usual antegrade technique involving formation of an arteriovenous loop. PMID:20603510

  5. Characterization of Sphenoid Sinuses for Sudanese Population Using Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kajoak, Samih A.; Ayad, Caroline Edward; Balla, Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla; Najmeldeen, Mohammed; Yousif, Mohammed; Musa, Alamin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the anatomical features of the sphenoid sinus using computerized tomography (CT). 100 Sudanese subjects were investigated for CT sinuses; Characterization of the sphenoid sinus and seven horizontal and vertical measurements were evaluated. Onodi cell was found in 13 subjects, 10 of them were sellar and 3 were pre-sellar. Pneumatization was of the sellar type in 85%, presellar was 15%, and no subject was chonchal. The mean length of vertical lines from the center of sphenoid ostium to the roof and bottom were 10.6 ± 3.1 mm, 11.1 ± 3.7 mm respectively. When the sphenoid ostium was located superior to the lowest point of the sella, the line from the center of the sphenoid sinus ostium to the posterior wall of the sinus was 15.2 ± 4.2 mm and when was located inferior, the line was 26.3 ± 5.2 mm on average. The mean length from the lowest point of the sella to the anterior wall of sphenoid sinus was 16.8 ± 3.6 mm. The line from anterior wall to posterior wall of sphenoid sinus lining skull base was 10.9 ± 3.2mm mm. The maximum depth was 25.2 ± 6.9 mm and the maximum width was 18.4 ± 5.9mm. The differences in the sphenoid sinus character take place between males and females. The study provides essential anatomical information for Sudanese subjects and its impact in the clinical surgical practice. PMID:24373273

  6. Radiographic appearance of maxillary sinus feed impaction in a horse.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James E; Carmalt, James L

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Belgian gelding presented in respiratory distress, with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and right-sided epistaxis. The horse had a 5-year history of dental disease and had been recently losing weight. Radiographs indicated tooth root abscessation of the right maxillary third molar tooth and probable maxillary sinus feed impaction. These findings were confirmed at surgery and necropsy. The stippled, granular radiographic appearance described here is highly characteristic of sinus feed impaction. PMID:24371923

  7. Radiological evaluation of mucocoele of the paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Vashist, S; Goulatia, R K; Dayal, Y; Bhargava, S

    1985-10-01

    Ten cases of mucocoele of the para-nasal sinuses are reported. Plain X-ray findings were suggestive of the diagnosis in all cases. CT revealed a well defined homogeneous mass, isodense with brain, with expansion of the para-nasal sinuses and extension of the mass into the orbit or parasellar area in eight cases. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all cases. PMID:3842311

  8. Burkitt leukemia with numb chin syndrome and cavernous sinus involvement.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Daniela Vasconcelos; Lobo, Ana Luísa; Farinha, Nuno Jorge; Cavadas, Laurentina; Campos, Maria Manuel; Ayres-Basto, Margarida; Pimenta, Maria Teresa Lavandeira

    2006-05-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare event. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, are one possible cause. Neurological presentation of these lymphomas is also exceptional. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy that developed a right third cranial nerve palsy and numbness in the distribution of the right mental nerve, with normal CSF, and enlargement of cavernous sinus on the same side, who was diagnosed Burkitt leukemia. PMID:16621630

  9. Primary small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shetty, Premalatha

    2014-01-01

    Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) of the paranasal sinuses is an extremely rare and distinctive tumor with aggressive clinical behavior. Moreover, SNECs originating in the head and neck region have been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. This report describes a patient with a maxillary sinus SNEC who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24639904

  10. [History of surgical interventions in the paranasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, H; Bertram, G; Brusis, T

    1990-08-01

    Hippocratices was the first to describe lesions that obstruct the nasal passages. Andreas Vesalius described the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses. Mikulicz, Lothrop and Claoué are considered to have been the first to perform inferior meatal antrostomy of the maxillary sinus. Siebenmann was apparently the first to recommend suprameatal antrostomy in the middle meatus, which is now fashionable again. Grünwald, Hajek, Killian, Halle and Uffenorde developed endonasal ethmoid surgery to an established procedure. PMID:2228741

  11. [Avoiding and dealing with bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery].

    PubMed

    Leunig, A

    2006-04-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery is one of the most frequent surgical ENT-procedures. Bleeding during surgery may increase complications and may have negative effects on surgery and outcome. The present paper describes strategies to prevent and deal with bleeding during sinus surgery. Preoperative conservative treatment of mucosal inflammation as well the use of adrenalin for decongestion may reduce intraoperative bleeding and hence complications. PMID:16615029

  12. Sinus barotrauma leading to extradural muco-pneumocephalus.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Chandramohan; Powell, Michael; Khayal, Hesham Bin

    2010-02-01

    An amateur scuba (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) diver experienced an acute frontal headache following a low-depth dive. After 12 hours of worsening and unremitting headache, CT and MRI imaging were performed; these revealed gas and mucous in the frontal sinus and extradural space. This appears to be the first case of MRI-documented barotrauma of the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses resulting in extradural pneumo- and muco-cephalus. PMID:20158359

  13. Growth pattern of the maxillary sinus in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata): reflections on the structural role of the paranasal sinuses

    PubMed Central

    KOPPE, THOMAS; NAGAI, HIROSHI

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the claim that the primate paranasal sinuses possess not a functional but a structural role associated with the skull architecture (Blaney, 1990), the relationship between the maxillary sinus and the skull architecture was studied ontogenetically in 30 skulls of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Coronal CT scan series and computerised 3-dimensional images served to evaluate the maxillary sinus. The definitive hemispherical shape of the sinus was already achieved after the completion of the primary dentition. Sinus volume increased with a trend indicating positive allometry. When compared with an ontogenetic data set of orang-utan (Koppe et al. 1995), however, the growth rate of the maxillary sinus of M. fuscata was significantly less. The maxillary sinus both of male and female macaques enlarged according to a common growth pattern. However, no sexual dimorphism could be established for the maxillary sinus size. Although the volume of the right maxillary sinus was normally bigger than that of the left side, the results suggested that asymmetry in maxillary sinus volume is related neither to skull size nor sex. Whereas a correlation analysis showed close relationships between the maxillary sinus volume and external cranial dimensions, the partial correlation coefficients revealed that these relationships were highly influenced by skull size. Although it cannot be ruled out that the paranasal sinuses are to some extent linked to the skull architecture, this study does not support a solely structural role for these air cavities. PMID:9183677

  14. Association of Cholesterol Granuloma and Aspergillosis in the Sphenoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Kyun; Kim, Yoonjung

    2008-01-01

    Cholesterol granuloma (CG) is usually associated with chronic middle ear disease, and is not common in the paranasal sinuses. Additionally, it is very rare for cases of CG to be associated with a fungal infection. However, in this paper, we report a case of sphenoid sinus CG that is associated with aspergilloma in a 78-year-old male patient who presented with right hemifacial pain, headache and toothache. CT revealed the presence of an expansile cystic mass lesion in the sphenoid sinus that showed a high signal intensity on both the T1 and T2 weighted images. This mass was later determined to be CG. The suspected etiologic mechanisms of both CG and aspergilloma of the paranasal sinuses are similar, and impaired drainage and obstruction of the ventilation of the paranasal sinuses are considered to be the causative mechanism of both diseases. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the use of MRI findings could be helpful for differentiating CG from other paranasal sinus mass lesions. PMID:18607122

  15. Frontal Sinus Surgery Anterior to the Ethmoid Bulla

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Junfeng; Zhou, Mei; Li, Zeqing; Wang, Tianyou; Cheng, You; Wang, Qiuping

    2013-01-01

    The frontal sinus surgery is difficult to perform but the ethmoid bulla is a relative, constant landmark in the middle turbinate that can improve the surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity, security, and predominance of approaches to the frontal sinus via the route anterior to the ethmoid bulla. The data from 370 endoscopic frontal sinus surgery cases from our center were integrated and retrospectively analyzed. Three hundred twenty-nine patients underwent frontal sinus surgery via the route anterior to the ethmoid bulla. An additional 27 patients underwent frontal sinus surgery with mini-trephination, 13 patients with the Draf II procedure, and 1 patient had applied MELP (modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure). No serious complications occurred; however, there were 3 cases of eyelid ecchymosis and 1 case of anterior ethmoid artery bleeding. In all, 319 patients (86.2%) were cured, an improvement was noted in 36 of the patients (9.7%), and there was no improvement in 15 patients (4.1%). Frontal sinus surgery via the route anterior to the ethmoid bulla is valid, relatively safe, and can be applied in most cases involving frontal disease. PMID:23701151

  16. Ectopic Molar with Maxillary Sinus Drainage Obstruction and Oroantral Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahifakhim, Shahin; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ectopic tooth eruption may result owing to one of 3 processes: developmentalDisturbance, iatrogenic activity, or pathologic process, such as a tumor or a cyst. In rare cases, occlusion of the sinus ostia may predispose a patient to develop a maxillary sinus mucocele. When the maxillary sinus is invaded, symptoms usually occur late in the process. Case Report: A 17 years old boy referred to department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of university of medical sciences, Tabriz_Iran in 2010 with chronic recurrent mucoprulent discharge from retromollar trigone , posterior to right superior alveolar ridge. CT scan revealed a dense mass resembling tooth, obstructing sinus ostium with homogenous opacity with ring enhancement, occupying whole sinus and expanding all walls. A Caldwell Luke approach in combination with endoscopy was selected. Conclusion: In the present patient, removal of ectopic tooth resolved the symptoms completely, the fistula obstructed and discharges discontinued. An ectopic tooth is a rare entity obstructing sinus ostium. The etiology of ectopic eruption has not yet been completely clarified, but many theories have been suggested,including trauma, infection, developmental anomalies and pathologic conditions, such as dentigerous cysts. In summary, although the ectopic teeth is rare but it would be assumed in presence of unilateral symptoms of sinonasal cavity. Therefore in peristant unilateral sinonasal symptoms we should complete examining of this site to rule out rare causes of these symptoms. PMID:24303440

  17. Uncontrolled seizures resulting from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicating neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Fardin; Didgar, Farshid; Talaie-Zanjani, Afsoon; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare form of stroke caused by thrombosis in venous sinuses of the brain. In this study, we reported on a patient with venous sinus thrombosis and brucellosis who presented with uncontrolled seizure despite being treated with anti-epileptic drugs at high doses. The case was a 33-year-old woman with a history of controlled complex partial seizure who presented with headache, asthenia, and uncontrolled seizure for one month. She was febrile and a brain CT scan indicated hemorrhagic focus in the left posterior parietal and the temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography also proved venous sinus thrombosis in the left transverse sinus. Besides [In addition], a laboratory assessment confirmed brucellosis. Following the treatment with anti-coagulant, anti-brucellosis, and anti-epileptic agents, the patient was discharged in good condition with medical orders. Clinical suspicion and accurate evaluation of a patient's history is the most important clue in diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, especially in uncontrolled seizure in patients who had previously been under control. PMID:24250168

  18. Successful Treatment of Silent Sinus Syndrome With Combined Endoscopic Sinus Surgery and Blepharoplasty Without Orbital Floor Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is a rare clinical syndrome associated with characteristic spontaneous and gradual downward bowing of the orbital floor caused by impaired sinus ventilation. The author experienced a rare case of SSS in a 35-year-old woman patient. She was referred for evaluation of a spontaneous orbital asymmetry with right enophthalmos and hypoglobus. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery to open obstructed maxillary sinus ostium and aesthetic eyelid surgery to enhance the appearance of her orbital asymmetry. These surgical treatments brought about the effect of making her eyes look more symmetric, refreshed, and alert. Here, the author reports a good treatment result of SSS without orbital floor reconstruction along with review of literatures. PMID:27536921

  19. Unusual Case of Sinusitis Related to Ectopic Teeth in the Maxillary Sinus Roof/Orbital Floor: A Report.

    PubMed

    Chagas Júnior, Otacílio Luiz; Moura, Lucas Borin; Sonego, Camila Leal; de Farias, Eduardo Oliveira Campos; Giongo, Caroline Comis; Fonseca, Alisson André Robe

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a case report of an adult patient with chronic sinusitis related to the presence of two erupted ectopic teeth located atypically in the maxillary sinus roof/orbital floor after a long latency period associated with childhood facial trauma. This article aims to show the treatment of chronic sinusitis of odontogenic origin by surgical removal of ectopic teeth in an unusual position by direct visualization. This case report discusses the signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis linked to the presence of ectopic elements and associated with an inflammatory cyst, the choice of complementary tests for diagnosis and surgical treatment through the Caldwell-Luc procedure. After a 2-year follow-up period, the patient presently shows clinical improvement, thus demonstrating the success of the chosen treatment. PMID:27516844

  20. An LQTS6 MiRP1 Mutation Suppresses Pacemaker Current and is Associated with Sinus Bradycardia

    PubMed Central

    Nawathe, Pooja A.; Kryukova, Yelena; Oren, Ronit V.; Milanesi, Raffaella; Clancy, Colleen E.; Lu, Jonathan T.; Moss, Arthur J.; DiFrancesco, Dario; Robinson, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sinus node (SN) dysfunction is observed in some Long QT syndrome (LQTS) patients, but has not been studied as a function of LQTS genotype. LQTS6 involves mutations in the hERG β-subunit MiRP1, which also interacts with hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels - the molecular correlate of SN pacemaker current (If). An LQTS registry search identified a 55 year male with M54T MiRP1 mutation, history of sinus bradycardia (39–56 bpm), and prolonged QTc. Objective We tested if LQTS6 incorporates sinus bradycardia due to abnormal If. Methods We transiently co-transfected neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (to study currents in a myocyte background) with human HCN4 (hHCN4, primary SN isoform) or human HCN2 (hHCN2) and one of the following: empty vector, wildtype hMiRP1 (WT), M54T hMiRP1 (M54T). Current amplitude, voltage dependence and kinetics were measured by whole cell patch clamp. Results M54T co-expression decreased HCN4 current density by 80% compared to hHCN4 alone or with WT, and also slowed HCN4 activation at physiologically relevant voltages. Neither WT nor M54T altered HCN4 voltage dependence. A computer simulation predicts that these changes in HCN4 current would decrease rate and be additive with published effects of M54T mutation on hERG kinetics on rate. Conclusions We conclude that M54T LQTS6 mutation can cause sinus bradycardia through effects on both hERG and HCN currents. Patients with other LQTS6 mutations should be examined for SN dysfunction, and the effect on HCN current determined. PMID:23631727

  1. Rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Michitsugu; Yokoi, Hidenori; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Yuma; Yamanaka, Hidetaka; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Saito, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who had rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity. A 72-year-old woman had undergone surgery for frontal sinusitis via external incision at another hospital 13 years previously. Left-sided hemiparesis appeared in the patient and gradually worsened. Five days later, she exhibited disorientation, abnormal behavior, poor articulation, and difficulty in standing. Therefore, she was taken to the neurosurgery department by ambulance. An extensive frontal sinus pyocele was suspected, and a cerebral abscess and edema of the frontal lobe were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. After antibiotics, steroid and glycerol were administered for a few weeks; disorientation and left hemiparesis improved. Next, craniotomy for complete removal of the brain abscess by neurosurgeons and endoscopic endonasal surgery by otolaryngologists were carried out at the same surgery. From the analysis of the pathological mucosa sample taken from the right ethomoidal sinus during surgery, an inverted papilloma was diagnosed. The patient completely recovered and is currently receiving follow-up examination. Regarding rhinogenic intracranial complications, ascertaining clinical condition in order to determine the need for either immediate radical surgery, or for curative surgery after waiting for improvement of the overall body condition by conservative management, is still needed. PMID:27489711

  2. Rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Michitsugu; Yokoi, Hidenori; Maruyama, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Yuma; Yamanaka, Hidetaka; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Saito, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who had rhinogenic intracranial complication with postoperative frontal sinus pyocele and inverted papilloma in the nasal cavity. A 72-year-old woman had undergone surgery for frontal sinusitis via external incision at another hospital 13 years previously. Left-sided hemiparesis appeared in the patient and gradually worsened. Five days later, she exhibited disorientation, abnormal behavior, poor articulation, and difficulty in standing. Therefore, she was taken to the neurosurgery department by ambulance. An extensive frontal sinus pyocele was suspected, and a cerebral abscess and edema of the frontal lobe were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. After antibiotics, steroid and glycerol were administered for a few weeks; disorientation and left hemiparesis improved. Next, craniotomy for complete removal of the brain abscess by neurosurgeons and endoscopic endonasal surgery by otolaryngologists were carried out at the same surgery. From the analysis of the pathological mucosa sample taken from the right ethomoidal sinus during surgery, an inverted papilloma was diagnosed. The patient completely recovered and is currently receiving follow-up examination. Regarding rhinogenic intracranial complications, ascertaining clinical condition in order to determine the need for either immediate radical surgery, or for curative surgery after waiting for improvement of the overall body condition by conservative management, is still needed. PMID:27489711

  3. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  4. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  5. [Urinary tract abnormalities associated with anorectal malformations].

    PubMed

    Tohda, A; Hosokawa, S; Shimada, K

    1995-08-01

    Anorectal malformation (ARM) is often associated with urological problems such as congenital urogenital anomalies, recto-urinary fistula, neurogenic bladder due to vertebral anomalies and operative complications. We analyzed 57 cases of ARM and discussed about the management of associated urogenital anomalies during neonatal and infantile period. The incidence of urogenital anomalies was 85.7% in high type, 65.5% in intermediate type and 38.1% in low type. Among these urinary tract anomalies, VUR was most common and was documented in 38.6% of ARM patients. Renal dysplasia, PUJ stenosis, megaureter and urethral stenosis was also common in these patients. Renal dysfunction was documented in 5 cases (2 in high type, 2 in intermediate and 1 in low type), mainly due to VUR and renal aplasia. These results show the need for evaluation of urinary tract during the neonatal and early infantile period even in low type ARM. The management of urinary tract anomalies associated with ARM is firmly related with the management of ARM itself, and we must be closely in co-operation with pediatric surgeons. PMID:7474624

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of the Retreatment of Failed Sinus Bone Grafts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Su-Gwan

    2016-06-01

    This analysis examined the types of retreatment in failed sinus bone grafts due to the development of maxillary sinusitis. Reoperation was performed in 7 patients. The types of reoperation included infection management, reconstruction of the sinus roof using a pedicled buccal fat pad and collagen membrane, oroantral fistula closure, sinus bone graft using an autogenous bone graft, and implant placement. In one case, sinusitis developed 14 months after the reoperation, but it was managed by incision, drainage, and administration of antibiotics. All sinus bone grafts that were performed during the retreatments were successful. PMID:27058356

  7. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis with oro-nasal fistula: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Carini, Fabrizio; Longoni, Salvatore; Amosso, Ernesto; Carini, Stefania; Garavello, Werner; Porcaro, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study The odontogenic sinusitis has an incidence between 38 and 40.6%. Increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with the presence of periapical abscesses, periodontal disease, dental trauma, tooth extraction and implant placement when the sinusal membrane is perforated. Materials and methods A patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis associated with oro-nasal fistula was treated. Results The follow-up at six months showed the complete resolution of maxillary sinusitis, palatal fistula got closed and pain symptoms disappeared. Conclusion This case report describes a rare complication of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis: the oro-nasal fistula. PMID:25678949

  8. [Modern clinical and radiological approach to diagnostics of odontogenic sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Khomutova, E Yu; Ignat'ev, Yu T; Demyanchuk, A N; Demyanchuk, A B

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the maxillary sinuses affect up to 70% of the adult population. Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis represents 13-86% of the inflammatory processes of maxillofacial area, with the incidence range being explained rather by varying diagnosis criteria than the true incidence difference of odontogenic lesions. The aim of the study was to summarize the clinical and radiological characteristics of odontogenic sinusitis according to patients records in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of Omsk Clinical Hospital No11 and the oral surgery department of BUZ GKSP No1 in 2009-2014. A total of 948 records of patient (aged 17 to 68 years) with maxillary sinusitis were identified. X-ray examinations were performed by CT PISASSO TRIO ("KoYo", South Korea) and MSCT Brillians 6 and Brillians 64 ((Philips HealthCare), Netherlands). Images were obtained in axial projection with slice thickness of 0.2-0.6 mm with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) in a variety of direct and oblique projections. Altogether 664 patients were diagnosed with foreign bodies in the maxillary sinuses (filling material in 569 cases, roots or root fragments? implants, rubber drains, fragments of endodontic instruments in 95 cases). In 284 persons odontogenic cysts were found. Almost every fifth case was complicated by mycotic infection. Analysis of the results showed that only a multidisciplinary approach including dentists, maxillofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists and radiologists, as well as dental volumetric tomography or multislice CT can ensure the correct clinical and radiological approaches to determine the tactics of treatment in patients with sinusitis, reduce the incidence of relapses and chronic inflammatory processes in the maxillary sinuses. PMID:26953424

  9. Heart rate dynamics distinguish among atrial fibrillation, normal sinus rhythm and sinus rhythm with frequent ectopy.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Marta; Carozzi, Luca; Moss, Travis J; de Pasquale, Marco; Cerutti, Sergio; Ferrario, Manuela; Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall

    2015-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is usually detected by inspection of the electrocardiogram waveform, a task made difficult when the signal is distorted by noise. The RR interval time series is more frequently available and accurate, yet linear and nonlinear time series analyses that detect highly varying and irregular AF are vulnerable to the common finding of frequent ectopy. We hypothesized that different nonlinear measures might capture characteristic features of AF, normal sinus rhythm (NSR), and sinus rhythm (SR) with frequent ectopy in ways that linear measures might not. To test this, we studied 2722 patients with 24 h ECG recordings in the University of Virginia Holter database. We found dynamical phenotypes for the three rhythm classifications. As expected, AF records had the highest variability and entropy, and NSR the lowest. SR with ectopy could be distinguished from AF, which had higher entropy, and from NSR, which had different fractal scaling, measured as higher detrended fluctuation analysis slope. With these dynamical phenotypes, we developed successful classification strategies, and the nonlinear measures improved on the use of mean and variability alone, even after adjusting for age. Final models using all variables had excellent performance, with positive predictive values for AF, NSR and SR with ectopy as high as 97, 98 and 90%, respectively. Since these classifiers can reliably detect rhythm changes utilizing segments as short as 10 min, we envision their application in noisy settings and in personal monitoring devices where only RR interval time series may be available. PMID:26246162

  10. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  11. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  12. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  13. [THE CHARACTER OF EXPRESSION AND THE ROLE OF APOPTOSIS MARKERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLACENTAL DYSFUNCTION IN PREGNANT WITH UROGENITAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Shcherbuna, N; Vygovskaya, L; Kapustnik, N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the expression level and possibilities of apoptotic markers in realization of placental insufficiency in pregnant women with urogenital infections. The study was conducted on 250 pregnant women with urogenital infections (1-st group - 50 pregnant women with bacterial infections (Chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma), 2-nd group - 50 pregnant women with viral infections (CMV and herpes simplex virus), 3-rd group - 150 patients with mixed viral and bacterial infections) and 50 pregnant women with normal pregnancy. The content of apoptosis inducers: sFasL and TNF-α in blood serum of pregnant women was determined; the level of caspase-3 in placental sample was analyzed; sonographic examination of the placenta was performed. Maximal indices of apoptosis inducers were observed in the 3-rd group (with mixed viral and bacterial infections). Changes in the placenta according to ultrasound data were determined in all pregnant women with urogenital infections. It was suggested that increased placental cell death in apoptosis might be one of the key points, triggering the development of placental dysfunction. PMID:27001779

  14. Iatrogenic Injury to Medial Rectus After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Priyadarshini, Omega; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Agarkar, Sumita

    2015-12-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the mainstay of the treatment in sinus disorders, to re-establish the drainage of the affected sinus. The close proximity of the orbital structures to paranasal sinuses makes them vulnerable to inadvertent injury during the sinus surgery. Medial rectus (MR) muscle is the most commonly injured extraocular muscle during ESS due to its anatomic proximity to the thin medial wall of the orbit. This is a non-comparative, retrospective, interventional case series of six patients presenting with MR injury after ESS. We discuss the management, outcome and review the published literature. A total of six patients met the inclusion criteria. The presenting complaints were diplopia, squinting and limitation of ocular movements. Two patients underwent surgical exploration of the MR muscle and reattachment of the muscle along with injection botulinum to the antagonist lateral rectus muscle. Two patients who had small angle strabismus and who were able to fuse were advised orthoptic exercises and prisms as management. Remaining two patients were advised surgical intervention to correct strabismus but they declined further surgical intervention. Management of MR injury following ESS is complex, often resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Since early intervention is associated with better outcomes, early referral by otolaryngologists to ophthalmologists would result in better outcome. PMID:26693458

  15. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma of Ethmoid Sinus Recurring as an Orbital Mass

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Bahram; Ameli, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a primitive, malignant, round cell neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue that exhibits partial skeletal muscle differentiation. We describe a rare case of alveolar RMS of ethmoid sinus, recurring as an orbital mass. A 23-year-old man with the chief complaint of anosmia and mild proptosis was diagnosed with RMS of the left ethmoid sinus and orbit following an endoscopic biopsy of the mass. He was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 12 months after diagnosis, while still on maintenance chemotherapy, he presented to our eye hospital with a large medial canthal mass and lateral globe displacement. Orbital computed tomography revealed an extraconal mass in the medial orbit of the left eye, extending posteriorly and compressing the medial rectus muscle. Notably, the ethmoid sinus was clear. Incisional biopsy was performed and the recurrence of alveolar RMS was confirmed. Alveolar RMS of the ethmoid sinus may recur as an orbital mass, even if the sinus where it originated is clear at the time of recurrence. PMID:27190854

  16. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma of Ethmoid Sinus Recurring as an Orbital Mass.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Bahram; Ameli, Kambiz; Anvari, Pasha

    2016-04-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a primitive, malignant, round cell neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue that exhibits partial skeletal muscle differentiation. We describe a rare case of alveolar RMS of ethmoid sinus, recurring as an orbital mass. A 23-year-old man with the chief complaint of anosmia and mild proptosis was diagnosed with RMS of the left ethmoid sinus and orbit following an endoscopic biopsy of the mass. He was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 12 months after diagnosis, while still on maintenance chemotherapy, he presented to our eye hospital with a large medial canthal mass and lateral globe displacement. Orbital computed tomography revealed an extraconal mass in the medial orbit of the left eye, extending posteriorly and compressing the medial rectus muscle. Notably, the ethmoid sinus was clear. Incisional biopsy was performed and the recurrence of alveolar RMS was confirmed. Alveolar RMS of the ethmoid sinus may recur as an orbital mass, even if the sinus where it originated is clear at the time of recurrence. PMID:27190854

  17. Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Denture Lining Material

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Chie; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Sakagami, Go; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by denture lining material entering through an oroantral fistula after tooth extraction. The patient was an 80-year-old female who visited us with a complaint of pus discharge from the right posterior maxilla. She had extraction of the upper right second molar and had her upper denture relined with silicone lining material. The patient noticed swelling of the right cheek and purulent rhinorrhea 20 days before her first visit to our clinic. Oral examination showed an oroantral fistula with a diameter of 3 mm in the posterior alveolar ridge of the right maxilla. Computed tomography revealed a hyperdense foreign body in the right maxillary sinus and thickening of the mucosal lining. Under diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis caused by a foreign body, endoscopic maxillary surgery was performed simultaneously with the removal of the foreign body. The foreign body removed was 12 × 6 mm in size, oval in shape, light pink in color, and compatible with silicone denture lining material. During the follow-up it was observed that the oroantral fistula closed spontaneously after the removal of the foreign body. The maxillary sinus was in a good shape without recurrence of sinusitis seven months after surgery. PMID:27386012

  18. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M.; Jang, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  19. Removal of an Upper Third Molar from the Maxillary Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Klinger de Souza; da Silva, Vanessa Tavares; da Cunha, Rafael Soares; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; São Mateus, Carla Rocha; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary sinus or antrum is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. It is located in the maxillary bone and has a proximity to the apexes of upper molars and premolars, which allows it to form a direct link between the sinus and the oral cavity. Dislocation of a foreign body or tooth to the interior of a paranasal sinus is a situation that can occur as a result of car accidents, firearm attacks, or iatrogenic in surgical procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to treat this kind of situation. This study's objective is to report the case of a 23-year-old female patient, leucoderma, who sought treatment from the Surgical Unit at the Dental Faculty of the Federal University of Sergipe. She had a history of pain and edema in the right side of the genian region and two failed attempts at removing dental unit (DU) 18. The extraoral clinical exam revealed intense edema of the left hemiface with signs of infection, excoriation of the labial commissure, hematoma, a body temperature of 39°C, and a limited ability to open her mouth. The patient was medicated and treated surgically. The tooth was removed from the maxillary sinus with caution, as should have been done initially. PMID:25705524

  20. Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a general practice population.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J. G.; Schmidt, H.; Rosborg, J.; Lund, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C reactive protein for acute maxillary sinusitis. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Danish general practice in cooperation with the otorhinolaryngology and neuroradiology department at Aalborg County Hospital. SUBJECTS--174 patients aged 18-65 years who were suspected by the general practitioner of having acute maxillary sinusitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The independent association of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and concentration of C reactive protein in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis defined as purulent or mucopurulent antral aspirate. RESULTS--Only raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.01) and raised C reactive protein (P = 0.007) were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis. The combination of the two variables had a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.57. CONCLUSION--Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are useful diagnostic criteria for acute maxillary sinusitis. PMID:7627042

  1. Unroofed coronary sinus in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Luciano Pereira; Meyer, Maria Rita F.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the uncommon association between neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and unroofed coronary sinus. CASE DESCRIPTION: Girl with four years and six months old who was hospitalized for heart surgery. The cardiac problem was discovered at four months of life. On physical examination, the patient presented several café-au-lait spots in the trunk and the limbs and freckling of the axillary and groin regions. Her father had similar skin findings, suggesting the NF1 diagnosis. The cardiac evaluation by echocardiography disclosed an atrial septal defect of unroofed coronary sinus type. This cardiac finding was confirmed at surgery. The procedure consisted of the atrial septal defect repair with autologous pericardium. COMMENTS: NF1 is a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. Among the NF1 findings, congenital heart defects are considered unusual. In the literature review, there was no association between NF1 and unroofed coronary sinus, which is a rare cardiac malformation, characterized by a communication between the coronary sinus and the left atrium, resultant from the partial or total absence of the coronary sinus roof. It represents less than 1% of atrial septal defect cases. More reports are important to determine if this association is real or merely casual, since NF1 is a common condition. PMID:24473962

  2. Geological features and evolution history of Sinus Iridum, the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Le; Xiao, Long; Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Qian; Haruyama, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    The Sinus Iridum region is one of the important candidate landing areas for the future Chinese lunar robotic and human missions. Considering its flat topography, abundant geomorphic features and complex evolutionary history, this region shows great significance to both lunar science and landing exploration, including powered descent, surface trafficability and in-situ exploration. First, we use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Altimeter (LOLA) and Camera (LROC) data to characterize regional topographic and geomorphological features within Sinus Iridum, e.g., wrinkle ridges and sinuous rilles. Then, we deduce the iron and titanium content for the mare surface using the Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data and generate mineral absorption features using the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer data. Later, we date the mare surface using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) method. CSFD measurements show that this region has experienced four major lava infilling events with model ages ranging from 3.32 Ga to 2.50 Ga. The regional magmatic activities evolved from Imbrian-aged low-titanium to Eratosthenian-aged medium-titanium. The inner Sinus Iridum is mainly composed of pyroxene-rich basalts with olivine abundance increasing with time, while the surrounding highlands have a feldspar-dominated composition. In the northern wall of Sinus Iridum, some potential olivine-rich materials directly excavated from the lunar mantle are visible. The Sinus Iridum region is an ideal target for future landing exploration, we propose two candidate landing sites for the future Chinese robotic and human missions.

  3. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M; Jang, David W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  4. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  5. Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov.: Proposed Name for a Black-Pigmented Corynebacterium Species Recovered from the Human Female Urogenital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjay K.; Bernard, Kathryn A.; Harney, Mary; Frank, Daniel N.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2003-01-01

    Six independent isolates of an unusual black-pigmented Corynebacterium species (strains CN-1, CN-2, CN-3415, W70124, 91-0032, and 92-0360) were recovered from the human female urogenital tract. Four of the six source patients had complications of pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and low amniotic fluid volume at the time of the pathogen isolation. One isolate was recovered from a vaginal ulcer. All six strains yielded black-pigmented colonies on sheep blood agar, chocolate agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 35°C. The dry, adherent colonies pitted the agar surface. The cells were coccobacillary to rod-shaped, catalase positive, nonmotile, and nonlipophilic. Only five of six isolates were available for characterization. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic studies revealed that the strains belong to the genus Corynebacterium but differ from known corynebacterial species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strains are closely related and form a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium. We propose the name Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov. for this group of coryneforms. The type strain of Corynebacterium nigricans is CN-1. It is deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (assigned strain number ATCC 700975) and in the Institute Pasteur collection (assigned strain number CIP 107346). PMID:12958268

  6. The medico-legal observation of an aggressive urogenital fibromatosis with isolated development not related to any traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Muccino, Enrico; Gentile, Guendalina; Mantero, Stefano; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Desmoid tumor is a fibroproliferative neoplasm with an intermediate malignancy and it can be localized in every bodily district: some locations are considered exceptional, like the urogenital localization. The Author point out a rare case of giant idiopathic scrotal fibromatosis that was found during an autopsy. A widower, that lived alone in poor hygienic conditions, was found dead in his house. The Judicial Authority ordered the autopsy, that was performed two days later at the Medico-Legal Section of Milan University. External examinations revealed only the considerable dimension of the scrotum (cm 24 × 41). The cause of death was fixed in a cardiac tamponade due to a natural heart laceration localized in correspondence of a transmural infarction. The toxicological exam resulted negative, while the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis qualify the scrotal mass as a desmoids tumor. Due to the absence of predisposing conditions and of fibroproliferative infiltration in bladder and retroperitoneal space, the neoplasm was configured as an idiopathic desmoid tumor. The presented case gives the reason for the discussion concerning medico-legal aspects that are typical of rare neoplasms. PMID:26786144

  7. Ectopic Expression of Ptf1a Induces Spinal Defects, Urogenital Defects, and Anorectal Malformations in Danforth's Short Tail Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichirou; Suda, Hiroko; Ando, Takashi; Sei, Akira; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takagi, Katsumasa; Nakahara, Mai; Muta, Mayumi; Yamada, Gen; Nakagata, Naomi; Iida, Aritoshi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Araki, Masatake; Abe, Kuniya; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Danforth's short tail (Sd) is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 2, characterized by spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations. However, the gene responsible for the Sd phenotype was unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of the Sd mutation. By positional cloning, we identified the insertion of an early transposon in the Sd candidate locus approximately 12-kb upstream of Ptf1a. We found that insertion of the transposon caused overexpression of three neighboring genes, Gm13344, Gm13336, and Ptf1a, in Sd mutant embryos and that the Sd phenotype was not caused by disruption of an as-yet-unknown gene in the candidate locus. Using multiple knockout and knock-in mouse models, we demonstrated that misexpression of Ptf1a, but not of Gm13344 or Gm13336, in the notochord, hindgut, cloaca, and mesonephros was sufficient to replicate the Sd phenotype. The ectopic expression of Ptf1a in the caudal embryo resulted in attenuated expression of Cdx2 and its downstream target genes T, Wnt3a, and Cyp26a1; we conclude that this is the molecular basis of the Sd phenotype. Analysis of Sd mutant mice will provide insight into the development of the spinal column, anus, and kidney. PMID:23436999

  8. Maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) induces combined anorectal and urogenital malformations in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Ping; Li, En-Hui; Sun, Wen-Lan; Xu, Dong-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Wood, Kristofer; Xia, Shu-Jie; Jiang, Jun-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Anorectal malformations in combination with hypospadias (ARMs & hypospadias) are a type of complex congenital malformations. The underlying mechanisms of this deformity are largely unknown. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the dysplasia, histological malformations, and genetic changes of ARMs & hypospadias in male rats after maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by gastric intubation at doses of 850mg/kg bw/day during GD11-15. On postnatal day 1, anatomical and histopathological analysis confirmed combined malformations of the genital tubercle (GT), terminal rectum (TR) and testes. DBP-induced dysplasia was also seen in the kidney, lung, spleen, heart and liver of ARMs & hypospadias male rats. Moreover, decreased levels of serum testosterone, as well as reduced expression of genes related to the androgen signaling pathway (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b, Scarb1, Star, AR, Srd5a2) were found in the testes of ARMs & hypospadias male rats after DBP exposure as compared to untreated controls. Further, decreased mRNA levels of Shh, Fgf10, Gli2, Gli3, Bmp4, Wnt5a, Hoxa13, Hoxd13, Fgfr2 and AR were observed in TR and GT in the ARMs & hypospadias group. These results provide evidence that prenatal exposure to DBP can lead to combined anorectal and urogenital malformations as well as dysplasia of the testes. PMID:27079746

  9. Comparison of contact angles and adhesion to hexadecane of urogenital, dairy, and poultry lactobacilli: effect of serial culture passages.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, G; Cuperus, P L; Bruce, A W; van der Mei, H C; Tomeczek, L; Khoury, A H; Busscher, H J

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hydrophobicities of 23 urogenital, dairy, poultry, and American Type Culture Collection isolates of lactobacilli and to determine the effect on hydrophobicity of serially passaging the strains in liquid medium. To this end, strains were grown after isolation and identification and then serially passaged up to 20 times. Hydrophobicity was assessed through contact angle measurements on lawns of cells by using water, formamide, methylene iodide, 1-bromonaphthalene, and hexadecane as wetting agents and through measurement of their partitioning in a hexadecane-water system. The hydrophobicities of these strains varied widely, with Lactobacillus casei strains being predominantly hydrophilic and L. acidophilus strains being mostly hydrophobic. For some isolates, serial passaging was accompanied by a clear loss of hydrophobic surface properties, whereas for other strains, cultures became heterogeneous in that some cells had already lost their hydrophobic surface properties while others were still hydrophobic. Adhesion of this collection of lactobacilli to hexadecane droplets in microbial adhesion to hexadecane (MATH) tests was driven by their aversion to water rather than by their affinity for hexadecane, as concluded from the fact that hexadecane contact angles were zero for all strains. Furthermore, adhesion of the lactobacilli to hexadecane in MATH tests occurred only when the water contact angle on the cells was above 60 degrees. Images PMID:1622224

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  11. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  12. Maxillary sinus grafting with and without simultaneous implant placement: technical considerations and case reports.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1994-12-01

    Maxillary sinus grafting with demineralized freeze-dried human cortical bone and resorbable tricalcium phosphate is discussed in three different situations: when minimal bone remains coronal to the sinus (crestal approach); when between 1 and 4 mm of bone remains coronal to the sinus (lateral approach); and when greater than 4 mm of bone remains coronal to the sinus (lateral approach with simultaneous implant placement). Cases that demonstrate all three situations are presented. PMID:7751119

  13. Silent sinus syndrome as a recognised cause of unilateral painless enophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Weh Loong

    2014-01-01

    An uncommon case of unilateral painless enophthalmos in a 44-year-old woman is presented. Despite the noticeable orbital asymmetry caused by enophthalmos, the patient has normal visual acuities in both eyes with unremarkable ophthalmic examination. Diagnosis of silent sinus syndrome was confirmed on the CT orbits and paranasal sinuses, showing complete opacification and atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. The patient achieved satisfactory improvements in her nasal symptom and facial appearance following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24859556

  14. Late-onset congenital lateral dermal sinus tract.

    PubMed

    Nishimon, Mari; Shimizu, Yusuke; Ueno, Mari; Iwanami, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Cases of laterally located, congenital dermal sinus tracts are extremely rare, with only six having been reported to date. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl who developed symptoms of this type of sinus tract at an age that was considerably older than is usually reported. At the age of 12 years, the patient exhibited a purulent discharge from a pit on the right buttock. MRI indicated the presence of two tracts running from the right buttock skin to a cystic lesion that had formed on the right ala of the sacral spine. The lesion was surgically resected and successfully reconstructed using a partial iliocostalis lumborum muscle flap, without any functional morbidity. From our experience, such flaps appear to be appropriate treatment choices for lateral congenital dermal sinus tracts that develop late and result in large defects. PMID:25535223

  15. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp. PMID:25397383

  16. Pott's puffy tumour: the usefulness of MRI in complicated sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Vishal; Khan, Nadir; Isles, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The sinuses are common sites of infection in children, and if clinical presentation is delayed, there is a high risk of complications including intracranial spread. We present a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with non-specific symptoms of sinusitis. He went on to develop osteomyelitis of the frontal bone and a subperiosteal abscess known as Pott's puffy tumour. Whilst computed tomography provides an excellent initial imaging, this case report emphasizes the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging, especially when there is extensive involvement of the sinuses with an absence of ionizing radiation. Prompt surgical treatment is imperative as there is a potential for significant morbidity if not quickly diagnosed and treated. PMID:27001196

  17. Minimally Invasive Surgical Approach to Complicated Recurrent Pilonidal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Vahit Onur; Destek, Sebahattin; Ozer, Serhat; Etkin, Ergin; Ahioglu, Serkan; Ince, Mehmet; Cimin, Vedat; Sen, Deniz; Erbil, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus is considered as a simple and frequently occurring disease localized at the sacrococcygeal area. However, at the intergluteal region, it can often turn into a chronic and complicated disease. In some cases, it can fistulize up to the gluteal region and appear at the secondary orifices. Minimally invasive surgical techniques are becoming widespread in recent years due to the increased experience and development of new instruments. Limited excision of the pilonidal sinus tract can be a better treatment option compared with large excisions in terms of recovery time and patient's comfort. This case study reports the single-phase surgical treatment of complicated and recurrent pilonidal sinus localized at the gluteal area, with minimal tissue loss and inflammation. PMID:26576314

  18. Sinus Node Dysfunction After Acute Lithium Treatment at Therapeutic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Keigo; Nagamine, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Lithium carbonate (lithium) has been used extensively for the treatment of a variety of psychiatric conditions. It requires close monitoring of serum concentration due to its narrow therapeutic window. Cardiac toxicity range from asymptomatic electrocardiographic changes to fatal arrhythmias may occur even at the therapeutic levels. We report a case of psychiatric inpatient who developed asymptomatic severe bradycardia most likely related to sinus node dysfunction due to acute lithium treatment at therapeutic level. After withdrawal of lithium, a time sequential improvement of severe bradycardia examined by repeated electrocardiogram, including Holter monitoring, suggested a relationship between the lithium toxicity and sinus node dysfunction. Other factors such as baseline sinus bradycardia and lower limit of normal thyroid function might be associated with severe bradycardia. This case emphasizes the need, when prescribing lithium, for clinicians to regularly monitor their patients’ electrocardiogram and serum lithium levels to prevent serious or fatal complications, such as cardiac arrest. PMID:27222761

  19. Preoperative imaging of chronic sinusitis by multislice computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ingo; Koitschev, Assen; Dammann, Florian

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether multislice CT enables quality improvement and dose reduction in the imaging of the paranasal sinuses, especially when using secondary reconstructions. We compared the imaging quality of direct CT scans and secondary reconstructions of single-slice CT (SSCT) as a criterion standard with multislice CT (MSCT) of the paranasal sinuses in 80 patients suspected of having chronic sinusitis. Coronary secondary reconstructions were calculated from all transversal CT data sets. Coronary reconstructions of transversal MSCT showed a significantly better image quality compared with coronary reconstructions of SSCT. Because of the absence of dental metal artifacts, coronary reconstructions of MSCT were superior even to direct coronary images of SSCT. MSCT offered a superior examination quality compared to SSCT. A halving of radiation dosage can be reached by eliminating one examination plane. PMID:15546176

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Thrombosis of Cerebral Veins and Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Sergey Borisovich; Bocharov, Aleksei Vasilievich; Mikeladze, Ketevan; Gasparian, Sergey Surenovich; Serova, Natalia Konstantinovna; Shakhnovich, Alexander Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Summary Acute thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses (ATCVS) is a multifactorial disease with grave consequences. Because of its rare occurrence there are no proven treatment guidelines. Sixteen patients with ATCVS were treated. The final diagnosis was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. Sinus catheterization was performed via transfemoral venous access. Treatment included mechanical manipulation of thrombi and thrombolytic therapy. A regression of clinical symptoms with a concomitant decrease of intracranial hypertension was achieved in all patients. Long-term results were studied in eight patients: none presented clinical signs of intracranial hypertension. Endovascular transvenous recanalization is an effective treatment for acute thrombosis of cerebral veins and sinuses. Along with the local thrombolysis, significant potential in the treatment of this complex pathology lies in the transvenous endovascular techniques of mechanical thrombus extraction, especially in patients with intracranial hemorrhage for whom the use of thrombolytic agents is restricted. PMID:25196622

  1. Methylene blue mediated laser therapy of maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Chikina, E. E.; Knyazev, A. B.; Mareev, O. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is a clinical study of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) have been used for treatment of maxillary sinus mucous of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. The differences between the results of the treatment with dye and light versus treatment with a drug for every group of patients were statistically analyzed by Student’s t test. The efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the disease.

  2. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M. ); Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C. )

    1993-09-20

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. SPATIO-TEMPORAL COMPLEXITY OF THE AORTIC SINUS VORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatio-temporal characteristics of aortic sinus voxtex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High resolution time-resolved (2KHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in time-scales as revealed using time bin averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small time-scale vortices and a large time-scale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatio-temporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and time-scales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics. PMID:25067881

  4. Case Report: retained gutta-percha as a cause for persistent maxillary sinusitis and pain

    PubMed Central

    Hodnett, Benjamin L.; Ferguson, Berrylin

    2014-01-01

    Dental sources of infection can produce acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. In some cases, the source of the infection may be related to the presence of endodontic materials in the oral cavity. In this article, we report a case of retained gutta-percha in the maxillary sinus resulting in chronic sinusitis. PMID:24795809

  5. Cancers of the nose, sinus, and skull base.

    PubMed

    Banuchi, Victoria; Mallen, Jonathan; Kraus, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Malignancies of the nose, sinus, and skull base are rare. The most common histologies are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The most common primary sites are the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus. Management of these tumors is technically challenging because they often present in advanced stages with extensive disease invading important structures such as the orbit and the skull base. In the last few decades advances in surgical resection techniques, as well as improved strategies to deliver adjuvant radiation, have substantially improved the outcomes in patients with malignancies of the sinonasal tract and skull base. PMID:25979400

  6. Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Parasellar and Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Bjorn; Zhang, Xin; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester F; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-07-01

    The management of cavernous sinus and invasive parasellar meningiomas often requires a multimodality treatment approach. Early attempts at complete or near-complete removal of parasellar meningiomas involving the cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, clivus, and sella using anterolateral or lateral skull base approaches were typically unsuccessful and yielded high rates of new cranial neuropathy and other complications. This article presents a strategy of endonasal endoscopic parasellar skull base bony decompression and limited tumor removal followed by stereotactic radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, or observation. Patient selection, technical nuances, potential complications, and initial outcomes in a small series of patients are discussed. PMID:26141358

  7. Frontal sinus mucocoele: a rare cause of ptosis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alasdair; Chowdhury, Haziq; Athwal, Sarju; Baddeley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man, with no medical history of note, presented with a 4-week history of an isolated left-sided ptosis and associated periorbital and retro-orbital discomfort. His pupils were spared, his eye movements were not restricted and he was not proptosed. A prompt CT orbits and head scan revealed a large left frontal sinus mucocoele that had eroded into the left orbit. The patient had successful endoscopic sinus surgery under the ear, nose and throat team and 1 month later was seen in ophthalmology clinic. His ptosis and discomfort had fully resolved and he had no neurological sequelae from the surgery. PMID:26216927

  8. Early Practice: External Sinus Surgery and Procedures and Complications.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John S; Day, Andrew; Clavenna, Matthew; Russell, Paul T; Duncavage, James

    2015-10-01

    External approaches to the paranasal sinuses are rarely used in the endoscopic era. However, their indications for use have not changed, and in every surgeon's career those indications may present themselves. For residents training in the endoscopic era, these procedures are also very rarely seen. In this article, the external approaches to the maxillary, ethmoid, and frontal sinuses are described: their original descriptions, modern use, and potential complications. It is hoped that this article will serve to instruct residents and practitioners alike in these techniques. PMID:26143105

  9. Medical therapy of maxillary sinus inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Seung; Hong, Ki Hwan; Kim, June Sun; Song, Jong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) in the maxillary sinus is a diagnostic challenge. As IMT has various names, it has various findings in magnetic resonance image. Although destructive pattern in computed tomography and hypermetabolism in PET CT suggest malignancy, it is debatable whether it is a tumor or inflammatory lesion. Treatment of IMT usually includes surgery. However, IMT can be dealt with medical treatment according to histologic type and localization. We report a rare case of IMT in the maxillary sinus which is controlled by medical therapy. PMID:27038822

  10. Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis associated with intranasal drug use.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Kelly R; Clavenna, Matthew J; Shockley, Ross; Weiss, Vivian L; Turner, Justin H

    2015-12-01

    Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis (CIFS) is a rare but potentially aggressive form of invasive fungal disease that occurs in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of CIFS in an otherwise healthy young adult associated with intranasal illicit drug abuse. The patient presented with nonhealing nasal septal and palatal perforations. Biopsy demonstrated invasive Aspergillus flavus requiring surgical debridement and extended intravenous antifungal therapy. Tissue necrosis and ulceration related to intranasal drug use should be recognized as a potential risk factor for invasive fungal sinusitis. PMID:26153255

  11. Rare dural arteriovenous fistula of the lesser sphenoid wing sinus.

    PubMed

    Khadavi, Nicole M; Mancini, Ronald; Nakra, Tanuj; Tsirbas, Angelo C; Douglas, Raymond S; Goldberg, Robert A; Duckwiler, Gary R

    2009-01-01

    A fistula of the lesser sphenoid wing sinus is a rare dural arteriovenous fistula resulting from a connection between the middle meningeal artery and recipient vein in the sinus of the lesser sphenoid wing. In this report, MRI/magnetic resonance angiography of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden-onset glaucoma and proptosis revealed a fistula in this anatomic location. Drainage patterns here may account for the absence of serious complications and optimistic prognosis following embolization. Care in diagnosis is required to avoid superfluous procedures, because classic signs of the more common carotid-cavernous fistula are absent. PMID:19966661

  12. Cavernous Sinus Dural Fistula Treated by Transvenous Facial Vein Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, V.; Cizek, V.; Kacirova, R.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report on the endovascular treatment of the spontaneous indirect dural carotid cavernous sinus type D fistula in a 60-year-old woman, in whom ipsilateral facial, angular and superior ophthalmic veins catheterization was performed to get access to the fistula site for embolization treatment. Approach via the facial vein is helpful after inferior petrosal sinus treatment failure. Although this technique requires caution in the angular vein region it allows a safe and effective treatment of these lesions. 3D rotational digital angiography can obtain more information of the angioarchitecture of the cavernous plexus and venous outflow for the catheter navigation. PMID:20587267

  13. Laser therapy of acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Chikina, Elena E.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Knyazev, Anatoly B.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2006-06-01

    The clinical results of photodynamic therapy of maxillary sinusitis have been presented. 0.1%-Methylene Blue aqueous solution in combination with He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm) has been used for treatment of patients with acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis. Efficacy of the photodynamic therapy was estimated with the use of the following criteria: the state of respiration, olfaction, duration of purulent discharge, reconstruction of transport function of ciliary epithelium, etc. The obtained results have shown that the photodynamic therapy is effective in comparison with conservative methods of treatment of the diseases.

  14. Lithostratigraphical analysis in northern Sinus Meridiani, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, D.; Sgavetti, M.; Tampella, G.; Wezel, F. C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Terra Meridiani- Arabia Terra region of Mars, layered rock units with a range of stratal patterns have been widely reported in the literature, and the record of the spectral signatures indicative of hydrate minerals suggests the existence of aqueous activity in at least some of the stratigraphic units. . In this work we investigated the area in the northern region of Sinus Meridiani located between 2°N to 3°N latitude and 2°W to 1°E longitude, using multiple remote sensing data sets to identify, characterize in detail, and understand the origin and evolution of the selected units in this region of Mars. MOLA and HiRISE data were used in combination to classify and correlate surface units recorded in distinct stratigraphic logs, based on planimetric configuration, topography, morphological and litho-facies characteristics. In particular, detailed analyses were focused on the layered units discovered in the walls of two impact craters located at a distance of about 100 km to each other within the study area. The stratigraphic interval analysed here corresponds to the upper part of the well known "light-toned layered deposits" identified by several authors. Distinct competent layers are observed in the internal slopes of both craters. Our observations indicate that the lithostratigraphic sections can be divided in three units. The lower unit consists of very thick bodies of light-toned bouldery breccia deposits. In the HiRISE images these white-coloured beds are composed of irregularly-shaped, white nodules which are either isolated or coalescent, distributed between bedding planes. The middle unit mainly consists of alternating thin strong layers and thicker sequences of relatively weak layers, horizontally bedded. The strong, competent layers maintain steeper erosional profiles and play a major role in controlling the overall shape and geomorphology of the wall slopes. The upper unit can be traced laterally in the surrounding ground level, displaying mesa

  15. Mini-invasive Implant Placement in Combination with Maxillary Sinus Membrane Perforation During Transcrestal Sinus Floor Elevation: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Paolo; Toscano, Calogero; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to report preliminary outcomes of a modified technique for transcrestal sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement. A total of 165 implants were placed in 110 patients using a modified Summers technique. During implant site preparation, after fracturing the sinus floor, a small perforation of the membrane was made using the first osteotome. After grafting with anorganic bovine bone mixed with venous blood, standard-length implants were inserted. The prosthetic phase occurred after 4 to 5 months. Patients were followed for at least 2 years after loading. During the follow-up, sinus condition was assessed by cone beam computed tomography. Periapical radiographs were taken to assess graft height and peri-implant bone levels. Three implants failed within 2 months of placement, yielding an overall implant survival of 98.2%. The mean follow-up was 38.3 months (range: 28 to 60 months) from placement. All other implants were stable and peri-implant soft tissues were healthy throughout the observation period. Peri-implant bone loss averaged 0.62 ± 0.26 mm after 1 year of function. No biologic or biomechanical complications occurred. No evidence of graft material dispersion into the sinus space was detected, except for two cases that resolved spontaneously. After 1 year of loading the graft height averaged 4.8 ± 1.3 mm above the sinus floor level. In the presence of sinus membrane perforation, the proposed modified osteotome technique may allow a predictable rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla by means of standard length implants without the occurrence of adverse events. PMID:26901298

  16. Assessing the prevalence of paranasal sinuses anatomical variants in patients with sinusitis using Cone Beam Computer Tomography

    PubMed Central

    ROMAN, RALUCA ANCUTA; HEDEŞIU, MIHAELA; GERSAK, MIRELA; FIDAN, FLOAREA; BĂCIUŢ, GRIGORE; BĂCIUŢ, MIHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims To asses, by using the Cone Beam CT (CBCT) reformatted images, the presence of anatomical variants of the sinonasal cavities and to determine the correlation of these variations with the onset of maxillary sinus inflammations. Method The study is a retrospective one and consists of the investigation of 130 patients with CBCT imaging, patients that were referred to the Maxillo-Facial Clinic, Radiology Department of the Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Cluj-Napoca, for clinical symptoms of sinusitis within a period of 24 months. The images were analyzed for the presence of different anatomical variations and sinus inflammation. The CBCT images were obtained using a NewTom 3G scanner and the data acquired were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Odds ratio data and confidence intervals, with a determined p<0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results The anatomical variants were detected both in the inflammation and control group. From the spectrum of variations concha bullosa, deviation of uncinate process and asymmetrical ethmoid roof presented significant association with sinusitis. The deviated position of the uncinate process appeared in more than 50% of patients in the positive group [OR=2.55] compared with a third of the control group. Concha bullosa was observed in 31% cases, 23% in the control group and 34% in the positive group [OR=1.73]. Haller cells showed a small difference between groups [OR=1.14] whereas the ethmoid roof asymmetry was evidently more prevalent in the inflammation group. Conclusion The anatomical variants of the paranasal sinuses are not incidental, being found in a large number of patients and may be a predisposing factor in the onset and recurrence of sinuses inflammation. The CBCT technique, due to the finest multiplanar reconstruction, permits a very good pre-therapeutic assessment of these predisposing conditions.

  17. Lacrimal Sac Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Metastases to the Cavernous Sinus Following Dacryocystorhinostomy Treated with Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Jonathan C.P.; Beigi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report a very good outcome in a 44-year-old woman in whom cancer was missed as the cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis and which was deemed inoperable after spreading to the cavernous sinus. Case Report The patient was referred to our unit 12 months following uneventful right dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This had been complicated by the formation of a significant canthal swelling 6 months later, which had been excised at that time. The symptom of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and scar recurrence prompted the referral to our unit. Examination and biopsy confirmed a malignancy. Despite extensive surgery, including concurrent radical neck dissection and parotidectomy, within 6 months, her mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found to have spread to the cavernous sinus, restricting blood flow from the carotid and causing an abducens nerve palsy. Though deemed inoperable at first, Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery was sought as treatment for her disease, resulting in a good outcome 4 years after surgery. Conclusion Experience from this case suggests the importance of considering malignancy as a cause in young patients when presenting with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. In such cases, and perhaps for all patients, biopsy specimens should be submitted as many tumours are found incidentally at the time of dacryocystorhinostomy. Whilst the external approach to dacryocystorhinostomy may identify abnormal anatomy intraoperatively, prompting biopsy, this is less likely with an endonasal approach where osteotomy precedes sac visualisation. The endonasal approach may therefore be less appropriate in such cases where malignancy is suspected as osteotomy may aid in the spread. PMID:27462255

  18. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in serum and sinus fluid after administration of extended-release and immediate-release formulations in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ehnhage, A; Rautiainen, M; Fang, A F; Sanchez, S P

    2008-06-01

    As high drug levels at the infection site are desirable for optimal activity, this study explored whether one dose of azithromycin extended release (AZ-ER) achieved higher azithromycin exposure in sinus fluid than azithromycin immediate release (AZ-IR) in adults with acute bacterial sinusitis. Subjects received AZ-ER (2g single dose; n=5) or AZ-IR (500mg daily for 3 days; n=4) and blood and sinus aspirates were collected until 120 h after initial dosing. Within 24 h, exposure was four- and three-fold higher with AZ-ER than with AZ-IR in serum and sinus fluid, respectively. Sinus fluid exposure was five- and three-fold higher than serum for AZ-IR and AZ-ER, respectively. Azithromycin concentrations in sinus fluid were maintained up to 120 h. PMID:18456465

  19. Osteoma and Ectopic Tooth of the Left Maxillary Sinus: A Unique Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Ümit; Aşık, Burak; Ahmedov, Asif; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ectopic eruption of a tooth or osteoma rarely occurs within the maxillary sinus. Coexistence of these two rare entities in the maxillary sinus has never been reported in the English literature. Case Report: Herein, we present a 21 year-old male patient with osteoma and ectopic tooth in the left maxillary sinus treated with the removal of the ectopic tooth by endoscopic sinus surgery and excision of the osteoma by the Caldwell-Luc procedure. Conclusion: Unique coexistence of two different entities in the maxillary sinus is most likely due to pediatric facial trauma. Pediatric patients with maxillofacial trauma should be carefully watched for dental injury both clinically and radiologically.

  20. [Atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. Analysis of progression stages. Apropos of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Hazan, A; Le Roy, A; Chevalier, E; Benzaken, J; Waisberg, A; Cymbalista, M; Adotti, F; Peytral, C

    1998-12-01

    We analyzed atelectasic processes occurring in the maxillary sinus. Several publications in the literature have tempted to analyze the pathogenesis. Clinically the processes are often silent and only revealed when the major opthalmological complication, enophthalmia, becomes patent. In other cases there is a long history of chronic sinusitis. There is a spectacular retraction of the maxillary sinus walls leading to collapse of the orbital floor and enophthalmia. We report four cases of maxillary sinusitis with atelectasia of the sinus walls at different stages of progression. These observations and data in the literature emphasize the importance, whatever the state of development, of endoscopic osteal decompression to avoid ophthalmological complications. PMID:9922835