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Sample records for abnormality evaluation treatment

  1. An economic evaluation of outpatient versus inpatient polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, L; Roberts, T E; Cooper, N A M; Middleton, L; Jowett, S; Daniels, J; Smith, P; Clark, T J

    2016-03-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient uterine polypectomy compared with standard inpatient treatment under general anaesthesia. Economic evaluation carried out alongside the multi-centre, pragmatic, non-inferiority, randomised controlled Outpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) trial. The UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective was used in the estimation of costs and the interpretation of results. Thirty-one secondary care UK NHS hospitals between April 2008 and July 2011. Five hundred and seven women with abnormal uterine bleeding and hysteroscopically diagnosed endometrial polyps. Outpatient uterine polypectomy versus standard inpatient treatment. Clinicians were free to choose the technique for polypectomy within the allocated setting. Patient-reported effectiveness of the procedure determined by the women's self-assessment of bleeding at 6 months, and QALY gains at 6 and 12 months. Inpatient treatment was slightly more effective but more expensive than outpatient treatment, resulting in relatively high incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Intention-to-treat analysis of the base case at 6 months revealed that it cost an additional £9421 per successfully treated patient in the inpatient group and £ 1,099,167 per additional QALY gained, when compared with outpatient treatment. At 12 months, these costs were £22,293 per additional effectively treated patient and £445,867 per additional QALY gained, respectively. Outpatient treatment of uterine polyps associated with abnormal uterine bleeding appears to be more cost-effective than inpatient treatment at willingness-to-pay thresholds acceptable to the NHS. HTA-funded OPT trial concluded that outpatient uterine polypectomy is cost-effective compared with inpatient polypectomy. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna.

    PubMed

    Mobli, Masumeh; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Amin, Gholamreza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the prevalent gynecological disorders that cause considerable morbidity and management of that plays an important role in protecting women's health. This review focuses on medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna, a great Iranian philosopher and physician (A.D. 980-1037), in his book Canon for treatment of AUB. Medicinal plants mentioned in Canon for treatment of AUB were elicited and searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Data were collected for the years 1980-2014. The findings included 23 plants belonging to 18 families. Scientific findings have revealed that these plants control AUB through four mechanisms of action including inhibition of inflammatory process, inhibition of prostaglandins production, antiproliferative activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and estrogenic activity. All of the plants exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Cuscuta chinensis and Portulaca oleracea exhibited estrogenic activity. Boswellia carteri, Lens culinaris, Myrtus communis, Polygonum aviculare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Punica granatum have revealed inhibitory activity on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Some of the mentioned plants including: Ceratonia siliqua, Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscuta epithymum, Cydonia oblonga, Paeonia sp., Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Rumex acetosa and Onopordum acanthium have shown antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells. Investigation of traditional Iranian medicine literatures can lead to the identification of effective natural medicines for the management of AUB; however, conclusive confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these treatments needs more evaluations.

  3. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  4. [INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION OF LORETA ABNORMALITIES IN IDIOPATHIC GENERALIZED EPILEPSY].

    PubMed

    Clemens, Béla; Puskás, Szilvia; Besenyei, Mónika; Kondákor, István; Hollódy, Katalin; Fogarasi, Andrós; Bense, Katalin; Emri, Miklós; Opposits Gábor; Kovács, Noémi Zsuzsanna; Fekete, István

    2016-03-30

    Contemporary neuroimaging methods disclosed structural and functional cerebral abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). However, individual electrical (EEG) abnormalities have not been evaluated yet in IGE patients. IGE patients were investigated in the drug-free condition and after 3-6 month of antiepileptic treatment. To estimate the reproducibility of qEEG variables a retrospective recruited cohort of IGE patients was investigated. 19-channel resting state EEG activity was recorded. For each patient a total of 2 minutes EEG activity was analyzed by LORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography). Raw LORETA values were Z-transformed and projected to a MRI template. Z-values outside within the [+3Z] to [-3Z] range were labelled as statistically abnormal. 1. In drug-free condition, 41-50% of IGE patients showed abnormal LORETA values. 2. Abnormal LORETA findings showed great inter-individual variability. 3. Most abnormal LORETA-findings were symmetrical. 4. Most maximum Z-values were localized to frontal or temporal cortex. 5. Succesfull treatment was mostly coupled with disappearence of LORETA-abnormality, persistent seizures were accompanied by persistent LORETA abnormality. 1. LORETA abnormalities detected in the untreated condition reflect seizure-generating property of the cortex in IGE patients. 2. Maximum LORETA-Z abnormalities were topographically congruent with structural abnormalities reported by other research groups. 3. LORETA might help to investigate drug effects at the whole-brain level.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, these potential alternate causes should be considered. In this clinical review, we have presented a case of referred pain from the digastric muscle (Patient 1), of pulpectomized (Patient 2), and of pulpectomized pain (Patient 3) to illustrate referred, neuromodulatory, and neuropathic pain, respectively. The Patient 1 was advised muscle stretching and gentle massage of the trigger points, as well as pain relief using a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. The pain in Patient 2 was relieved completely by the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. In Patient 3, the pain was controlled using either a continuous drip infusion of adenosine triphosphate or intravenous Mg2+ and lidocaine administered every 2 weeks. In each case of abnormal dental pain, the patient's diagnostic chart was used (Fig.2 and 3). Pain was satisfactorily relieved in all cases.

  6. Economic Evaluation of Global Endometrial Ablation Versus Inpatient and Outpatient Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Bonafede, Machaon M; Cai, Qian; Pohlman, Scott K; Troeger, Kathleen A; Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi

    2018-03-01

    Every year, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) exacts a heavy toll on women's health and leads to high costs for the US health care system. The literature shows that endometrial ablation results in fewer complications, shorter recovery and lower costs than more commonly performed hysterectomy procedures. The objective of this study was to model clinical-economic outcomes, budget impact, and cost-effectiveness of global endometrial ablation (GEA) versus outpatient hysterectomy (OPH) and inpatient hysterectomy (IPH) procedures. A decision tree, state-transition (semi-Markov) economic model was developed to simulate 3 hypothetical cohorts of women who received surgical treatment for AUB (GEA, OPH, and IPH) over 1, 2, and 3 years to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for GEA vs. OPH and GEA vs. IPH. Two versions of the model were created to reflect both commercial health care payer and US Medicaid perspectives, and analyses were conducted for both payer types. Total health care costs in the first year after GEA were substantially lower compared with those for IPH and OPH. Budget impact analysis results showed that increasing GEA utilization yields total annual cost savings of about $906,000 for a million-member commercial health plan and about $152,000 in cost savings for a typical-sized state Medicaid plan with 1.4 million members. Cost-effectiveness analysis results for both perspectives showed GEA as economically dominant (conferring greater benefit at lower cost) over both OPH and IPH in the 1-year commercial scenario. This study demonstrates that, for some patients, GEA may prove to be a safe, uterus-sparing, cost-effective alternative to OPH and IPH for the surgical treatment of AUB.

  7. Who should be screened for chromosomal abnormalities before ICSI treatment?

    PubMed

    Dul, E C; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C M A; Groen, H; van Echten-Arends, J; Land, J A

    2010-11-01

    Guidelines on karyotyping infertile men before ICSI treatment are not consistent. Most guidelines recommend chromosomal screening in azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic men, because they are assumed to have the highest risk of abnormalities. We performed a retrospective cohort study in azoospermic men and men eligible for ICSI. We determined the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in relation to sperm concentration and compared our data to studies in the literature. A high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in azoospermic men was found, but no difference in the prevalence of abnormalities was seen between different sperm concentration categories in non-azoospermic men. This raises the question of who should be screened for chromosomal abnormalities before ICSI treatment. Considering the costs and benefits, we would propose limiting screening to infertile couples with non-obstructive azoospermia.

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding- evaluation by Endometrial Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratibha

    2018-01-01

    Endometrial evaluation is generally indicated in cases presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), especially in women more than 35 years of age. AUB encompasses a variety of presentation, for example, heavy menstrual bleeding, frequent bleeding, irregular vaginal bleeding, postcoital and postmenopausal bleeding to name a few. Many methods are used for the evaluation of such cases, with most common being sonography and endometrial biopsy with very few cases requiring more invasive approach like hysteroscopy. Endometrial aspiration is a simple and safe office procedure used for this purpose. We retrospectively analyzed cases of AUB where endometrial aspiration with Pipette (Medgyn) was done in outpatient department between January 2015 and April 2016. Case records (both paper and electronic) were used to retrieve data. One hundred and fifteen cases were included in the study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most cases were between 46 and 50 years of age followed by 41-45 years. No cases were below 25 or more than 65 years of age. Heavy menstrual bleeding was the most common presentation of AUB. Adequate samples were obtained in 86% of cases while 13.9% of cases' sample was inadequate for opinion, many of which were later underwent hysteroscopy and/or dilatation and curettage (D and C) in operation theater; atrophic endometrium was the most common cause for inadequate sample. Uterine malignancy was diagnosed in three cases. Endometrial aspiration has been compared with traditional D and C as well as postoperative histopathology in various studies with good results. Many such studies are done in India as well as in western countries confirming good correlation with histopathology and adequate tissue sample for the pathologist to give a confident diagnosis. No complication or side effect was noted with the use of this device. Endometrial aspiration is a simple, safe, and effective method to sample endometrium in cases of AUB avoiding risk of

  9. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Mary Gayle; Schmidt-Dalton, Tarin A; Weiss, Patrice M; Madsen, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. Causes include polycystic ovary syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, and use of antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Women 35 years or older with recurrent anovulation, women younger than 35 years with risk factors for endometrial cancer, and women with excessive bleeding unresponsive to medical therapy should undergo endometrial biopsy. Treatment with combination oral contraceptives or progestins may regulate menstrual cycles. Histologic findings of hyperplasia without atypia may be treated with cyclic or continuous progestin. Women who have hyperplasia with atypia or adenocarcinoma should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist, respectively. Ovulatory abnormal uterine bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be caused by thyroid dysfunction, coagulation defects (most commonly von Willebrand disease), endometrial polyps, and submucosal fibroids. Transvaginal ultrasonography or saline infusion sonohysterography may be used to evaluate menorrhagia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an effective treatment for menorrhagia. Oral progesterone for 21 days per month and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also effective. Tranexamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovulatory bleeding, but is expensive. When clear structural causes are identified or medical management is ineffective, polypectomy, fibroidectomy, uterine artery embolization, and endometrial ablation may be considered. Hysterectomy is the most definitive treatment.

  10. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Abnormal temperament in patients with morbid obesity seeking surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Amann, Benedikt; Mergl, Roland; Torrent, Carla; Perugi, Giulio; Padberg, Frank; El-Gjamal, Nadja; Laakmann, Gregor

    2009-11-01

    Obesity and its related disorders are growing epidemic across the world. Research on links between the bipolar spectrum and obesity has proliferated in the last few years. As some forms of abnormal temperament are considered as subtypes of the soft bipolar spectrum, we aimed to evaluate abnormal temperaments in morbidly obese patients. Using a short version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego, we investigated abnormal depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable or anxious temperament in 213 patients with morbid obesity compared to a control group of 90 patients admitted prior to organ transplantation. Additionally, the Beck-Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-Report Manic Inventory (SRMI) were applied to assess current mood status. The obese group showed statistically significantly more psychiatric comorbidities compared to the control group. Abnormal temperaments were significantly more often observed in patients with morbid obesity rather than in controls. Cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments showed specificity to obesity. Obese patients had significantly higher scores on the BDI, while no difference for SRMI scores was found among the whole groups. All temperaments were positively correlated with BDI and SRMI in the obese group. The control group was not matched for demographic characteristics. Our results need replication but indicate an affective overlap in the form of abnormal temperament and depressive symptoms in obese patients, whereas mood swings should be evaluated and early mood stabilization considered for patients with significant weight gain to prevent obesity or to reduce already existing overweight. Studies of mood stabilizers and prospective observations would shed further insight on this complex interface of a major clinical and public health issue.

  12. New treatment of vertigo caused by jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hitier, Martin; Barbier, Charlotte; Marie-Aude, Thenint; Moreau, Sylvain; Courtheoux, Patrick; Patron, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Jugular bulb abnormalities can induce tinnitus, hearing loss, or vertigo. Vertigo can be very disabling and may need surgical treatments with risk of hearing loss, major bleeding or facial palsy. Hence, we have developed a new treatment for vertigo caused by jugular bulb anomalies, using an endovascular technique. Three patients presented with severe vertigos mostly induced by high venous pressure. One patient showed downbeat vertical nystagmus during the Valsalva maneuver. The temporal-bone computed tomography scan showed a high rising jugular bulb or a jugular bulb diverticulum with dehiscence and compression of the vestibular aqueduct in all cases. We plugged the upper part of the bulb with coils, and we used a stent to maintain the coils and preserving the venous permeability. After 12- to 24-month follow-up, those patients experienced no more vertigo, allowing return to work. The 3-month arteriographs showed good permeability of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb through the stent, with complete obstruction of the upper part of the bulb in all cases. Disabling vertigo induced by jugular bulb abnormalities can be effectively treated by an endovascular technique. This technique is minimally invasive with a probable greater benefit/risk ratio compare with surgery. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Evaluation and Management of Adolescents with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Miller, Rachel J; Mullins, Eric S

    2015-09-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists support the use of new terminology for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) to consistently categorize AUB by etiology. The term AUB can be further classified as AUB/heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) (replacing the term "menorrhagia") or AUB/intermenstrual bleeding (replacing the term "metrorrhagia"). Although many cases of AUB in adolescent women are attributable to immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, underlying bleeding disorders should be considered in women with AUB/HMB. This article reviews the new terminology for AUB, discusses important relevant features of history and examination, presents the laboratory evaluation of HMB, and describes hormonal (oral contraceptive pills, progestin-only methods, long-acting reversible contraceptives including intrauterine systems), hematologic (tranexamic acid and desmopressin), and surgical management options for AUB/HMB. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities: frequent finding on high-resolution esophageal manometry and associated with poorer treatment response in achalasia.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Yamile H; Ciarleglio, Maria M; Clarke, John O; Nandwani, Monica; Stein, Ellen; Roland, Bani C

    2015-01-01

    studies, especially in patients with impaired LES relaxation, including both achalasia and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. Interestingly, the most common UES abnormality associated with achalasia was a hypertensive resting UES, despite the fact that achalasia is thought to spare striated muscle. Among patients with achalasia, we found a significant association between the lack of treatment response and the presence of UES dysfunction. The routine evaluation of UES function in patients referred for manometry may enhance our understanding of esophageal motility disorders and may yield important prognostic information, particularly in subjects with achalasia. Future prospective studies are needed to further delineate the underlying mechanism between UES dysfunction with achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders to predict treatment response and guide therapeutic treatment modalities.

  15. Students' Evaluation of Writing Assignments in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procidano, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which students in an abnormal psychology class rated the usefulness of drafts for two writing assignments. Reports that a research proposal was more effective than a case study in generating interest in psychology and opportunity for creativity. Concludes that writing assignments should reflect important aspects of a…

  16. Plasma genetic and genomic abnormalities predict treatment response and clinical outcome in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shu; Kohli, Manish; Du, Meijun; Dittmar, Rachel L; Lee, Adam; Nandy, Debashis; Yuan, Tiezheng; Guo, Yongchen; Wang, Yuan; Tschannen, Michael R; Worthey, Elizabeth; Jacob, Howard; See, William; Kilari, Deepak; Wang, Xuexia; Hovey, Raymond L; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Wang, Liang

    2015-06-30

    Liquid biopsies, examinations of tumor components in body fluids, have shown promise for predicting clinical outcomes. To evaluate tumor-associated genomic and genetic variations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and their associations with treatment response and overall survival, we applied whole genome and targeted sequencing to examine the plasma cfDNAs derived from 20 patients with advanced prostate cancer. Sequencing-based genomic abnormality analysis revealed locus-specific gains or losses that were common in prostate cancer, such as 8q gains, AR amplifications, PTEN losses and TMPRSS2-ERG fusions. To estimate tumor burden in cfDNA, we developed a Plasma Genomic Abnormality (PGA) score by summing the most significant copy number variations. Cox regression analysis showed that PGA scores were significantly associated with overall survival (p < 0.04). After androgen deprivation therapy or chemotherapy, targeted sequencing showed significant mutational profile changes in genes involved in androgen biosynthesis, AR activation, DNA repair, and chemotherapy resistance. These changes may reflect the dynamic evolution of heterozygous tumor populations in response to these treatments. These results strongly support the feasibility of using non-invasive liquid biopsies as potential tools to study biological mechanisms underlying therapy-specific resistance and to predict disease progression in advanced prostate cancer.

  17. Evaluation of Genomic Instability in the Abnormal Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    array CGH maps copy number aberrations relative to the genome sequence by using arrays of BAC or cDNA clones as the hybridization target instead of...data produced from these analyses complicate the interpretation of results . For these reasons, and as outlined by Davies et al., 22 it is desirable...There have been numerous studies of these abnormalities and several techniques, including 9 chromosome painting, array CGH and SNP arrays , have

  18. Incidence of Thyroid Function Test Abnormalities in Patients Receiving Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nisha Subhash; Oury, Anais; Daniels, Gregory A; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Patel, Sandip Pravin

    2018-05-16

    With the advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1), immune-related adverse events such as thyroid function test abnormalities (TFTAs) are common, with a reported incidence range of 2%-15% depending upon the ICI used. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of TFTAs retrospectively in patients who received ICI therapy. A total of 285 patients were reviewed (178 male, 107 female; 16-94 years of age), of whom 218 had no baseline TFTAs, 61 had baseline TFTAs, and 6 had a history of thyroidectomy (excluded). At least one dose of ipilimumab and/or nivolumab or pembrolizumab was administered. Post-ICI therapy TFTAs were classified according to standard definitions of thyroid conditions when possible. A total of 35% (76/218) patients had new-onset TFTAs on ICI therapy. Of note, 70.5% (43/61) had baseline TFTAs that were exacerbated by ICI therapy. The median times to new-onset or exacerbated baseline TFTA were 46 and 33 days, respectively. Of note, 64.5% (20/31) of patients on both ipilimumab and nivolumab had new-onset TFTAs, compared with 31.3% (15/48) on ipilimumab, 31.5% (28/89) on nivolumab, and 26% (13/50) on pembrolizumab. The incidence of TFTAs with ICI therapy was higher than previously reported. Patients with baseline TFTAs and/or who were receiving ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy had a higher incidence of TFTAs than patients receiving single-agent ICI therapy. We recommend more frequent evaluation of thyroid function in the first 8 weeks, especially in patients with baseline TFTAs. Increased use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in cancer treatment has highlighted the importance of monitoring for and treating immune-related adverse events. This study was conducted to assess the incidence of thyroid function test abnormalities retrospectively in patients with cancer on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, which is not known exactly. This study is unique in that it included patients with a variety of histologic

  19. GLUTAMATE ABNORMALITIES IN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: NEUROBIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.; Williams, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder is prevalent, disabling, incompletely understood, and often resistant to current therapies. Established treatments consist of specialized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with medications targeting serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, remission is rare, and more than a quarter of OCD sufferers receive little or no benefit from these approaches, even when they are optimally delivered. New insights into the disorder, and new treatment strategies, are urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is dysregulated in OCD, and that this dysregulation may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Here we review the current state of this evidence, including neuroimaging studies, genetics, neurochemical investigations, and insights from animal models. Finally, we review recent findings from small clinical trials of glutamate-modulating medications in treatment-refractory OCD. The precise role of glutamate dysregulation in OCD remains unclear, and we lack blinded, well-controlled studies demonstrating therapeutic benefit from glutamate-modulating agents. Nevertheless, the evidence supporting some important perturbation of glutamate in the disorder is increasingly strong. This new perspective on the pathophysiology of OCD, which complements the older focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission, constitutes an important focus of current research and a promising area for the ongoing development of new therapeutics. PMID:21963369

  20. Evaluation of surface treatments.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the installation, evaluation, and performance of surface treatment test sections placed during 1983, 1984, and 1985. The study was initiated because of adhesion problems between asphalt and river gravel in the Fredericksburg Dis...

  1. A patient-preference cohort study of office versus inpatient uterine polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Natalie A M; Middleton, Lee; Smith, Paul; Denny, Elaine; Stobert, Lynda; Daniels, Jane; Clark, T Justin

    2016-01-01

    Uterine polyps can cause abnormal bleeding in women. Conventional practise is to remove them under general anaesthesia but advances in technology have made it possible to perform polypectomy in the office setting. We conducted a patient-preference study to explore women's preferences for treatment setting and to evaluate the effectiveness and treatment experience of women undergoing uterine polypectomy. Three hundred ninety-nine women with abnormal uterine bleeding who were found to have uterine polyps at diagnostic hysteroscopy were recruited. Office polypectomies were performed in office hysteroscopy clinics, and inpatient procedures were undertaken in operating theatres. Three hundred twenty-four of 399 (81 %) expressed a preference for office treatment. There was no difference found between office treatment and inpatient treatment in terms of alleviating abnormal uterine bleeding as assessed by patients and in improving disease-specific quality of life. Acceptability was lower and patient pain scores were significantly higher in the office group. When offered a choice of treatment setting for uterine polypectomy, patients have a preference for office over inpatient treatment. Ambulatory gynaecology services should be available within healthcare systems to meet patient demand.

  2. Neurologic Correlates of Gait Abnormalities in Cerebral Palsy: Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Joanne; Butler, Erin E.; Rose, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common movement disorder in children. A diagnosis of CP is often made based on abnormal muscle tone or posture, a delay in reaching motor milestones, or the presence of gait abnormalities in young children. Neuroimaging of high-risk neonates and of children diagnosed with CP have identified patterns of neurologic injury associated with CP, however, the neural underpinnings of common gait abnormalities remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we review the nature of the brain injury in CP, as well as the neuromuscular deficits and subsequent gait abnormalities common among children with CP. We first discuss brain injury in terms of mechanism, pattern, and time of injury during the prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal period in preterm and term-born children. Second, we outline neuromuscular deficits of CP with a focus on spastic CP, characterized by muscle weakness, shortened muscle-tendon unit, spasticity, and impaired selective motor control, on both a microscopic and functional level. Third, we examine the influence of neuromuscular deficits on gait abnormalities in CP, while considering emerging information on neural correlates of gait abnormalities and the implications for strategic treatment. This review of the neural basis of gait abnormalities in CP discusses what is known about links between the location and extent of brain injury and the type and severity of CP, in relation to the associated neuromuscular deficits, and subsequent gait abnormalities. Targeted treatment opportunities are identified that may improve functional outcomes for children with CP. By providing this context on the neural basis of gait abnormalities in CP, we hope to highlight areas of further research that can reduce the long-term, debilitating effects of CP. PMID:28367118

  3. Recurrent pregnancy loss: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shahine, Lora; Lathi, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial condition. Approximately half of patients with RPL will have no explanation for their miscarriages. De novo chromosome abnormalities are common in sporadic and recurrent pregnancy loss. Testing for embryonic abnormalities can provide an explanation for the miscarriage in many cases and prognostic information. Regardless of the cause of RPL, patients should be reassured that the prognosis for live birth with an evidence-based approach is excellent for most patients. The authors review current evidence for the evaluation and treatment of RPL and explore the proposed use of newer technology for patients with RPL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Student Expectations of Course Content Affect Faculty Evaluations in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Frances A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring how student expectations of an abnormal psychology course affect their rating of professors. Findings showed a significant impact, especially in relation to popularized topics. Recommends evaluative instruments separating course-related factors from instructor ratings. (CK)

  5. Novel Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in End Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Novel Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. PMID:26278462

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizingmore » these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.« less

  8. Treatment of Seizure Disorders and EEG Abnormalities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of seizure disorders and EEG epileptiform abnormalities without epilepsy in children with autism spectrum disorders in considered within the context of the relationship epilepsy and epileptiform disorders to language, behavior, and cognition. The use of anticonvulsants to treat epileptiform discharges thought to be producing…

  9. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference( P <0.01). Conclusion: TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation has a significant efficacy with high safety for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  10. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from themore » mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with

  11. A randomised controlled trial of Outpatient versus inpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Clark, T Justin; Middleton, Lee J; Cooper, Natalie Am; Diwakar, Lavanya; Denny, Elaine; Smith, Paul; Gennard, Laura; Stobert, Lynda; Roberts, Tracy E; Cheed, Versha; Bingham, Tracey; Jowett, Sue; Brettell, Elizabeth; Connor, Mary; Jones, Sian E; Daniels, Jane P

    2015-07-01

    Uterine polyps cause abnormal bleeding in women and conventional practice is to remove them in hospital under general anaesthetic. Advances in technology make it possible to perform polypectomy in an outpatient setting, yet evidence of effectiveness is limited. To test the hypothesis that in women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) associated with benign uterine polyp(s), outpatient polyp treatment achieved as good, or no more than 25% worse, alleviation of bleeding symptoms at 6 months compared with standard inpatient treatment. The hypothesis that response to uterine polyp treatment differed according to the pattern of AUB, menopausal status and longer-term follow-up was tested. The cost-effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy was examined. A multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, incorporating a cost-effectiveness analysis and supplemented by a parallel patient preference study. Patient acceptability was evaluated by interview in a qualitative study. Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics and inpatient gynaecology departments within UK NHS hospitals. Women with AUB - defined as heavy menstrual bleeding (formerly known as menorrhagia) (HMB), intermenstrual bleeding or postmenopausal bleeding - and hysteroscopically diagnosed uterine polyps. We randomly assigned 507 women, using a minimisation algorithm, to outpatient polypectomy compared with conventional inpatient polypectomy as a day case in hospital under general anaesthesia. The primary outcome was successful treatment at 6 months, determined by the woman's assessment of her bleeding. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, procedure feasibility, acceptability and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. At 6 months, 73% (166/228) of women who underwent outpatient polypectomy were successfully treated compared with 80% (168/211) following inpatient polypectomy [relative risk (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.02]. The lower end of the CIs showed

  12. Antiviral treatment normalizes neurophysiological but not movement abnormalities in simian immunodeficiency virus–infected monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Howard S.; Weed, Michael R.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Baig, Jamal; Horn, Thomas F.W.; Dailey, Peter J.; Bischofberger, Norbert; Henriksen, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus monkeys provides an excellent model of the central nervous system (CNS) consequences of HIV infection. To discern the relationship between viral load and abnormalities induced in the CNS by the virus, we infected animals with SIV and later instituted antiviral treatment to lower peripheral viral load. Measurement of sensory-evoked potentials, assessing CNS neuronal circuitry, revealed delayed latencies after infection that could be reversed by lowering viral load. Cessation of treatment led to the reappearance of these abnormalities. In contrast, the decline in general motor activity induced by SIV infection was unaffected by antiviral treatment. An acute increase in the level of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relative to plasma in the infected animals at the peak of acute viremia, likely contributing to an early influx of immune cells into the CNS. Examination of the brains of the infected animals after return of the electrophysiological abnormalities revealed diverse viral and inflammatory findings. Although some of the physiological abnormalities resulting from SIV infection can be at least temporarily reversed by lowering viral load, the viral-host interactions initiated by infection may result in long-lasting changes in CNS-mediated functions. PMID:10880046

  13. Antiviral treatment normalizes neurophysiological but not movement abnormalities in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fox, H S; Weed, M R; Huitron-Resendiz, S; Baig, J; Horn, T F; Dailey, P J; Bischofberger, N; Henriksen, S J

    2000-07-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus monkeys provides an excellent model of the central nervous system (CNS) consequences of HIV infection. To discern the relationship between viral load and abnormalities induced in the CNS by the virus, we infected animals with SIV and later instituted antiviral treatment to lower peripheral viral load. Measurement of sensory-evoked potentials, assessing CNS neuronal circuitry, revealed delayed latencies after infection that could be reversed by lowering viral load. Cessation of treatment led to the reappearance of these abnormalities. In contrast, the decline in general motor activity induced by SIV infection was unaffected by antiviral treatment. An acute increase in the level of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relative to plasma in the infected animals at the peak of acute viremia, likely contributing to an early influx of immune cells into the CNS. Examination of the brains of the infected animals after return of the electrophysiological abnormalities revealed diverse viral and inflammatory findings. Although some of the physiological abnormalities resulting from SIV infection can be at least temporarily reversed by lowering viral load, the viral-host interactions initiated by infection may result in long-lasting changes in CNS-mediated functions.

  14. The role of white matter abnormalities in treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Borgwardt, Stefan; Giuffra, Enrico; Howes, Oliver; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) commonly report significant disability together with an increased risk of functional impairment. Neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neuropathology of this complex illness, but it is still quite unknown whether abnormalities in the integrity of white matter (WM) of specific brain areas may be considered as trait markers of TRD. Electronic databases were searched from 1980 to 2013. Nine studies - comprising a total of 228 subjects and 171 controls - fulfilled our inclusion criteria and were analyzed in the present overview. Several cross-sectional studies showed the association between WM abnormalities and TRD. According to the selected studies, sub-callosal cingulated cortex (SCC) WM abnormalities were largely implicated in the pathogenesis of both major depressive disorder and TRD. However, alterations in cortical-limbic or cortical-subcortical circuits, particularly the left middle frontal gyrus (which is thought to have a major role in emotional regulation) may also be involved in the pathophysiology of TRD. TRD may be related to the presence of specific microstructural WM abnormalities. WM abnormalities of specific brain regions such as SCC may have a major involvement in the pathogenesis of TRD.

  15. Effect of Developmental Binocular Vision Abnormalities on Visual Vertigo Symptoms and Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, Marousa; Acheson, James; Nicolaou, Despina; Fraser, Clare L; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Davies, Rosalyn A

    2015-10-01

    Customized vestibular rehabilitation incorporating optokinetic (OK) stimulation improves visual vertigo (VV) symptoms; however, the degree of improvement varies among individuals. Binocular vision abnormalities (misalignment of ocular axis, ie, strabismus) may be a potential risk factor. This study aimed to investigate the influence of binocular vision abnormalities on VV symptoms and treatment outcome. Sixty subjects with refractory peripheral vestibular symptoms underwent an orthoptic assessment after being recruited for participation in an 8-week customized program incorporating OK training via a full-field visual environment rotator or video display, supervised or unsupervised. Treatment response was assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks with dynamic posturography, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), and questionnaires for symptoms, symptom triggers, and psychological state. As no significant effect of OK training type was noted for any variables, data were combined and new groups identified on the basis of the absence or presence of a binocular vision abnormality. A total of 34 among 60 subjects consented to the orthoptic assessment, of whom 8 of the 34 had binocular vision abnormalities and 30 of the 34 subjects completed both the binocular function assessment and vestibular rehabilitation program. No significant between-group differences were noted at baseline. The only significant between-group difference was observed for pre-/post-VV symptom change (P = 0.01), with significant improvements noted only for the group without binocular vision abnormalities (P < 0.0005). Common vestibular symptoms, posturography, and the FGA improved significantly for both groups (P < 0.05). Binocular vision abnormalities may affect VV symptom improvement. These findings may have important implications for the management of subjects with refractory vestibular symptoms.Video Abstract available for insights from the authors regarding clinical implication of the study findings (see

  16. Treatment of Combined Spinal Deformity in Patient with Ollier Disease and Abnormal Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ryabykh, S. О.; Gubin, A. V.; Prudnikova, О. G.; Kobyzev, А. Е.

    2012-01-01

    We report staged treatment of severe combined spinal deformity in an 11-year-old patient with Ollier disease and abnormal cervical vertebra. Combined scoliosis with systemic pathology and abnormal vertebrae is a rare condition and features atypical deformity location and rapid progression rate and frequently involves the rib cage and pelvis, disturbing the function of chest organs and skeleton. Progressive deformity resulted in cachexia and acute respiratory failure. A halo-pelvic distraction device assembled of Ilizarov components was employed for a staged surgical treatment performed for lifesaving indications. After vital functions stabilized, the scoliosis curve of the cervical spine was corrected and fixed with a hybrid system of transpedicular supporting points, connecting rods, and connectors that provided staged distraction during growth. The treatment showed good functional and cosmetic result. PMID:24436859

  17. [Rehabilitation evaluation on post-stroke abnormal movement pattern prevented and treated with acupuncture and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-min; Tang, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    To explore the impacts of acupuncture and rehabilitation on post-stroke abnormal patterns of limb movement and evaluate them via rehabilitation method. Ninety cases of post-stroke movement disorder were randomly divided into an acupuncture-rehabilitation group, a body acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each group. In medication group, the conventional medication in neurological department was administered. In acupuncture-rehabilitation group and body acupuncture group, on the basis of the therapy as medication group, scalp acupuncture (such as parietal area and anterior parietal area, etc.), rehabilitation training and traditional body acupuncture [such as Jianyu (LI 15) and Fengshi (GB 31),etc.] were supplemented. The continuous electric stimulation was applied in body acupuncture group. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The assessment of clinical efficacy, Fugl-Meyer score, Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) and shoulder pain score were taken as observation indices for rehabilitation evaluation before and after treatment in each group. The effective rate was 93.1% (27/29) in acupuncture-rehabilitation group, which was superior to 66.7% (20/30) in body acupuncture group and 57.1% (16/28) in control group (both P<0.01) separately. After treatment, Fugl-Meyer score, MAS, ROM of the lower limbs and shoulder joint and shoulder pain score (except medication group) were all remarkably improved as compared with those before treatment in each group (all P<0.01). The improvements in Fugl-Meyer score, MAS, ROM of the upper limbs and shoulder pain score in acupuncture-rehabilitation group were significantly superior to those in body acupuncture group and medication group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy and traditional body acupuncture remarkably improve in post-stroke movement disorder. But acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy is apparently superior to traditional body acupuncture. This therapy can effectively

  18. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  19. Evaluation of Syracuse Healthy Start's program for abnormal flora management to reduce preterm birth among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Koumans, Emilia H; Lane, Sandra D; Aubry, Richard; Demott, Kathleen; Webster, Noah; Levandowski, Brooke A; Berman, Stuart; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-10-01

    Randomized trials of bacterial vaginosis (BV) treatment among pregnant women to reduce preterm birth have had mixed results. Among non-pregnant women, BV recurs frequently after treatment. Randomized trials of early BV treatment for pregnant women in which recurrence was retreated have shown promise in reducing preterm birth. Syracuse's Healthy Start (SHS) program began in 1997; in 1998 prenatal care providers for pregnant women living in high infant mortality zip codes were encouraged to screen for abnormal vaginal flora at the first prenatal visit. Vaginal swabs were sent to a referral hospital laboratory for Gram staining and interpretation. SHS encouraged providers to treat and rescreen women with bacterial vaginosis or abnormal flora (BV). We abstracted prenatal and hospital charts of live births between January 2000 and March 2002 for maternal conditions and treatments. We merged abstracted data with local electronic data. We evaluated the effect of BV screening before 22 weeks gestation, treatment, and rescreening using a retrospective cohort study design. Among 838 women first screened before 22 weeks, 346 (41%) had normal flora and 492 (59%) women had BV at a mean of 13 weeks gestation; 202 (24%) did not have treatment documented and 290 (35%) received treatment at a mean of 15 weeks gestation; 267 (92%) of those treated were re-screened. Among pregnant women with early BV, 42 (21%) untreated women and 28 (10%) treated women delivered preterm (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.7)). After adjustment for age, race, prior preterm birth and other possible confounders, treatment remained associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth compared to no treatment (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9); the aOR for women with normal flora was not significantly different. Screening, treatment, and rescreening for BV/abnormal flora between the first prenatal visit and 22 weeks gestation showed promise in reducing preterm births and deserves further study.

  20. Treatment of Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents: What Are Providers Doing in Various Specialties?

    PubMed

    Huguelet, Patricia S; Buyers, Eliza M; Lange-Liss, Jill H; Scott, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether variability exists in the management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents between pediatric Emergency Department (ED) physicians, pediatric gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care medical center ED. We included girls aged 9-22 years who presented from July 2008 to June 2014 with the complaint of acute AUB. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision codes for heavy menstrual bleeding, AUB, and irregular menses. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy and current use of hormonal therapy. One hundred fifty patients were included. Among those evaluated, 61% (n = 92) were prescribed hormonal medication to stop their bleeding by providers from the ED, Adolescent Medicine, or Pediatric Gynecology. ED physicians prescribed mostly single-dose and multidose taper combined oral contraceptive pills (85%; n = 24), compared with Adolescent Medicine (54%, n = 7), and Gynecology (28%, n = 13). Pediatric gynecologists were more likely than ED physicians to treat patients with norethindrone acetate, either alone or in combination with a single dose combined oral contraceptive pill (61%, n = 33 vs 7%, n = 2; P < .001). Variations in treatment strategies for adolescents who present with acute AUB exist among pediatric specialties, which reflects a lack of standardized care for adolescents. Prospective evaluation of the shortest interval to cessation of bleeding, side effects, and patient satisfaction are valuable next steps. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of feline uterine and umbilical arteries blood flow in a pharmacologically induced abnormal gestation model.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P G; Vercellini, R; Rube, A; Rodríguez, R; Arias, D O; Gobello, C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine and umbilical arteries in an experimental model of abnormal pregnancy in felids. On days 30 to 35 (32 ± 2.9) after mating, 20 domestic short-hair pregnant queens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: a treated group (TG; n = 8), which received 10 mg/kg of aglepristone subcutaneously twice, 24 hours apart, and a control nontreated group (CG; n = 12). M-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the initiation of the treatment (Day 0) and then every other day during 8 days. In both groups, uterine and umbilical arteries were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, whereas fetal heart rate was assessed by M-mode ultrasound. Resistance index of uterine artery augmented in TG from Day 2 onward, conversely it decreased in CG (P < 0.01). On Day 8, RI values were 0.64 ± 0.05 vs 0.37 ± 0.01 for TG and CG, respectively. Additionally, S/D ratio of the same artery presented an increase in TG, whereas this ratio diminished in CG (P < 0.01). On Day 8, this parameter showed values of 2.98 ± 0.4 vs 1.62 ± 0.06 for TG and CG, respectively. Resistance index of umbilical artery remained almost unchanged in TG from Day 6 onward, whereas it progressively decreased in CG throughout the course of the study (P < 0.05). On Day 8, RI were 0.89 ± 0.04 and 0.82 ± 0.01, for TG and CG, respectively. Furthermore, on Day 8, S/D ratio of umbilical artery progressively diminished in CG but not in TG (P < 0.01), being 14.7 ± 9.1 vs 5.9 ± 0.3 for TG and CG, respectively. Fetal heart rate was higher in TG than in CG (P < 0.05). Group differences in Doppler parameters appeared on Day 2, when the other clinical or ultrasonographic signs were still absent. It is concluded that blood flow of the uterine and umbilical arteries differed between these normal and abnormal gestations predicting an adverse obstetric

  2. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Corneal Abnormalities Using Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  3. Noninvasive evaluation of corneal abnormalities using static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-06-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  4. Study on the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation applied in wind turbine farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Qian, Zheng; Tian, Shuangshu

    2016-01-01

    The condition detection of wind turbine is always an important issue which attract more and more attentions because of the rapid development of wind farm. And the on-line data analysis is also difficult since a lot of measured data is collected. In this paper, the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation of wind turbine is processed. At first, since there are large amounts of abnormal data in the normal operation of wind turbine, which is probably caused by fault, maintenance downtime, power-limited operation and failure of wind speed sensor, a novel method is proposed to reject abnormal data in order to make more accurate analysis for the wind turbine condition. The core principle of this method is to fit the wind power curves by using the scatter diagram. The data outside the area covered by wind power curves is the abnormal data. The calculation shows that the abnormal data is rejected effectively. After the rejection, the vibration signals of wind turbine bearing which is a critical component are analyzed and the relationship between the vibration characteristic value and the operating condition of wind turbine is discussed. It will provide powerful support for the accurate fault analysis of wind turbine.

  5. Abnormal distal renal tubular acidification in patients with low bone mass: prevalence and impact of alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Sromicki, Jerzy Jan; Hess, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    Chronic acid retention is known to promote bone dissolution. In this study, 23 % of patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis were diagnosed with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification (dRTA), a kidney dysfunction leading to chronic acid retention. Treating those patients with alkali-therapy shows improvement in bone density. To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal distal renal tubular acidification in patients with low bone mass (LBM) and the impact of additional alkali treatment on bone density in patients with concomitant LBM and dRTA,183 patients referred for metabolic evaluation of densitometrically proven low bone mass were screened for abnormal distal renal tubular acidification between 2006 and 2013. In all LBM urine pH (U-pH) was measured in the 2nd morning urines after 12 h of fasting. If U-pH was ≥5.80, LBM underwent a 1-day ammonium chloride loading, and U-pH was remeasured the next morning. If U-pH after acid loading did not drop below 5.45, patients were diagnosed with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification. Normal values were obtained from 21 healthy controls. All LBM with dRTA were recommended alkali citrate in addition to conventional therapy of LBM, and follow-up DXAs were obtained until 2014. 85 LBM underwent NH 4 Cl loading. 42 LBM patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA (idRTA; prevalence 23.0 %). During follow-up (1.6-8 years) of idRTA-LBM patients, subjects adhering to alkali treatment tended to improve BMD at all sites measured, whereas BMD of non-adherent idRTA patients worsened/remained unchanged. (1) About one out of four patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis has idRTA. (2) Upon NH 4 Cl loading, idRTA patients do not lower urine pH normally, but show signs of increased acid-buffering by bone dissolution. (3) In idRTA patients with low bone mass on conventional therapy, additional long-term alkali treatment improves bone mass at lumbar spine and potentially at other bone sites. (4) All patients with low bone mass undergoing

  6. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiationmore » at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.« less

  7. Immune Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder-Could They Hold Promise for Causative Treatment?

    PubMed

    Gładysz, Dominika; Krzywdzińska, Amanda; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2018-01-06

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in language and communication development, social behavior, and the occurrence of stereotypic patterns of behavior and interests. Despite substantial speculation about causes of ASD, its exact etiology remains unknown. Recent studies highlight a link between immune dysfunction and behavioral traits. Various immune anomalies, including humoral and cellular immunity along with abnormalities at the molecular level, have been reported. There is evidence of altered immune function both in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Several studies hypothesize a role for neuroinflammation in ASD and are supported by brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, as well as evidence of microglial activation. It has been shown that immune abnormalities occur in a substantial number of individuals with ASD. Identifying subgroups with immune system dysregulation and linking specific cellular immunophenotypes to different symptoms would be key to defining a group of patients with immune abnormalities as a major etiology underlying behavioral symptoms. These determinations would provide the opportunity to investigate causative treatments for a defined patient group that may specifically benefit from such an approach. This review summarizes recent insights into immune system dysfunction in individuals with ASD and discusses the potential implications for future therapies.

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding in women receiving direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Godin, Richard; Marcoux, Violaine; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Levothyroxine treatment generates an abnormal uterine contractility patterns in an in vitro animal model.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Stéphanie; Blouin, Simon; Raiche, Évelyne; Nolin, Marc-Antoine; Rousseau, Éric; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal uterine contraction patterns were recently demonstrated in uterine strips from pregnant women treated with Levothyroxine (T4). These abnormalities were correlated with an increased risk of C-section delivery and associated surgical complications. To date, no study has investigated whether uterine contractility is modified by hypothyroidism or T4 treatment. Herein, we analyze the physiological role of T4 on uterine contractions. Female non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats ( N  = 22) were used and divided into four groups: 1) control, 2) hypothyroidism, 3) hypothyroidism treated with low T4 doses (20 μg/kg/day) and 4) with high T4 doses (100 μg/kg/day). Hypothyroidism was induced by an iodine-deficient diet. Isometric tension measurements were performed in vitro on myometrium tissues in isolated organ baths. Contractile activity parameters were quantified (amplitude, duration, frequency and area under the curve) using pharmacological tools to assess their effect. Screening of thyroid function confirmed a hypothyroid state for all rats under iodine-free diet to which T4 was subsequently administered to counterbalance hypothyroidism. Results demonstrate that hypothyroidism significantly decreased contractile duration (-17%) and increased contractile frequency (+26%), while high doses of T4 increased duration (+200%) and decreased frequency (-51%). These results thus mimic the pattern of abnormal contractions previously observed in uterine tissue from T4-treated hypothyroid pregnant women. Our data suggest that changes in myometrial reactivity are induced by T4 treatment. Thus, in conjunction with our previous observations on human myometrial strips, management of hypothyroidism should be improved to reduce the rate of C-sections in this group of patients.

  10. Abnormal medial prefrontal cortex activity in heavy cannabis users during conscious emotional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Michael J; Lile, Joshua A; Hanlon, Colleen A; Porrino, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Long-term heavy cannabis users (cannabis users) who are not acutely intoxicated have diminished subconscious neural responsiveness to affective stimuli. This study sought to determine if abnormal processing extends to the conscious evaluation of emotional stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity as cannabis users (N = 16) and non-cannabis-using controls (N = 17) evaluated and categorized standardized International Affective Picture System (IAPS) stimuli. Individual judgments were used to isolate activity during the evaluation of emotional (i.e., emotional evaluation) or neutral (i.e., neutral evaluation) stimuli. Within- and between-group analyses were performed. Both groups judged the same stimuli as emotional and had activations in visual, midbrain, and middle cingulate cortices during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Within-group analyses also revealed amygdalar and inferior frontal gyrus activations in controls, but not cannabis users, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) deactivations in cannabis users, but not controls, during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Between-group comparisons found that mPFC activity during positive and negative evaluation was significantly hypoactive in cannabis users, relative to controls. Abnormal neural processing of affective content extends to the level of consciousness in cannabis users. The hypoactive mPFC responses observed resembles the attenuated mPFC responses found during increased non-affective cognitive load in prior research. These findings suggest that abnormal mPFC singling in cannabis users during emotional evaluation might be associated with increased non-affective cognitive load.

  11. Abnormal Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Heavy Cannabis Users During Conscious Emotional Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Hanlon, Colleen A.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Long-term heavy cannabis users (cannabis users) who are not acutely intoxicated have diminished subconscious neural responsiveness to affective stimuli. Objective This study sought to determine if abnormal processing extends to the conscious evaluation of emotional stimuli. Methods Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity as cannabis users (N=16) and non-cannabis using controls (N=17) evaluated and categorized standardized International Affective Picture System (IAPS) stimuli. Individual judgments were used to isolate activity during the evaluation of emotional (i.e., emotional evaluation) or neutral (i.e., neutral evaluation) stimuli. Within- and between-group analyses were performed. Results Both groups judged the same stimuli as emotional and had activations in visual, midbrain, and middle cingulate cortices during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Within-group analyses also revealed amygdalar and inferior frontal gyrus activations in controls, but not cannabis users, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) deactivations in cannabis users, but not controls, during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Between-group comparisons found that mPFC activity during positive and negative evaluation was significantly hypoactive in cannabis users, relative to controls. Conclusions Abnormal neural processing of affective content extends to the level of consciousness in cannabis users. The hypoactive mPFC responses observed resembles the attenuated mPFC responses found during increased non-affective cognitive load in prior research. These findings suggest that abnormal mPFC singling in cannabis users during emotional evaluation might be associated with increased non-affective cognitive load. PMID:26690589

  12. Monitoring and treatment of coagulation abnormalities in burn patients. an international survey on current practices

    PubMed Central

    Lavrentieva, A.; Depetris, N.; Kaimakamis, E.; Berardino, M.; Stella, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The magnitude of coagulation abnormalities, and the definition and treatment of coagulopathy in burn patients are inadequately understood and continue to be discussed in the literature. We aimed to analyse physicians’ views on monitoring and treating coagulation abnormalities in burn patients. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed electronically to burn ICU physicians. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Responses were analysed electronically and comparisons were made according to the region of the ICU or the specialty of the physician. Of the 350 questionnaires distributed, 55 (15.7%) were returned. The majority of burn specialists consider sepsis-induced coagulopathy to be the most frequent coagulopathy in burn patients, and 74.5% declare that they do not use any specific definition/scoring system in their department to detect coagulopathy. The majority of specialists (70.8%) use standard coagulation tests. The most frequent indications for plasma transfusion are massive bleeding (32.8%) and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation syndrome treatment (20%). The main specific factors reported in our study are cryoprecipitate (23.2%) and fibrinogen concentrate (18.9%). 21.1% of respondents state that they do not use any specific coagulation factor substitution in burn patients. Specific coagulation factor substitution is not a routine practice. The low response rate precludes the generalization of our results. PMID:28149244

  13. Evaluation of preventive maintenance treatments.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    Scrub seals were placed in 2007 in Tallahatchie, Marshall, Carroll and Grenada Counties to evaluate their effectiveness and feasibility as preventive maintenance treatments. Condition data was collected and evaluated on the project sections.

  14. Cellphone based mobile colposcope for the evaluation of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Bruce S.; Kass, Alex J.; Waalen, Jill; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Objective: Compare an inexpensive cell-phone based Mobile Colposcope, with a standard colposcope in the evaluation of women with abnormal Pap smear screening. Methodology: The study was a prospective, parallel noninferiority trial. Thirty women underwent colposcopy for the evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. After application of acetic acid, images of the cervix were obtained with both a standard colposcope and the Mobile Colposcope. An additional set of images using both devices were obtained using the red-free (green filter) mode. Eight experienced gynecologists then evaluated 100 paired images (plain and green filter) from two different sites in random order using a web based assessment program. After reviewing each set of paired images, the expert would make an assessment of: 1) normal (no biopsy/ random biopsy), or 2) abnormal. For abnormal images, the expert then electronically marked the site(s) on the image where a biopsy was recommended. In image analysis, the cervical image was divided into 12 radial sectors and the marked sites for biopsy on the matched pairs were compared. Matched pairs that were considered normal, or those where biopsy site recommendations were within +/- 30° were considered equivalent; unmatched biopsy sites were considered non-equivalent. Results were compared using Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Expert assessment of Mobile Colposcope images compared with assessment by standard colposcope is currently onging. Conclusions: if the Mobile Colposcope demonstrates non-inferiority to imaging obtained with a standard colposcope and due to its low cost, it has the potential help improve cervical cancer screening in low resource settings.

  15. Latrunculin A treatment prevents abnormal chromosome segregation for successful development of cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Tokoro, Mikiko; Itoi, Fumiaki; Wakayama, Sayaka; Li, Chong; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer to an enucleated oocyte is used for reprogramming somatic cells with the aim of achieving totipotency, but most cloned embryos die in the uterus after transfer. While modifying epigenetic states of cloned embryos can improve their development, the production rate of cloned embryos can also be enhanced by changing other factors. It has already been shown that abnormal chromosome segregation (ACS) is a major cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos and that Latrunculin A (LatA), an actin polymerization inhibitor, improves F-actin formation and birth rate of cloned embryos. Since F-actin is important for chromosome congression in embryos, here we examined the relation between ACS and F-actin in cloned embryos. Using LatA treatment, the occurrence of ACS decreased significantly whereas cloned embryo-specific epigenetic abnormalities such as dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) could not be corrected. In contrast, when H3K9me2 was normalized using the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294, the Magea2 gene-essential for normal development but never before expressed in cloned embryos-was expressed. However, this did not increase the cloning success rate. Thus, non-epigenetic factors also play an important role in determining the efficiency of mouse cloning.

  16. Latrunculin A Treatment Prevents Abnormal Chromosome Segregation for Successful Development of Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Tokoro, Mikiko; Itoi, Fumiaki; Wakayama, Sayaka; Li, Chong; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer to an enucleated oocyte is used for reprogramming somatic cells with the aim of achieving totipotency, but most cloned embryos die in the uterus after transfer. While modifying epigenetic states of cloned embryos can improve their development, the production rate of cloned embryos can also be enhanced by changing other factors. It has already been shown that abnormal chromosome segregation (ACS) is a major cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos and that Latrunculin A (LatA), an actin polymerization inhibitor, improves F-actin formation and birth rate of cloned embryos. Since F-actin is important for chromosome congression in embryos, here we examined the relation between ACS and F-actin in cloned embryos. Using LatA treatment, the occurrence of ACS decreased significantly whereas cloned embryo-specific epigenetic abnormalities such as dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) could not be corrected. In contrast, when H3K9me2 was normalized using the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294, the Magea2 gene—essential for normal development but never before expressed in cloned embryos—was expressed. However, this did not increase the cloning success rate. Thus, non-epigenetic factors also play an important role in determining the efficiency of mouse cloning. PMID:24205216

  17. Using endometrial ablation as a treatment for abnormal bleeding: energy source comparisons and clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    A great number of women suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding. Most do not want to undergo a hysterectomy and have searched for an alternative treatment. Ablation of the endometrium has become a viable alternative. Initially, surgical applications utilized thermal ablation by passing a rolling electrode, energized by monopolar radiofrequency (RF) energy, to ablate the inner uterine lining. This procedure was done under visual guidance and required practiced surgical skills to perform the ablation. It was not possible to assess subsurface damage. More recently, various energy systems have been applied to the endometrium such as lasers, microwaves, monopolar and bipolar RF, hot fluid balloons, and cryotherapy. They are being used in computer controlled treatments that obviate the user's skill, and utilize a self-positioning device paired with a temperature monitored, thermal treatment. Finite element models have also been created to predict heating profiles with devices that either rely on conductive heating or that deposit power in tissue. This is a very active field in terms of innovation with creative solutions using contemporary technology to reduce or halt the bleeding. Devices and minimally invasive treatments will offer choices to women and will be able to replace a surgical procedure with an office-based procedure. They are very promising and are discussed at length herein.

  18. Maternal urinary tract infection and related drug treatments during pregnancy and risk of congenital abnormalities in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, F; Acs, N; Puhó, E H; Czeizel, A E

    2006-12-01

    The association between urinary tract infection (UTI) of pregnant women and preterm birth/low birthweight is known, but the possible association between UTI and congenital abnormalities (CAs) was evaluated rarely. Only one study showed an association with atrial septal defect, thus we decided to check this possible association. The population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA); most maternal UTIs were based on medically recorded data. SETTING The HCCSCA, 1980-1996, contained 22 843 newborns or fetuses with CAs and 38 151 matched controls, i.e. newborn infants without any HCAs. Hungarian informative offspring: live births, stillbirths and prenatally diagnosed malformed fetuses. Case-control pair analysis. Twenty-five CA groups. A total of 1542 (6.75%) mothers in the case group had UTI during entire pregnancy compared with 2188 (5.74%) mothers in the control group (adjusted prevalence odds ratios [POR] with 95% CI: 1.15, 1.06-1.24). We did not find a higher prevalence of UTI during the second and/or third months of pregnancy in total case group (adjusted POR with 95% CI: 1.1, 0.9-1.2) and in any group of CAs including atrial septal defect type II. No evidence for the teratogenic effect of maternal UTI and related drug treatments during early pregnancy.

  19. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena): An emerging tool for conservative treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, Pallavi C.; Anuradha, K.; Saxena, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To study the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena) in conservative management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Materials and Methods: Seventy women between 30 and 55 years with AUB were included in a study conducted over a period of 3 years. Response was assessed monthly for first 4 months and then yearly for maximum 2 years. Results: Mirena caused a 80% decrease in median menstrual blood loss (MBL) at 4 months, 95% decrease in MBL by 1 year, and 100% decrease (amenorrhea) by 2 years. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) % showed a significant rise of 7.8% from baseline 4 months post Mirena insertion. Mirena acted as an effective contraceptive in women not using any other form of contraception. Hysterectomy could be avoided in most of the women. Conclusion: Mirena provides an incredible nonsurgical alternative in treatment of menorrhagia. Its effects are reversible and it is an excellent fertility-sparing device. It is also an effective contraceptive. PMID:25861205

  20. Abnormal cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms in single treatment-naïve HIV individuals: A statistical z-score index.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Pennica, Alfredo; Del Percio, Claudio; Noce, Giuseppe; Cordone, Susanna; Muratori, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Donato, Nicole; Di Campli, Francesco; Gianserra, Laura; Teti, Elisabetta; Aceti, Antonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Viscione, Magdalena; Limatola, Cristina; Andreoni, Massimo; Onorati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    This study tested a simple statistical procedure to recognize single treatment-naïve HIV individuals having abnormal cortical sources of resting state delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms with reference to a control group of sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy individuals. Compared to the HIV individuals with a statistically normal EEG marker, those with abnormal values were expected to show worse cognitive status. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 82 treatment-naïve HIV (39.8 ys.±1.2 standard error mean, SE) and 59 age-matched cognitively healthy subjects (39 ys.±2.2 SE). Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) estimated delta and alpha sources in frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortical regions. Ratio of the activity of parietal delta and high-frequency alpha sources (EEG marker) showed the maximum difference between the healthy and the treatment-naïve HIV group. Z-score of the EEG marker was statistically abnormal in 47.6% of treatment-naïve HIV individuals with reference to the healthy group (p<0.05). Compared to the HIV individuals with a statistically normal EEG marker, those with abnormal values exhibited lower mini mental state evaluation (MMSE) score, higher CD4 count, and lower viral load (p<0.05). This statistical procedure permitted for the first time to identify single treatment-naïve HIV individuals having abnormal EEG activity. This procedure might enrich the detection and monitoring of effects of HIV on brain function in single treatment-naïve HIV individuals. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Curative effects of two new endometrial ablation procedures using radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of severe abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yin, Geping; Li, Juan; Zhu, Tongyu; Chen, Ming

    2013-07-01

    Severe Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (SAUB) is a common gynecological disorder. The clinical characteristics include disordered menstrual cycle and massive bleeding that can cause anemia or secondary infection. Current treatment mainly relies on drug therapy or surgical removal of the uterus, each having its significant disadvantages. How to preserve the uterus, reduce the pain from surgery, and achieve better treatment effects have been well known but remaining as unresolved issues. This study aims at evaluating two types of radiofrequency (RF) thermocoagulation procedures for the treatment of SAUB: the RF-A procedure group included 25 SAUB patients ≥45 years of age treated for amenorrhea; the RF-B procedure group included 51 patients at <45 years of age treated for the control of excessive bleeding. Post-treatment ratings of menstrual satisfaction and pre-/post-treatment menstrual scores-pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC)-and hemoglobin levels were collected; and the mean length of follow-up was 72 months. Also, 38 SAUB patients treated with standard drug regimens served as a control group. The results of the study showed that following RF treatment, the average long-term patient menstrual satisfaction was greater than 92 %. In both the RF groups, PBAC scores and hemoglobin levels were significantly improved from baseline (p < .05). Compared with the control group, PBAC scores and hemoglobin levels were also significantly better for the RF groups at 6-24-month post-operation. Patients experienced no hysterectomy in association with the RF procedures. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that the novel RF procedures are both safe and effective in treating patients with SAUB. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate their application in broader clinical indication.

  2. Transcatheter arterial embolization of abnormal vessels as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis refractory to conservative treatment: a pilot study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Wataru; Okuno, Yuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Kaneko, Takao; Ikegami, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal vessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain with lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatment. This prospective study was conducted in 24 patients with lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatments for more than 3 months, with a symptom duration longer than 6 months, and with moderate to severe pain who were treated with TAE between March 2013 and October 2014. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 22 patients were followed up for 2 years after TAE. Abnormal vessels were identified in all of the patients. No major adverse events were observed. The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at baseline significantly decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 24 months after treatment (50.8 vs 23.4, 8.3, 5.3, and 2.7, respectively; all P < .001). There was a statistically significant (P < .001) change from baseline to the last observed value in all of the clinical parameters, including visual analog scale pain score, Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation score, and pain-free grip strength. Magnetic resonance images obtained 2 years after TAE showed an improvement in tendinosis and tear scores compared with baseline, and no patients showed bone marrow necrosis, obvious cartilage loss, or muscle atrophy. TAE could be one possible treatment option for patients with lateral epicondylitis that fails to improve with conservative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Central nervous system abnormalities in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome: new concepts in treatment.

    PubMed

    Gur, Ali; Oktayoglu, Pelin

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are poorly understood disorders that share similar demographic and clinical characteristics. The etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases remain unclear. Because of the similarities between both disorders it was suggested that they share a common pathophysiological mechanisms, namely, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Current hypotheses center on atypical sensory processing in the CNS and dysfunction of skeletal muscle nociception and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Researches suggest that the (CNS) is primarily involved in both disorders in regard to the pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances. Many patients experience difficulty with concentration and memory and many others have mood disturbance, including depression and anxiety. Although fibromyalgia is common and associated with substantial morbidity and disability, there are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments except pregabalin. Recent pharmacological treatment studies about fibromyalgia have focused on selective serotonin and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors, which enhance serotonin and NE neurotransmission in the descending pain pathways and lack many of the adverse side effects associated with tricyclic medications. CFS is a descriptive term used to define a recognisable pattern of symptoms that cannot be attributed to any alternative condition. The symptoms are currently believed to be the result of disturbed brain function. To date, no pharmacological agent has been reliably shown to be effective treatment for CFS. Management strategies are therefore primarily directed at relief of symptoms and minimising impediments to recovery. This chapter presents data demonstrating CFS, abnormal pain processing and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in FM and CFS and concludes by reviewing the new concepts in treatments in CFS and FM.

  4. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  5. Fundamental voice frequence during normal and abnormal growth, and after androgen treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Vuorenkoski, V; Lenko, H L; Tjernlund, P; Vuorenkoski, L; Perheentupa, J

    1978-01-01

    A simple treatment was shown to be suitable for clinical measurement of fundamental voice frequency. Basal frequency (SFF) and lowest frequency (LF) were determined in 374 normal subjects aged 6 years to adulthood. SFF fell between ages 8 and 10 years in boys (from 259 to 247 Hz), but not in girls (253 Hz). LF fell between ages 6 and 10 years in boys (from 234 to 203 Hz) and girls (from 230 to 218 Hz), and a sex difference appeared. In puberty, parallel to pubic hair (PH) development, a gradual fall of SFF and LF occurred in both boys (to 100 and 90 Hz, respectively) and girls (to 213 and 180 Hz). As a group, young hypopituitary children and girls with Turner's syndrome had a high SFF, and prepubertal boys with delayed maturation a low SFF. In some children with prenatal growth failure, SFF was abnormally high. The girls with Turner's syndrome exhibited a high, though individually variable, sensitivity of voice to androgen; their voices became lower before the appearance of any other masculinising effects. The instrument is useful for characterisation of growth failure syndromes and stages of puberty. It is particularly recommended for monitoring an undesirable effect on the voice during androgen treatment. Images Fig. 1 p202-b PMID:646429

  6. Prevalence of endocrine and genetic abnormalities in boys evaluated systematically for a disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R; Cerqueira, V; Kyriakou, A; Lucas-Herald, A; McNeilly, J; McMillan, M; Purvis, A I; Tobias, E S; McGowan, R; Ahmed, S F

    2017-10-01

    What is the likelihood of identifying genetic or endocrine abnormalities in a group of boys with 46, XY who present to a specialist clinic with a suspected disorder of sex development (DSD)? An endocrine abnormality of the gonadal axis may be present in a quarter of cases and copy number variants (CNVs) or single gene variants may be present in about half of the cases. Evaluation of 46, XY DSD requires a combination of endocrine and genetic tests but the prevalence of these abnormalities in a sufficiently large group of boys presenting to one specialist multidisciplinary service is unclear. This study was a retrospective review of investigations performed on 122 boys. All boys who attended the Glasgow DSD clinic, between 2010 and 2015 were included in the study. The median external masculinization score (EMS) of this group was 9 (range 1-11). Details of phenotype, endocrine and genetic investigations were obtained from case records. An endocrine abnormality of gonadal function was present in 28 (23%) with a median EMS of 8.3 (1-10.5) whilst the median EMS of boys with normal endocrine investigations was 9 (1.5-11) (P = 0.03). Endocrine abnormalities included a disorder of gonadal development in 19 (16%), LH deficiency in 5 (4%) and a disorder of androgen synthesis in 4 (3%) boys. Of 43 cases who had array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), CNVs were reported in 13 (30%) with a median EMS of 8.5 (1.5-11). Candidate gene analysis using a limited seven-gene panel in 64 boys identified variants in 9 (14%) with a median EMS of 8 (1-9). Of the 21 boys with a genetic abnormality, 11 (52%) had normal endocrine investigations. A selection bias for performing array-CGH in cases with multiple congenital malformations may have led to a high yield of CNVs. It is also possible that the yield of single gene variants may have been higher than reported if the investigators had used a more extended gene panel. The lack of a clear association between the extent of under

  7. Prevalence of endocrine and genetic abnormalities in boys evaluated systematically for a disorder of sex development

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, R.; Cerqueira, V.; Kyriakou, A.; Lucas-Herald, A.; McNeilly, J.; McMillan, M.; Purvis, A.I.; Tobias, E.S.; McGowan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION What is the likelihood of identifying genetic or endocrine abnormalities in a group of boys with 46, XY who present to a specialist clinic with a suspected disorder of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER An endocrine abnormality of the gonadal axis may be present in a quarter of cases and copy number variants (CNVs) or single gene variants may be present in about half of the cases. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Evaluation of 46, XY DSD requires a combination of endocrine and genetic tests but the prevalence of these abnormalities in a sufficiently large group of boys presenting to one specialist multidisciplinary service is unclear. STUDY, DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study was a retrospective review of investigations performed on 122 boys. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All boys who attended the Glasgow DSD clinic, between 2010 and 2015 were included in the study. The median external masculinization score (EMS) of this group was 9 (range 1–11). Details of phenotype, endocrine and genetic investigations were obtained from case records. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE An endocrine abnormality of gonadal function was present in 28 (23%) with a median EMS of 8.3 (1–10.5) whilst the median EMS of boys with normal endocrine investigations was 9 (1.5–11) (P = 0.03). Endocrine abnormalities included a disorder of gonadal development in 19 (16%), LH deficiency in 5 (4%) and a disorder of androgen synthesis in 4 (3%) boys. Of 43 cases who had array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), CNVs were reported in 13 (30%) with a median EMS of 8.5 (1.5–11). Candidate gene analysis using a limited seven-gene panel in 64 boys identified variants in 9 (14%) with a median EMS of 8 (1–9). Of the 21 boys with a genetic abnormality, 11 (52%) had normal endocrine investigations. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION A selection bias for performing array-CGH in cases with multiple congenital malformations may have led to a high yield of CNVs. It

  8. Are women satisfied when using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding?

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Nina; Unni, Jyothi; Dua, Meenakshi; Darbari, Reeta; Malik, Sonia; Verma, Sohani; Bathla, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in women over 35 years and to determine satisfaction of users of LNG IUS in case of AUB. Materials and Methods: This was a multicentric, retrospective, and observational study. Case records of patients with AUB from the hospitals in Pune, Delhi, and Gurgaon for the last 6 years were examined. Records of 80 women who had an LNG IUS inserted were included. The chief complaints and their duration were recorded. Investigation results, histopathology reports, and date of LNG IUS insertion were noted. The incidence of spotting, heavy menstrual bleeding, pain, expulsion, and amenorrhea were recorded at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months following treatment. Following this a telephonic interview was conducted to determine the efficacy of LNG IUS in treating the symptoms. Patients’ satisfaction in percentage was also noted and they were asked if they would recommend the LNG IUS to other women. Results: The mean age of women was 42.3 years. 77.5% of the women had menorrhagia as the chief complaint, and the mean duration was 12 months. Fibroids and adenomyosis were the most common pathology, present in 21.3% and 20% of the patients respectively. At 3 months, spotting seemed to be the predominant symptom (59.4%) and only 15% women had heavy bleeding. 49.3% of women were asymptomatic at 6 months. 27.5% had amenorrhea by the end of 18 months. 14 women in whom the device was expelled or removed due to persistent symptoms, underwent hysterectomy at various stages during the study period. Overall patient satisfaction was high at about 80%. Furthermore, 73.8% patients agreed to recommend it to other women. Conclusion: LNG IUS seems to be a viable and effective treatment option for AUB in women after 35 years. There is a high rate of patient satisfaction in appropriately selected patients. PMID:23833531

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Austin; Martin, Gregory; Hurtt, James

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 with Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and volt-age/frequency ride-through, among others. A comparative experimental evaluation has been completed on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and the effect on abnormal grid conditionmore » response. This study examines the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. This report reviews comparative test data, which shows that GSFs have little impact on the metrics of interest in most tests cases.« less

  10. Neurocirculatory abnormalities in Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension: independence from levodopa treatment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Eldadah, Basil A; Holmes, Courtney; Pechnik, Sandra; Moak, Jeffrey; Saleem, Ahmed; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2005-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease often have orthostatic hypotension. Neurocirculatory abnormalities underlying orthostatic hypotension might reflect levodopa treatment. Sixty-six Parkinson disease patients (36 with orthostatic hypotension, 15 off and 21 on levodopa; 30 without orthostatic hypotension) had tests of reflexive cardiovagal gain (decrease in interbeat interval per unit decrease in systolic pressure during the Valsalva maneuver; orthostatic increase in heart rate per unit decrease in pressure); reflexive sympathoneural function (decrease in pressure during the Valsalva maneuver; orthostatic increment in plasma norepinephrine); and cardiac and extracardiac noradrenergic innervation (septal myocardial 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity; supine plasma norepinephrine). Severity of orthostatic hypotension did not differ between the levodopa-untreated and levodopa-treated groups with Parkinson disease and orthostatic hypotension (-52+/-6 [SEM] versus -49+/-5 mm Hg systolic). The 2 groups had similarly low reflexive cardiovagal gain (0.84+/-0.23 versus 1.33+/-0.35 ms/mm Hg during Valsalva; 0.43+/-0.09 versus 0.27+/-0.06 bpm/mm Hg during orthostasis); and had similarly attenuated reflexive sympathoneural responses (97+/-29 versus 71+/-23 pg/mL during orthostasis; -82+/-10 versus -73+/-8 mm Hg during Valsalva). In patients off levodopa, plasma norepinephrine was lower in those with (193+/-19 pg/mL) than without (348+/-46 pg/mL) orthostatic hypotension. Low values for reflexive cardiovagal gain, sympathoneural responses, and noradrenergic innervation were strongly related to orthostatic hypotension. Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension features reflexive cardiovagal and sympathoneural failure and cardiac and partial extracardiac sympathetic denervation, independent of levodopa treatment.

  11. The efficacy of vaginal clindamycin for the treatment of abnormal genital tract flora in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Ronald F; Jones, Brian M; Mandal, Debashis; Hay, Philip E; Sheehan, Marie

    2003-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of 2% clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) to treat bacterial vaginosis (BV) in pregnancy. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, tricenter study. Four hundred and four women with BV on Gram stain at their first antenatal clinic visit were randomized to receive a 3-day course of 2% CVC or placebo. The outcome was assessed using an intention to treat analysis at 3 weeks and 6 weeks post-treatment according to three different diagnostic methods based on five criteria (Gram stain and all four elements of clinical composite criteria: vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal pH, clue cells, amine odor), three criteria (vaginal pH, clue cells, amine odor) or two criteria (clue cells and amine odor) to reflect stringency of diagnosis, historical precedence and government agency recommendations respectively. Using five diagnostic criteria, 18% of CVC patients were cured and 70.8% either cured and/or improved compared to 1.6% and 12% of placebo patients respectively (p < 0.0001). Using three diagnostic criteria, 44.8% of CVC patients were cured and 77.3% were either cured and/or improved compared to 9.3% and 28.8% of placebo patients respectively (p < 0.000 1). Using two diagnostic criteria, 75.0% of CVC patients were cured compared to 18.0% of placebo patients (p < 0.0001 ). Recurrence rates in those CVC patients successfully treated were approximately 6% at 6 weeks post baseline and 10% at 28 to 34 weeks gestation. A 3-day course of CVC appears to be well tolerated by the mother and statistically significantly more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of BV during the second trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    PubMed

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Critical evaluation of the PALM-COEIN classification system among women with abnormal uterine bleeding in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Shubham, Divya; Kawthalkar, Anjali S

    2018-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of the PALM-COEIN system for the classification of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in low-resource settings and to suggest modifications. A prospective study was conducted among women with AUB who were admitted to the gynecology ward of a tertiary care hospital and research center in central India between November 2014 and October 2016. All patients were managed as per department protocols. The causes of AUB were classified before treatment using the PALM-COEIN system (classification I) and on the basis of the histopathology reports of the hysterectomy specimens (classification II); the results were compared using classification II as the gold standard. The study included 200 women with AUB; hysterectomy was performed in 174 women. Preoperative classification of AUB per the PALM-COEIN system was correct in 130 (65.0%) women. Adenomyosis (evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography) and endometrial hyperplasia (evaluated by endometrial curettage) were underdiagnosed. The PALM-COEIN classification system helps in deciding the best treatment modality for women with AUB on a case-by-case basis. The incorporation of suggested modifications will further strengthen its utility as a pretreatment classification system in low-resource settings. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Microbiota abnormalities and the therapeutic potential of probiotics in the treatment of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Rios, Adiel C; Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Pedrini, Mariana; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Asevedo, Elson; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Wieck, Andrea; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; McIntyre, Roger S; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-10-26

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are among the leading causes of burden and disability worldwide. Despite intensified research efforts to improve the treatment options and remission rates in mood disorders, no disease modifying treatment exists for these disorders. Accumulating evidence implicates the involvement of the gut microbiota in processes relevant to etiopathology of central nervous system-based disorders. The objective of this article was to critically evaluate the evidence supporting the link between gastrointestinal microbiota and mood disorders and to discuss the potential benefits of using probiotics in the treatment of MDD and BD. The concept of psychobiotics, which is bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is emerging in the field. On the other hand, while probiotics might potentially represent a significant advance, specific roles of microbiota in the pathophysiology of mood disorders still need further investigation along with intervention studies.

  15. The sequential appearance of sperm abnormalities after scrotal insulation or dexamethasone treatment in bulls.

    PubMed Central

    Barth, A D; Bowman, P A

    1994-01-01

    Scrotal insulation and dexamethasone treatment were used as a model to compare the effect of testicular heating and stress on spermatogenesis. Insulation was applied to the scrotum of eight bulls (insulated) for a period of four days, eight bulls were treated daily for seven days with 20 mg dexamethasone injected intramuscularly, and four bulls were untreated controls. Semen from four bulls in each group was collected and evaluated over a six-week period after treatment. Blood samples for testosterone analysis were taken hourly for eight hours at the beginning and the end of the six-week period from the control bulls and before and after treatment from the four insulated and four dexamethasone-treated bulls that were not used for semen collection. At the end of the last blood sampling period, the four bulls in each group were castrated for the collection of testicular tissue for the determination of testosterone concentrations. Basal, peak episodic, and mean serum testosterone concentrations among control bulls, pre and postinsulated bulls, and pretreatment samples of dexamethasone-treated bulls were not different (p > 0.05); however, bulls that had received dexamethasone treatments had significantly lower basal, peak episodic, and mean testosterone concentrations (p < 0.05). Tissue concentrations of testosterone in control, insulated, and dexamethasone-treated bulls were not significantly different but tended to be lower in dexamethasone-treated bulls (p > 0.13). The spermiograms of the control bulls varied insignificantly over the six-week sampling period; however, there was a marked increase in sperm defects in insulated and dexamethasone-treated bulls. The types of sperm defects and the temporal relationships of rises and declines of sperm defects were quite similar for both treatments. All bulls recovered to approximately pretreatment levels of sperm defects by six weeks after the initiation of treatment. Results indicate that two of the most common types of

  16. The Evaluation and Treatment of Delayed Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel H; Spitz, Aaron

    2014-10-01

    Delayed ejaculation is a small but important subsection of ejaculatory dysfunction, with prevalence estimated at 1-4%. It is most commonly defined by DSM-IV-TR criteria, as "a persistent delay in, or absence of, orgasm in a male following a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity that the clinician, taking into account the person's age, judges to be adequate in focus, intensity, and duration." The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation is related to disruptions in ejaculatory apparatus, nervous transmission, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control, or psychosocial factors. To update the clinician on the evaluation and treatment of delayed ejaculation. The keywords "delayed ejaculation" and "retarded ejaculation" were utilized to search Pubmed for relevant publications. 319 results were generated from the search, and those publications judged relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of delayed ejaculation were included in the review. 110 articles were ultimately selected for inclusion in this review. The evaluation of this condition requires a focused history and physical, which includes a detailed sexual history, examination of the genitalia, and inquiry into the status of the partner. Laboratory tests are aimed at the detection of abnormalities in the blood count, glucose level, hormone levels, or kidney function. If a correctable etiology is discovered, treatment is directed towards the reversal of this condition. In some cases, the delayed ejaculation may be a lifelong problem. Also, in some cases the etiology of the delayed ejaculation may be irreversible, such as in the case of age-related sensation loss or diabetes-related neuropathy. In these instances treatment may require a combination of behavioral modification, sexual therapy, or perhaps pharmaceutical drugs. Participation of the partner in therapy may sometimes be necessary. Future investigations will continue to elucidate the complex biological and

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Austin A; Martin, Gregory D; Hurtt, James

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and voltage/frequency ride-through, among others. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental evaluation on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and its effect on abnormalmore » grid condition response. The evaluation examined the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. Testing results indicated a wide variance in the performance of GSF enabled inverters to various test cases.« less

  18. Abnormal placental invasion--a novel approach to treatment case report and review.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Ella; Singer-Jordan, Jonathan; Odeh, Marwan; Hirch, Yael; Maksimovsky, Olga; Shaider, Oleg; Yvry, Simon; Solt, Ido; Bornstein, Jacob

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of abnormal placental invasion has increased 10-fold in the past 50 years, reflecting the increased number of cesarean sections performed. Management relies on accurate early diagnosis with appropriate perioperative multidisciplinary planning to anticipate and avoid massive obstetric hemorrhage at delivery. Women at risk should plan to deliver at an institution with appropriate expertise and resources for managing this condition. We report a case of placenta increta management comprising preoperative placement of a pelvic artery balloon catheter, prophylactic balloon occlusion after delivery of the fetus, and embolization-assisted resection of the invaded uterine wall. We review incidence, methods of prenatal diagnosis, risk factors, and management of abnormally invasive placenta.

  19. Association of Dyslipidemia and Glucose Abnormalities with Antiretroviral Treatment in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children

    PubMed Central

    Paganella, MP; Cohen, RA; Harris, DR; Kuchenbecker, RS; Sperhacke, RD; Kato, SK; Silva, CLO; Sturzbecher, FT; Oliveira, RHS; Pavía Ruz, N; Hazra, R

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s) To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES). The incidence of dyslipidemia (total cholesterol>200mg/dL, HDL<35mg/dL, LDL≥130mg/dL, triglycerides>110mg/dL [age<10 years] or >150mg/dL [≥10 years]) and fasting glucose abnormalities (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance >2.5 [Tanner Stage 1] or >4.0 [Tanner Stage>1]; impaired glucose: 110 to <126mg/dL; diabetes: ≥126 mg/dL) was estimated. Proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk of abnormalities associated with ARV regimen, adjusted for covariates. Results There were 385 children eligible for analysis (mean age 6.6 years). Incident cholesterol abnormalities were reported in 18.1% of participants (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1–22.8%), HDL and LDL cholesterol abnormalities in 19.6% (15.1–24.7%) and 15.0% (11.3–19.5%), respectively, and triglyceride abnormalities in 44.2% (37.7–50.8%). In multivariable analysis, ARV regimen was only associated with triglyceride abnormalities; participants receiving a protease inhibitor-containing (PI) regimen were 3.6 times as likely to experience a triglyceride abnormality as those receiving no ARVs (95% CI: 1.3–10.5; p=0.0167). The cumulative incidence of insulin resistance was 3.8% (1.8–7.1%); there were no incident cases of diabetes and only two of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions Children receiving PI-containing regimens were at increased risk of developing triglyceride abnormalities. Continued monitoring of lipid levels in children receiving PI-containing regimens appears warranted. PMID:27570910

  20. What to do when she's bleeding through: the recognition, evaluation, and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Alyssa R; Gray, Susan H

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the current understanding and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents. The readers will learn a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of mild-to-severe uterine bleeding. In 2011, a new classification system was proposed to standardize the terminology used to describe AUB. This system is based on the pattern and etiology of bleeding and has been adopted by other organizations. The term dysfunctional uterine bleeding has been replaced by AUB. The negative effect of AUB on adolescents' quality of life is now well established. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is considered a first-line treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and should be considered, especially in those adolescents who may also need contraception. AUB is a common adolescent complaint that can vary from mild to life-threatening if not recognized and treated promptly. This article reviews the appropriate assessment and management of AUB and proposes a practical algorithm that can be used in an office or hospital setting.

  1. Exercising upper respiratory videoendoscopic evaluation of 100 nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance.

    PubMed

    Davidson, E J; Martin, B B; Boston, R C; Parente, E J

    2011-01-01

    Although well documented in racehorses, there is paucity in the literature regarding the prevalence of dynamic upper airway abnormalities in nonracing performance horses. To describe upper airway function of nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance via exercising upper airway videoendoscopy. Medical records of nonracing performance horses admitted for exercising evaluation with a chief complaint of abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance were reviewed. All horses had video recordings of resting and exercising upper airway endoscopy. Relationships between horse demographics, resting endoscopic findings, treadmill intensity and implementation of head and neck flexion during exercise with exercising endoscopic findings were examined. Dynamic upper airway obstructions were observed in 72% of examinations. Head and neck flexion was necessary to obtain a diagnosis in 21 horses. Pharyngeal wall collapse was the most prevalent upper airway abnormality, observed in 31% of the examinations. Complex abnormalities were noted in 27% of the examinations. Resting laryngeal dysfunction was significantly associated with dynamic arytenoid collapse and the odds of detecting intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) during exercise in horses with resting DDSP was only 7.7%. Exercising endoscopic observations were different from the resting observations in 54% of examinations. Dynamic upper airway obstructions were common in nonracing performance horses with respiratory noise and/or poor performance. Resting endoscopy was only helpful in determining exercising abnormalities with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. This study emphasises the importance of exercising endoscopic evaluation in nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance for accurate assessment of dynamic upper airway function. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of coronal shift as an indicator of neuroaxial abnormalities in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In previous studies, many indicator factors have been proposed to select patients who need an MRI screening of the spinal canal. In current study, the clinical and radiologic factors including coronal parameters of the curve were evaluated to find out which indicator is more important. Methods A prospective study included 143 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were treated between 2010 and 2013 at our spinal clinics. Only patients with normal or subtle neurologic findings were included. All patients were evaluated by a total spine MRI protocol for examination of neuroaxial abnormalities. Known indicators and also coronal shift were analysed in all patients with or without abnormal MRI. Results The incidence of neuroaxial abnormalities was 11.9% (17 of 143); only 5 patients (3.5%) were operated to treat their neuroaxial problem. The significant indicators of the abnormalities in our patients were: younger age at onset, asymmetric superficial abdominal reflex and, coronal shift more than 15 mm (P = 0.03). Some previously known indicators like atypical curves, male gender, double curves and absence of thoracic lordosis were not different between two groups of the patients. Conclusions A total spine MRI is recommended at presentation in patients with younger age, abnormal neurologic findings and severe coronal shift. PMID:25071863

  3. Metabolic Abnormalities Detected in Phase II Evaluation of Doxycycline in Dogs with Multicentric B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hume, Kelly R; Sylvester, Skylar R; Borlle, Lucia; Balkman, Cheryl E; McCleary-Wheeler, Angela L; Pulvino, Mary; Casulo, Carla; Zhao, Jiyong

    2018-01-01

    Doxycycline has antiproliferative effects in human lymphoma cells and in murine xenografts. We hypothesized that doxycycline would decrease canine lymphoma cell viability and prospectively evaluated its clinical tolerability in client-owned dogs with spontaneous, nodal, multicentric, substage a, B-cell lymphoma, not previously treated with chemotherapy. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 8 weeks (median and mean, 3 weeks). Dogs were treated with either 10 ( n  = 6) or 7.5 ( n  = 7) mg/kg by mouth twice daily. One dog had a stable disease for 6 weeks. No complete or partial tumor responses were observed. Five dogs developed grade 3 and/or 4 metabolic abnormalities suggestive of hepatopathy with elevations in bilirubin, ALT, ALP, and/or AST. To evaluate the absorption of oral doxycycline in our study population, serum concentrations in 10 treated dogs were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Serum levels were variable and ranged from 3.6 to 16.6 µg/ml (median, 7.6 µg/ml; mean, 8.8 µg/ml). To evaluate the effect of doxycycline on canine lymphoma cell viability in vitro , trypan blue exclusion assay was performed on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines (17-71 and CLBL) and primary B-cell lymphoma cells from the nodal tissue of four dogs. A doxycycline concentration of 6 µg/ml decreased canine lymphoma cell viability by 80%, compared to matched, untreated, control cells (mixed model analysis, p  < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed rank test, p  = 0.0313). Although the short-term administration of oral doxycycline is not associated with the remission of canine lymphoma, combination therapy may be worthwhile if future research determines that doxycycline can alter cell survival pathways in canine lymphoma cells. Due to the potential for metabolic abnormalities, close monitoring is recommended with the use of this drug in tumor-bearing dogs. Additional research is needed to assess the tolerability of chronic doxycycline

  4. Metabolic Abnormalities Detected in Phase II Evaluation of Doxycycline in Dogs with Multicentric B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Kelly R.; Sylvester, Skylar R.; Borlle, Lucia; Balkman, Cheryl E.; McCleary-Wheeler, Angela L.; Pulvino, Mary; Casulo, Carla; Zhao, Jiyong

    2018-01-01

    Doxycycline has antiproliferative effects in human lymphoma cells and in murine xenografts. We hypothesized that doxycycline would decrease canine lymphoma cell viability and prospectively evaluated its clinical tolerability in client-owned dogs with spontaneous, nodal, multicentric, substage a, B-cell lymphoma, not previously treated with chemotherapy. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 8 weeks (median and mean, 3 weeks). Dogs were treated with either 10 (n = 6) or 7.5 (n = 7) mg/kg by mouth twice daily. One dog had a stable disease for 6 weeks. No complete or partial tumor responses were observed. Five dogs developed grade 3 and/or 4 metabolic abnormalities suggestive of hepatopathy with elevations in bilirubin, ALT, ALP, and/or AST. To evaluate the absorption of oral doxycycline in our study population, serum concentrations in 10 treated dogs were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Serum levels were variable and ranged from 3.6 to 16.6 µg/ml (median, 7.6 µg/ml; mean, 8.8 µg/ml). To evaluate the effect of doxycycline on canine lymphoma cell viability in vitro, trypan blue exclusion assay was performed on canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines (17-71 and CLBL) and primary B-cell lymphoma cells from the nodal tissue of four dogs. A doxycycline concentration of 6 µg/ml decreased canine lymphoma cell viability by 80%, compared to matched, untreated, control cells (mixed model analysis, p < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed rank test, p = 0.0313). Although the short-term administration of oral doxycycline is not associated with the remission of canine lymphoma, combination therapy may be worthwhile if future research determines that doxycycline can alter cell survival pathways in canine lymphoma cells. Due to the potential for metabolic abnormalities, close monitoring is recommended with the use of this drug in tumor-bearing dogs. Additional research is needed to assess the tolerability of chronic doxycycline therapy

  5. Velopharyngeal Dysfunction Evaluation and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jeremy D; Muntz, Harlan R

    2016-11-01

    Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) can significantly impair a child's quality of life and may have lasting consequences if inadequately treated. This article reviews the work-up and management options for patients with VPD. An accurate perceptual speech analysis, nasometry, and nasal endoscopy are helpful to appropriately evaluate patients with VPD. Treatment options include nonsurgical management with speech therapy or a speech bulb and surgical approaches including double-opposing Z-plasty, sphincter pharyngoplasty, pharyngeal flap, or posterior wall augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Echocardiographic Abnormalities in HIV Positive Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Medications.

    PubMed

    Badie, Sina M; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz; Salehi, Mohammad R; Kochak, Hamid E; Alinaghi, Seyed A S; Manshadi, Seyed A D; Abad, Fatemeh J A; Badie, Banafsheh M

    2017-01-01

    Echocardiography is a reliable means for the diagnosis of functional and valvular diseases of the heart in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. The current study was to evaluate echocardiographic abnormalities in HIV positive patients under an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in Tehran, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted among 231 HIV-1 positive patients under ART. All HIV positive patients including 150 men (65%) and 81 women (35%) (mean age of 41 years) were assessed by trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) in Imam Khomeini Hospital, over the period from 2013 to 2014. The mean CD4 count was 408 cell/μl, and the average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 59.5%. There was an inverse correlation between age and LVEF level. Nevirapine users showed a significantly higher LVEF than non-users. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) was diagnosed in 5.6% along with the increase in age, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was reported in 19.5% of patients associated with age and smoking. Here, the mean systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) was only 20 mmHg and just four percent of the patients suffered pulmonary hypertension. Almost 44% had a heart valve disorder among which mitral valve prolapse is the most common problem. Pericardial effusion was not found in any patients. It seems that heart disorders with no suggestive symptoms in HIV positive patients, and mainly older adults who have traditional risk factors for heart diseases, should be seriously considered by health providers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Evaluation of esophageal function in patients with esophageal motor abnormalities using multichannel intraluminal impedance esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yu Kyung; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Park, Jae Myung; Oh, Jung Hwan; Paik, Chang Nyol; Lee, Joon Wook; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Chung, In-Sik

    2006-10-21

    To evaluate the functional aspect of esophageal motility in healthy subjects and in patients who were referred for esophageal function testing using multichannel intraluminal impedance-esophageal manometry (MII-EM), and to assess the clinical utility of MII-EM. From September 2003 to January 2004, we performed the MII-EM on healthy volunteers and all the patients who were referred for esophageal function testing. Each patient received 10 liquid and 10 viscous swallows. We analyzed the results, the impedance and the manometric findings. Some of the subjects had additional ambulatory 24-h pH study performed to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Among 89 studied subjects, the MII-EM findings showed normal esophageal motility in 50 (56.17%), ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) in 17 (19.10%), nutcracker esophagus in 7 (7.86%), achalasia in 4 (4.49%), and scleroderma esophagus in 11 (12.35%) cases. The completeness and the speed of bolus transit were in the order of nutcracker esophagus, normal manometry and IEM. Some of the swallows showing normal manometry and IEM had incomplete transit. In the achalasia and scleroderma esophagus, almost all the swallows had incomplete transit. The body amplitudes were higher for the swallows with complete transit than for the swallows with incomplete transit. There was not a significant difference in the manometric and impedance findings between the subjects with and without GERD. MII-EM is a useful tool in assessing the esophageal function in the patients having esophageal motility abnormality. The primary factors influencing the bolus transit are the amplitude of the esophageal body and normal peristalsis.

  8. Pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities during refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parli, Sara E; Ruf, Kathryn M; Magnuson, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome may occur after the reintroduction of carbohydrates in chronically malnourished or acutely hypermetabolic patients as a result of a rapid shift to glucose utilization as an energy source. Electrolyte abnormalities of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium occur, leading to complications of various organ systems, and may result in death. Patients should be screened for risk factors of malnutrition to prevent refeeding syndrome. For those at risk, nutrition should be initiated and slowly advanced toward the patient's goal over several days. Electrolyte disturbances should be aggressively corrected.

  9. [Research of gestrinone-related abnormal uterine bleeding and the intervention in the treatment: a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Duan, H; Wang, S; Hao, M; Chen, L; Tang, J; Wang, X; Peng, Y Z; Zhang, S C; Cao, L R; Yu, J J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the incidence, influencing factors and intervention of gestrinone-related abnormal uterine bleeding at different dosage of gestrinone in the clinical treatment. This was a multicenter, randomized, control study of 195 Chinese women with endometriosis or adenomyosis from June 2011 to November 2013. The subjects were randomized into three groups with oral administration of gestrinone, 2.5 mg dose at one time; twice a week group: 67 cases with oral administration twice a week last three months; double dose first month group: 67 cases with oral administration triple times a week at first month, then twice a week for two months; three times a week group: 61 cases with oral administration three times a week last three months. The improvement of the abnormal uterine bleeding, the changes in estrogen, liver function and blood coagulation were evaluated. At the same time, B-ultrasound examination evaluation were performed. (1) Three months later, the incidence of abnormal uterine bleeding in twice a week group was 30% (20/67), in double dose first month group and three times a week group were 7%(5/67) and 16% (10/61) respectively, there were significant difference between three groups (P<0.05). The incidence in double dose first month group was the most lower. (2) Univariate analysis showed that the dosage and ovarian size were the significant factors for abnormal uterine bleeding (OR=0.461,P= 0.003;OR=0.303,P=0.016); logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of abnormal uterine bleeding in double dose first month group was the lowest when compared with twice a week group and three times a week group, the risk in twice a week group was 5-fold higher than that in double dose first month group (OR=0.211,P=0.011). The incidence of abnormal uterine bleeding in participants with abnormal ovarian volume results from ovarian cyst or ovarian surgery was significantly lower than those with normal ovarian volume (OR=0.304,P=0.018). (3) After the treatment

  10. A cluster randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of patient navigation in improving quality of diagnostic care for patients with breast or colorectal cancer abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Calcano, Ercilia R; Meade, Cathy D; Rivera, Marlene; Fulp, William J; Roetzheim, Richard G

    2012-10-01

    This study examines efficacy of a lay patient navigation (PN) program aimed to reduce time between a cancer abnormality and definitive diagnosis among racially/ethnically diverse and medically underserved populations of Tampa Bay, Florida. Using a cluster randomized design, the study consisted of 11 clinics (six navigated; five control). Patients were navigated from time of a breast or colorectal abnormality to diagnostic resolution, and to completion of cancer treatment. Using a generalized mixed-effects model to assess intervention effects, we examined: (i) length of time between abnormality and definitive diagnosis, and (ii) receipt of definitive diagnosis within the 6-month minimum follow-up period. A total of 1,267 patients participated (588 navigated; 679 control). We also included data from an additional 309 chart abstractions (139 navigated arm; 170 control arm) that assessed outcomes at baseline. PN did not have a significant effect on time to diagnostic resolution in multivariable analysis that adjusted for race-ethnicity, language, insurance status, marital status, and cancer site (P = 0.16). Although more navigated patients achieved diagnostic resolution by 180 days, results were not statistically significant (74.5% navigated vs. 68.5% control, P = 0.07). PN did not impact the overall time to completion of diagnostic care or the number of patients who reached diagnostic resolution of a cancer abnormality. Further evaluation of PN programs applied to other patient populations across the cancer continuum is necessary to gain a better perspective on its effectiveness. PN programs may not impact timely resolution of an abnormality suspicious of breast or colorectal cancer. 2012 AACR

  11. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: a 6- and 12-month morphological and clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Palmara, Vittorio; Sturlese, Emanuele; Villari, Daniela; Giacobbe, Valentina; Retto, Annalisa; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is defined as any alteration in the pattern or volume of menstrual blood flow, and it is preferably treated using hysterectomy, endometrial destruction or the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena(®) ). Recently, it has been demonstrated that studies of Mirena(®) were generally small and consequently imprecise. Our study was aimed at assessing the effects of a slow-release levonorgestrel (20 μg/day) intrauterine device in fertile and postmenopausal women experiencing abnormal uterine bleeding that did not respond to traditional medical management. A total of 40 women, of whom 24 were of reproductive capacity and 16 were postmenopausal, were enrolled in the trial. Removal of the intrauterine device was required for only 2 of the 24 fertile women and for only 3 of the 16 postmenopausal women. After 6 and 12 months of treatment, the remaining women were clinically evaluated and underwent ultrasound and hysteroscopy using biopsy specimens as a control. The EuroQol Group EQ-5D questionnaire was used for evaluation of quality of life. The device showed good tolerability and efficacy. It resulted in a reduction in the endometrial mucosal thickness with a regression of bleeding and collateral effects, which were more evident after 12 months of treatment. A positive effect of the device on the woman's quality of life was demonstrated. The slow-release levonorgestrel intrauterine device may be a valid therapeutic tool for treating basic symptomatology and increasing quality of life in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Senna treatment in pregnant women and congenital abnormalities in their offspring--a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2009-07-01

    Previously, the possible teratogenic effect of frequently used laxative drug, senna has not been checked in case-control epidemiological study. Objective of the study was the comparison of cases with congenital abnormalities (CAs) and their matched controls without CAs in the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. Of 22,843 cases with CA, 506 (2.2%) had mothers with senna treatment, while of 38,151 control newborn infants without CA, 937 (2.5%) were born to mothers with senna treatment (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 1.0, 0.9-1.1), and of 834 malformed controls with Down syndrome, 26 (3.1%) had mothers with the use of senna (OR with 95% CI: 0.7, 0.5-1.1). The range of senna doses was between 10mg and 30 mg, but most pregnant women used 20mg daily. The mothers with senna treatment showed the characteristics of pregnant women with constipation (elder with larger proportion of primiparae). There was no higher risk for 23 different CA groups after the senna treatment during the second and/or third gestational month of 260 mothers, i.e. in the critical period of most major CAs, compared with their 500 matched controls. Gestational age at delivery was somewhat longer (0.2 week) and the rate of preterm birth was lower (6.6% vs. 9.2%) in newborn infants without CA born to mothers with senna treatment compared with babies born to mothers without senna treatment. In conclusion, senna treatment did not associate with a higher risk of CAs in the offspring of pregnant women with constipation.

  13. Abnormal regional homogeneity and its correlations with personality in first-episode, treatment-naive somatization disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Su, Qinji; Jiang, Muliang; Liu, Feng; Yao, Dapeng; Dai, Yi; Long, Liling; Yu, Miaoyu; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Changqing; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-08-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the default mode network (DMN) and their correlations with personality have been found in somatization disorder (SD). However, no study is conducted to identify regional neural activity and its correlations with personality in SD. In this study, regional homogeneity (ReHo) was applied to explore whether abnormal regional neural activity is present in patients with SD and its correlations with personality measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Twenty-five first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD and 28 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in the whole study. During the scanning, all subjects were instructed to lie still with their eyes closed and remain awake. A ReHo approach was employed to analyze the data. The SD group had a significantly increased ReHo in the left angular gyrus (AG) compared to healthy controls. The increased ReHo positively correlated to the neuroticism scores of EPQ (EPQ-N). No other correlations were detected between the ReHo values and other related factors, such as symptom severity and education level. Our results suggest that abnormal regional neural activity of the DMN may play a key role in SD with clinical implications and emphasize the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiological process of SD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors induces retinopathy of prematurity-like abnormal vascular growth in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ayuki; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Mori, Asami; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Kenji; Ishii, Kunio

    2016-02-01

    Retinal arterial tortuosity and venous dilation are hallmarks of plus disease, which is a severe form of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In this study, we examined whether short-term interruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signals leads to the formation of severe ROP-like abnormal retinal blood vessels. Neonatal rats were treated subcutaneously with the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, KRN633 (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or axitinib (10 mg/kg), on postnatal day (P) 7 and P8. The retinal vasculatures were examined on P9, P14, or P21 in retinal whole-mounts stained with an endothelial cell marker. Prevention of vascular growth and regression of some preformed capillaries were observed on P9 in retinas of rats treated with KRN633. However, on P14 and P21, density of capillaries, tortuosity index of arterioles, and diameter of veins significantly increased in KRN633-treated rats, compared to vehicle (0.5% methylcellulose)-treated animals. Similar observations were made with axitinib-treated rats. Expressions of VEGF and VEGFR-2 were enhanced on P14 in KRN633-treated rat retinas. The second round of KRN633 treatment on P11 and P12 completely blocked abnormal retinal vascular growth on P14, but thereafter induced ROP-like abnormal retinal blood vessels by P21. These results suggest that an interruption of normal retinal vascular development in neonatal rats as a result of short-term VEGFR inhibition causes severe ROP-like abnormal retinal vascular growth in a VEGF-dependent manner. Rats treated postnatally with VEGFR inhibitors could serve as an animal model for studying the mechanisms underlying the development of plus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A General Approach to the Evaluation of Ventilation-Perfusion Ratios in Normal and Abnormal Lungs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Peter D.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines methods for manipulating multiple gas data so as to gain the greatest amount of insight into the properties of ventilation-perfusion distributions. Refers to data corresponding to normal and abnormal lungs. Uses a two-dimensional framework with the respiratory gases of oxygen and carbon dioxide. (CS)

  16. White Matter Abnormalities Correlating with Memory and Depression in Heroin Users under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Chu-Chung; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Wang, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Lin, Ching-Po

    2012-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has elevated rates of co-morbid memory deficit and depression that are associated with higher relapse rates for substance abuse. White matter (WM) disruption in MMT patients have been reported but their impact on these co-morbidities is unknown. This study aimed to investigate changes in WM integrity of MMT subjects using diffusion tensor image (DTI), and their relationship with history of heroin and methadone use in treated opiate-dependent individuals. The association between WM integrity changes from direct group comparisons and the severity of memory deficit and depression was also investigated. Differences in WM integrity between 35 MMT patients and 23 healthy controls were evaluated using DTI with tract-based spatial statistical analysis. Differences in DTI indices correlated with diminished memory function, Beck Depression Inventory, duration of heroin use and MMT, and dose of heroin and methadone administration. Changes in WM integrity were found in several WM regions, including the temporal and frontal lobes, pons, cerebellum, and cingulum bundles. The duration of MMT was associated with declining DTI indices in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and para-hippocampus. MMT patients had more memory and emotional deficits than healthy subjects. Worse scores in both depression and memory functions were associated with altered WM integrity in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, para-hippocampus, and middle cerebellar peduncle in MMT. Patients on MMT also had significant WM differences in the reward circuit and in depression- and memory-associated regions. Correlations among decreased DTI indices, disease severity, and accumulation effects of methadone suggest that WM alterations may be involved in the psychopathology and pathophysiology of co-morbidities in MMT. PMID:22496768

  17. Power Doppler Ultrasound Evaluation of Peripheral Joint, Entheses, Tendon, and Bursa Abnormalities in Psoriatic Patients: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanjiao; Yang, Yujia; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Liyun; Zhang, Lingyan; Qiu, Li

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence rates of peripheral joint, enthesis, tendon, and bursa abnormalities by power Doppler (PD) ultrasonic examination in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriatic patients without clinical signs of arthritis (non-PsA psoriasis group), and healthy individuals, to detect subclinical PsA. A total of 253 healthy volunteers, 242 non-PsA psoriatic patients, and 86 patients with PsA were assessed by 2-dimensional and power Doppler (PD) ultrasound. Peripheral joint, enthesis, tendon, and bursa abnormalities were observed, characterizing abnormal PD. The affected patients and sites with abnormalities in various ages were compared among groups; PD signal grades for the abnormalities were also compared. In the PsA group, significantly higher percentages of sites showing joint effusion/synovitis, enthesitis, and tenosynovitis in all age groups, and markedly higher rates of sites with bursitis were found in young and middle age groups, compared with the non-PsA and control groups (all p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the non-PsA group showed significantly higher rates of joint effusion/synovitis and enthesitis sites, and elevated PD signal grades of synovitis, enthesitis, and tenosynovitis in comparison with the control group, both in young and middle age groups (all p < 0.01). Patients with PsA have high percentages and PD signal grades of peripheral joint, tendon, enthesis, and bursa involvement. Young and middle-aged non-PsA patients have high synovitis and enthesitis percentages, and elevated PD signal grades of synovitis, enthesitis, and tenosynovitis.

  18. Correction of the Abnormal Trafficking of Primary Myelofibrosis CD34+ Cells by Treatment with Chromatin Modifying Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wei; Ishii, Takefumi; Sozer, Selcuk; Wang, Jiapeng; Xu, Mingjiang; Hoffman, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The abnormal trafficking of CD34+ cells is a unique characteristic of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). We have further studied the behavior of PMF CD34+ cells by examining their homing to the marrow and the spleens of NOD/SCID mice. Following the infusion of PMF and normal G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) CD34+ cells into NOD/SCID mice, reduced numbers of PMF CD34+ cells and CFU-GM as compared to mPB were detected in the marrow of these mice while similar numbers of PMF and mPB CD34+ cells and CFU-GM homed to their spleens. The abnormal homing of PMF CD34+ cells was associated with reduced expression of CXCR4, but was not related to the presence of JAK2V617F. The sequential treatment of PMF CD34+ cell with the chromatin modifying agents, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azaD) and trichostatin A (TSA) but not treatment with small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 resulted in the generation of increased numbers of CD34+CXCR4+ cells which was accompanied by enhanced homing of PMF CD34+ cells to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice. Following 5azaD/TSA treatment JAK2V617F negative PMF hematopoietic progenitor cells preferentially homed to the marrow but not the spleens of recipient mice. Our data suggest that PMF CD34+ cells are characterized by a reduced ability to home to the marrow but not the spleens of NOD/SCID mice and that this homing defect can be corrected by sequential treatment with chromatin modifying agents. PMID:19752087

  19. Brain effects of chronic IBD in areas abnormal in autism and treatment by single neuropeptides secretin and oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Welch-Horan, Thomas B; Anwar, Muhammad; Anwar, Nargis; Ludwig, Robert J; Ruggiero, David A

    2005-01-01

    Recent research points to the connection between behavioral and gut disorders. Early adverse events are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In animal models, maternal deprivation and social isolation predispose to gastric erosion and brain pathology. This study examined (1) brain effects of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation in a rat model of acquired IBD and (2) whether such changes are resolved by individual secretin (S) or oxytocin (OT) peptide treatment. Neurological manifestations of IBD were mapped by c-fos gene expression in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced IBD vs controls (n = 11). IBD was characterized by moderate/severe infiltration of inflammatory cells 10 d after TNBS infusion. Age-matched pairs were processed for immunocytochemical detection of Fos, expressed when neurons are stimulated. S or OT (100 mg/250 mL saline) or equivolume saline was administered iv by Alzet pump for 20 d after disease onset. Degree of resolution of colitis-induced brain activation was assessed by c-fos expression, and mean numbers of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei for each group were compared using Independent Samples T-test. Chronic IBD activated periventricular gray, hypothalamic/visceral thalamic stress axes and cortical domains, and septal/preoptic/amygdala, brain areas abnormal in autism. Single peptide treatment with S or OT did not alter the effects of inflammation on the brain. Brain areas concomitantly activated by visceral inflammation are those often abnormal in autism, suggesting that IBD could be a model for testing treatments of autism. Other single and combined peptide treatments of IBD should be tested. The clinical implications for treating autism, IBD, and concomitant sickness behaviors with peptide therapy, with or without maternal nurturing as a natural equivalent, are presented.

  20. Comparison of two modalities: a novel technique, 'chromohysteroscopy', and blind endometrial sampling for the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Alay, Asli; Usta, Taner A; Ozay, Pinar; Karadugan, Ozgur; Ates, Ugur

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare classical blind endometrial tissue sampling with hysteroscopic biopsy sampling following methylene blue dyeing in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. A prospective case-control study was carried out in the Office Hysteroscopy Unit. Fifty-four patients with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated. Data of 38 patients were included in the statistical analysis. Three groups were compared by examining samples obtained through hysteroscopic biopsy before and after methylene blue dyeing, and classical blind endometrial tissue sampling. First, uterine cavity was evaluated with office hysteroscopy. Methylene blue dye was administered through the hysteroscopic inlet. Tissue samples were obtained from stained and non-stained areas. Blind endometrial sampling was performed in the same patients immediately after the hysteroscopy procedure. The results of hysteroscopic biopsy from methylene blue stained and non-stained areas and blind biopsy were compared. No statistically significant differences were determined in the comparison of biopsy samples obtained from methylene-blue stained, non-stained areas and blind biopsy (P > 0.05). We suggest that chromohysteroscopy is not superior to endometrial sampling in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding. Further studies with greater sample sizes should be performed to assess the validity of routine use of endometrial dyeing. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Why continued surveillance? Intermittent blood pressure and heart rate abnormality under treatment

    PubMed Central

    Katinas, G. S.; Cornélissen, G.; Otsuka, K.; Haus, E.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Several opinion leaders have monitored their blood pressure systematically a sufficient number of times a day for chronomic (time structural) analyses, from the time of encountering chronobiology until their death; they set an example for others who also may not wish to base treatment on single spotchecks in a health care office. Such self-measurements, while extremely helpful, were not readily feasible without a noteworthy interruption of activities during waking as well as of sleep. New, relatively unobtrusive instrumentation now makes monitoring possible and cost-effective and will save lives. Illustrative results and problems encountered in an as-one-goes self-survey by GSK, a physician-scientist, are presented herein. Both MESOR-hypertension and CHAT (circadian hyper-amplitude-tension) can be intermittent conditions even under treatment, and treatment is best adjusted based on monitoring, rather than “flying blind”. PMID:16275483

  2. Wait Times Experienced by Lung Cancer Patients in the BC Southern Interior to Obtain Oncologic Care: Exploration of the Intervals from First Abnormal Imaging to Oncologic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rezwan; Boyce, Andrew; Halperin, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is associated with rapid disease progression, which can significantly progress over a duration of four to eight weeks. This study examines the time interval lung cancer patients from the interior of British Columbia (BC) experience while undergoing diagnostic evaluation, biopsy, staging, and preparation for treatment. Methods: A chart review of lung cancer patients (n=231) referred to the BC Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 was performed. Time zero was defined as the date of the first abnormal chest imaging. Time intervals, expressed as median averages, to specialist consult, biopsy, oncologic referral, initial oncology consultation, and commencement of oncologic treatment were obtained. Results: The median time interval from first abnormal chest imaging to a specialist consultation was 18 days (interquartile range, IQR, 7-36). An additional nine days elapsed prior to biopsy in the form of bronchoscopy, CT-guided biopsy, or sputum cytology (median; IQR, 3-21); if lobectomy was required, 18 days elapsed (median; IQR, 9-28). Eight days were required for pathologic diagnosis and subsequent referral to the cancer centre (median; IQR, 3-16.5). Once referral was received, 10 days elapsed prior to consultation with either a medical or radiation oncologist (median, IQR 5-18). Finally, eight days was required for initiation of radiation and/or chemotherapy (median; IQR, 1-15). The median wait time from detection of lung cancer on imaging to oncologic treatment in the form of radiation and/or chemotherapy was 65.5 days (IQR, 41.5-104.3).  Interpretation: Patients in the BC Southern Interior experience considerable delays in accessing lung cancer care. During this time, the disease has the potential to significantly progress and it is possible that a subset of patients may lose their opportunity for curative intent treatment. PMID:26543688

  3. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  4. Resveratrol Treatment after Status Epilepticus Restrains Neurodegeneration and Abnormal Neurogenesis with Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Geetha A; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Xiaolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-12-07

    Antiepileptic drug therapy, though beneficial for restraining seizures, cannot thwart status epilepticus (SE) induced neurodegeneration or down-stream detrimental changes. We investigated the efficacy of resveratrol (RESV) for preventing SE-induced neurodegeneration, abnormal neurogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation in the hippocampus. We induced SE in young rats and treated with either vehicle or RESV, commencing an hour after SE induction and continuing every hour for three-hours on SE day and twice daily thereafter for 3 days. Seizures were terminated in both groups two-hours after SE with a diazepam injection. In contrast to the vehicle-treated group, the hippocampus of animals receiving RESV during and after SE presented no loss of glutamatergic neurons in hippocampal cell layers, diminished loss of inhibitory interneurons expressing parvalbumin, somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the dentate gyrus, reduced aberrant neurogenesis with preservation of reelin + interneurons, lowered concentration of oxidative stress byproduct malondialdehyde and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, normalized expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and diminished numbers of activated microglia. Thus, 4 days of RESV treatment after SE is efficacious for thwarting glutamatergic neuron degeneration, alleviating interneuron loss and abnormal neurogenesis, and suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. These results have implications for restraining SE-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

  5. Liposomal treatment of xerostomia, odor, and taste abnormalities in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Clemens; Hofauer, Benedikt; Scherer, Elias; Schukraft, Johannes; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Smell and taste disorders, sicca symptoms, can be detected in patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of local liposomal application in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancers. Ninety-eight patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. The groups were defined as: group 1 = only surgery; group 2 = surgery + adjuvant radiochemotherapy; and group 3 = primarily radiochemotherapy. All patients had finished cancer treatment and received liposomal sprays for the nose and mouth for 2 months (LipoNasal, LipoSaliva; Optima Pharmaceutical GmbH, Germany) and suffered from taste and smell disorders. We performed tests with "Sniffin' Sticks," "Taste Strips," and a xerostomia questionnaire before and after treatment. After application of liposomes, patients demonstrated a statistically significant increase in smell and taste, and reduced xerostomia. Our results demonstrate that using nonpharmaceutical liposomal sprays improve smell, taste, and symptoms of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1232-E1237, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Frequency, Prognosis and Surgical Treatment of Structural Abnormalities Seen with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Anne T.; Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions…

  7. Incidence of upper tract abnormalities in patients with neurovesical dysfunction secondary to multiple sclerosis: analysis of risk factors at initial urologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lemack, Gary E; Hawker, Kathleen; Frohman, Elliot

    2005-05-01

    To determine the incidence of upper tract abnormalities on renal ultrasonography in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) referred for urologic evaluation, as well as to identify any risk factors present on the basis of the historical information and urodynamic findings. Data were derived from all patients with MS referred to the neurourology clinic during a 4-year period. The database was specifically queried for patients found to have upper tract abnormalities on screening renal ultrasonography. Demographic parameters, as well as laboratory values (creatinine) and urodynamic results, were evaluated for risk factors associated with abnormal upper tract findings. Of the 113 patients referred and evaluated, 66 completed both urodynamic testing and renal ultrasonography. Eleven (16.7%) had abnormal ultrasound findings, with focal caliectasis the most common finding. No demographic parameter (age, sex, time since MS diagnosis, MS pattern) was associated with a greater likelihood of abnormal renal ultrasonography on univariate analysis. Neither serum creatinine nor any urodynamic finding (including the presence of dyssynergia or the threshold and amplitude of detrusor overactivity) was associated with abnormal renal ultrasound findings. No patients in our series had any indication of obstructive uropathy more severe than mild hydronephrosis. Of the 16.7% of patients with any abnormal findings, most were noted to have minor caliectasis, likely to be of little clinical significance. Although no factors identifying patients at risk of renal abnormalities at presentation were found, ongoing evaluation of patients with baseline findings will serve to identify those at risk of progression.

  8. Impact of upper airway abnormalities on the success and adherence to mandibular advancement device treatment in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prescinotto, Renato; Haddad, Fernanda Louise Martinho; Fukuchi, Ilana; Gregório, Luiz Carlos; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Tufik, Sérgio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2015-01-01

    The mandibular advancement device (MAD) is a option to treat patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). To assess the influence of upper airway abnormalities on the success of and adherence to MAD in patients with OSAS. Prospective study with 30 patients with mild to moderate OSAS and indications for MAD. The protocol included questionnaires addressing sleep and nasal complaints, polysomnography, and upper airway assessment. The analyzed parameters of patients who showed therapeutic success and failure and those who exhibited good and poor treatment adherence were compared. 28 patients completed the protocol; 64.3% responded successfully to treatment with MAD, and 60.7% exhibited good adherence to treatment. Factors associated with greater success rates were younger age (p=0.02), smaller cervical circumference (p=0.05), and lower AHI at baseline (p=0.05). There was a predominance of patients without nasal abnormalities among patients treated successfully compared to those with treatment failure (p=0.04), which was not observed in relation to adherence. Neither pharyngeal nor facial skeletal abnormalities were significantly associated with either therapeutic success or adherence. MAD treatment success was significantly lower among patients with nasal abnormalities; however, treatment adherence was not influenced by the presence of upper airway or facial skeletal abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of a dynamic telepathology system (Panoptiq™) in the morphologic assessment of peripheral blood film abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Goswami, R; Pi, D; Pal, J; Cheng, K; Hudoba De Badyn, M

    2015-06-01

    The study evaluated the performance of a dynamic imaging telepathology system (Panoptiq(™) ) as a diagnostic aid to the identification of peripheral blood film (PBF) abnormalities. The study assumed a laboratory personnel working in a clinical laboratory were operating the telepathology system to seek diagnostic opinion from an external consulting hematopathologist. The study examined 100 blood films, encompassing 23 different hematological diseases, reactive or normal cases. The study revealed that with real-time image transmission in live scanning mode of operation, the telepathology system was able to aid reviewers in achieving excellent accuracy, that is correct interpretation of morphologic abnormalities obtained in 83/84 of the hematologic diseases and 12/12 of the reactive/normal conditions (Sensitivity: 0.99; Specificity: 1.00). In contrast, when only saved static images in digital capture mode of operation were reviewed remotely, interpretative omissions occurred in 8/84 of the hematologic diseases and 0/12 of the reactive/normal conditions (Sensitivity: 0.91; Specificity: 1.00). It is hypothesized that real-time operator-reviewer communication during live scanning played an important role in the identification of key morphologic abnormalities for review. Our study showed the Panoptiq system can be adopted reliably as a dynamic telepathology tool in aiding community laboratories in the triage of PBF cases for external diagnostic consultation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Abnormal metabolism of triglycerides fractions in chronic pancreatitis and results after the operation treatment].

    PubMed

    Diakowska, Dorota; Knast, Witold; Diakowski, Witold; Grabowski, Krzysztof; Szelachowski, Piotr; Pelczar, Piotr

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how fats digestion processes were damaged due to chronic pancreatitis, and identify, whether lipid metabolism improved after surgical treatment the patients with chronic pancreatitis. Total lipids, triglycerides, diglycerides and free fatty acids levels in serum and stool were analysed, using chemical tests, thin-layer chromatography and electrophoresis of serum lipoproteins. The patients before the operations showed higher total lipids and triglycerides concentrations, and lower concentrations of diglycerides and free fatty acids in stool. These patients had high triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL-CH concentrations, and low-diglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL-CH concentrations in serum. These data were statistically significant. After the operations and substitution therapy it was observed normalization of the total lipids and lipids fractions levels in stool and in serum. Concentrations of LDL-CH and HDL-CH fractions were irregular. We conclude, that these lipids parameters could be used in diagnosing and monitoring the results of chronic pancreatitis surgical treatment.

  12. [Analysis from the French DRG-based information system (PMSI) of conservative surgical treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding in 2008-2010].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Villefranque, V; Panel, P

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the conservative surgical treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding from the Medicalized Information System Program (PMSI). The diagnosis codes were selected from 10th version of the international classification disease. A transversal and longitudinal descriptive analysis was performed from hospital stays, patient's characteristics, medical procedures between 2008-2010. Nineteen thousand six hundred and seventy-nine patients were admitted in hospital (public or private) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial ablation increased by 16,7%, 10.2% for first generation technique (G1) and 63.5% for second generation techniques (G2). G2 were used in 15% of indications. The median age was respectively 45.2±6.4 years old versus 45.8±4.9 years old for G2. The median length of hospital stay was 1.6 ±1with 69% of patients in ambulatory care. The likelihood to have a hysterectomy in the 3 years follow-up was higher after G1 than G2 treatments (P=0.0034) for the patients above 40 years old. In longitudinal study, defined only by endometrial hyperplasia, 11,532 patients were included and only 8.2% had been treated by G2. In spite of the international guidelines since 2008, 85% of patients treated with first generation surgical technique. The failure rate defined by a re-ablation or a hysterectomy is higher after G1. This result must be discussed in relationship with cost effective aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Agmatine co-treatment attenuates allodynia and structural abnormalities in cisplatin-induced neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Donertas, Basak; Cengelli Unel, Cigdem; Aydin, Sule; Ulupinar, Emel; Ozatik, Orhan; Kaygisiz, Bilgin; Yildirim, Engin; Erol, Kevser

    2018-06-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of various cancers. Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known side effect of cisplatin and has potential to result in limiting and/or reducing the dose, decreasing the quality of life. Thus, effective treatments are needed. Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to exert antiallodynic effects in various animal studies. The first aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of agmatine on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Primary cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) which are the primary target of drug injury were prepared. DRG cells were incubated with cisplatin (100, 200, 500 μm). Then, agmatine (10, 100, 500 μm) was administered with the submaximal concentration of cisplatin. Cisplatin caused concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, and agmatine did not alter this effect. The second aim was to investigate the effects of agmatine on cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats and the influence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, in this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats received intraperitoneal saline (control), cisplatin (3 mg/kg), cisplatin+agmatine (100 mg/kg), or cisplatin+agmatine+L-NAME (10 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. The mechanical allodynia, hot plate, and tail clip tests were performed, and DRG cells and sciatic nerves were analyzed. Agmatine and agmatine+L-NAME combination attenuated CIS-induced mechanical allodynia and degeneration in DRG cells and sciatic nerves. However, L-NAME did not potentiate the antiallodynic or neuroprotective effect of agmatine. These findings indicate that agmatine co-administration ameliorates cisplatin-induced neuropathy and may be a therapeutic alternative. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Primary encopresis: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Cathartic and behavioral treatment procedures for eliminating diurnal and nocturnal primary encopresis were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across four children. The dependent and independent variables measured were appropriate bowel movements, soiling accidents, independent toiletings, and cathartic use. Over 177 reliability observations (home visits) were conducted. For two of the children, treatment with cathartics and child-time remedied their soiling accidents and increased their independent toiletings in 8 to 11 weeks. While the cathartics and child-time increased the rate of appropriate bowel movements, they did not eliminate the soiling accidents with the other two children. Independent toiletings for these two children were achieved after 32 to 39 weeks of treatment when punishment procedures (positive practice, time-out, and hourly toilet sits) were incorporated and the suppositories were faded systematically. PMID:3733585

  15. Diabetic retinopathy: retina-specific methods for maintenance of diabetic rodents and evaluation of vascular histopathology and molecular abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Alexander; Liu, Haitao; Lee, Chieh Allen; Du, Yunpeng; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment, which continues to increase in prevalence as more and more people develop diabetes. Despite the importance of vision, the retina is one of the smallest tissues in the body, and specialized techniques to study the retinopathy have been developed. This chapter will summarize several methods used to (i) induce diabetes, (ii) maintain the diabetic animals throughout the months required for the development of typical vascular histopathology, (iii) evaluate vascular histopathology of diabetic retinopathy, and (iv) quantitate abnormalities implicated in the development of the retinopathy. PMID:26331759

  16. Evaluation and treatment of enuresis.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan

    2008-08-15

    Enuresis is defined as repeated, spontaneous voiding of urine during sleep in a child five years or older. It affects 5 to 7 million children in the United States. Primary nocturnal enuresis is caused by a disparity between bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production and failure of the child to awaken in response to a full bladder. Less commonly, enuresis is secondary to a medical, psychological, or behavioral problem. A diagnosis usually can be made with a history focusing on enuresis and a physical examination followed by urinalysis. Imaging and urodynamic studies generally are not needed unless specifically indicated (e.g., to exclude suspected neurologic or urologic disease). Primary nocturnal enuresis almost always resolves spontaneously over time. Treatment should be delayed until the child is able and willing to adhere to the treatment program; medications are rarely indicated in children younger than seven years. If the condition is not distressing to the child, treatment is not needed. However, parents should be reassured about their child's physical and emotional health and counseled about eliminating guilt, shame, and punishment. Enuresis alarms are effective in children with primary nocturnal enuresis and should be considered for older, motivated children from cooperative families when behavioral measures are unsuccessful. Desmopressin is most effective in children with nocturnal polyuria and normal bladder capacity. Patients respond to desmopressin more quickly than to alarm systems. Combined treatment is effective for resistant cases.

  17. Abnormal neural activity of brain regions in treatment-resistant and treatment-sensitive major depressive disorder: a resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-bin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jin-dong; Gao, Keming; Xue, Zhi-min; Xu, Xi-jia; Wu, Ren-rong; Tan, Chang-lian; Sun, Xue-li; Liu, Zhe-ning; Chen, Hua-fu; Zhao, Jing-ping

    2012-10-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and those with treatment-sensitive depression (TSD) responded to antidepressants differently. Previous studies have commonly shown that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions. In the present study, we used a coherence-based ReHo (Cohe-ReHo) approach to test the hypothesis that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions. Twenty-three patients with TRD, 22 with TSD, and 19 healthy subjects (HS) matched with gender, age, and education level participated in the study. ANOVA analysis revealed widespread differences in Cohe-ReHo values among the three groups in different brain regions which included bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum, left inferior temporal gyrus, left occipital cortex, and both sides of fusiform gyrus. Compared to HS, lower Cohe-ReHo values were observed in TRD group in bilateral superior frontal gyrus and left cerebellum; in contrast, in TSD group, lower Cohe-ReHo values were mainly found in bilateral superior frontal gyrus. Compared to TSD group, TRD group had lower Cohe-ReHo in bilateral cerebellum and higher Cohe-ReHo in left fusiform gyrus. There was a negative correlation between Cohe-ReHo values of the left fusiform gyrus and illness duration in the pooled patients (r = 0.480, p = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of cerebellar Cohe-ReHo values differentiating TRD from TSD were 83% and 86%, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, both TRD and TSD patients shared the majority of brain regions with abnormal neural activity. However, the lower Cohe-ReHo values in the cerebellum might be as a marker to differentiate TRD from TSD with high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic abnormalities in leukemia secondary to treatment in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Salas, Consuelo; Pérez-Vera, Patricia; Frías, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Hodgkin's disease has been treated mainly with two chemotherapy schedules, MOPP (nitrogen mustard, Oncovin, procarbazine and prednisone), which includes alkylating agents, and ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine), which includes topoisomerase II inhibitors, either with or without radiation therapy. Due to the types of agents used, patients with Hodgkin's disease often develop secondary leukemias. The alkylating agents included in the MOPP scheme were the first drugs associated with the development of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML); both entities are the result of the clonal selection of cells with accumulated genomic lesions induced by antineoplastic therapy. In patients who developed t-MDS and t-AML, eight alternative routes with specific cytogenetic and molecular changes have been identified, and the routes are related to the type of therapy, alkylating agents or DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors. At the cytogenetic level, patients treated with alkylating agents show deletion 5q/monosomy 5 and deletion 7q/monosomy 7; in contrast, those who were treated with topoisomerase II inhibitors show 11q23 translocations involving the MLL gene. At the molecular level, there are two types of mutations: Class I, which alter the RAS-BRAF signal transduction pathways and increase cell proliferation; Class II, which disrupt genes that encode transcription factors and NPM1 that are involved in cell differentiation, and the inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor gene. Knowledge of the genetic alterations in these conditions is important for the classification, treatment and prognosis of patients as well as essential for increasing the knowledge of the biology of these diseases, which leads to identifying potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Short-Term Treatment with Bisphenol-A Leads to Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit. In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22470480

  20. Evaluation of a Heat Vulnerability Index on Abnormally Hot Days: An Environmental Public Health Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Jennifer K.; Alfasso, Ruth; English, Paul B.; King, Galatea C.; Lincoln, Rebecca A.; Margolis, Helene G.; Rubado, Dan J.; Sabato, Joseph E.; West, Nancy L.; Woods, Brian; Navarro, Kathleen M.; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extreme hot weather conditions have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but risks are not evenly distributed throughout the population. Previously, a heat vulnerability index (HVI) was created to geographically locate populations with increased vulnerability to heat in metropolitan areas throughout the United States. Objectives: We sought to determine whether areas with higher heat vulnerability, as characterized by the HVI, experienced higher rates of morbidity and mortality on abnormally hot days. Methods: We used Poisson regression to model the interaction of HVI and deviant days (days whose deviation of maximum temperature from the 30-year normal maximum temperature is at or above the 95th percentile) on hospitalization and mortality counts in five states participating in the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for the years 2000 through 2007. Results: The HVI was associated with higher hospitalization and mortality rates in all states on both normal days and deviant days. However, associations were significantly stronger (interaction p-value < 0.05) on deviant days for heat-related illness, acute renal failure, electrolyte imbalance, and nephritis in California, heat-related illness in Washington, all-cause mortality in New Mexico, and respiratory hospitalizations in Massachusetts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the HVI may be a marker of health vulnerability in general, although it may indicate greater vulnerability to heat in some cases. PMID:22538066

  1. Chronic Treatment with Mood-Stabilizers Attenuates Abnormal Hyperlocomotion of GluA1-Subunit Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Milica; Vekovischeva, Olga Y.; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal excitatory glutamate neurotransmission and plasticity have been implicated in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Gria1−/− mice lacking GluA1 subunit (encoded by Gria1 gene) of AMPA-type glutamate receptor show robust novelty-induced hyperactivity, social deficits and heightened approach features, suggesting that they could be used to test for anti-manic activity of drugs. Here, we tested the efficacy of chronic treatment with established anti-manic drugs on behavioural properties of the Gria1−/− mice. The mice received standard mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and novel ones (topiramate and lamotrigine, used more as anticonvulsants) as supplements in rodent chow for at least 4 weeks. All drugs attenuated novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the Gria1−/− mice, especially by promoting the habituation, while none of them attenuated 2-mg/kg amphetamine-induced hyperactivity as compared to control diet. Treatment with lithium and valproate reversed the elevated exploratory activity of Gria1−/− mice. Valproate treatment also reduced struggling behaviour in tail suspension test and restored reciprocally-initiated social contacts of Gria1−/− mice to the level shown by the wild-type Gria1+/+ mice. Gria1−/− mice consumed slightly more sucrose during intermittent sucrose exposure than the wild-types, but ran similar distances on running wheels. These behaviours were not consistently affected by lithium and valproate in the Gria1−/− mice. The efficacy of various anti-manic drug treatments on novelty-induced hyperactivity suggests that the Gria1−/− mouse line can be utilized in screening for new therapeutics. PMID:24932798

  2. Comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and fetopathology in the evaluation of fetal posterior fossa non-cystic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tilea, B; Delezoide, A L; Khung-Savatovski, S; Guimiot, F; Vuillard, E; Oury, J F; Garel, C

    2007-06-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fetopathological findings in the evaluation of non-cystic fetal posterior fossa anomalies and to describe associated abnormalities. This was a prospective study from 2000 to 2005 of fetuses identified on ultrasound as having sonographic suspicion of posterior fossa malformation. All underwent a thorough MRI examination of the fetal brain, after which we classified each fetus as presenting one of the following pathologies: vermian hypoplasia or agenesis, cerebellar and/or brain stem hypoplasia, destructive or dysplastic lesions. All of the pregnancies were then terminated, after which the whole fetus underwent fetopathological examination. We compared the findings from MRI and fetopathological examinations and recorded the associated cerebral and extracerebral abnormalities. Twenty-five fetuses were included. MRI was performed at a mean gestational age of 31 weeks, and fetopathological examination at 33 weeks. In 12 cases we observed vermian hypoplasia, six had partial vermian agenesis, 11 had cerebellar hemisphere hypoplasia, seven had brain stem hypoplasia, four had destructive lesions and six had dysplastic lesions. The two techniques were similar in their performance with respect to the detection of vermian agenesis, brain stem hypoplasia and destructive lesions. There were four false-positive results of MRI for vermian hypoplasia and a poor agreement regarding cerebellar hemisphere hypoplasia. No dysplastic lesions were diagnosed by MRI. None of the posterior fossa malformations was isolated and many cerebral and extracerebral abnormalities were found. A systematic analysis of the posterior fossa in fetal MRI makes it possible to diagnose accurately most posterior fossa malformations. These malformations never occurred in isolation in our study.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluation of intrauterine adhesion treatment by laser hysteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata

    1996-03-01

    Hysteroscopy, which is a kind of endoscopy, makes it possible to evaluate macroscopically the cervical canal, uterine cavity, and the uterine opening of the oviducts. Laser hysteroscopy is used for removing septa and intrauterine adhesions, polyps, small submucosus myomas, and for endometrium ablation in abnormal metrorrhagias. The paper aims at the initial evaluation of laser hysteroscopy in removing intrauterine adhesions in the cases of 41 infertile women. Among all infertile patients 16 women (39%) conceived. Among others 1 woman (2.5%) did not want to conceive and 19 had other causes of infertility. Thirteen (93%) out of 14 patients with hypomenorrhea before surgery reported improvement of the menstruation cycle after the treatment. Five patients (12%) had adhesions for the second time. The patients had the second laser hysteroscopy. The control diagnostic hysteroscopy showed no adhesions in those cases.

  5. Abnormalities of P300 before and after antidepressant treatment in depression: an ERP-sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling

    2018-02-07

    Despite a wide range of reports on depression-induced P300 changes, it is still debatable whether P300 can return to a pattern characteristic of healthy individuals following antidepressant treatment. Thus, the present study aims to compare P300 and its underlying neural activation in depressed patients before and after antidepressant treatment to explore the brain regions related to pathogenesis and to evaluate the prognosis after treatment. P300 was evoked by the oddball auditory paradigm and collected from 14 sex-matched, age-matched, and education level-matched patients and controls. P300 was also collected in the same patients after treatment. sLORETA was used to explore the source activation of P300 components. Depressed patients before and after antidepressant treatment tended to show lower P300 amplitudes compared with healthy controls, and their P300 amplitudes of F3 electrodes were correlated negatively to their scores on the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. P300 amplitudes of P4 electrodes were correlated negatively with their scores on the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. P300 source activation of depressed patients before antidepressant treatment was reduced in the left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus compared with healthy controls and depressed patients after treatment. No difference was found between healthy controls and depressed patients after treatment. The left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus might be therapeutic targets of depression.

  6. Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides technical recommendations that both systems and primacy agencies can use to comply with LCR CCT requirements and effective evaluation and designation of optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT).

  7. Evaluation of Guidelines for Subgrade Treatments

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-02-01

    ODOT has recently developed guidelines for subgrade treatments to be used during plan : development and construction. This study evaluates these guidelines by comparing them with : existing guidelines developed elsewhere and validating them through c...

  8. EVALUATING TREATMENT PLANTS FOR PARTICULATE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article is intended to serve as a guide for those who evaluate water treatment plants with the objective of lowering the turbidity of finished water produced from filtration plants in which chemical coagulation is part of the treatment process. Ineffective removal of turbidit...

  9. Long-term treatment with tenofovir in Asian-American chronic hepatitis B patients is associated with abnormal renal phosphate handling.

    PubMed

    Tien, Connie; Xu, Jason J; Chan, Linda S; Chang, Mimi; Lim, Carolina; Lee, Sue; Huh, Brian; Shinada, Shuntaro; Bae, Ho S; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Increased risk of defective urinary phosphate reabsorption and osteoporosis has been reported in HIV and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Goals of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of renal phosphate wasting and abnormal bone mineral density in CHB patients taking TDF compared to CHB patients treated with entecavir (ETV) and untreated CHB patients. This is a cross-sectional study of 146 consecutive Asian-American CHB patients who were treatment naïve (n = 60) or treated with either TDF (n = 42) or ETV (n = 44). Proximal tubular handling of phosphate was assessed by the maximal rate of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TmPO4) divided by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (TmPO4/GFR). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. TmPO4/GFR was similar among CHB patients treated with TDF compared to untreated patients and patients taking ETV. However, among patients treated with ≥18 months of TDF or ETV, prevalence of abnormal TmPO4/GFR was higher among patients treated with TDF compared to ETV (48.5 % (16/33) vs. 12.5 % (3/24), p = 0.005). Overall prevalence of osteoporosis in this cohort of CHB patients was 14 %, with no significant difference between the three groups. Renal phosphate handling did not correlate with osteoporosis. Chronic hepatitis B patients treated with ≥18 months of TDF experienced an increased risk of proximal tubular dysfunction. TDF did not increase the risk of osteoporosis. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Costs and outcomes evaluation of patient navigation after abnormal cancer screening: evidence from the Patient Navigation Research Program.

    PubMed

    Bensink, Mark E; Ramsey, Scott D; Battaglia, Tracy; Fiscella, Kevin; Hurd, Thelma C; McKoy, June M; Patierno, Steven R; Raich, Peter C; Seiber, Eric E; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Whitley, Elizabeth; Paskett, Electra D; Mandelblatt, S

    2014-02-15

    Navigators can facilitate timely access to cancer services, but to the authors' knowledge there are little data available regarding their economic impact. The authors conducted a cost-consequence analysis of navigation versus usual care among 10,521 individuals with abnormal breast, cervical, colorectal, or prostate cancer screening results who enrolled in the Patient Navigation Research Program study from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2010. Navigation costs included diagnostic evaluation, patient and staff time, materials, and overhead. Consequences or outcomes were time to diagnostic resolution and probability of resolution. Differences in costs and outcomes were evaluated using multilevel, mixed-effects regression modeling adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, language, marital status, insurance status, cancer, and site clustering. The majority of individuals were members of a minority (70.7%) and uninsured or publically insured (72.7%). Diagnostic resolution was higher for navigation versus usual care at 180 days (56.2% vs 53.8%; P = .008) and 270 days (70.0% vs 68.2%; P < .001). Although there were no differences in the average number of days to resolution between the 2 groups (110 days vs 109 days; P = .63), the probability of ever having diagnostic resolution was higher for the navigation group versus the usual-care group (84.5% vs 79.6%; P < .001). The added cost of navigation versus usual care was $275 per patient (95% confidence interval, $260-$290; P < .001). There was no significant difference in stage distribution among the 12.4% of patients in the navigation group vs 11% of the usual-care patients diagnosed with cancer. Navigation adds costs and modestly increases the probability of diagnostic resolution among patients with abnormal screening test results. Navigation is only likely to be cost-effective if improved resolution translates into an earlier cancer stage at the time of diagnosis. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  12. Costs and Outcomes Evaluation of Patient Navigation Following Abnormal Cancer Screening: Evidence from the Patient Navigation Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Bensink, Mark E.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Battaglia, Tracy; Fiscella, Kevin; Hurd, Thelma C.; McKoy, June M.; Patierno, Steven R.; Raich, Peter C.; Seiber, Eric E.; Mears, Victoria Warren; Whitley, Elizabeth; Paskett, Electra D.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Navigators can facilitate timely access to cancer services but there are little data on their economic impact. Methods We conduct a cost-consequence analysis of navigation vs. usual care among 10,521 individuals with abnormal breast, cervix, colorectal or prostate cancer screening results who enrolled in the Patient Navigation Research Program study from January 1 2006 to March 31 2010. Navigation costs included diagnostic evaluation, patient and staff time, materials, and overhead. Consequences or outcomes were time to diagnostic resolution and probability of resolution. Differences in costs and outcomes were evaluated using multi-level, mixed-effects regression adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, language, marital status, insurance, cancer, and site clustering. Results Most individuals were minority (70.7%) and un- or publically-insured (72.7%). Diagnostic resolution was higher for navigation vs. usual care at 180 (56.2% vs. 53.8%, p=0.008) and 270 days: 70.0% vs. 68.2%, p<0.001). While there were no differences in average days to resolution (110 vs. 109 days, p=.63), the probability of ever having diagnostic resolution was higher for navigation vs. usual care (84.5% vs. 79.6%, p <0.001). The added cost of navigation vs. usual care was $275 per patient (95% CI $260 – $290, p <0.001). There was no significant difference in stage distribution among the 12.4% of navigated vs. 11% of usual care patients diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions Navigation adds costs and modestly increases the probability of diagnostic resolution among patients with abnormal screening tests. Navigation is only likely to be cost-effective if improved resolution translates into earlier cancer stage at diagnosis. PMID:24166217

  13. TREATMENT PLANT EVALUATION DURING A WATERBORNE OUTBREAK

    EPA Science Inventory

    If a waterborne disease outbreak is the result of problems at a treatment plant, a thorough and careful evaluation of both process equipment and operating procedures would be needed. his evaluation should be done in a series of actions. hese actions are explained in this paper. h...

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness Of Postfire Rehabilitation Treatments

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Jan L. Beyers; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Spending on postfire emergency watershed rehabilitation has increased during the past decade. A west-wide evaluation of USDA Forest Service burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatment effectiveness was undertaken as a joint project by USDA Forest Service Research and National Forest System staffs. This evaluation covers 470 fires and 321 BAER projects, from...

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Jan L. Beyers; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Spending on postfire emergency watershed rehabilitation has increased during the past decade. A west-wide evaluation of USDA Forest Service burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatment effectiveness was undertaken as a joint project by USDA Forest Service Research and National Forest System staffs. This evaluation covers 470 fires and 321 BAER projects, from...

  16. A Next-Generation Sequencing Strategy for Evaluating the Most Common Genetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Cristina; Jara-Acevedo, María; Corchete, Luis A; Castillo, David; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Sarasquete, María E; Puig, Noemí; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Prieto-Conde, María I; García-Álvarez, María; Chillón, María C; Balanzategui, Ana; Alcoceba, Miguel; Oriol, Albert; Rosiñol, Laura; Palomera, Luis; Teruel, Ana I; Lahuerta, Juan J; Bladé, Joan; Mateos, María V; Orfão, Alberto; San Miguel, Jesús F; González, Marcos; Gutiérrez, Norma C; García-Sanz, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Identification and characterization of genetic alterations are essential for diagnosis of multiple myeloma and may guide therapeutic decisions. Currently, genomic analysis of myeloma to cover the diverse range of alterations with prognostic impact requires fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and sequencing techniques, which are costly and labor intensive and require large numbers of plasma cells. To overcome these limitations, we designed a targeted-capture next-generation sequencing approach for one-step identification of IGH translocations, V(D)J clonal rearrangements, the IgH isotype, and somatic mutations to rapidly identify risk groups and specific targetable molecular lesions. Forty-eight newly diagnosed myeloma patients were tested with the panel, which included IGH and six genes that are recurrently mutated in myeloma: NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, TP53, MYC, and BRAF. We identified 14 of 17 IGH translocations previously detected by FISH and three confirmed translocations not detected by FISH, with the additional advantage of breakpoint identification, which can be used as a target for evaluating minimal residual disease. IgH subclass and V(D)J rearrangements were identified in 77% and 65% of patients, respectively. Mutation analysis revealed the presence of missense protein-coding alterations in at least one of the evaluating genes in 16 of 48 patients (33%). This method may represent a time- and cost-effective diagnostic method for the molecular characterization of multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal Order of Successive Office Hysteroscopy and Endometrial Biopsy for the Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Papri; Mikhail, Emad; Schickler, Robyn; Plosker, Shayne; Imudia, Anthony N

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the optimal order of office hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy when performed successively for evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. Patients undergoing successive office hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were included in a single-blind, prospective, randomized trial. The primary outcome was to evaluate the effect of order of procedures on patients' pain score. Prespecified secondary outcomes include procedure duration, hysteroscopic visualization of the uterine cavity, endometrial sample adequacy, and number of attempts at biopsy. Pain scores were assessed using a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 and endometrial sample adequacy was determined from the histopathology report. Hysteroscopy images were recorded. Sample size of 34 per group (n=68) was determined to be adequate to detect a difference of 20% in visual analog scale score between hysteroscopy first (group A) and biopsy first (group B) at α of 0.05 and 80% power. Between October 2015 and January 2017, 78 women were randomized to group A (n=40) and group B (n=38). There was no difference in global pain perception [7 (0-10) vs 7 (0-10); P=.57, 95% CI 5.8-7.1]. Procedure duration [3 (1-9) vs 3 (2-10), P=.32, 95% CI 3.3-4.1] and endometrial sample adequacy (78.9% vs 75.7%, P=.74) were similar in both groups. Group A patients had better endometrial visualization (P<.001) than group B based on the hysteroscopic images: excellent (50% vs 7.9%), good (20% vs 34.2%), and fair (22.5% vs 44.7%); group B participants required fewer endometrial biopsy attempts at obtaining adequate tissue sample (two vs one; P<.001, 1.6-1.9). Patients having successive office hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy for evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding, the global pain perception, and time required are independent of the order in which procedures are performed. Performing hysteroscopy first ensures better image, whereas biopsy first yields adequate tissue sample with fewer attempts. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02472184.

  19. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  20. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  1. The effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment in an abnormal uterine bleeding related pain and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) - A case report.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Kanu; Goyal, Manu; Narkeesh, Kanimozhi; John Samuel, Asir; Sharma, Sorabh; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Arumugam, Narkeesh

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is characterized by painful and/or excessive menorrhea, chronic pelvic pain due to the endometriosis (Em). Osteopathic treatment is commonly used in the gynecological dysfunctions. The aim of the present case study was to explore the effect of osteopathic treatment (OT) for a woman with abnormal uterine bleeding related pain and quality of life (QoL). We reported a case of 29 year old female who presented with chief complaints of increased flow during periods, lower abdominal pain, leukorrhoea, lower back pain and with occasional constipation for the last 3 years. Patient is a mother of 6 years old male child born with normal delivery. On diagnostic ultrasonography the uterus was found bulky with insignificant endometriosis and no other abnormality was detected. She did not have any relevant past medical and surgical history. The pre and post osteopathic treatment measurements were measured using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the health related quality of life (HR-QoL) questionnaire called short form Endometriosis Health Profile Questionnaire (EHP) - 5. In the present case the pain due to the endometriosis was treated with the osteopathic treatment consists of all the major diaphragms' release (release of pelvic diaphragm, abdominal diaphragm, thoracic outlet release and hyoid diaphragm) during the first session and in the second session gastro-esophageal (GE) junction release, sigmoid colon release, cranial therapy to the occiput, sacral release and dural tube rocking. Following that improvement of pain from VAS 8.3/10 to 3.9/10 and QoL improvement from EHP-5, 72/100 to 26/100 was noted. Osteopathic manipulative approach (OMA) in the patient with Em might improve the abnormal uterine bleeding related pain and health related quality of life (HR-QoL). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Michelle L

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common medical condition with several causes. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics published guidelines in 2011 to develop universally accepted nomenclature and a classification system. In addition, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recently updated recommendations on evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding and indications for endometrial biopsies. This article reviews both medical and surgical treatments, including meta-analysis reviews of the most effective treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Recurrent pregnancy loss--evaluation and treatment].

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Asher; Gete, Shaked; Mazor, Moshe; Gete, Maru

    2011-11-01

    Women with recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss (RPLJ are in a complex scenario, due to the work-up evaLuation that is negative in about 50% of the cases, and the stress associated with the outcome of the next pregnancy. Therefore, these patients experience psychoLogicaL conditions including anxiety and depression. The basic examination includes: parental karyotype, anatomical evaluation of the uterus, hormonal profile (including TSH, prolactin level and glucose) and APLA evaLuation. In recent years, several changes had been reported in the recurrent pregnancy loss definition, the preferred mode of the uterine cavity evaluation and the need for anti-thrombotic treatment in idiopathic RPL. In addition, new concepts in the pathophysiology and the etiology of RPL have been described as well as the extent of the evaluation. It is important to emphasize that those women with RPL in general and those with idiopathic RPL specifically, will experience about a 75% live birth rate in the next pregnancy when they are in a specialized RPL clinic. In this review, we will discuss these issues according to the recent studies incLuding the evaluation and treatment that are implicated in the RPL clinic in the Soroka University Medical Center.

  4. Abnormal vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria is significantly higher in pregnancy conceived through infertility treatment compared to natural pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Y; Sung, Ji-Hee; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    To compare abnormal vaginal colonization between natural pregnancy and pregnancy by infertility treatment in high-risk parturient women and to examine the association between abnormal vaginal colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). The clinical characteristics, vaginal culture result, and delivery outcome of patients who admitted to our high-risk unit between 2005 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. We investigated the prevalence of EONS according to maternal vaginal colonization and examined the concordance between maternal vaginal bacteria and etiologic microorganism causing EONS. Among 1096 pregnancies, the rate of vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli was significantly higher in pregnancies by infertility treatment after adjustment of confounding variables (E. coli, OR [95% CI]: 2.47 [1.33-4.57], p = 0.004). The rate of EONS was significantly higher in neonates with maternal abnormal vaginal bacteria colonization (OR [95% CI]: 3.38 [1.44-7.93], p = 0.005) after adjusting for confounding variables. Notably, among microorganisms isolated from maternal vagina, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were consistent with the results from neonatal blood culture in EONS. Our data implicate a possible association between gram-negative bacteria colonization and infertility treatment and suggest that maternal vaginal colonization may be associated with EONS of neonates in high-risk pregnancy.

  5. A multitechnique evaluation of topical corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Josse, G; Rouvrais, C; Mas, A; Haftek, M; Delalleau, A; Ferraq, Y; Ossant, F; George, J; Lagarde, J M; Schmitt, A M

    2009-02-01

    Corticosteroids are widely prescribed for systemic or local treatment of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. Long-term therapy is associated with side effects and causes cutaneous atrophy of the epidermis and the dermis. The present study aims to evaluate with several noninvasive techniques, the skin modifications observed during corticosteroids treatment. The potential of skin mechanical measurement and ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal analysis are proposed as new measures more closely related to the functional impairments. Thirteen young healthy women volunteers had two applications per day on one arm of topical Clobetasol propionate 0.05% for 28 days, and they were followed for 28 days more. Skin modifications were studied by high-frequency ultrasound imaging, ultrasound RF signal analysis, optical coherence tomography and by the suction test. For all the techniques, a statistically significant change is observed with treatment. Large variations, around 30%, are observed for all techniques, but less for ultrasound imaging (10%). Dermis and epidermis thickness presented stable measurements on the nontreated zone. At the end of the study, measures returned to normal. The dynamic is mainly observed within the first 14 days of treatment and within the first 14 days after its cessation. Similar dynamics of skin modification during corticosteroid treatment was observed with very different techniques. Moreover, the potential of RF ultrasound analysis and mechanical skin measurement for characterizing skin structural and functional impairments has been evaluated.

  6. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis. Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite ‘normal’ (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury. In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration. In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. PMID:25355373

  7. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis.Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite 'normal' (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury.In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration.In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Treatment of Bloating

    PubMed Central

    Gabbard, Scott L.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is commonly reported by men and women of all ages. Bloating occurs in nearly all patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and it also occurs in patients with other functional and organic disorders. Bloating is frequently disturbing to patients and frustrating to clinicians, as effective treatments are limited and are not universally successful. Although the terms bloating and abdominal distention are often used interchangeably, these symptoms likely involve different pathophysiologic processes, both of which are still not completely understood. The goal of this paper is to review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating and abdominal distention. PMID:22298969

  9. Cost Evaluation of Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, Jody L.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program’s resources. PMID:22002453

  10. An evidence-based approach to medicinal plants for the treatment of sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R

    2016-10-01

    Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A microbiological surrogate for evaluating treatment efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, E.W.; Fox, K.W.; Miltner, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    In this study we report on the use of a microbial surrogate system which can be used to evaluate the efficiency of various unit processes used in drinking water treatment for the removal of microbial contaminants. The proposed procedure uses Gram-positive, mesophilic, aerobic spore-forming bacteria as the surrogate organisms. These bacteria do not pose a public health threat and are naturally occurring in most surface water supplies. The aerobic spore-formers are easy to culture and are present throughout the treatment train. This group of organisms consists primarily of species of the genus Bacillus. These organisms form endospores which are ellipsoidalmore » to spherical in shape and measure on average approximately 0.5 X 1.0 X 1.5 micrometers, and are environmentally resistant. Like pathogenic Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts endospores of aerobic bacilli may be found far into the treatment train.« less

  12. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving treatment plan evaluation with automation.

    PubMed

    Covington, Elizabeth L; Chen, Xiaoping; Younge, Kelly C; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M; Kessler, Marc L; Keranen, Wayne; Acosta, Eduardo; Dougherty, Ashley M; Filpansick, Stephanie E; Moran, Jean M

    2016-11-08

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Plan-Checker Tool (PCT) which was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase the efficiency of our electronic workflow, and standardize and automate the phys-ics plan review in the treatment planning system (TPS). PCT uses an application programming interface to check and compare data from the TPS and treatment management system (TMS). PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user as part of a plan readiness check for treatment. Prior to and during PCT development, errors identified during the physics review and causes of patient treatment start delays were tracked to prioritize which checks should be automated. Nineteen of 33checklist items were automated, with data extracted with PCT. There was a 60% reduction in the number of patient delays in the six months after PCT release. PCT was suc-cessfully implemented for use on all external beam treatment plans in our clinic. While the number of errors found during the physics check did not decrease, automation of checks increased visibility of errors during the physics check, which led to decreased patient delays. The methods used here can be applied to any TMS and TPS that allows queries of the database. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Improving treatment plan evaluation with automation

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Elizabeth L.; Chen, Xiaoping; Younge, Kelly C.; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Kessler, Marc L.; Keranen, Wayne; Acosta, Eduardo; Dougherty, Ashley M.; Filpansick, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Plan‐Checker Tool (PCT) which was created to improve first‐time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase the efficiency of our electronic workflow, and standardize and automate the physics plan review in the treatment planning system (TPS). PCT uses an application programming interface to check and compare data from the TPS and treatment management system (TMS). PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user as part of a plan readiness check for treatment. Prior to and during PCT development, errors identified during the physics review and causes of patient treatment start delays were tracked to prioritize which checks should be automated. Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated, with data extracted with PCT. There was a 60% reduction in the number of patient delays in the six months after PCT release. PCT was successfully implemented for use on all external beam treatment plans in our clinic. While the number of errors found during the physics check did not decrease, automation of checks increased visibility of errors during the physics check, which led to decreased patient delays. The methods used here can be applied to any TMS and TPS that allows queries of the database. PACS number(s): 87.55.‐x, 87.55.N‐, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.tm, 89.20.Bb PMID:27929478

  15. Application and evaluation of scale dissolver treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Fielder, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    In order to provide an improved basis for the design of barium sulfate scale dissolver treatments both laboratory testing and monitoring of field applications were carried out. The deleterious effects of mixing produced water with dissolver prior to contacting scale are shown. Increasing total dissolved solids (TDS) levels can reduce dissolution depending upon temperature. Precomplexation with divalent cations reduces the capacity of the dissolver to solubilize solid scales. Magnesium may adversely affect dissolver performance at elevated temperatures. Several oil and gas wells were closely monitored during initial flowback after treatment. Samples were collected on a frequent basis and analyzed formore » pH, dissolver content, chlorides and various cations. The resulting data were used to construct flowback profiles for evaluation of the treatments. Evidence of scale dissolution is presented. The presence of an incompatible flush brine was discovered in one case and possible reverse order of addition of preflush and dissolver in another. The importance of establishing and following treatment procedures is briefly discussed.« less

  16. Treatment modalities and evaluation models for periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Mohammad; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common localized dental inflammatory disease related with several pathological conditions like inflammation of gums (gingivitis), degeneration of periodontal ligament, dental cementum and alveolar bone loss. In this perspective, the various preventive and treatment modalities, including oral hygiene, gingival irrigations, mechanical instrumentation, full mouth disinfection, host modulation and antimicrobial therapy, which are used either as adjunctive treatments or as stand-alone therapies in the non-surgical management of periodontal infections, have been discussed. Intra-pocket, sustained release systems have emerged as a novel paradigm for the future research. In this article, special consideration is given to different locally delivered anti-microbial and anti inflammatory medications which are either commercially available or are currently under consideration for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The various in vitro dissolution models and microbiological strain investigated to impersonate the infected and inflamed periodontal cavity and to predict the in vivo performance of treatment modalities have also been thrashed out. Animal models that have been employed to explore the pathology at the different stages of periodontitis and to evaluate its treatment modalities are enlightened in this proposed review. PMID:23373002

  17. Patient Navigation and Time to Diagnostic Resolution: Results for a Cluster Randomized Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Patient Navigation among Patients with Breast Cancer Screening Abnormalities, Tampa, FL

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Wells, Kristen J.; Meade, Cathy D.; Calcano, Ercilia; Roetzheim, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate a patient navigation (PN) program that attempts to reduce the time between a breast cancer screening abnormality and definitive diagnosis among medically underserved populations of Tampa Bay, Florida. Methods The Moffitt Patient Navigation Research Program conducted a cluster randomized design with 10 primary care clinics. Patients were navigated from time of a breast screening abnormality to diagnostic resolution. This paper examined the length of time between breast abnormality and definitive diagnosis, using a shared frailty Cox proportional hazard model to assess PN program effect. Results 1,039 patients were eligible for the study because of an abnormal breast cancer screening/clinical abnormality (494 navigated; 545 control). Analysis of PN effect by two time periods of resolution (0-3 months and > 3 months) showed a lagged effect of PN. For patients resolving in the first three months, the adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) was 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.64-1.13) suggesting that PN had no effect on resolution time during this period. Beyond three months, however, navigated patients resolved more quickly to diagnostic resolution compared with the control group (aHR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.30-6.13). The predicted aHR at 3 months was 1.2, which was not statistically significant, while PN had a significant positive effect beyond 4.7 months. Conclusions PN programs may increase the timeliness of diagnostic resolution for patients with a breast cancer-related abnormality. PN did not speed diagnostic resolution during the initial three months of follow up but started to reduce time to diagnostic resolution after three months and showed a significant effect after 4.7 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00375024 PMID:24066145

  18. Patient navigation and time to diagnostic resolution: results for a cluster randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of patient navigation among patients with breast cancer screening abnormalities, Tampa, FL.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Wells, Kristen J; Meade, Cathy D; Calcano, Ercilia; Roetzheim, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a patient navigation (PN) program that attempts to reduce the time between a breast cancer screening abnormality and definitive diagnosis among medically underserved populations of Tampa Bay, Florida. The Moffitt Patient Navigation Research Program conducted a cluster randomized design with 10 primary care clinics. Patients were navigated from time of a breast screening abnormality to diagnostic resolution. This paper examined the length of time between breast abnormality and definitive diagnosis, using a shared frailty Cox proportional hazard model to assess PN program effect. 1,039 patients were eligible for the study because of an abnormal breast cancer screening/clinical abnormality (494 navigated; 545 control). Analysis of PN effect by two time periods of resolution (0-3 months and > 3 months) showed a lagged effect of PN. For patients resolving in the first three months, the adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) was 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.64-1.13) suggesting that PN had no effect on resolution time during this period. Beyond three months, however, navigated patients resolved more quickly to diagnostic resolution compared with the control group (aHR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.30-6.13). The predicted aHR at 3 months was 1.2, which was not statistically significant, while PN had a significant positive effect beyond 4.7 months. PN programs may increase the timeliness of diagnostic resolution for patients with a breast cancer-related abnormality. PN did not speed diagnostic resolution during the initial three months of follow up but started to reduce time to diagnostic resolution after three months and showed a significant effect after 4.7 months. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00375024.

  19. Gynecomastia – evaluation and current treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ruth E; Kermott, Cindy A; Murad, M Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best management approach for gynecomastia? Results: In most patients, surgical correction usually leads to immediate cosmetic and symptomatic improvement and is considered the best approach. In men who are being treated with antiandrogen therapies, pharmacological intervention with tamoxifen is the most effective approach, followed by radiotherapy. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating gynecomastia Failure to detect the very rare male breast cancerOverly aggressive early intervention or evaluationAppropriate medical interventionWhen to refer to specialist treatment PMID:21479145

  20. Evaluation and treatment of sex addiction.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.

  1. Observation of abnormal mobility enhancement in multilayer MoS2 transistor by synergy of ultraviolet illumination and ozone plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjie; Yang, Bingchu; Zheng, Zhouming; Jiang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Mobility engineering through physical or chemical process is a fruitful approach for the atomically-layered two-dimensional electronic applications. Unfortunately, the usual process with either illumination or oxygen treatment would greatly deteriorate the mobility in two-dimensional MoS2 field-effect transistor (FET). Here, in this work, we report that the mobility can be abnormally enhanced to an order of magnitude by the synergy of ultraviolet illumination (UV) and ozone plasma treatment in multilayer MoS2 FET. This abnormal mobility enhancement is attributed to the trap passivation due to the photo-generated excess carriers during UV/ozone plasma treatment. An energy band model based on Schottky barrier modulation is proposed to understand the underlying mechanism. Raman spectra results indicate that the oxygen ions are incorporated into the surface of MoS2 (some of them are in the form of ultra-thin Mo-oxide) and can further confirm this proposed mechanism. Our results can thus provide a simple approach for mobility engineering in MoS2-based FET and can be easily expanded to other 2D electronic devices, which represents a significant step toward applications of 2D layered materials in advanced cost-effective electronics.

  2. "Abnormal" salt and solvent effects on anion/cation electron-transfer reactions: an interpretation based on Marcus-Hush treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fernandez, E; Prado-Gotor, R; Sanchez, F

    2005-08-11

    Salt and solvent effects on the kinetics of the reactions [Fe(CN)6]3- + [Ru(NH3)5pz](2+) right arrow over left arrow [Fe(CN)6]4- + [Ru(NH3)5pz]3+ (pz = pyrazine) have been studied through T-jump measurements. The forward and reverse reactions show different behaviors: "abnormal" salt and solvent effects in the first case and normal effects in the second one. These facts imply an asymmetric behavior of anion/cation reactions depending on the charge of the oxidant. The results can be rationalized by using the Marcus-Hush treatment for electron-transfer reactions.

  3. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  4. [Evaluation and treatment of portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Brůha, Radan; Petrtýl, Jaromír

    Liver cirrhosis is a serious disease shortening the life expectancy. Unavoidable consequence of cirrhosis is portal hypertension, which usually limits the prognosis by its complications. Portal hypertension is a prognostic factor for cirrhosis decompensation, variceal bleeding and even the mortality in cirrhotic patients. In the evaluation of portal hypertension hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is used.Measurement of HVPG is used in clinical praxis in these situations: diagnosis of portal hypertension, evaluation of prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, monitoring the treatment efficacy in the prevention of variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding. Decrease of HVPG below 12 mmHg or at least for more than 20% of initial value in the treatment by beta-blockers is associated with the lower risk of bleeding from varices or other complications. HVPG above 20 mm Hg is associated with the high risk of early rebleeding from varices and can discriminate those patients profiting from early TIPS.HVPG measurement is an invasive, but simple, reproducible and safe catheterization technique with minimal complication rate. The most frequent complication could be incorrect assessment of obtained values. HVPG measurement should be a routine technique in centers specialized to liver diseases.

  5. Patient evaluation and general treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Fechtel, Scot Gerald

    2006-05-01

    Treating pain patients is difficult. The usual problems encountered in providing coherent and effective treatment for any chronic medical illness are compounded in painful conditions by time, society's choices, and the cultural role of the patient. Effective treatment of these patients depends on the persistence of the clinician. We must persist in requiring a complete history to understand the patient and his or her problem. We must persist in performing a thorough physical examination to uncover sufficient under-standing of the patient's physiology. We must persist in developing a comprehensive treatment plan to cover all of the intervening concerns. We must persist in following the patient in the clinic to make sure that the plan is completed and that complications that arise are dealt with efficiently. This can lead to considerable satisfaction and frustration. There remain many unanswered questions in the evaluation of pain patients and of pain itself. How accurate is physical examination in providing information about a given patient that is relevant to treating pain? Can physical examination reliably elicit a nociceptive focus for a specific individual's chronic pain experience? Is all long-term pain a smorgasbord of nociceptive, central sensitization, and neuromodulatory mechanisms? Can acute pain be more consistently aborted to minimize the development of chronic pain? Over the next few years, as our expanding knowledge of neuropharmacology, neurophysiology, and pain modulation in the CNS combines with better understanding of pain psychology and sociology, we clinicians will expect to have happier and more productive patients.

  6. Remission induction of refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation by sole treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with persistent chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Haruki; Kasahara, Yasunori; Mori, Akinori

    2002-01-01

    We report a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation, in whom complete remission (CR) was achieved with the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The 76-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital with a fever and a productive cough; a diagnosis of pneumonia was thus made. Following treatment with antibiotics, the patient's condition improved, and MDS was diagnosed from peripheral blood and bone marrow examinations after the patient recovered from the infection. The patient achieved a sustained haematological CR that was confirmed by morphological and flow cytometric examination after treatment with G-CSF alone, although chromosomal abnormalities persisted. According to the literature, in almost all patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or MDS who were reported to achieve CR by G-CSF, the course was associated with infection, although our case did not have this complication during the course of G-CSF therapy. We suggest that patients with G-CSF alone without infection can achieve CR and that this may be related to a differentiation effect of G-CSF based on persistent chromosomal abnormality in this case. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  8. Comparison of post-contrast 3D-T1-MPRAGE, 3D-T1-SPACE and 3D-T2-FLAIR MR images in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities at 3-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Kalyanpur, Tejas; Gupta, Prashant; Cherian, Mathew

    2017-06-01

    This study was to assess the usefulness of newer three-dimensional (3D)-T 1 sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) and 3D-T 2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities. 78 patients who presented with high suspicion of meningeal abnormalities were evaluated using post-contrast 3D-T 2 -FLAIR, 3D-T 1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) and 3D-T 1 -SPACE sequences. The images were evaluated independently by two radiologists for cortical gyral, sulcal space, basal cisterns and dural enhancement. The diagnoses were confirmed by further investigations including histopathology. Post-contrast 3D-T 1 -SPACE and 3D-T 2 -FLAIR images yielded significantly more information than MPRAGE images (p < 0.05 for both SPACE and FLAIR images) in detection of meningeal abnormalities. SPACE images best demonstrated abnormalities in dural and sulcal spaces, whereas FLAIR was useful for basal cisterns enhancement. Both SPACE and FLAIR performed equally well in detection of gyral enhancement. In all 10 patients, where both SPACE and T 2 -FLAIR images failed to demonstrate any abnormality, further analysis was also negative. The 3D-T 1 -SPACE sequence best demonstrated abnormalities in dural and sulcal spaces, whereas FLAIR was useful for abnormalities in basal cisterns. Both SPACE and FLAIR performed holds good for detection of gyral enhancement. Post-contrast SPACE and FLAIR sequences are superior to the MPRAGE sequence for evaluation of meningeal abnormalities and when used in combination have the maximum sensitivity for leptomeningeal abnormalities. The negative-predictive value is nearly 100%, where no leptomeningeal abnormality was detected on these sequences. Advances in knowledge: Post-contrast 3D-T 1 -SPACE and 3D-T 2 -FLAIR images are more useful than 3D-T 1 -MPRAGE images in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities.

  9. Converging evidence for abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and evaluation of midsagittal structures in pediatric PTSD: an MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Victor G.; Weems, Carl F.; Watson, Christa; Eliez, Stephan; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Volumetric imaging research has shown abnormal brain morphology in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when compared to controls. We present results on a study of brain morphology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midline structures, via indices of gray matter volume and density, in pediatric PTSD. We hypothesized that both methods would demonstrate aberrant morphology in the PFC. Further, we hypothesized aberrant brainstem anatomy and reduced corpus collosum volume in children with PTSD. Methods Twenty-four children (aged 7-14) with history of interpersonal trauma and 24 age, and gender matched controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images of the PFC and midline brain structures were first analyzed using volumetric image analysis. The PFC data were then compared with whole-brain voxel-based techniques using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results The PTSD group showed significant increased gray matter volume in the right and left inferior and superior quadrants of the prefrontal cortex and smaller gray matter volume in pons, and posterior vermis areas by volumetric image analysis. The voxel-byvoxel group comparisons demonstrated increased gray matter density mostly localized to ventral PFC as compared to the control group. Conclusions Abnormal frontal lobe morphology, as revealed by separate-complementary image analysis methods, and reduced pons and posterior vermis areas are associated with pediatric PTSD. Voxel-based morphometry may help to corroborate and further localize data obtained by volume of interest methods in PTSD. PMID:19349151

  10. In vivo treatment with interleukin 12 protects mice from immune abnormalities observed during murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS)

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Lymphoproliferation, chronic B cell activation resulting in hypergammaglobulinemia, and profound immunodeficiency are prominent features of a retrovirus-induced syndrome designated murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). In vivo treatment of infected mice with recombinant interleukin 12 (IL-12) beginning at the time of infection or up to 9 wk after virus inoculation markedly inhibited the development of splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, as well as B cell activation and Ig secretion. Treatment with IL-12 also had major effects in preventing induction of several immune defects including impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2 and depressed proliferative responses to various stimuli. The therapeutic effects of IL-12 on the immune system of mice with MAIDS were also associated with reduced expression of the retrovirus that causes this disease (BM5def), with lesser effects on expression of ecotropic MuLV. IL-12 treatment was not effective in IFN-gamma knockout mice or in infected mice treated simultaneously with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma. These results demonstrate that induction and progression of MAIDS are antagonized by IL-12 through high-level expression of IFN-gamma and may provide an experimental basis for developing treatments of retrovirus- induced immune disorders with similar immunopathogenic mechanisms. PMID:7964495

  11. [Outpatient evaluation of the immediate and delayed effects of the abnormally hot summer of 2010 on the course of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Ageev, F T; Smirnova, M D; Galaninskiĭ, P V

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the immediate and delayed effects of the abnormally hot summer of 2010 on the course of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study enrolled 188 patients with CVD, who had visited a polyclinic for advice in the past 2 weeks of January 2011. In addition to general clinical examination, all the patients were proposed to fill out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires concerning their quality of life, by applying the visual analog scale during their visit and (retrospectively) in the abnormal hot period (AHP). The questions were concerned with the location of the patient during the heat wave, his/her health status, the duration of a working day, the number of hypertensive crises (HC), calls to medical emergency teams (MET), and visits to a doctor, the pattern of therapy, etc. The authors estimated the following outcomes (endpoints): acute myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular accident, admissions for CVD, MET calls, the number of disability days, HC, and unplanned visits to the doctor, which occurred during the heat wave or in the period September to December 2010. There was a worse quality of life during AHP. The patients living in the green zone (of a city, town, or a rural area) better experienced the abnormal heat. Male sex and overweight were associated with better abnormal heat tolerance; high anxiety, age, and living on high floors were with its worse tolerance. It is necessary to conduct large-scale prospective randomized studies, the results of which will yield objective information, which will be able to give patients scientifically sound recommendations how to behave during AHP.

  12. Evaluation of safety treatments for roadside culverts.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-24

    Roadside cross-drainage culverts have been found to impact vehicle accident injury levels. : Designers have commonly used three safety treatments to protect errant drivers from culvert accidents. : These treatments have included: culvert extension, g...

  13. Evaluation of Genotoxicity in Automobile Mechanics Occupationally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Micronuclei and Other Nuclear Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammed Rafiq; Sudha, Sellappa

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker. Methods The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis. Results Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher degree of NA was observed among the exposed subjects with smoking, drinking, tobacco chewing, which is an indicative of cytogenetic damage in these individuals. Conclusion MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that automobile mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards

  14. Delayed recovery of left ventricular function after antithyroid treatment. Further evidence for reversible abnormalities of contractility in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Forfar, J C; Matthews, D M; Toft, A D

    1984-01-01

    Sequential measurements of systolic time intervals, left ventricular dimensions, and the derived indices of contractility were undertaken at rest and during isometric exercise in 15 hyperthyroid patients before, during, and after antithyroid treatment. At rest hyperthyroidism was characterised by a shortened pre-ejection period and increased velocity of circumferential shortening of the left ventricle. During isometric exercise, however, the pre-ejection period increased significantly beyond that predicted for normal subjects, and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening fell by 30%. In contrast, both the pre-ejection period and the velocity of circumferential fibre shortening were unchanged during exercise after a stable euthyroid state had been achieved for at least three months. Comparison between exercise responses and thyroid status during antithyroid treatment showed that a biochemical euthyroid state may be achieved many weeks before normalisation of contractile response to exercise. These findings support the hypothesis of reversible depression of left ventricular function in hyperthyroidism. Responses at rest principally reflect the peripheral actions of thyroid hormone excess. PMID:6743439

  15. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in subgroups of infertile men.

    PubMed

    Dul, E C; Groen, H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C M A; Dijkhuizen, T; van Echten-Arends, J; Land, J A

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is assumed to be higher in infertile men and inversely correlated with sperm concentration. Although guidelines advise karyotyping infertile men, karyotyping is costly, therefore it would be of benefit to identify men with the highest risk of chromosomal abnormalities, possibly by using parameters other than sperm concentration. The aim of this study was to evaluate several clinical parameters in azoospermic and non-azoospermic men, in order to assess the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in different subgroups of infertile men. In a retrospective cohort of 1223 azoospermic men and men eligible for ICSI treatment, we studied sperm parameters, hormone levels and medical history for an association with chromosomal abnormalities. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort was 3.1%. No association was found between chromosomal abnormalities and sperm volume, concentration, progressive motility or total motile sperm count. Azoospermia was significantly associated with the presence of a chromosomal abnormality [15.2%, odds ratio (OR) 7.70, P < 0.001]. High gonadotrophin levels were also associated with an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities (OR 2.96, P = 0.013). Azoospermic men with a positive andrologic history had a lower prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities than azoospermic men with an uneventful history (OR 0.28, P = 0.047). In non-azoospermic men, we found that none of the studied variables were associated with the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. We show that the highest prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is found in hypergonadotrophic azoospermic men with an uneventful andrologic history.

  16. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Treatment Technology Evaluation and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assess the effectiveness of a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR) to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from wastewater. This technology could provide an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods.

  17. Process Evaluation in Corrections-Based Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, James L.; Hartmann, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that process evaluation is needed to validate prison-based substance abuse treatment effectiveness. Five groups--inmates, treatment staff, prison staff, prison administration, and the parole board--should be a part of this process evaluation. Discusses these five groups relative to three stages of development of substance abuse treatment in…

  18. Biochemical phenotyping unravels novel metabolic abnormalities and potential biomarkers associated with treatment of GLUT1 deficiency with ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Pinelli, Michele; Alagia, Marianna; Donti, Taraka; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; De Giorgis, Valentina; Lunghi, Simona; Vari, Maria Stella; Striano, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Kennedy, Adam D; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation.

  19. Biochemical phenotyping unravels novel metabolic abnormalities and potential biomarkers associated with treatment of GLUT1 deficiency with ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Pinelli, Michele; Alagia, Marianna; Donti, Taraka; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; De Giorgis, Valentina; Lunghi, Simona; Vari, Maria Stella; Striano, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Kennedy, Adam D.

    2017-01-01

    Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation. PMID:28961260

  20. Utility of three-dimensional and multiplanar reformatted computed tomography for evaluation of pediatric congenital spine abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Newton, Peter O; Hahn, Gregory W; Fricka, Kevin B; Wenger, Dennis R

    2002-04-15

    A retrospective radiographic review of 31 patients with congenital spine abnormalities who underwent conventional radiography and advanced imaging studies was conducted. To analyze the utility of three-dimensional computed tomography with multiplanar reformatted images for congenital spine anomalies, as compared with plain radiographs and axial two-dimensional computed tomography imaging. Conventional radiographic imaging for congenital spine disorders often are difficult to interpret because of the patient's small size, the complexity of the disorder, a deformity not in the plane of the radiographs, superimposed structures, and difficulty in forming a mental three-dimensional image. Multiplanar reformatted and three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging offers many potential advantages for defining congenital spine anomalies including visualization of the deformity in any plane, from any angle, with the overlying structures subtracted. The imaging studies of patients who had undergone a three-dimensional computed tomography for congenital deformities of the spine between 1992 and 1998 were reviewed (31 cases). All plain radiographs and axial two-dimensional computed tomography images performed before the three-dimensional computed tomography were reviewed and the findings documented. This was repeated for the three-dimensional reconstructions and, when available, the multiplanar reformatted images (15 cases). In each case, the utility of the advanced imaging was graded as one of the following: Grade A (substantial new information obtained), Grade B (confirmatory with improved visualization and understanding of the deformity), and Grade C (no added useful information obtained). In 17 of 31 cases, the multiplanar reformatted and three-dimensional images allowed identification of unrecognized malformations. In nine additional cases, the advanced imaging was helpful in better visualizing and understanding previously identified deformities. In five cases, no new

  1. Strategic and tactical fuel treatment evaluation tools

    Treesearch

    Ken Skog

    2007-01-01

    Strategic identification and local placement of fuel treatments are significant regional and local forest management problems addressed by two tools developed by Forest Service Research and Development.

  2. Challenges in sleep stage R scoring in patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and oculomotor abnormalities: a whole night polysomnographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Doniparthi Venkata; Sasidharan, Arun; Kumar, Gulshan; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M; Yadav, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar features with additional neuro-axis involvement. Oculomotor abnormality is one of the most frequent manifestations. This study was done to assess the polysomnographic abnormalities in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and also to evaluate whether oculomotor abnormalities interfere with sleep stage R scoring. The study was carried out using 36 genetically positive SCA patients. All patients underwent neurological examination with special focus on oculomotor function (optokinetic nystagmus-OKN and extraocular movement restriction-EOM). The sleep quality was measured with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Disease severity was assessed with International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). All the patients underwent over-night video-polysomnography (VPSG). Out of 36 patients studied, the data of 34 patients [SCA1 (n = 12), SCA2 (n = 13), SCA3 (n = 9)] were used for final analysis. Patients from SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 category did not show significant differences in age and diseases severity (ICARS). All patients had vertical OKN impairment. Oculomotor impairment was higher in SCA2 patients. Sleep macro-architecture analysis showed absent stage R sleep, predominantly in SCA2 (69%) followed by SCA3 (44%) and SCA1 (8%). Patients showed a strong negative correlation of stage R sleep percentage with disease severity and oculomotor dysfunction. Voluntary saccadic eye movement velocity and rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are strongly correlated. The more severe the saccadic velocity impairment, the less likely was it to generate REMs (rapid eye movements) during stage R. Accordingly 69% of SCA2 patients with severe occulomotor impairments showed absent stage R as per the AASM sleep scoring. We presume that the impaired REMs generation in sleep could be due to oculomotor abnormality and has

  3. TREATMENT PLANT EVALUATION FOR PARTICULATE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general procedure is suggested for evaluating performance of water filtration plants. Plant operating records should be reviewed. Plant hydraulics should be evaluated. Chemical feed pumps, measuring, and additional points, plus control of chemical doses, are discussed. Rapid mi...

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  6. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-05

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wastewater Treatment Evaluation, Mather AFB, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    conveyed to the treatment facility is provided with secondary (biological) treatment and chlorination followed by polish- ing lagoons prior to bang...comminutor. b. Primary sedimentation (clarifier). c. Biological oxidation by trickling filter. d. Secondary sedimentation (clarifier). e. Chlorination . f...the entrance to the chlorine contact chamber. Following chlorination , the wastewater flows to the wet well of the effluent lift station from

  8. Evaluation of the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy A Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Evaluated is the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (blindness due to ruptured vessels of the retina as a side effect of diabetes), and described is a research project comparing two types of photocoagulation treatment. (DB)

  9. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALS USED FOR DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION FOR PRODUCTION OF CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE AND SPERM-HEAD ABNORMALITIES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical oxidants are commonly added during water treatment for disinfection purposes. These chemicals have not been tested previously for their ability to induce genetic damage in vivo. Chlorine (hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid), monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, sodium chlor...

  10. Evaluation of modified single seal surface treatments.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a field study of a multicourse asphalt emulsion chip seal, designated as a modified single seal. The treatment, already used in North Carolina, consists of an application of emulsion and coarse aggregate followed by another appl...

  11. Novachip surface treatment : six year evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-10-01

    The NOVACHIPTM Surface Treatment process was developed by SCREG Routes STP in France in 1986. NOVACHIPTM is a registered trademark of Societe Internationale Routiere, which is a subsidiary of SCREG Routes STP. This process was developed to increase s...

  12. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  13. Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

  14. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Abbott Chalew, Talia E; Ajmani, Gaurav S; Huang, Haiou; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2013-10-01

    Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs--silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)--into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Conventional treatment resulted in 2-20%, 3-8%, and 48-99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1-45% for Ag, 0-44% for TiO2, and 36-83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0-2%, 0-4%, and 2-96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  16. [Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for many years in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poisonings with this medicine can results with cardiotoxic effects in the form of ECG abnormalities. To evaluate the nature and incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute olanzapine poisoning. 23 adult (mean age 38.4 +/- 15.5 years) patients with acute olanzapine poisoning, including 10 men (30.4 +/- 8.1 years) and 11 women (45.7 +/- 17.2 years), where 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. The toxic serum level of olanzapine (above 100 ng/mL) was confirmed in each patient. Evaluation of electrocardiograms performed in patients in the first day of hospitalization with automatic measurement of durations of PQ, QRS and QTc and the identification of arrhythmias and conduction disorders on the basis of visual analysis of the ECG waveforms. Statistical analysis of the results using the methods of descriptive statistics. The mean durations of PQ, QRS and QTc in the study group were as follows: 135 +/- 23 ms, 91 +/- 12 ms, and 453 +/- 48 ms, respectively. The most common ECG abnormalities were prolonged QTc and supraventricular tachycardia (including sinus tachycardia) - each 22%; less common were ST-T changes (17%) and supraventricular premature complexes (9%), and only in individual cases (4%) ventricular premature complexes, bundle branch block, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were present. In the course of acute olanzapine poisonings: (1) prolonged QTc interval is quite common, but rarely leads to torsade de pointes tachycardia; (2) fast supraventricular rhythms are also common, but rarely cause irregular tachyarrhythmias, eg. atrial fibrillation; (3) conduction disorders (atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks) are not typical abnormalities; (4) the observed ECG abnormalities emphasize the need of continuous ECG monitoring in these patients.

  17. 76 FR 40229 - Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... qualified to make decisions about the administration of psychopharmacologic medications and that, when... practitioner (Physician's Assistant or Nurse Practitioner), it must be signed by a licensed physician before it... advance practice nurses as part of the treatment team in correctional facilities.'' While the Bureau does...

  18. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs. (b) Each covered employee who engages in conduct prohibited under §§ 199.215 through 199.223 shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional...

  19. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs. (b) Each covered employee who engages in conduct prohibited under §§ 199.215 through 199.223 shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional...

  20. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs. (b) Each covered employee who engages in conduct prohibited under §§ 199.215 through 199.223 shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional...

  1. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs. (b) Each covered employee who engages in conduct prohibited under §§ 199.215 through 199.223 shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional...

  2. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs. (b) Each covered employee who engages in conduct prohibited under §§ 199.215 through 199.223 shall be evaluated by a substance abuse professional...

  3. The National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study: Retention Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwin, Rob; Williams, Valerie

    This study focuses on programmatic factors that predict retention for individuals in drug and alcohol treatment programs through secondary analysis of data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES). It addresses the relationships between completion rates, lengths of stay, and treatment modality. It examines the effect of…

  4. The relationship of the oestrogen and progestin receptors in the abnormal uterus of the adult anovulatory rat. Effects of neonatal treatment with testosterone propionate or clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed Central

    White, J O; Moore, P A; Elder, M G; Lim, L

    1981-01-01

    The neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to Wistar rats resulted in anovulatory adults in persistent vaginal oestrus. Clomiphene citrate had a similar effect. In both groups of adults, hyperplasia of the uterine epithelium and occasional metaplasia was observed. The uterine nuclear and cytosol oestrogen and progestin receptors of these anovulatory rats were found to have affinities for their respective ligands similar to those of normal females. The nuclear oestrogen receptor comprised occupied and unoccupied components, as in normal females. The content of the nuclear oestrogen receptor was comparable with that of females in the late dioestrous or pro-oestrous phase. This content was higher in the clomiphene-treated group. Despite the relatively high nuclear oestrogen receptor content the content of progestin receptors, a putative index of the oestrogenic response, was lower in the treated rats than in normal adult females throughout the cycle. Administration of oestradiol to both treatment groups resulted in depletion of cytosol oestrogen receptor content 1 h later, which, however, was not reflected by an increase in the content of nuclear oestrogen receptors. There was no measurable increase in progesterone receptor content in treated rats after daily administration of oestrogen (5 microgram/rat) for 3 days. These changes in sex-hormone-receptor interactions involving an impairment of the normal oestrogenic response may be associated with the abnormal differentiation of the uterus in these sterile, anovulatory animals. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7316994

  5. Physicians' evaluations of patients' decisions to refuse oncological treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Kleffens, T; van Leeuwen, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended oncological treatment. Results: Patients base their treatment refusals mainly on personal values and/or experience. Physicians mainly emphasise the medical perspective when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. From a medical perspective, a patient's treatment refusal based on personal values and experience is generally evaluated as irrational and difficult to accept, especially when it concerns a curative treatment. Physicians have a different attitude towards non-curative treatments and have less difficulty accepting a patient's refusal of these treatments. Thus, an important factor in the physician's evaluation of a treatment refusal is whether the treatment refused is curative or non-curative. Conclusion: Physicians mainly use goal oriented and patients mainly value oriented rationality, but in the case of non-curative treatment refusal, physicians give more emphasis to value oriented rationality. A consensus between the value oriented approaches of patient and physician may then emerge, leading to the patient's decision being understood and accepted by the physician. The physician's acceptance is crucial to his or her attitude towards the patient. It contributes to the patient's feeling free to decide, and being understood and respected, and thus to a better physician–patient relationship. PMID:15738431

  6. Hyperthermia phased arrays pre-treatment evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bardati, Fernando; Tognolatti, Piero

    2016-12-01

    In the hyperthermia treatment of deep-seated tumours by a phased array of radiofrequency (RF) antennas, heatability will be investigated in terms of power-to-tumour and other figures-of-merit of hyperthermia treatments to be optimised. The assumption is that each source is individually constrained to not exceed a maximal nominal power. The nominal power may differ from a source to another as a physical limit or an operative modality. Under such constraint, new procedures for the maximisation of (i) power-to-tumour, (ii) heating efficiency and, in general, (iii) power ratios as tumour-heating selectivity are proposed. (iv) The problem whether a tumour is equally heatable after turning off some antennas is addressed as array thinning. An array of eight dipoles arranged on two lines around a head/neck is introduced to perform a numerical analysis. The achievable power-to-tumour according to the new optimizations and other performance indices adopted from the literature is tested against values of power that can be found to be sufficient for heating tumours to clinical temperatures. New solutions to data rendering in hyperthermia heating are proposed.

  7. Early serum interleukin-8 evaluation may prove useful in localizing abnormally implanted human gestations after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sara S; Keegan, Debbra A; Krey, Lewis C; Katz, Joseph; Liu, Mengling; Noyes, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether early measurement of the serum cytokines interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, and IL-8 along with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P(4)) can differentiate an ectopic from an intrauterine gestation. Retrospective analysis. University-based fertility center. 75 women who underwent treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequently had an ectopic gestation (n = 15), spontaneous abortion (SAB) (n = 30), or term delivery (TD) (n = 30). Serum samples were obtained 14 (day 28) and 21 (day 35) days after oocyte retrieval. Serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, P(4), and hCG. Median hCG readings on day 28 and day 35 were statistically significantly lower in the ectopic gestation group than in those with spontaneous abortion or term delivery. On day 28, median IL-8 levels were lower in the ectopic gestation group when compared with all intrauterine gestations combined. No statistically significant differences in IL-2R or IL-6 levels were noted between groups. Despite P(4) supplementation, median day-35 P(4) levels were lower in ectopic gestation than in the spontaneous abortion and term delivery cycles. In the setting of a rise or plateau in hCG levels, low day-28 IL-8 and day-35 P(4) levels suggested an extrauterine implantation. This assay combination may facilitate earlier diagnosis of an ectopic gestation when pregnancy location is unclear.

  8. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  9. Abnormalities in early visual processes are linked to hypersociability and atypical evaluation of facial trustworthiness: An ERP study with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula; Mills, Debra L

    2017-10-01

    Accurate assessment of trustworthiness is fundamental to successful and adaptive social behavior. Initially, people assess trustworthiness from facial appearance alone. These assessments then inform critical approach or avoid decisions. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit a heightened social drive, especially toward strangers. This study investigated the temporal dynamics of facial trustworthiness evaluation in neurotypic adults (TD) and individuals with WS. We examined whether differences in neural activity during trustworthiness evaluation may explain increased approach motivation in WS compared to TD individuals. Event-related potentials were recorded while participants appraised faces previously rated as trustworthy or untrustworthy. TD participants showed increased sensitivity to untrustworthy faces within the first 65-90 ms, indexed by the negative-going rise of the P1 onset (oP1). The amplitude of the oP1 difference to untrustworthy minus trustworthy faces was correlated with lower approachability scores. In contrast, participants with WS showed increased N170 amplitudes to trustworthy faces. The N170 difference to low-high-trust faces was correlated with low approachability in TD and high approachability in WS. The findings suggest that hypersociability associated with WS may arise from abnormalities in the timing and organization of early visual brain activity during trustworthiness evaluation. More generally, the study provides support for the hypothesis that impairments in low-level perceptual processes can have a cascading effect on social cognition.

  10. Evaluation and treatment of severe hyperacusis.

    PubMed

    Valente, M; Goebel, J; Duddy, D; Sinks, B; Peterein, J

    2000-06-01

    A 52-year-old male was evaluated by the authors after initially reporting fullness in his left ear while traveling on an airplane. A unique feature of the patient's complaint was the development of severe bilateral hyperacusis (loudness discomfort levels of between 20-34 dB HL) in spite of the fact that the hearing loss was initially reported in the left ear. To achieve loudness comfort, the patient was initially fit with ER-25 musician earplugs that proved to be unsuccessful. The patient next purchased earplugs and earmuffs from a gun shop in order to obtain relief from the pain and discomfort caused by his exposure to everyday environmental sounds. This paper describes the use of hearing devices that proved to be effective in providing attenuation sufficient that the patient rarely needs to rely on earplugs and earmuffs for relief from his hyperacusis.

  11. The role of PET/CT in evaluation of Facet and Disc abnormalities in patients with low back pain using (18)F-Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Gamie, Sherief; El-Maghraby, Tarek

    2008-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy including Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is known for its role in the diagnosis of low back pain disorders. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F (Flouride-18) as a tracer can be used to carry out bone scans with improved image quality. With the addition of CT, simultaneous PET/CT fused images provide more accurate anatomical details. The objectives of this work are to assess the use of (18)F-PET/CT in patients with back pain and suspected facetogenic pain, and to find the frequency of facet arthropathy versus disc disease abnormalities. 67 patients who presented with back pain underwent routine X-ray, CT and/or MRI, which failed to identify a clear cause, were referred to (18)F-PET/CT. Among the main group, a subset of 25 patients had previous spine surgery consisting of laminectomy or discectomy (17 patients) and lumbar fusion (8 patients). The PET/CT scan was acquired on a GE VCT 64-Slice combined scanner. Imaging started 45-60 minutes after administration of 12-15 mCi (444-555 MBq) of (18)F-Fluoride. The PET scan was acquired from the skull base through the inguinal region in 3D mode at 2 minutes/bed. A lowresolution, non-contrast CT scan was also acquired for anatomic localization and attenuation correction. The (18)F-PET/CT showed abnormal uptake in the spine in 56 patients, with an overall detection ability of 84%. Facet joints as a cause of back pain was much more frequent (25 with abnormal scans). One-third (36%) of the patients showed multiple positive uptake in both facet joints and disc areas (20/56). The patients were further divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 patients (63%) with back pain and no previous operative procedures, and the (18)F-PET/CT showed a high sensitivity (88%) in identifying the source of pain in 37/42 patients. Group B included 25 patients (37%) with prior lumbar fusion or laminectomy, in which the PET/CT showed positive uptake in 76% (19/25 patients). (18)F-PET/CT showed

  12. Biomedical gait evaluation of the immediate effect of orthotic treatment for flexible flat foot.

    PubMed

    Leung, A K; Mak, A F; Evans, J H

    1998-04-01

    Flexible flat foot subjects attending the prosthetics and orthotics units come with prescriptions from orthopaedic surgeons for arch supports. Usually a pair of thermoformed plastic inserts are fabricated and fitted to treat the patients. However the effect of the orthotic treatment is not yet clear. A motion analysis system with two video cameras placed on the lateral and rear sides of the subject together with one force platform was used to investigate the immediate effects of the orthotic treatment. The force platform collected force data and the two cameras captured two-dimensional displacement data of the lower limb. Eight subjects, all having an arch index (AI) larger than 3.0 participated in the study. For each subject, three successful steps on the force platform were videotaped for both the shod (with shoe only) and the orthotic (with shoe and orthosis) conditions. The kinetic variables were normalized to individual body weight and averaged for each subject. A Paired t-test was conducted to analyse sample means of matched pairs between the shod and the orthotic conditions. The results showed changes in displacement data with relatively little change in the collected force data. The modified UCBL shoe insert evaluated significantly affected the orientation and movements of the subtalar joint, ankle joint and knee joint. These immediate effects reduced the degree and duration of abnormal pronation during the stance phase and thus had the potential for decreasing strain in the plantar ligaments and reducing abnormal tibial rotation which may be therapeutic for the foot.

  13. Evaluation of inflammation during fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Fundagul; Akinci Sozer, Ozlem; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Gurpinar, Ahmet Burak; Yilmaz, Hakki; Ay, Yazgi

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess effects of fixed orthodontic therapy on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, CBC parameters and levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine, sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), total protein (TP), and albumin (Alb). Blood samples (7ml) were drawn at baseline, on days 1 and 7, and three months after placement of braces in the study group, while only one blood sample was drawn at baseline in the control group. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured by nephelometric method. Friedman two-way variance analysis was used to assess values with skewed distribution obtained at baseline, on days 1 and 7, in the third month. Wilcoxon rank sign test was performed if median values were unequal. During measurement periods, there were significant increases in hs-CRP level, WBC count and neutrophil count while a significant decrease in Na level (p<0.05). K level was significantly decreased on the day 1. No significant differences were detected in other biochemical parameters evaluated. Elevation in serum hs-CRP levels and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio within first 3 months indicates that a systemic immune response develops against therapy in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Subsurface condition evaluation for asphalt pavement preservation treatments.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    This report presents a case study on the SR70 section with microsurface for understanding its performance; a development of a : methodology for evaluating the asphalt pavement subsurface condition for applying pavement preservation treatments; and...

  16. Evaluation and treatment of childhood musculoskeletal injury in the office.

    PubMed

    Apel, Peter J; Howard, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation and treatment of acute musculoskeletal injuries can be rewarding for primary care providers. They are common presenting complaints, and with appropriate management, many patients make a full recovery in a short period of time. This article reviews basic principles of evaluation of acutely injured children, treatment strategies, and common injuries, and gives an overview of similar but more dangerous conditions that require referral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Infertility Evaluation and Treatment among Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845

  18. Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes: Evaluation by Objective Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germaine, Leonard M.; Freedman, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    Used latency to hot flash onset under heat stress to evaluate the effects of relaxation treatment or a control procedure in 14 menopausal women. Following treatment, the latency to hot flash onset during heat stress was increased in relaxation subjects. Reported symptom frequency was significantly reduced in relaxation subjects. (BH)

  19. Laser ultrasonic evaluation of human dental enamel during remineralization treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Swain, Michael; Law, Susan; Xue, Jing

    2011-01-01

    In this work a non-destructive laser ultrasonic technique is used to quantitatively evaluate the progressive change in the elastic response of human dental enamel during a remineralization treatment. The condition of the enamel was measured during two weeks treatment using laser generated and detected surface acoustic waves in sound and demineralized enamel. Analysis of the acoustic velocity dispersion confirms the efficacy, as well as illuminating the progress, of the treatment. PMID:21339879

  20. The effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal events.

    PubMed

    Casner, Stephen M; Geven, Richard W; Williams, Kent T

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal in-flight events. Numerous accident reports describe situations in which pilots responded to abnormal events in ways that were different from what they had practiced many times before. One explanation for these missteps is that training and testing for these skills have become a highly predictable routine for pilots who arrive to the training environment well aware of what to expect. Under these circumstances, pilots get plentiful practice in responding to abnormal events but may get little practice in recognizing them and deciding which responses to offer. We presented 18 airline pilots with three abnormal events that are required during periodic training and testing. Pilots were presented with each event under the familiar circumstances used during training and also under less predictable circumstances as they might occur during flight. When presented in the routine ways seen during training, pilots gave appropriate responses and showed little variability. However, when the abnormal events were presented unexpectedly, pilots' responses were less appropriate and showed great variability from pilot to pilot. The results suggest that the training and testing practices used in airline training may result in rote-memorized skills that are specific to the training situation and that offer modest generalizability to other situations. We recommend a more complete treatment of abnormal events that allows pilots to practice recognizing the event and choosing and recalling the appropriate response. The results will aid the improvement of existing airline training practices.

  1. Evaluating treatment process redesign by applying the EFQM Excellence Model.

    PubMed

    Nabitz, Udo; Schramade, Mark; Schippers, Gerard

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate a treatment process redesign programme implementing evidence-based treatment as part of a total quality management in a Dutch addiction treatment centre. Quality management was monitored over a period of more than 10 years in an addiction treatment centre with 550 professionals. Changes are evaluated, comparing the scores on the nine criteria of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model before and after a major redesign of treatment processes and ISO certification. In the course of 10 years, most intake, care, and cure processes were reorganized, the support processes were restructured and ISO certified, 29 evidence-based treatment protocols were developed and implemented, and patient follow-up measuring was established to make clinical outcomes transparent. Comparing the situation before and after the changes shows that the client satisfaction scores are stable, that the evaluation by personnel and society is inconsistent, and that clinical, production, and financial outcomes are positive. The overall EFQM assessment by external assessors in 2004 shows much higher scores on the nine criteria than the assessment in 1994. Evidence-based treatment can successfully be implemented in addiction treatment centres through treatment process redesign as part of a total quality management strategy, but not all results are positive.

  2. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Robert E. Keane; Kevin M. James; R. Brion Salter

    2008-01-01

    We present a decision-support application that evaluates danger of severe wildland fire and prioritizes subwatersheds for vegetation and fuels treatment. We demonstrate the use of the system with an example from the Rocky Mountain region in Utah; a planning area of 4.8 million ha encompassing 575 subwatersheds. In a logic model, we evaluate fire danger as a function of...

  3. Evaluation and Treatment of the Patient with Vertigo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasscock, Michael E. III; Haynes, David S.

    1997-01-01

    The sensation of vertigo is a complex symptom that patients find difficult to describe, and physicians often find evaluating and treating patients with the vertigo a difficult task. This article outlines types and causes of vertigo and the work up, evaluation, and treatment of a patient with vertigo. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  4. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  5. Lenalidomide for the Treatment of Low- or Intermediate-1-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes Associated with Deletion 5q Cytogenetic Abnormality: An Evidence Review of the NICE Submission from Celgene.

    PubMed

    Blommestein, Hedwig M; Armstrong, Nigel; Ryder, Steve; Deshpande, Sohan; Worthy, Gill; Noake, Caro; Riemsma, Rob; Kleijnen, Jos; Severens, Johan L; Al, Maiwenn J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of lenalidomide (Celgene) to submit evidence of the clinical and cost effectiveness of the drug for treating adults with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality, as part of the Institute's single technology appraisal (STA) process. Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd (KSR), in collaboration with Erasmus University Rotterdam, was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company's submission, the ERG review, and the NICE's subsequent decisions. The ERG reviewed the evidence for clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, as submitted by the manufacturer to the NICE. The ERG searched for relevant additional evidence and validated the manufacturer's decision analytic model to examine the robustness of the cost-effectiveness results. Clinical effectiveness was obtained from a three-arm, European, randomized, phase III trial among red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent patients with low-/intermediate-1-risk del5q31 MDS. The primary endpoint was RBC independence for ≥26 weeks, and was reached by a higher proportion of patients in the lenalidomide 10 and 5 mg groups compared with placebo (56.1 and 42.6 vs 5.9 %, respectively; both p < 0.001). The option of dose adjustments after 16 weeks due to dose-limiting toxicities or lack of response made long-term effectiveness estimates unreliable, e.g. overall survival (OS). The de novo model of the manufacturer included a Markov state-transition cost-utility model implemented in Microsoft Excel. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the manufacturer was £56,965. The ERG assessment indicated that the modeling structure represented the course of the disease; however, a few errors were identified and some of the input parameters were challenged. In response to the appraisal documentation, the company revised the economic model

  6. The Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT): Evaluating Treatment Research as Part of Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents, and explains the issues behind, the Stuttering Treatment Research Evaluation and Assessment Tool (STREAT), an instrument created to assist clinicians, researchers, students, and other readers in the process of critically appraising reports of stuttering treatment research. Method: The STREAT was developed by…

  7. Evaluating tretinoin formulations in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-04-01

    Topical tretinoin has been a standard treatment for acne vulgaris for more than 4 decades. While tretinoin has demonstrated proven efficacy in the treatment of acne lesions, it also is associated with the potential for skin irritation. Newer formulations have been designed to optimize both the drug concentration and the delivery vehicle with the aim to enable clinicians to provide increasingly effective acne treatment that minimizes irritation. These therapies include formulations with varying concentrations of tretinoin and vehicles that utilize a microsponge delivery system, hydrogels and micronized tretinoin, or propolymers. The purpose of this review is to evaluate different formulations and combinations of tretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While these advanced formulations were designed for controlled release of active ingredient, and have the potential to reduce cutaneous irritation relative to standard tretinoin cream and gel formulations, there is a need for comparative studies to evaluate the relative benefits of each of these advanced tretinoin formulations in optimizing acne treatment.

  8. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Benoît; Gay, Emilie; Ducrot, Christian; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle) according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity) whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value). The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events.

  9. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Benoît; Gay, Emilie; Ducrot, Christian; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle) according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity) whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value). The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events. PMID:26536596

  10. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  11. Evaluating a bilingual patient navigation program for uninsured women with abnormal screening tests for breast and cervical cancer: implications for future navigator research.

    PubMed

    Simon, Melissa A; Tom, Laura S; Nonzee, Narissa J; Murphy, Kara R; Endress, Richard; Dong, XinQi; Feinglass, Joe

    2015-05-01

    The DuPage Patient Navigation Collaborative evaluated the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) model for uninsured women receiving free breast or cervical cancer screening through the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in DuPage County, Illinois. We used medical records review and patient surveys of 477 women to compare median follow-up times with external Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program and Chicago PNRP benchmarks of performance. We examined the extent to which we mitigated community-defined timeliness risk factors for delayed follow-up, with a focus on Spanish-speaking participants. Median follow-up time (29.0 days for breast and 56.5 days for cervical screening abnormalities) compared favorably to external benchmarks. Spanish-speaking patients had lower health literacy, lower patient activation, and more health care system distrust than did English-speaking patients, but despite the prevalence of timeliness risk factors, we observed no differences in likelihood of delayed (> 60 days) follow-up by language. Our successful replication and scaling of the PNRP navigation model to DuPage County illustrates a promising approach for future navigator research.

  12. Evaluating a Bilingual Patient Navigation Program for Uninsured Women With Abnormal Screening Tests for Breast and Cervical Cancer: Implications for Future Navigator Research

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Laura S.; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Murphy, Kara R.; Endress, Richard; Dong, XinQi; Feinglass, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The DuPage Patient Navigation Collaborative evaluated the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) model for uninsured women receiving free breast or cervical cancer screening through the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in DuPage County, Illinois. Methods. We used medical records review and patient surveys of 477 women to compare median follow-up times with external Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program and Chicago PNRP benchmarks of performance. We examined the extent to which we mitigated community-defined timeliness risk factors for delayed follow-up, with a focus on Spanish-speaking participants. Results. Median follow-up time (29.0 days for breast and 56.5 days for cervical screening abnormalities) compared favorably to external benchmarks. Spanish-speaking patients had lower health literacy, lower patient activation, and more health care system distrust than did English-speaking patients, but despite the prevalence of timeliness risk factors, we observed no differences in likelihood of delayed (> 60 days) follow-up by language. Conclusions. Our successful replication and scaling of the PNRP navigation model to DuPage County illustrates a promising approach for future navigator research. PMID:25713942

  13. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  14. Monopolar radiofrequency treatment of the eyelids: a safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Biesman, Brian S; Pope, Karl

    2007-07-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) energy has been used to successfully accomplish noninvasive skin tightening of the face, abdomen, and extremities. Owing to concerns about injury to the eye itself, monopolar RF treatment of the eyelids has not been feasible. The objective was to evaluate the safety of a novel 0.25-cm(2)"shallow" treatment tip for noninvasive tightening of eyelid skin. This was a tripartite study that began with an animal model to evaluate soft tissue effects and temperature change at the ocular surface. Findings were then extrapolated to ex vivo evaluation of human eyelids and ultimately to an in vivo human eyelid safety study. The animal studies demonstrated that the 0.25-cm(2) treatment tip could be used safely on eyelids in conjunction with appropriate ocular protection. The ex vivo human eyelid studies confirmed that, at typical treatment settings, the shallow treatment tip did not produce frank eyelid injury. The in vivo human studies confirmed that, at the tested settings, the novel treatment tip did not injure the eyelids or eyes. If used properly, the 0.25-cm(2) treatment tip can be safely used on human eyelids.

  15. [Evaluation and treatment of dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-11-01

    As both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit a variety of patterns of dysphagia, appropriate symptomatic treatment is provided after evaluation of swallowing function through videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing. In ALS, disease progression is rapid, therefore, respiratory function, swallowing function and nutritional status should be evaluated regularly. When the oral or pharyngeal stage of swallowing are affected early in dysphagia, adjusting swallowing volume and varying consistency can be beneficial in ALS. When all stages of swallowing are impaired in ALS, such complications as pneumonia, dehydration and malnutrition, are observed. In such patients, it is necessary to consider an alternative to oral dietary intake. In PD, dysphagia is not necessarily associated with severity of parkinsonism and can appear at any time during the course of the disease. Dysphagia in PD can occur at any stage of swallowing and frequently accompanies multiple abnormalities. In particular, aspiration is an important risk factor for pneumonia in PD. The effect of L-dopa treatment for dysphagia is often insufficient; however, this treatment remains the first choice because dysphagia is exacerbated during off state. Rehabilitation for dysphagia in PD has also some effect.

  16. Evaluating the effect of synchronized sea lice treatments in Chile.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, G; Stryhn, H; Sanchez, J; Vanderstichel, R; Campistó, J L; Rees, E E; Ibarra, R; St-Hilaire, S

    2017-01-01

    The sea louse is considered an important ectoparasite that affects farmed salmonids around the world. Sea lice control relies heavily on pharmacological treatments in several salmon-producing countries, including Chile. Among options for drug administration, immersion treatments represent the majority of antiparasitic control strategies used in Chile. As a topical procedure, immersion treatments do not induce a long lasting effect; therefore, re-infestation from neighbouring farms may undermine their efficacy. Synchronization of treatments has been proposed as a strategy to improve immersion treatment performance, but it has not been evaluated so far. Using a repeated-measures linear mixed-effect model, we evaluated the impact of treatment synchronization of neighbouring farms (within 10km seaway distance) on the adult lice mean abundance from weeks 2 to 8 post-treatment on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, while controlling for external and internal sources of lice before the treatments, and also for environmental and fish-related variables. Results indicate that treatment synchronization was significantly associated with lower adult lice levels from weeks 5 to 7 after treatment. This relationship appeared to be linear, suggesting that higher levels of synchronization may result in lower adult sea lice levels during these weeks. These findings suggest that synchronization can improve the performance of immersion delousing treatments by keeping sea lice levels low for a longer period of time. Our results may be applicable to other regions of the world where immersion treatments are widely used. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Economic evaluation of knee arthroscopy treatment in a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Blatnik, Patricia; Tušak, Matej; Bojnec, Štefan; Brezigar Masten, Arjana

    2017-02-01

    Aim The economic evaluation of medical programs applies procedures that search for and ensure the cheapest methods of medical treatment with the best feasible health results. The aim of this study was to thoroughly examine both the costs and results of medical outcomes, which were based upon two alternative methods of treatment. The purpose was to offer obtained information to the medical profession and hospital management, since they must decide on how to use the funds designed for knee arthroscopy surgery. Methods A cost-utility analysis of two competitive treatments for knee arthroscopy was evaluated: the first one was executed by a standard department of surgery and the second one for the implementation within the framework of ambulatory treatment. Results The direct costs of the existing knee arthroscopy surgery amount to 930.39 euro, while the alternative treatment amount to 419.80 euro. The second alternative treatment would significantly reduce labor costs, depreciation costs and material costs. The implementation of the second alternative would reduce the total cost by 54.88%. Outpatient surgical procedures can bring numerous potential advantages such as lower costs and unchanged or improved medical outcomes, when compared to the classical method of outpatient treatment. The results show that the outpatient treatment does not sacrifice quality in order to reduce hospital costs. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  19. Evaluation of a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in "Bell's" facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, Elisabet; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Hanner, Per; Fogdestam, Ingemar

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in Bell's palsy. A consecutive series of nine patients with Bell's palsy participated in the study. The subjects were enrolled 4-21 weeks after the onset of facial paralysis. The study had a single subject experimental design with a baseline period of 2-6 weeks and a treatment period of 26-42 weeks. The patients were evaluated using a facial grading score, a paresis index and a written questionnaire created for this study. Every patient was taught to perform an exercise program twice daily, including movements of the muscles surrounding the mouth, nose, eyes and forehead. All the patients improved in terms of symmetry at rest, movement and function. In conclusion, patients with remaining symptoms of Bell's palsy appear to experience positive effects from a specific training program. A larger study, however, is needed to fully evaluate the treatment.

  20. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  1. Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE).

    PubMed

    Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F

    2007-04-16

    Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. The results of this study will be

  2. In Support of a National Treatment Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Barry S; Flynn, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Argument is made for the importance of conducting a national treatment evaluation to permit understanding of the nature and effectiveness of typical treatment programming. Only through such study can we hope to learn areas of success and failure of normative programming relative to population characteristics and treatment strategies, and the extent to which research-based initiatives have been adopted by the field. That information is central to efforts to draw up a research agenda appropriate to the needs of clients and the staffs responsible for their treatment, and to clarify and respond to gaps in the application of potentially useful treatment components. In spite of such need, our understanding of typical treatment programming and of its effectiveness is based on data collected from a treatment cohort of 20 years ago, although patterns of drug use, characteristics of clients, and the treatment components available have all undergone substantial change. The responsibility taken to provide such information to the field, once seen as a central task of research, needs to be reasserted to strengthen and support our treatment efforts.

  3. Successful treatment algorithm for evaluation of early pregnancy after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Goossen, Rachel P; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Duran, Eyup Hakan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a prospectively implemented clinical algorithm for early identification of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after assisted reproductive technology (ART). Analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic medical center. All ART-conceived pregnancies between January 1995 and June 2013. Early pregnancy monitoring via clinical algorithm with all pregnancies screened using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and reported symptoms, with subsequent early ultrasound evaluation if hCG levels were abnormal or if the patient reported pain or vaginal bleeding. Algorithmic efficiency for diagnosis of EP and HP and their subsequent clinical outcomes using a binary forward stepwise logistic regression model built to determine predictors of early pregnancy failure. Of the 3,904 pregnancies included, the incidence of EP and HP was 0.77% and 0.46%, respectively. The algorithm selected 96.7% and 83.3% of pregnancies diagnosed with EP and HP, respectively, for early ultrasound evaluation, leading to earlier treatment and resolution. Logistic regression revealed that first hCG, second hCG, hCG slope, age, pain, and vaginal bleeding were all independent predictors of early pregnancy failure after ART. Our clinical algorithm for early pregnancy evaluation after ART is effective for identification and prompt intervention of EP and HP without significant over- or misdiagnosis, and avoids the potential catastrophic morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of abnormal vaginal flora in early pregnancy with clindamycin for the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth: a systematic review and metaanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Sobel, Jack D.; Workowski, Kimberly; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of clindamycin to women with abnormal vaginal flora at <22 weeks of gestation reduces the risk of preterm birth and late miscarriage. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials of the early administration of clindamycin to women with abnormal vaginal flora at <22 weeks of gestation. Five trials that comprised 2346 women were included. Clindamycin that was administered at <22 weeks of gestation was associated with a significantly reduced risk of preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation and late miscarriage. There were no overall differences in the risk of preterm birth at <33 weeks of gestation, low birthweight, very low birthweight, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, stillbirth, peripartum infection, and adverse effects. Clindamycin in early pregnancy in women with abnormal vaginal flora reduces the risk of spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation and late miscarriage. There is evidence to justify further randomized controlled trials of clindamycin for the prevention of preterm birth. However, a deeper understanding of the vaginal microbiome, mucosal immunity, and the biology of bacterial vaginosis will be needed to inform the design of such trials. PMID:22071048

  5. Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence in long term care.

    PubMed

    Pannill, F C; Williams, T F; Davis, R

    1988-10-01

    All elderly patients with established urinary incontinence residing in an intermediate care facility during one year were evaluated for medical and urological conditions contributing to the incontinence; treatment was initiated for all diagnosed problems if possible. Unstable detrusor function (65%), sphincter weakness (13%), and overflow incontinence (10%) were all frequent urological causes, although several patients required extensive testing in addition to cystometrics to establish a complete diagnosis. Frequent nonurological causes of incontinence included behavioral problems (53%), immobility (45%), medication problems (24%), diabetes (18%), and local pathology (47%). Thirty-seven percent had three or more conditions identified. Treatment aimed at nonurological causes was more successful in ameliorating incontinence than urological medication; side effects were significant limitations to urological treatment success. Of the 22 patients who completed evaluation, treatment, and follow-up, five patients (23%) were cured, three (14%) showed at least a 65% decrease in incontinence, four (18%) showed at least a 30% decrease in incontinence, and 10 (45%) showed no change or worsened. We conclude that nonurological problems frequently contribute to urinary incontinence in long term care facilities; incontinence in some of these patients can be improved without urological therapy. Nonurological problems need careful definition and treatment; patients whose incontinence persists require comprehensive urological evaluation and therapy. A complete solution to incontinence in this setting may require safer drugs and better understanding of urinary pathophysiology.

  6. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Robert E. Keane; Kevin M. James; R. Brion Salter

    2010-01-01

    We present a prototype decision support system for evaluating wild-land fire danger and prioritizing subwatersheds for vegetation and fuels treatment. We demonstrate the use of the system with an example from the Rocky Mountain region in the State of Utah, which represents a planning area of about 4.8 million ha and encompasses 575 complete subwatersheds. In a logic...

  7. The Application of a Residential Treatment Evaluation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ronald H.; And Others

    This study applied a model for the evaluation of a children's residential treatment center. The conclusions are based on data collected for 22 children at four key points: a community baseline relating to families and prior agency contacts, a residential baseline dealing with the child's reported behavior during the first six weeks at the center,…

  8. Development and evaluation of addiction treatment programs in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Pérez-López, Alejandro; Horigian, Viviana E

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present a state-of-the-art review of the scientific studies that have evaluated healthcare systems, services and programs for addiction treatment in Latin America. As a secondary aim, this article presents a brief description and analysis of the addiction prevention and treatment resources and programs available in Latin America, based on information from the ATLAS on Substance Use (ATLAS-SU) project led by the WHO. Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the main causes associated with global burden of disease. Around the world, many initiatives have been proposed to promote policies to reduce substance use and reduce the impact of SUD, including integrating treatments into healthcare systems, increasing access to treatment programs and impacting outcome measures. In Latin America, multiple efforts have been implemented to improve addiction services and programs, although little is known about the impact they have generated. International studies report the availability of strategies and public inicitatives on prevention and treatment of addiction in Latin America. These studies also report established networks of public and private services that include prevention and detoxification programs, outpatient and residential treatment, and also social reintegration initiatives. However, despite these advances, information on the evaluation of the progress, results and impact of these programs is limited.

  9. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  10. An Evaluation of Treatments for Pruritus in Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Danial, Christina; Adeduntan, Rasidat; Gorell, Emily S.; Lucky, Anne W.; Paller, Amy S.; Bruckner, Anna L.; Pope, Elena; Morel, Kimberly D.; Levy, Moise L.; Li, Shufeng; Gilmore, Elaine S.; Lane, Alfred T

    2016-01-01

    Background Pruritus is a common complication in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and can be problematic. Objective data about the treatments used by EB patients for pruritus have not been reported and recommendations are limited. Objective To quantitatively determine which treatments have been used by EB patients for pruritus and to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of these treatments in pruritus relief. Methods A questionnaire was developed to evaluate which treatments and therapies have been used for pruritus in patients of all ages and types of EB. Questions about bathing products, moisturizers, topical products, oral medications, dressings, and alternative therapies were included. A 5-point Likert scale (-2=relieves itch a lot, -1=relieves itch a little, 0=no change, 1=increases itch a little, 2=increases itch a lot) was used to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of different treatments on pruritus relief. Patients from seven North American EB centers were invited to participate. Results Greasy ointments (53.4%), lotions (45.2%), creams (40.4%), and oral hydroxyzine (39.0%) were the most frequently used treatments for pruritus. Treatments that were used frequently and perceived to be the most effective included creams (mean=-1.1), topical prescription corticosteroids (mean=-1.0), oils (mean=-0.9), oral hydroxyzine (mean=-0.9), topical diphenhydramine (mean=-0.9), and vaporizing rub (menthol/camphor/eucalyptus) (mean=-0.9). Patients that used creams (p=0.05) or lotions (p=0.04) more often experienced significantly less pruritus. Systemic opioids (mean=0.3), adherent bandages (mean=0.3), and bleach baths (mean=0.2) slightly increased pruritus. Conclusions Randomized-controlled trials of therapies will be necessary to develop evidence-based recommendations for control of pruritus in EB patients. PMID:25557557

  11. Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of modulated arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Kyu; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Yeon Sil; Choi, Byung Ock; Kang, Young-Nam; Nam, Sang Hee; Park, Hyeong Wook; Kim, Shin Wook; Shin, Hun Joo; Lee, Jae Choon; Kim, Ji Na; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of modulated arc (mARC) treatment techniques. The mARC treatment plans for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were made in order to verify the clinical usefulness of mARC. A pre-study was conducted to find the best plan condition for mARC treatment, and the usefulness of the mARC treatment plan was evaluated by comparing it with other Arc treatment plans such as tomotherapy and RapidArc plans. In the case of mARC, the optimal condition for the mARC plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the mARC plans developed by using various parameters, which included the photon energy (6 MV, 10 MV), the optimization point angle (6°- 10°intervals), and the total number of segments (36 - 59 segments). The best dosimetric performance of mARC was observed at a 10 MV photon energy, a point angle 6 degrees, and 59 segments. The treatment plans for the three different techniques were compared by using the following parameters: the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), the target coverage, the dose to the OARs, the number of monitor units (MU), the beam on time, and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). As a result, the three different treatment techniques showed similar target coverages. The mARC plan had the lowest V20 (volume of lung receiving > 20 Gy) and MU per fraction compared with both the RapidArc and the tomotherapy plans. The mARC plan reduced the beam on time as well. Therefore, the results of this study provide satisfactory evidence that the mARC technique can be considered as a useful clinical technique for radiation treatment.

  12. Prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii): 89 cases (2002-2005).

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jonathan; Innis, Charles J; Solano, Mauricio; O'Sullivan Brisson, Jennifer; Kass, Philip H; Tlusty, Michael F; Weber, E Scott

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) and associations between these abnormalities and body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical variables. Retrospective case series. 89 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles. Medical records were reviewed. Dorsoventral and horizontal beam craniocaudal radiographs were evaluated for the presence, distribution, and progression of lung abnormalities. Turtles were categorized as having radiographically normal or abnormal lungs; those with abnormalities detected were further categorized according to the distribution of abnormalities (left lung, right lung, or both affected). Body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical data were compared among categories. 48 of 89 (54%) turtles had radiographic abnormalities of the lungs. Unilateral abnormalities of the right or left lung were detected in 14 (16%) and 2 (2%), respectively; both lungs were affected in 32 (36%). Prevalence of unilateral abnormalities was significantly greater for the right lung than for the left lung. Evaluation of follow-up radiographs indicated clinical improvement over time for most (18/31 [58%]) turtles. Prevalence of bilateral radiographic abnormalities was positively correlated with body weight and carapace length. There was no significant association between radiographic category and hematologic or plasma biochemical variables. Radiographic abnormalities of the lungs were commonly detected in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles. Results of this study may aid clinicians in developing effective diagnostic and treatment plans for these patients.

  13. Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Children

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Benjamin S.

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the syndrome of elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for affected children. PH is associated with a wide variety of potential underlying causes, including cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic and rheumatologic abnormalities. Regardless of the cause, for many patients the natural history of PH involves progressive elevation in pulmonary arterial resistance and pressure, right ventricular dysfunction, and eventually heart failure. In recent years, a number of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapies have become available to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve outcome. A growing body of evidence in both the adult and pediatric literature demonstrates enhanced quality of life, functional status, and survival among treated patients. This review provides a description of select etiologies of PH seen in pediatrics and an update on the most recent data pertaining to evaluation and management of children with PH/PAH. The available evidence for specific classes of PAH-targeted therapies in pediatrics is additionally discussed. PMID:29570688

  14. The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F): construction and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Drieschner, Klaus H; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-06-01

    The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) is a Dutch 85-item self-report questionnaire for the motivation of forensic outpatients to engage in their treatment and six cognitive and affective determinants of this motivation. Following descriptions of the conceptual basis and construction, the psychometric properties of the TMS-F are evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 378), the factorial structure of the instrument and the dimensionality of its scales are evaluated by confirmative factor analysis. In Study 2 with a new sample (N = 376), the results of Study 1 are largely confirmed. It is found that the factorial structure of the TMS-F is in accordance with expectations, that all scales are sufficiently homogeneous and reliable to interpret the sum scores, and that these results are stable across independent samples. The relative importance of the six determinants of the motivation to engage in the treatment and the generalizability of the results are discussed.

  15. Position paper on nasal obstruction: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valero, A; Navarro, A M; Del Cuvillo, A; Alobid, I; Benito, J R; Colás, C; de Los Santos, G; Fernández Liesa, R; García-Lliberós, A; González-Pérez, R; Izquierdo-Domínguez, A; Jurado-Ramos, A; Lluch-Bernal, M M; Montserrat Gili, J R; Mullol, J; Puiggròs Casas, A; Sánchez-Hernández, M C; Vega, F; Villacampa, J M; Armengot-Carceller, M; Dordal, M T

    2018-01-01

    Nasal obstruction (NO) is defined as the subjective perception of discomfort or difficulty in the passage of air through the nostrils. It is a common reason for consultation in primary and specialized care and may affect up to 30%-40% of the population. It affects quality of life (especially sleep) and lowers work efficiency. The aim of this document is to agree on how to treat NO, establish a methodology for evaluating and diagnosing it, and define an individualized approach to its treatment. NO can be unilateral or bilateral, intermittent or persistent and may be caused by local or systemic factors, which may be anatomical, inflammatory, neurological, hormonal, functional, environmental, or pharmacological in origin. Directed study of the medical history and physical examination are key for diagnosing the specific cause. NO may be evaluated using subjective assessment tools (visual analog scale, symptom score, standardized questionnaires) or by objective estimation (active anterior rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow). Although there is little correlation between the results, they may be considered complementary and not exclusive. Assessing the impact on quality of life through questionnaires standardized according to the underlying disease is also advisable. NO is treated according to its cause. Treatment is fundamentally pharmacological (topical and/or systemic) when the etiology is inflammatory or functional. Surgery may be necessary when medical treatment fails to complement or improve medical treatment or when other therapeutic approaches are not possible. Combinations of surgical techniques and medical treatment may be necessary.

  16. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-10-18

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department ofmore » Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document.« less

  17. "SABER": A new software tool for radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Joiner, Michael C; Orton, Colin G; Burmeister, Jay

    2010-11-01

    Both spatial and biological information are necessary in order to perform true optimization of a treatment plan and for predicting clinical outcome. The goal of this work is to develop an enhanced treatment plan evaluation tool which incorporates biological parameters and retains spatial dose information. A software system is developed which provides biological plan evaluation with a novel combination of features. It incorporates hyper-radiosensitivity using the induced-repair model and applies the new concept of dose convolution filter (DCF) to simulate dose wash-out effects due to cell migration, bystander effect, and/or tissue motion during treatment. Further, the concept of spatial DVH (sDVH) is introduced to evaluate and potentially optimize the spatial dose distribution in the target volume. Finally, generalized equivalent uniform dose is derived from both the physical dose distribution (gEUD) and the distribution of equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (gEUD2) and the software provides three separate models for calculation of tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and probability of uncomplicated tumor control (P+). TCP, NTCP, and P+ are provided as a function of prescribed dose and multivariable TCP, NTCP, and P+ plots are provided to illustrate the dependence on individual parameters used to calculate these quantities. Ten plans from two clinical treatment sites are selected to test the three calculation models provided by this software. By retaining both spatial and biological information about the dose distribution, the software is able to distinguish features of radiotherapy treatment plans not discernible using commercial systems. Plans that have similar DVHs may have different spatial and biological characteristics and the application of novel tools such as sDVH and DCF within the software may substantially change the apparent plan quality or predicted plan metrics such as TCP and NTCP. For the cases examined

  18. Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Mixed Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Laor, Leanna; Dunphy, Claire; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a common clinical problem in the community and hospital setting. The broad definition of the term makes it difficult to diagnose, as well as determine effective treatment strategies. There are no current guidelines recommended for physicians. The estimated prevalence of this condition is approximately 30% in all women with incontinence. It has also been suggested that patients with MUI report more bothersome symptoms than either stress or urge incontinence; approximately 32% of 40- to 64-year-olds with MUI report symptoms of depression. The authors examine the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of patients with MUI.

  19. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  20. Acne Scarring—Pathogenesis, Evaluation, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Deirdre; Vu, Ha Linh; Mariwalla, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a ubiquitous problem affecting 80 percent of people ages 11 to 30 years, with many patients experiencing some degree of scarring. This review focuses on atrophic scars, the most common type of acne scar. We briefly address the cellular sequelae that lead to scar formation and the initial evaluation of patients with acne scars. We then discuss an algorithmic approach to the treatment of acne scarring based on the classification of scars into erythematous and atrophic types. Lastly, we discuss the future treatment of acne scars and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:29344322

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  2. Evaluation of treatment with carboxymethylcellulose on chronic venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    Januário, Virginia; de Ávila, Dione Augusto; Penetra, Maria Alice; Sampaio, Ana Luisa Bittencourt; Noronha Neta, Maria Isabel; Cassia, Flavia de Freire; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the chronic leg ulcers, venous ulcers are the most common and constitute a major burden to public health. Despite all technology available, some patients do not respond to established treatments. In our study, carboxymethylcellulose was tested in the treatment of refractory chronic venous ulcers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose 20% on the healing of chronic venous ulcers refractory to conventional treatments. METHODS: This is an analytical, pre-experimental study. Thirty patients were included with refractory venous ulcers, and applied dressings with carboxymethylcellulose 20% for 20 weeks. The analysis was based on measurement of the area of ulcers, performed at the first visit and after the end of the treatment. RESULTS: There was a reduction of 3.9 cm2 of lesion area (p=0.0001), corresponding to 38.8% (p=0.0001). There was no interruption of treatment and no increase in lesion area in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Carboxymethylcellulose 20% represents a low cost and effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of refractory chronic venous ulcers. However, controlled studies are necessary to prove its efficacy. PMID:26982773

  3. Gamma-band abnormalities as markers of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Donald C.; Wilson, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autism is a behaviorally diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder with no current biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. Gamma-band abnormalities have been reported in many studies of autism spectrum disorders. Gamma-band activity is associated with perceptual and cognitive functions that are compromised in autism. Some gamma-band deficits have also been seen in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting heritability of these findings. This review covers the published literature on gamma abnormalities in autism, the proposed mechanisms underlying the deficits, and the potential for translation into new treatments. Although the utility of gamma-band metrics as diagnostic biomarkers is currently limited, such changes in autism are also useful as endophenotypes, for evaluating potential neural mechanisms, and for use as surrogate markers of treatment response to interventions. PMID:24712425

  4. Refractory burning mouth syndrome: clinical and paraclinical evaluation, comorbiities, treatment and outcome.

    PubMed

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Deligianni, Christina I

    2017-12-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition characterized by persistent intraoral burning without related objective findings and unknown etiology that affects elderly females mostly. There is no satisfactory treatment for BMS. We aimed to observe the long-term efficacy of high velanfaxine doses combined with systemic and topical administered clonazepam in a particular subgroup of BMS patients who do not respond to current clinical management. Eight (66.1 ± 6.2 years old females) out of 14 BMS patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were treated with venlafaxine (300 mg/d) and clonazepam (5 mg/d) for 35.4 ± 12.1 (mean ± SD) months. The average duration of the symptoms at baseline was 4.3 ± 1.4 years and the overall mean daily pain intensity score was 8.6 ± 1.3 (VAS); pain was in tongue and within the oral mucosa, accompanying by oral and facial dysesthesia. In five patients tasting was abnormal. All patients had positive history of concomitant primary headache. The average score of Hamilton Rating scale for Anxiety and Depression was 21 ± 4.2, and 26.1 ± 2.9, respectively. Previous ineffective treatments include anticonvulsants and anti-depressants. All patients responded (more than 50% decrease in VAS) after three months treatment (mean VAS 3.2 ± 2.2) with no remarkable adverse events. BMS deserves bottomless psychiatric evaluation and management when current available treatments fail. Treatment with venlafaxine combined with topical and systemic clonazepam may be effective in refractory BMS cases but further investigation in a large-scale controlled study is needed to confirm these results.

  5. Esophageal motor and sensory disorders: presentation, evaluation, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Massey, Benson T

    2007-09-01

    Esophageal motor and sensory disorders are relatively rare conditions in the general population and afflicted patients are often initially misdiagnosed as having gastroesophageal reflux disease. Tests for these disorders have imperfect gold standards and are adjuncts to sound diagnostic reasoning. Treatments are palliative and have not been rigorously evaluated for some disorders. Symptoms and complications from disease progression and relapse are common, so that patients need continued follow-up.

  6. Evaluating component effects of a prison-based treatment continuum.

    PubMed

    Butzin, Clifford A; Martin, Steven S; Inciardi, James A

    2002-03-01

    A continuum of correctional-based therapeutic community (TC) treatment programs for drug-involved offenders has been functioning for several years in Delaware. Previous evaluations have shown the efficacy of the full continuum for up to three years posttreatment, though there has been some question of the benefits of treatment within prison. The particular focus here is on the relative impact of the within-prison, transitional, and aftercare treatment components upon criminal recidivism and relapse to illicit drug use. The relative benefit of participation in each component is supported, over and above the effects of differences in demographics and histories of criminal behavior and illicit substance use. However, the residential transitional program effects are generally larger and more long lasting. Additionally, the two outcomes appear differentially sensitive to the degree of completion of the continuum. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  7. CAP--advancing the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer disease treatments.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Eric M; Langbaum, Jessica B; Tariot, Pierre N; Lopera, Francisco; Bateman, Randall J; Morris, John C; Sperling, Reisa A; Aisen, Paul S; Roses, Allen D; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Carrillo, Maria C; Weninger, Stacie

    2016-01-01

    If we are to find treatments to postpone, reduce the risk of, or completely prevent the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), we need faster methods to evaluate promising preclinical AD treatments, new ways to work together in support of common goals, and a determination to expedite the initiation and performance of preclinical AD trials. In this article, we note some of the current challenges, opportunities and emerging strategies in preclinical AD treatment. We describe the Collaboration for Alzheimer's Prevention (CAP)-a convening, harmonizing and consensus-building initiative to help stakeholders advance AD prevention research with rigour, care and maximal impact-and we demonstrate the impact of CAP on the goals and design of new preclinical AD trials.

  8. CAP—advancing the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer disease treatments

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M.; Langbaum, Jessica B.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Bateman, Randall J.; Morris, John C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Aisen, Paul S.; Roses, Allen D.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Weninger, Stacie

    2016-01-01

    If we are to find treatments to postpone, reduce the risk of, or completely prevent the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), we need faster methods to evaluate promising preclinical AD treatments, new ways to work together in support of common goals, and a determination to expedite the initiation and performance of preclinical AD trials. In this article, we note some of the current challenges, opportunities and emerging strategies in preclinical AD treatment. We describe the Collaboration for Alzheimer’s Prevention (CAP)—a convening, harmonizing and consensus-building initiative to help stakeholders advance AD prevention research with rigour, care and maximal impact—and we demonstrate the impact of CAP on the goals and design of new preclinical AD trials. PMID:26416539

  9. New Trends for the Evaluation of Heat Treatments of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Di Costanzo, Maria Gabriella; Mattera, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Milk is generally very rich in nutrients and this may lead it to be an ideal growth environment for many microorganisms, including pathogens, so effective measurements aiming to ensure total microbiological safety of milk and minimize the risk to human health are needed. Milk heat treatments are the most common practices carried out to inhibit the microbial growth; therefore it is necessary to have analytical procedures that are more and more up-to-date and capable of detecting the effectiveness of the heat treatments. Most of the reference and official methods to assess heat treatment in milk are based on the evaluation of the modifications of some milk components following the thermal process, such as the determination of enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase), whey proteins, Maillard reaction compounds (generally furosine), and lactulose. Besides the most common techniques (liquid and gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, or spectroscopy) used for the detection of single thermal indicators, new approaches, such as chemometric studies or more recent techniques, including size-exclusion chromatography with online electrospray mass spectrometry or stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry, are discussed in this review in order to evaluate heat treatment in milk. PMID:29230345

  10. An evaluation of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Evans, W G; Becker, P

    2012-08-01

    Root resorption is commonly seen, albeit in varying degrees, in cases that have been treated orthodontically. In this retrospective study the objective was to compare the amount of root resorption observed after active orthodontic treatment had been completed with one of three different appliance systems, namely, Tip Edge, Modified Edgewise and Damon. The sample consisted of pre and post-treatment cephalograms of sixty eight orthodontic cases. Root resorption of the maxillary central incisor was assessed from pre- and post- treatment lateral ce phalograms using two methods. In the first, overall tooth length from the incisal edge to the apex was measured on both pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and root resorption was recorded as an actual millimetre loss of tooth length. There was a significant upward linear trend (p = 0.052) for root resorption from the Tip Edge Group to the Damon Group. In the second method root resorption was visually evaluated by using the five grade ordinal scale of Levander and Malmgren (1988). It was found that the majorty of cases in the sample came under Grade 1 and Grade 2 category of root resorption. Statistical evaluation tested the extent of agree ment in this study between visual measurements and actual measurements and demonstrated a significant association (p = 0.018) between the methods.

  11. Evaluation of empirical treatment for blood culture-negative endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Menu, Estelle; Gouriet, Frédérique; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Vecten, Maude; Saby, Ludivine; Hubert, Sandrine; Salaun, Erwan; Theron, Alexis; Grisoli, Dominique; Lavoute, Cécile; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the main causes of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE). Few studies concerning BCNE treatment (due to previous antibiotics used or fastidious pathogens) are available. We performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of our therapeutic protocol in BCNE, based on compliance with the protocol, outcome and 1 year mortality. We collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively cases of BCNE between 2002 and 2014, using a simplified and standardized protocol developed by our multidisciplinary team. We apply two kinds of protocols to treat BCNE, which include only four intravenous antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin and amphotericin B. We had 177 patients with definite BCNE. There were 154 (87.0%) patients treated with both appropriate antimicrobial agents and appropriate duration of treatment. We analysed the causes of inappropriate treatment in 13 (7.3%) cases and inappropriate duration in 10 (5.6%) cases. The treatment changes were justified in all cases except one of discharge against medical advice. The fatality rate was 5.1% (nine cases) and all deaths occurred in the group of patients who were treated with appropriate treatment; however, four deaths were not attributable to empirical treatment failure. Concerning the other deaths, the lack of surgical management, in association with empirical treatment, could explain our protocol's failure, such as poorly tolerated surgery. Our protocol is efficient and our mortality rate was low, compared with the literature review. This may result from a strategy that uses a sampling procedure and a standardized protocol at the same time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Therapist perception of treatment outcome: Evaluating treatment outcomes among youth with antisocial behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Crandal, Brent R; Foster, Sharon L; Chapman, Jason E; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia A; Whitmore, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Effective evaluation of treatment requires the use of measurement tools producing reliable scores that can be used to make valid decisions about the outcomes of interest. Therapist-rated treatment outcome scores that are obtained within the context of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) could provide clinicians and researchers with data that are easily accessible and complimentary to existing instrumentation. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the Therapist Perception of Treatment Outcome: Youth Antisocial Behavior (TPTO:YAB), an instrument developed to assess therapist judgments of treatment success among families participating in an EST, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of MST. The initial 20-item TPTO:YAB was completed by therapists of 111 families at midtreatment and 163 families at treatment termination. Rasch model dimensionality analyses provided evidence for 2 dimensions reflecting youth- and caregiver-related aspects of treatment outcome, although a bifactor analyses suggested that these dimensions reflected a single more general construct. Rasch analyses were also used to assess item and rating scale characteristics and refine the number of items. These analyses suggested items performed similarly across time and that scores reflect treatment outcome in similar ways at mid and posttreatment. Multilevel and zero-order analyses provided evidence for the validity of TPTO:YAB scores. TPTO:YAB scores were moderately correlated with scores of youth and caregiver behaviors targeted in treatment, adding support to its use as a treatment outcome measurement instrument. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [Correlation between facial nerve functional evaluation and efficacy evaluation of acupuncture treatment for Bell's palsy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhang-ling; Li, Cheng-xin; Jiang, Yue-bo; Zuo, Cong; Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui

    2012-09-01

    To assess and grade facial nerve dysfunction according to the extent of facial paralysis in the clinical course of acupuncture treatment for Bell's palsy, and to observe the interrelationship between the grade, the efficacy and the period of treatment, as well as the effect on prognosis. The authors employed the House-Brackmann scale, a commonly used evaluation scale for facial paralysis motor function, and set standards for eye fissure and lips. According to the improved scale, the authors assessed and graded the degree of facial paralysis in terms of facial nerve dysfunction both before and after treatment. The grade was divided into five levels: mild, moderate, moderately severe, severe dysfunction and complete paralysis. The authors gave acupuncture treatment according to the state of the disease without artificially setting the treatment period. The observation was focused on the efficacy and the efficacy was evaluated throughout the entire treatment process. Fifty-three cases out of 68 patients with Bell's palsy were cured and the overall rate of efficacy was 97%. Statistically significant differences (P<0.01) were perceived among the efficacy of five levels of facial nerve dysfunction. Efficacy was correlated with the damage level of the disease (correlation coefficient r=0.423, P<0.01). The course of treatment also extended with the severity of facial nerve dysfunction (P<0.01). Differences exist in patients with Bell's palsy in terms of severity of facial nerve dysfunction. Efficacy is reduced in correlation with an increase in facial nerve dysfunction, and the period of treatment varies in need of different levels of facial nerve dysfunction. It is highly necessary to assess and grade patients before observation and treatment in clinical study, and choose corresponding treatment according to severity of damage of the disease.

  14. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : tech transfer summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the performance of the most-used pavement treatments in Iowa by considering different parameters such as type of treatment, treatment thickness, traffic, and pavement type : Estimate a service life for each treatment based on the obs...

  15. In silico evaluation and exploration of antibiotic tuberculosis treatment regimens

    SciTech Connect

    Pienaar, Elsje; Dartois, Véronique; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    Improvement in tuberculosis treatment regimens requires selection of antibiotics and dosing schedules from a large design space of possibilities. Incomplete knowledge of antibiotic and host immune dynamics in tuberculosis granulomas impacts clinical trial design and success, and variations among clinical trials hamper side-by-side comparison of regimens. Our objective is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of isoniazid and rifampin regimens, and identify modifications to these antibiotics that improve treatment outcomes. We pair a spatio-temporal computational model of host immunity with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on isoniazid and rifampin. The model is calibrated to plasma pharmacokinetic and granuloma bacterial load data frommore » non-human primate models of tuberculosis and to tissue and granuloma measurements of isoniazid and rifampin in rabbit granulomas. We predict the efficacy of regimens containing different doses and frequencies of isoniazid and rifampin. We predict impacts of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modifications on antibiotic efficacy. We demonstrate that suboptimal antibiotic concentrations within granulomas lead to poor performance of intermittent regimens compared to daily regimens. Improvements from dose and frequency changes are limited by inherent antibiotic properties, and we propose that changes in intracellular accumulation ratios and antimicrobial activity would lead to the most significant improvements in treatment outcomes. Results suggest that an increased risk of drug resistance in fully intermittent as compared to daily regimens arises from higher bacterial population levels early during treatment. In conclusion, our systems pharmacology approach complements efforts to accelerate tuberculosis therapeutic development.« less

  16. In silico evaluation and exploration of antibiotic tuberculosis treatment regimens

    DOE PAGES

    Pienaar, Elsje; Dartois, Véronique; Linderman, Jennifer J.; ...

    2015-11-14

    Improvement in tuberculosis treatment regimens requires selection of antibiotics and dosing schedules from a large design space of possibilities. Incomplete knowledge of antibiotic and host immune dynamics in tuberculosis granulomas impacts clinical trial design and success, and variations among clinical trials hamper side-by-side comparison of regimens. Our objective is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of isoniazid and rifampin regimens, and identify modifications to these antibiotics that improve treatment outcomes. We pair a spatio-temporal computational model of host immunity with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on isoniazid and rifampin. The model is calibrated to plasma pharmacokinetic and granuloma bacterial load data frommore » non-human primate models of tuberculosis and to tissue and granuloma measurements of isoniazid and rifampin in rabbit granulomas. We predict the efficacy of regimens containing different doses and frequencies of isoniazid and rifampin. We predict impacts of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modifications on antibiotic efficacy. We demonstrate that suboptimal antibiotic concentrations within granulomas lead to poor performance of intermittent regimens compared to daily regimens. Improvements from dose and frequency changes are limited by inherent antibiotic properties, and we propose that changes in intracellular accumulation ratios and antimicrobial activity would lead to the most significant improvements in treatment outcomes. Results suggest that an increased risk of drug resistance in fully intermittent as compared to daily regimens arises from higher bacterial population levels early during treatment. In conclusion, our systems pharmacology approach complements efforts to accelerate tuberculosis therapeutic development.« less

  17. [Evaluation and treatment of the critically ill cirrhotic patient].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Aracil, Carles; Solà, Elsa; Soriano, Germán; Cinta Cardona, Maria; Coll, Susanna; Genescà, Joan; Hombrados, Manoli; Morillas, Rosa; Martín-Llahí, Marta; Pardo, Albert; Sánchez, Jordi; Vargas, Victor; Xiol, Xavier; Ginès, Pere

    2016-11-01

    Cirrhotic patients often develop severe complications requiring ICU admission. Grade III-IV hepatic encephalopathy, septic shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure and variceal bleeding are clinical decompensations that need a specific therapeutic approach in cirrhosis. The increased effectiveness of the treatments currently used in this setting and the spread of liver transplantation programs have substantially improved the prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients, which has facilitated their admission to critical care units. However, gastroenterologists and intensivists have limited knowledge of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of these complications and of the prognostic evaluation of critically ill cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients present alterations in systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics, coagulation and immune dysfunction what further increase the complexity of the treatment, the risk of developing new complications and mortality in comparison with the general population. These differential characteristics have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications that must be known by general intensivists. In this context, the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology requested a group of experts to draft a position paper on the assessment and treatment of critically ill cirrhotic patients. This article describes the recommendations agreed upon at the consensus meetings and their main conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents.

  19. Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, L; Colombo, C; Realini, M; Peraio, A; Positano, M

    2001-01-01

    The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation.

  20. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  1. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Contemporary Evaluation and Treatment of Poststroke Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Panfili, Zachary; Metcalf, Meredith; Griebling, Tomas L

    2017-08-01

    Stroke is an extremely common clinical entity, and poststroke incontinence is a major cause of morbidity for stroke survivors. Although patients can experience a wide variety of lower urinary tract symptoms, detrusor overactivity is among the most common clinical findings following stroke. All forms of lower urinary tract symptoms can negatively impact physical and psychosocial function for affected patients and their caregivers and loved ones. Careful evaluation is critical for successful management. Treatment is tailored to the goals and needs of each individual patient. Improvements in continence status can help to enhance overall and health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antenatal Hydronephrosis: Differential Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, C.D. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis, evaluation and management of antenatal hydronephrosis has undergone a two stage paradigm shift since the advent of prenatal ultrasonography in the early 1980s. Initially the identification of a large number of asymptomatic infants appeared to afford the surgeon the opportunity for preemptive intervention. However, it has now become apparent that antenatal hydronephrosis (AH) is far more difficult to interpret thanoriginally perceived. The initial enthusiasm for surgery has now been replaced by a much more conservative approach to ureteropelvic junction(UPJ) obstruction, multi-cystic dysplastic kidney(MCDK), vesicoureteral reflux and the non-refluxing megaureter. This review will highlight the postnatal evaluation of AH and include an overview of the Society for Fetal Urology grading system for hydronephrosis. The differential diagnosis and treatment options for UPJ obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, MCDK, duplication anomalies, megaureter, and posterior urethral valves will be discussed. PMID:17619702

  4. Evaluation and treatment of failed shoulder instability procedures.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anthony G; Gowda, Ashok L; Michael Wiater, J

    2016-09-01

    Management of the unstable shoulder after a failed stabilization procedure can be difficult and challenging. Detailed understanding of the native shoulder anatomy, including its static and dynamic restraints, is necessary for determining the patient's primary pathology. In addition, evaluation of the patient's history, physical exam, and imaging is important for identifying the cause for failure after the initial procedure. Common mistakes include under-appreciation of bony defects, failure to recognize capsular laxity, technical errors, and missed associated pathology. Many potential treatment options exist for revision surgery, including open or arthroscopic Bankart repair, bony augmentation procedures, and management of Hill Sachs defects. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss in-depth the common risk factors for post-surgical failure, components for appropriate evaluation, and the different surgical options available for revision stabilization. Level of evidence Level V.

  5. EVALUATION OF VADOSE ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO IMMOBILIZE TECHNETIUM-99

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-03-15

    The Hanford Site End State Vision document (DOE/RL-2003-59) states: ''There should be an aggressive plan to develop technology for remediation of the contamination that could get to the groundwater (particularly the technetium [{sup 99}Tc])''. In addition, there is strong support from the public and regulatory agencies for the above statement, with emphasis on investigation of treatment alternatives. In July 2004, PNNL completed a preliminary evaluation of remediation technologies with respect to their effectiveness and implementability for immobilization of {sup 99}Tc beneath the BC Cribs in the 200 West Area (Truex, 2004). As a result of this evaluation, PNNL recommended treatabilitymore » testing of in situ soil desiccation, because it has the least uncertainty of those technologies evaluated in July 2004 (Treatability Test Outline, September 30, 2004). In 2005, DOE-RL and Fluor Hanford convened an independent technical panel to review alternative remediation technologies, including desiccation, at a three-day workshop in Richland, Washington. The panel was composed of experts in vadose-zone transport, infiltration control, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, and geology. Their backgrounds include employment in academia, government laboratories, industry, and consulting. Their review, presented in this document, is based upon written reports from Hanford, oral presentations from Hanford staff, and each panel members' years of experience in their particular field of expertise. The purpose of this report is to document the panel's evaluation of various treatment alternatives with potential for minimizing contaminant migration in the deep vadose zone at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. The panel was tasked with assessing the most viable and practical approach and making recommendations for testing. The evaluation of vadose-zone treatment alternatives was conducted to be broadly applicable at a variety of locations at Hanford. However

  6. Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, I J; Morgan, D J; Lamont, R F; Sheehan, M; Doré, C J; Hay, P E; Taylor-Robinson, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether intravaginal clindamycin cream reduces the incidence of abnormal pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal vaginal microbial flora graded as intermediate or BV and to investigate the effect of the antibiotic on vaginal microbial flora. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant women in an antenatal clinic of a district general hospital. The subjects were 268 women who had abnormal vaginal microbial flora at first clinic visit by examination of a Gram-stained vaginal smear and 34 women with a normal vaginal flora. Two hundred and thirty-seven women were evaluable. Women with abnormal Gram-stained smears (graded as II or III) on clinic recall were randomised to receive treatment (intravaginal clindamycin cream) or placebo and followed to assess outcome of pregnancy, vaginal flora, and detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum after treatment. RESULTS: Abnormal outcomes of pregnancy were not significantly different in treated and placebo groups by Chi square (P = 0.2). However, women with grade III flora responded better to clindamycin than women with grade II flora by numbers of abnormal outcomes (P = 0.03) and return to normal vaginal flora (P = 0.01) (logistic regression analysis model). This may be due to differences in vaginal bacterial species in these grades. Women whose abnormal vaginal flora had spontaneously returned to normal on follow-up and were therefore not treated (revertants) had as many abnormal outcomes as placebos suggesting that damage by abnormal bacterial species occurred early in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Gram-stain screening distinguishing grade II from grade III flora may be helpful in prescribing treatment other than clindamycin for women with grade II flora. Earlier diagnosis and treatment may be more effective in preventing an abnormal outcome, possibly as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed or even offered as a pre-conception screen. PMID:10968599

  7. Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, I J; Morgan, D J; Lamont, R F; Sheehan, M; Doré, C J; Hay, P E; Taylor-Robinson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether intravaginal clindamycin cream reduces the incidence of abnormal pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal vaginal microbial flora graded as intermediate or BV and to investigate the effect of the antibiotic on vaginal microbial flora. A prospective cohort study of pregnant women in an antenatal clinic of a district general hospital. The subjects were 268 women who had abnormal vaginal microbial flora at first clinic visit by examination of a Gram-stained vaginal smear and 34 women with a normal vaginal flora. Two hundred and thirty-seven women were evaluable. Women with abnormal Gram-stained smears (graded as II or III) on clinic recall were randomised to receive treatment (intravaginal clindamycin cream) or placebo and followed to assess outcome of pregnancy, vaginal flora, and detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum after treatment. Abnormal outcomes of pregnancy were not significantly different in treated and placebo groups by Chi square (P = 0.2). However, women with grade III flora responded better to clindamycin than women with grade II flora by numbers of abnormal outcomes (P = 0.03) and return to normal vaginal flora (P = 0.01) (logistic regression analysis model). This may be due to differences in vaginal bacterial species in these grades. Women whose abnormal vaginal flora had spontaneously returned to normal on follow-up and were therefore not treated (revertants) had as many abnormal outcomes as placebos suggesting that damage by abnormal bacterial species occurred early in pregnancy. Gram-stain screening distinguishing grade II from grade III flora may be helpful in prescribing treatment other than clindamycin for women with grade II flora. Earlier diagnosis and treatment may be more effective in preventing an abnormal outcome, possibly as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed or even offered as a pre-conception screen.

  8. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Abnormal grain growth in iron-silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Tricia A.

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) was studied in an Fe-1%Si alloy using automated Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) to determine the driving force for this phenomenon. Experiments were performed with the knowledge that there are several possible driving forces and, the intent to determine the true driving force by elimination of the other potential candidates. These potential candidates include surface energy anisotropy, anisotropic grain boundary properties and the stored energy of deformation. In this work, surface energy and grain boundary anisotropies as well as the stored energy of deformation were investigated as the possible driving forces for AGG. Accordingly, industrially processed samples that were temper rolled to 1.5% and 8% were annealed in air for various times followed by quenching in water. The results obtained were compared to those from heat treatments performed in wet 15%H2-85%N2 at a US Steel facility. In addition, for a more complete study of the effect of surface energy anisotropies on AGG, the 1.5% temper-rolled material was heat-treated in other atmospheres such as 5%H2-95%Ar, 98%H2-2%He, 98%H2-2%H 2S, and 98%H2-2%N2 for 1 hour followed by quenching in water. The character of the grain boundaries in the materials was also examined for each set of experiments conducted, while the influence of stored energy was evaluated by examining intragranular orientation gradients. AGG occurred regardless of annealing atmosphere though the most rapid progression was observed in samples annealed in air. In general, grains of varying orientations grew abnormally. One consistently observed trend in all the detailed studies was that the matrix grains remained essentially static and either did not grow or only grew very slowly. On the other hand, the abnormally large grains (ALG), on average, were approximately 10 times the size of the matrix. Analysis of the grain boundary character of the interfaces between abnormal grains and the matrix showed no

  10. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  11. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  12. Fluorescence guided evaluation of photodynamic therapy as acne treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.

  13. Neurological abnormalities in localized scleroderma of the face and head: a case series study for evaluation of imaging findings and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Lis-Święty, Anna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Arasiewicz, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    Localized scleroderma (LoS) of the face and head is often associated with neurological manifestations and/or imaging abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). We present an analysis of 20 cases of LoS affecting the face and head. The CNS symptoms and/or abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in 12 patients (60%). In addition to the mild and unspecific disorders (e.g. headaches), serious neurological complications probably in the course of vasculitis were revealed: epilepsy (in two patients), epilepsy and pyramidal sings (in one patient). Neurological disorders and LoS occurred at the same time (in three patients) or at the course of the disease (nine patients) and no later than 29 years since the onset of the disease. No link between neurological disorders and the LoS clinical morphology, immunological and other laboratory parameters has been established. CNS involvement is not correlated with the clinical course of the facial and head LoS and may occur years after the disease initial symptomatology. Imaging follow-up is not required if there is not any emerging neurological symptom. In some cases, however, both HRCT and MRI are useful for monitoring disease evolution and addressing therapeutic choices.

  14. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  15. Safety evaluation -- Spent water treatment system components inventory release

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, E.N. Jr.

    1995-01-24

    Over the past few years various impediments to shipment of generated spent basin water treatment system components have resulted in the accumulation of quantities of these waste items at 100K. Specifically, there are (as of 01/01/95) 13 grout/culvert packaged cartridge filters (CF), four unpackaged cartridge filters, 60 spent ion exchange columns (IXC) and seven ion exchange modules (IXM) at 100K awaiting shipment for final waste disposal. As a result of the accumulation of this waste, the question has arisen regarding the consequences of potential releases of the inventory of radionuclides in these waste items relative to the K Area safetymore » envelope. The purpose of this paper is to address this question. The initial step evaluating the consequences of potential release of material from the spent water treatment system components was to determine the individual and total radionuclide inventories of concern. Generally the radioisotopes of concern to the dose consequences were Sr/Y-90, Cs-137, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. The loading of these radioisotopes needed to be determined for each of the components of the total number of accumulated IXCs, IXMs and CFs. This evaluation examines four potential releases of material from the spent water treatment system components. These releases are: the release of material from all 39 IXCs stored in 183-KW; the release of material from the IXCs, IXMs and CFs at 105-KE and 105-KW; the release of material from the 13 CFs stored behind 105-KE; and the non-mechanistic release of the total stored waste inventory.« less

  16. Clozapine-induced EEG abnormalities and clinical response to clozapine.

    PubMed

    Risby, E D; Epstein, C M; Jewart, R D; Nguyen, B V; Morgan, W N; Risch, S C; Thrivikraman, K V; Lewine, R L

    1995-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that patients who develop gross EEG abnormalities during clozapine treatment would have a less favorable outcome than patients who did not develop abnormal EEGs. The clinical EEGs and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores of 12 patients with schizophrenia and 4 patients with schizoaffective disorder were compared before and during treatment with clozapine. Eight patients developed significant EEG abnormalities on clozapine; 1 showed worsening of an abnormal pre-clozapine EEG; none of these subjects had clinical seizures. BPRS scores improved significantly in the group of patients who developed abnormal EEGs but not in the group who did not. Findings are consistent with previous reports of a high incidence of clozapine-induced EEG abnormalities and a positive association between these abnormalities and clinical improvement.

  17. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minkin, Mary Jane; Maamari, Ricardo; Reiter, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ≥18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ≥1 year or with a double oophorectomy), and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1–6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator]), completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months) showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88%) and applied it at bedtime (71%), a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes). Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%), or lower-than-recommended doses (45%), most frequently to avoid messiness (33%) or leakage (30%). More tablet users (69%) than cream users (14%) were “extremely satisfied” with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which, although not assessed in this study, is likely, in turn, to improve vaginal health. PMID:24648772

  18. Comparative evaluation of soft tissue changes one year post-treatment in Twin Block and FORSUS FRD treated patients.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Dinesh Chander; Kumar, Prasanna; Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the effects of two functional treatment modalities, namely, Twin Block (TB) and FORSUS fatigue resistant device (FORSUS FRD) on facial soft tissues before and at one-year post-treatment. This was a retrospective cephalometric study involving 10 patients with skeletal class II abnormalities in each group. The mean age of patients was 12.5 ± 1.5 and 13.5 ± 1 years and treatment duration 20 ± 2 and 18 ± 2 months, respectively for TB and FORSUS FRD groups, respectively. The pre-treatment (T0) and one-year post-treatment cephalograms (T1) were compared for evaluation. Data were analysed using a paired t -test and independent sample t -test for within-group and between-group comparisons, respectively. The groups were compared at T0 and T1, and treatment/observation differences (T1 - T0) were evaluated with paired samples t -test at P  < 0.05 level and unpaired sample t -test for group comparison. Statistically significant treatment changes were found for soft tissue changes in both TB and FORSUS FRD groups. Between the two groups, TB showed significant increase in the LAFH compared to the FORSUS FRD group. Statistically significant soft tissue changes were observed after TB and FORSUS FRD appliance therapy, resulting in improvement of facial balance and aesthetics. Both, TB and FORSUS FRD, have similar effects on soft tissues, but the effect of TB on LAFH and that of FORSUS on mentolabial sulcus was more profound.

  19. Use of microcirculatory parameters to evaluate clinical treatments of chronic venous disorder (CVD).

    PubMed

    Lascasas-Porto, Carmen Lucia; Milhomens, Ana Letícia M; Virgini-Magalhães, Carlos Eduardo; Fernandes, Fabiano F A; Sicuro, Fernando L; Bouskela, Eliete

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate changes on cutaneous microangiopathy in chronic venous disorder (CVD) after use of Cirkan [venotonic drug containing Ruscus aculeatus (plant extract), hesperidine methylchalcone (flavonoid) and vitamin C], elastic compression stockings (ECS) or no treatment for four weeks. Fifty-five female patients (85 legs), 25 to 57 years, with at least one limb classified as C2,s or C2,3,s (CEAP classification), were allocated consecutively, according to entrance order, in these three groups. Ten healthy women age-matched were also investigated. Using orthogonal polarization spectral technique (noninvasive method), measurements of functional capillary density (FCD, number of capillaries with flowing red blood cells/mm(2)), capillary morphology (CM, % of abnormal capillaries/mm(2)) and diameters (mum) of dermal papilla (DDP), capillary bulk (DCB) and capillary limb (CD) were obtained on the medial perimalleolar region and later analyzed using CapImage software. CVD patients showed significant changes on CD and CM compared to healthy subjects in agreement with our previous findings (J Vasc Surg 43:1037-1044, 2006). On Cirkan-treated patients, after 4 weeks, CD decreased on both limbs and CM improved on the left one, suggesting an amelioration of the chronic venous hypertension. No significant changes could be detected on other patient groups. These results confirm the existence of microcirculatory dysfunction in early stages of CVD, probably due to post-capillary hypertension, and further support the venotonic action of Cirkan.

  20. Multiple-objective evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control alternatives.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gallego, Alejandro; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2010-05-01

    Besides the evaluation of the environmental issues, the correct assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) should take into account several objectives such as: economic e.g. operation costs; technical e.g. risk of suffering microbiology-related TSS separation problems; or legal e.g. accomplishment with the effluent standards in terms of the different pollution loads. For this reason, the main objective of this paper is to show the benefits of complementing the environmental assessment carried out by life cycle assessment with economical, technical and legal criteria. Using a preliminary version of the BSM2 as a case study, different combinations of controllers are implemented, simulated and evaluated. In the following step, the resulting multi-criteria matrix is mined using multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the presence of an external carbon source addition, the type of aeration system and the TSS controller are the key elements creating the differences amongst the alternatives. Also, it was possible to characterize the different control strategies according to a set of aggregated criteria. Additionally, the existing synergies amongst different objectives and their consequent trade-offs were identified. Finally, it was discovered that from the initial extensive list of evaluation criteria, only a small set of five are really discriminant, being useful to differentiate within the generated alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation and treatment of iron deficiency anemia: a gastroenterological perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Amy; Kaneshiro, Marc; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2010-03-01

    A substantial volume of the consultations requested of gastroenterologists are directed towards the evaluation of anemia. Since iron deficiency anemia often arises from bleeding gastrointestinal lesions, many of which are malignant, establishment of a firm diagnosis usually obligates an endoscopic evaluation. Although the laboratory tests used to make the diagnosis have not changed in many decades, their interpretation has, and this is possibly due to the availability of extensive testing in key populations. We provide data supporting the use of the serum ferritin as the sole useful measure of iron stores, setting the lower limit at 100 microg/l for some populations in order to increase the sensitivity of the test. Trends of the commonly obtained red cell indices, mean corpuscular volume, and the red cell distribution width can provide valuable diagnostic information. Once the diagnosis is established, upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is usually indicated. Nevertheless, in many cases a gastrointestinal source is not found after routine evaluation. Additional studies, including repeat upper and lower endoscopy and often investigation of the small intestine may thus be required. Although oral iron is inexpensive and usually effective, there are many gastrointestinal conditions that warrant treatment of iron deficiency with intravenous iron.

  2. Evaluation of non-invasive treatment applied to occlusal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Flório, F M; Pereira, A C; Meneghim, M de C; Ramacciato, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive methods of treatment for active incipent occlusal caries. Anamnesis, professional prophylaxis, and visual inspection were used to classify 250 Brazilian pre-school-children. First permanent decayed molars (n=98) from thirty-one subjects (6 years+ 6 months) were selected and divided into three groups. Group 1: fissure sealants with resin-modified glass ionomer - Vitremer (n=29); Group 2: fluoride varnish -Duraphat (n=36) and control group: tooth brushing and 0.2 percent NaF weekly mouthwashes (n=33). Four clinical evaluations were carried out over three, six, nine, and twelve months. Caries activity and progression were observed through clinical and radiographic evaluation. The results were analyzed by Fisher=s Exact test. After twelve months, the results showed 100 percent of arrestment of caries activity for Group 1, 83.3 percent for group 2, and 72.7 percent for control group. At the same time, the results showed 0 percent of caries progression for group 1, 5.5 percent for Group 2, and 6.1 percent for control group. Group 1 showed a better inactivation property than the other groups (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in caries progression among these groups (p>0.05). It was concluded that this non-invasive methods were able to arrest the progression of occlusal caries, but fissure sealant showed better results in controlling caries activity.

  3. Attachment based treatments for adolescents: the secure cycle as a framework for assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Herres, Joanna; Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of attachment-based treatments (ABTs) for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: (1) the child or adult's IWM of the caregiver; (2) emotionally attuned communication; and (3) the caregiver's IWM of the child or adult. We briefly review Bowlby, Ainsworth, and Main's contributions to defining the components of the secure cycle and discuss how this framework can be adapted for understanding the process of change in ABTs. For clinicians working with adolescents, our model can be used to identify how deviations from the secure cycle (attachment injuries, empathic failures and mistuned communication) contribute to family distress and psychopathology. The secure cycle also provides a way of describing the ABT elements that have been used to revise IWMs or improve emotionally attuned communication. For researchers, our model provides a guide for conceptualizing and measuring change in attachment constructs and how change in one component of the interpersonal cycle should generalize to other components.

  4. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Bo, Qingyan; Orsenigo, Roberto; Wang, Junyi; Griffel, Louis; Brass, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D) and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries). This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025) as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%), and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08). Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had no impact on viral response to peginterferon plus ribavirin.

  5. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Qingyan; Orsenigo, Roberto; Wang, Junyi; Griffel, Louis; Brass, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D) and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries). This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025) as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%), and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08). Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had no impact on viral response to peginterferon plus ribavirin. PMID:26609222

  6. Evaluation of changes in equine care and limb-related abnormalities in working horses in Jaipur, India, as part of a two year participatory intervention study.

    PubMed

    Whay, Helen R; Dikshit, Amit K; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M A; Banerjee, Anindo; Hughes, Sue I; Pritchard, Joy C; Reix, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found the prevalence of lameness in working horses to be 90-100%. Risk factors for lameness in this important equine population, together with risk-reduction strategies adopted by their owners, are poorly understood. The objective was to uncover risk factors for lameness and limb abnormalities in working horses, by associating clinical lameness examination findings on three occasions over two years with owner reported changes in equine management and work practices over this period. Twenty-one communities of horse owners in Jaipur, India, took part in a participatory intervention (PI) project aiming to reduce risk factors for poor welfare, particularly lameness and limb problems. Associations between quantitative measures of equine lameness/limb abnormalities and reported changes in management and work practices were compared with 21 control (C) communities of owners where no intervention had taken place. Key findings from 'complete cases', where the same horse stayed with the same owner for the whole study period (PI group = 73 owners of 83 horses, C group = 58 owners of 66 horses), were that more positive statements of change in equine management and work practices were made by PI group owners than C group owners. A mixed picture of potential risk factors emerged: some reported management improvements, for example reducing the weight of the load for cart animals, were associated with improved limbs and lameness, and others, such as making improvements in shoeing and increasing the age at which their animals started work, with negative outcomes. This study illustrates the complexity and interacting nature of risk factors for lameness in working horses, and highlights the importance of longitudinal investigations that recognise and address this. PI group owners found the project useful and requested similar inputs in future. Our findings demonstrate the value of exploratory and participatory research methodology in the field of working horse

  7. The Evaluation of Interstitial Abnormalities in Group B of the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Classification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Masahiro; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Kato, Takafumi; Akagawa, Shinobu; Ohta, Ken

    2017-10-15

    Objective In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification categorized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into 4 groups. A report demonstrated that the mortality in Group B was higher than that in Group C. Ischemic heart disease and cancer were suggested to be the cause. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are more prevalent in Group B than Group C and that they may be responsible for the higher mortality in Group B. Methods Patients were selected based on their pulmonary function test results. The inclusion criterion was a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70% after the inhalation of a bronchodilator. Patients without a smoking history or computed tomography (CT) scan were excluded. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed, and the selected patients were categorized into Groups A to D. High-resolution CT scans were used to investigate the presence of ILAs and determine the low attenuation area (LAA). Results Among the 349 COPD patients, ILAs were detected in 10.3% of the patients in Group A, 22.5% of the patients in Group B, 5.6% of the patients in Group C, and 23.1% of the patients in Group D. In Group B, the frequency of ILAs was significantly higher and the area affected by the ILAs was significantly greater in comparison to Group C. Among the patterns of interstitial abnormalities, the area of honeycombing in Group B was significantly greater than that in Group C. Furthermore, among the patients in Group B, the LAA in the ILA-positive patients was significantly greater than that in the ILA-negative patients. Conclusion In Group B, the area occupied by ILAs-especially honeycombing-was greater than that in Group C. This contributed to the preserved %FEV 1 and possibly to the poorer prognosis of the patients in Group B.

  8. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation and treatment of hypertensive crises in children

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Deborah R; Ferguson, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive crises in children are medical emergencies that must be identified, evaluated, and treated promptly and appropriately to prevent end-organ injury and even death. Treatment in the acute setting typically includes continuous intravenous antihypertensive medications with monitoring in the intensive care unit setting. Medications commonly used to treat severe hypertension have been poorly studied in children. Dosing guidelines are available, although few pediatric-specific trials have been conducted to facilitate evidence-based therapy. Regardless of what medication is used, blood pressure should be lowered gradually to allow for accommodation of autoregulatory mechanisms and to prevent cerebral ischemia. Determining the underlying cause of the blood pressure elevation may be helpful in guiding therapy. PMID:27051314

  10. [Economic evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests in malaria treatment].

    PubMed

    Faye, Adama; Ndiaye, Papa; Diagne-Camara, Maty; Badiane, Ousseynou; Wone, Issa; Diongue, Mayassine; Seck, Ibrahima; Dia, Anta Tal; Dia, Amadou Lamine

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the economic implications of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) on malaria management through the rational use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). The study was carried out in 2006 from November 10th to December 10th; it focused on patients who were seen and treated with ACT for suspicion of uncomplicated malaria in the health district of Ziguinchor, Senegal. The variables studied included age, sex, RDT results, and costs of care and RDT. The cost of care for malaria, estimated in CFA Francs, was evaluated both with and without the use of RDT. Among the 379 patients, 25,1% were aged 0-4 years, 12,7% of 5-14 years and 62,2% of at least 15 years; 51% were women. The result of the RDT was negative in 60% of cases. Without the use of diagnostic testing, the cost of care for all 379 cases was estimated at 299 957 CFA: patient contributions would cover 184 500 CFA and the State would cover the rest (115 457 CFA). With the use of RDTs, the overall cost of the RDT screening for 379 patients and the cost of treatment for the 150 positive cases amounted to 254 786 CFA, with patients bearing the cost of 205 550 CFA and the State subsidizing up to 49 236 CFA. RDT can help identify the positive cases of malaria, and avoid up to 60% of unnecessary treatments, corresponding to an estimated 27 297 cases at the district level and 584 630 cases nationally. The RDT also allow a more rational use of ACTs and a lower risk of emergence of Plasmodium resistance. The use of RDTs could result in savings of 45 171 CFA at the level of the district health centre and 111 240 136 CFA nationally.

  11. Evaluation of Combined Peracetic acid and UV treatment for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the combined application of Peracetic acid and ultraviolet radiation as alternative disinfectant agents to the traditional chlorination of wastewater effluents. Various pathogens (E. coli, enterococci and fecal coliforms) were evaluated in the study. Four experiments were conducted using low to high PAA levels and UV dosages. E. coli and enterococci were resistant to low to moderate PAA dosage (0.5- 1 mg/L). These microbes can be removed effectively at high PAA dosage (2.5 mg/L) with 30 min contact time. Fecal coliforms were completely inactivated even at a low PAA dose of 0.7 mg/L. E. coli was more susceptible to UV disinfection than enterococci at low UV dosages. Enterococci required at least 40 mJ/cm2 for 2.5 log inactivation. In combined PAA + UV treatment, low UV intensities between 7 – 40 mJ/cm2 showed poor disinfection performance at a low PAA concentration of 1.5 mg/L. High UV intensities of 120 and 60 mJ/cm2 inactivated all the pathogens to below detection levels even at low to moderate PAA (0.7 mg/L and 1 mg/L) pretreatment concentration. Combined PAA + UV treatment at 1 mg/L (for 15 and 30 min contact time) + 120 and 60 mJ/cm2 did not show any regrowth of microbes, whereas PAA only disinfection with 15 min contact time showed regrowth of enterococci and fecal coliforms. UV only disinfection showed E. coli regrowth. • This pilot scale study was designed for providing necessary parameter optimization

  12. Evaluation of a commercial automatic treatment planning system for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments.

    PubMed

    Gallio, Elena; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Girardi, Andrea; Guarneri, Alessia; Ricardi, Umberto; Ropolo, Roberto; Ragona, Riccardo; Fiandra, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Automated treatment planning is a new frontier in radiotherapy. The Auto-Planning module of the Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system (TPS) was evaluated for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments. Ten cases were included in the study. Six plans were generated for each case by four medical physics experts. The first two planned with Pinnacle TPS, both with manual module (MP) and Auto-Planning one (AP). The other two physicists generated two plans with Monaco TPS (VM). Treatment plan comparisons were then carried on the various dosimetric parameters of target and organs at risk, monitor units, number of segments, plan complexity metrics and human resource planning time. The user dependency of Auto-Planning was also tested and the plans were evaluated by a trained physician. Statistically significant differences (Anova test) were observed for spinal cord doses, plan average beam irregularity, number of segments, monitor units and human planning time. The Fisher-Hayter test applied to these parameters showed significant statistical differences between AP e MP for spinal cord doses and human planning time; between MP and VM for monitor units, number of segments and plan irregularity; for all those between AP and VM. The two plans created by different planners with AP were similar to each other. The plans created with Auto-Planning were comparable to the manually generated plans. The time saved in planning enables the planner to commit more resources to more complex cases. The independence of the planner enables to standardize plan quality. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced interaction among ErbB4, PSD-95 and NMDAR by chronic MK-801 treatment is associated with behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Tao; Feng, Yu; Su, Yun-Ai; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2013-07-01

    The neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that this pathway may interact with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) via the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95. This interaction is of particular interest given the leading role of the NMDAR hypofunction in schizophrenia. The present study investigated the short- and long-term effects of chronic NMDAR blockade on the functional interaction between the two systems in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus using immunoprecipitation. Adult male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with MK-801 (0.25 mg/kg) or saline for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the associations of ErbB4 with PSD-95 and NMDAR were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex, whereas only phosphorylated-ErbB4 relative to ErbB4 was increased in the hippocampus. These effects, however, were not detectable 12 days after the last MK-801 treatment, indicating the reversible nature of these changes. We also investigated the effects of chronic MK-801 treatment on locomotion, prepulse inhibition, recognition memory, and spatial working memory. The results showed that this treatment led to decreased locomotor activity, reduced exploration in the center arena, and elevated startle magnitudes, indicating an anxiety-like phenotype. Taken together, our findings suggest that the NRG1-ErbB4 signaling could be modulated by repeated NMDAR blockade, and provide further evidence for the cross-talk between the two signaling pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solar photocatalytic treatment of quinolones: intermediates and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Carla; Zapata, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Agüera, Ana

    2009-05-01

    In this study, degradation of Flumequine (FLU) and nalidixic acid (NXA) in distilled water by two solar photocatalytic processes, TiO(2) and photo-Fenton, was evaluated. Intermediates and acute toxicity of the photoproducts generated were also studied. Degradation efficiency by heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2) was similar for NXA and FLU, which were completely degraded after 25 min of illumination. Less NXA mineralisation was reached after 80 min of illumination. Photo-Fenton degradation of both substances was very quick (<25 min of illumination time), and the same mineralisation was reached in both cases. The kinetic parameters of the two substances were calculated for comparison of their photocatalytic degradation. In all cases, photocatalytic processes were associated with a reduction in toxicity, as evaluated by Vibrio fischeri bioassay. Furthermore, a sharp decrease in inhibition was observed from the beginning of the treatment, even when FLU and NXA were still present in the reaction solution (first samples). These results demonstrate that in both photocatalytic processes studied, toxicity decreases significantly, producing a phototreated sample within safe toxicity limits. The intermediates formed during photocatalytic degradation were studied by liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS).

  15. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  16. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  17. Success of uterus-preserving treatments for abnormal uterine bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and symptomatic fibroids: age and bridges to menopause.

    PubMed

    Learman, Lee A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E; Jackson, Rebecca A; Jacoby, Alison; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age at first uterus-preserving treatment (UPT) predicts symptom resolution among women with common pelvic problems. We conducted an analysis of 557 participants in the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy and Intervention Alternatives cohort who reported having undergone a UPT. We performed multivariable regression modeling age at first UPT, hysterectomy, menopause, and other covariates to predict symptom resolution. Mean ± SD age at enrollment was 42.7 ± 4.7 years; mean follow-up time was 4.4 ± 2.7 years. Sixteen percent of the women underwent hysterectomy; 37% of the women entered menopause. Hysterectomy was a strong predictor of symptom resolution (P < .001). Compared with women who were younger (first UPT at age <40 years), older women reported greater symptom resolution, even after the data were controlled for hysterectomy use and menopausal status (P = .028). Women who are ≥40 years old when they undergo their first uterus-preserving treatment experience greater symptom resolution than younger women. Framing UPTs as hysterectomy alternatives may be accurate only for a subset of women who are >40 years old. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries... blueberries for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. We have prepared a treatment evaluation... at neutralizing these fruit flies. We are making the treatment evaluation document available to the...

  19. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  20. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  1. Attachment Based Treatments for Adolescents: The Secure Cycle as a Framework for Assessment, Treatment and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Herres, Joanna; KrauthamerEwing, E. Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of ABTs for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: 1) the child or adult’s IWM of the caregiver; 2) emotionally attuned communication; and 3) the caregiver’s IWM of the child or adult. We briefly review Bowlby, Ainsworth, and Main’s contributions to defining the components of the secure cycle and discuss how this framework can be adapted for understanding the process of change in ABTs. For clinicians working with adolescents, our model can be used to identify how deviations from the secure cycle (attachment injuries, empathic failures and mistuned communication) contribute to family distress and psychopathology. The secure cycle also provides a way of describing the ABT elements that have been used to revise IWMs or improve emotionally attuned communication. For researchers, our model provides a guide for conceptualizing and measuring change in attachment constructs and how change in one component of the interpersonal cycle should generalize to other components. PMID:25744572

  2. Differences in treatment and metabolic abnormalities between normo- and hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes: the Skaraborg Hypertension and Diabetes Project.

    PubMed

    Ostgren, C J; Lindblad, U; Bøg-Hansen, E; Ranstam, J; Melander, A; Råstam, L

    1999-03-01

    To examine treatment and glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients with and without hypertension, and to explore differences in markers for insulin resistance and beta cell function. A community-based, cross-sectional observational study was carried out at the hypertension and diabetes outpatient clinic in primary health care, Skara, Sweden. The subjects were all the 400 patients with type 2 diabetes (202 men, 198 women) who underwent annual follow-up from May 1992 through September 1993; 204 of these also had hypertension. The patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension had a higher b.m.i. (mean; 28.9 kg m(-2) (s.d.; 4.4) vs. 27.4 kg m(-2)(4.6)), higher triglycerides (2.0 mmol l(-1)(1.1) vs. 1.7 mmol l(-1)(1.1)), higher LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio (4.3(1.4) vs. 4.1(1.2)) and higher fasting insulin (8.5 mU l(-1)(1.1) vs. 6.6 mU l(-1)(1.1)). Conversely, glucose levels were lower; HbA1c (6.4%(1.4) vs. 6.8%(1.6)) and fasting blood glucose (8.1 mmol l(-1)(2.3) vs. 8.9 mmol l(-1)(2.7)) than in patients with type 2 diabetes alone. By the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), patients with type 2 diabetes alone had more impaired beta cell function. They also had a higher frequency of insulin treatment (20% vs. 12%) and were less often treated non-pharmacologically (33% vs. 50%). Patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension constitute a high risk category with a more atherogenic risk factor profile related to the insulin resistance syndrome. Patients with type 2 diabetes without hypertension seem to constitute a subgroup of type 2 diabetes with predominately impaired beta cell function.

  3. Development and initial evaluation of a treatment decision dashboard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For many healthcare decisions, multiple alternatives are available with different combinations of advantages and disadvantages across several important dimensions. The complexity of current healthcare decisions thus presents a significant barrier to informed decision making, a key element of patient-centered care. Interactive decision dashboards were developed to facilitate decision making in Management, a field marked by similarly complicated choices. These dashboards utilize data visualization techniques to reduce the cognitive effort needed to evaluate decision alternatives and a non-linear flow of information that enables users to review information in a self-directed fashion. Theoretically, both of these features should facilitate informed decision making by increasing user engagement with and understanding of the decision at hand. We sought to determine if the interactive decision dashboard format can be successfully adapted to create a clinically realistic prototype patient decision aid suitable for further evaluation and refinement. Methods We created a computerized, interactive clinical decision dashboard and performed a pilot test of its clinical feasibility and acceptability using a multi-method analysis. The dashboard summarized information about the effectiveness, risks of side effects and drug-drug interactions, out-of-pocket costs, and ease of use of nine analgesic treatment options for knee osteoarthritis. Outcome evaluations included observations of how study participants utilized the dashboard, questionnaires to assess usability, acceptability, and decisional conflict, and an open-ended qualitative analysis. Results The study sample consisted of 25 volunteers - 7 men and 18 women - with an average age of 51 years. The mean time spent interacting with the dashboard was 4.6 minutes. Mean evaluation scores on scales ranging from 1 (low) to 7 (high) were: mechanical ease of use 6.1, cognitive ease of use 6.2, emotional difficulty 2

  4. Development and initial evaluation of a treatment decision dashboard.

    PubMed

    Dolan, James G; Veazie, Peter J; Russ, Ann J

    2013-04-21

    For many healthcare decisions, multiple alternatives are available with different combinations of advantages and disadvantages across several important dimensions. The complexity of current healthcare decisions thus presents a significant barrier to informed decision making, a key element of patient-centered care.Interactive decision dashboards were developed to facilitate decision making in Management, a field marked by similarly complicated choices. These dashboards utilize data visualization techniques to reduce the cognitive effort needed to evaluate decision alternatives and a non-linear flow of information that enables users to review information in a self-directed fashion. Theoretically, both of these features should facilitate informed decision making by increasing user engagement with and understanding of the decision at hand. We sought to determine if the interactive decision dashboard format can be successfully adapted to create a clinically realistic prototype patient decision aid suitable for further evaluation and refinement. We created a computerized, interactive clinical decision dashboard and performed a pilot test of its clinical feasibility and acceptability using a multi-method analysis. The dashboard summarized information about the effectiveness, risks of side effects and drug-drug interactions, out-of-pocket costs, and ease of use of nine analgesic treatment options for knee osteoarthritis. Outcome evaluations included observations of how study participants utilized the dashboard, questionnaires to assess usability, acceptability, and decisional conflict, and an open-ended qualitative analysis. The study sample consisted of 25 volunteers - 7 men and 18 women - with an average age of 51 years. The mean time spent interacting with the dashboard was 4.6 minutes. Mean evaluation scores on scales ranging from 1 (low) to 7 (high) were: mechanical ease of use 6.1, cognitive ease of use 6.2, emotional difficulty 2.7, decision-aiding effectiveness 5

  5. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  6. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  8. [Evaluation and treatment of obesity in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Keller, U; van der Werf, H; Stohler, R

    1989-05-01

    Obesity continues as before to be a widespread condition. Obesity is defined as a body weight of over 120% of the ideal weight, corresponding roughly to the 85th percentile of the weight distribution. According to the "Build Study" (1979), the ideal weight is assumed to be rather higher than formerly; in men it is 8%, in women 6% less than the so-called normal weight. The latter corresponds roughly to the average weight and is defined as: height (cm) minus 100 in kg. In obese subjects both somatic and psychological complications arise; these are related exponentially to the degree of overweight. More recent findings in the Framingham Study show that obesity leads to coronary heart disease and premature death independently of the classical risk factors. Evaluation of the patient should include a personal and familial history of the obesity, together with individual eating habits and the degree of physical activity indulged in. As assessment should be made of the body fat distribution (android or gynoid obesity); android obesity carries a relatively high risk. Complications should be looked for, together with other risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and on the motivation. In general, it should consist of a moderate reduction in the caloric value of the food intake together with advice on eating habits and an increase in bodily activity. Group therapy often gives good results on account of the dynamic interactions within groups. Patients with morbid obesity will profit from a very hypocaloric, "ketogenic" diet (ca. 600-700 kcal/day). One of the author's own studies showed that a very hypocaloric diet resulted in mood elevation and a reduction in the need for sleep. Conservative measures such dietary weight reduction, changes in eating habits and encouragement of bodily activity are to be preferred to surgical treatment (eg, gastric stapling). Weight reductions in hospital do not lead to a change in eating habits and

  9. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  10. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate themore » types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.« less

  11. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS) in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI). Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses. PMID:21114820

  12. Clinical evaluation of rosoxacin for the treatment of chancroid.

    PubMed Central

    Haase, D A; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Nash, R A; D'Costa, L J; Hazlett, D; Lubwama, S; Nsanze, H; Ronald, A R

    1986-01-01

    One hundred seven men with Haemophilus ducreyi-positive chancroid were assigned to receive 300 mg of rosoxacin as a single dose or 150 mg twice daily for 3 days. Ulcers and buboes were followed clinically and bacteriologically for 1 month. Of 40 evaluable males on the 3-day regimen, 38 (95%) were cured, while only 14 of 23 (61%) males on the single-dose regimen were cured; this regimen was discontinued. There was one ulcer relapse at day 21 in both groups; the one relapse in the single-dose group had a persistent culture-positive bubo. Eight of nine (89%) buboes followed to the endpoint on the 3-day rosoxacin regimen were cured, versus three of six (50%) on the single-dose regimen. Adverse effects were mainly related to the central nervous system but were minor and did not require intervention. None of the treatment failures was due to organisms resistant to rosoxacin, and failure of the single-dose regimen presumably was related to duration of tissue levels rather than to drug resistance. Administration of 150 mg of rosoxacin twice daily for 3 days is an effective regimen for the therapy of chancroid and is a reasonable alternative to other short-course regimens. PMID:3489439

  13. What proportion of congenital abnormalities can be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, A E; Intôdy, Z; Modell, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the proportion of preventable congenital abnormalities in Hungary. DESIGN--Analysis of available Hungarian data-bases and of the effectiveness of primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive methods. SETTING--Databases of ad hoc epidemiological studies and of the Hungarian congenital abnormality registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence at birth and prevalence after prevention in 73 congenital abnormality types or groups. RESULTS--Preventive methods are available for 51 (70%) of the 73 congenital abnormality types or groups evaluated. The birth prevalence of all congenital abnormalities could be reduced from 65 to 26 per 1000; thus 39 per 1000 (60%) are preventable. Without congenital dislocation of the hip, which is unusually common in Hungary, the preventable proportion of congenital abnormalities is 52%. CONCLUSION--Many congenital abnormalities can be prevented, but as they do not represent a single pathological category there is no single strategy for their prevention. Images p502-a p503-a PMID:8448464

  14. Current Issues in the Evaluation and Treatment of Sexual Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Larry E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses causes of sexual disturbance, assessment of sexual dysfunction, treatment of sexual dysfunction, psychological issues associated with chronic physical illness and sexual behavior, theory and treatment in child molestation, and the psychosocial outcomes of sex reassignment surgery. (BL)

  15. Sprinkle Treatment experimental project construction and first-year evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-07-01

    The Department's Research Section recognized the need for alternatives to the friction course materials. One such alternative which appeared promising was Sprinkle Treatment. Sprinkle Treatment, initiated in 1977 by the Federal Highway Administration...

  16. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Methods Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. Results In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. Conclusions ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP

  17. Oligoclonal Pattern/Abnormal Protein Bands in Post-Treatment Plasma Cell Myeloma Patients: Implications for Protein Electrophoresis and Serum Free Light Chain Assay Results.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2017-08-01

    The impact of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in plasma cell myeloma patients on the frequency, quality, and timing of oligoclonal pattern in serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation electrophoresis (SPEP/SIFE) and serum free light chain assay (SFLCA) was evaluated. Laboratory results and clinical data for 251 patients with plasma cell myeloma, who had SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA performed between January 2010 and December 2016 were reviewed. The results for SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA were compared in patients with ASCT to those without ASCT. The implications of oligoclonal pattern in interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and SFLCA - κ/λ ratio were addressed. In 251 patients, a total of 3,134 observations, of either SPEP/SIFE and/or SFLCA, were reviewed. One hundred fifty-nine patients received ASCT. The incidence of oligoclonal patterns was significantly higher after ASCT. More than half of the oligoclonal patterns developed in the first year after transplantation. In 13 of the 84 patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma, the κ/λ ratio was kappa dominant in the presence of oligoclonal pattern. There was no reversal of κ/λ ratio in patients with kappa chain restricted plasma cell myelomas. ASCT is associated with significantly higher incidence of oligoclonal patterns than with chemotherapy alone. The presence of oligoclonal patterns has the potential to interfere with the interpretation of SPEP/SIFE and ascertainment of complete remission. At a minimum, the oligoclonal pattern caused an incorrect kappa dominant κ/λ ratio in 15.5% of patients with lambda chain restricted plasma cell myeloma. If a similar rate were to be applied to the 167 kappa chain myeloma patients, about 26 of these would have displayed an erroneous kappa chain dominant κ/λ ratio. The presence of oligoclonal pattern further degrades the performance of already dubious SFLCA. The need for recording the location of monoclonal spike in SPEP/SIFE and higher resolution protein

  18. A Descriptive Evaluation of Long-Term Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkoosh, Maire Kathryn; Derby, K. Mark; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy; McLaughlin, T. F.; Barretto, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    The validity of selecting treatment contingencies on the basis of the results obtained through functional analysis is well documented. However, a number of second-generation questions have emerged: For example, what are the parameters required to achieve desired treatment outcomes? More specifically, what is the degree of treatment integrity…

  19. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  20. [Evaluation of the treatment with fenfluramine of autism in children].

    PubMed

    de Villard, R; Ceillier-Hoppenot, B; Flachaire, E; Dalery, J; Rebaud, B; Maillet, J; Revol, O; Mamelle, J C; Quincy, C

    1988-01-01

    The effects of fenfluramine were studied in a group of 44 children with the autistic syndrome and in 26 non autistic children with behavior abnormalities, mostly hyperkinetic children, as a control group. The mean daily dosage was 0.65 mg/kg/day. There were 75% positive results in the autistic children and 77% in the control group. The clinical improvement appears to be mainly related to the control of the hyperactive behavior in the autistic children. Platelet serotonin levels were studied in both groups, showing a clear cut decrease during fenfluramine therapy with no significant differences between the 2 groups and no correlation between the clinical effects and the magnitude of the decrease.

  1. Hypersomnia: Evaluation, Treatment, and Social and Economic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Saini, Prabhjyot; Rye, David B

    2017-03-01

    Most central disorders of hypersomnolence are conditions with poorly understood pathophysiologies, making their identification, treatment, and management challenging for sleep clinicians. The most challenging to diagnose and treat is idiopathic hypersomnia. There are no FDA-approved treatments, and off-label usage of narcolepsy treatments seldom provide benefit. Patients are largely left on their own to alleviate the compound effects of this disorder on their quality of life. This review covers the major points regarding clinical features and diagnosis of idiopathic hypersomnia, reviews current evidence supporting the available treatment options, and discusses the psychosocial impact and effects of idiopathic hypersomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Measurement for Substance Abuse Treatment Services. Integrated Evaluation Methods. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Henrick; Bazron, Barbara; Fountain, Douglas

    This paper presents state-of-the-art models addressing issues related to coordination of treatment and evaluation activities, and integration of clinical, performance, and evaluation information. Specifically, this concept paper contains a discussion of the need for and types of cost analyses for CSAT treatment evaluation and knowledge-generating…

  3. Evaluation of special surface treatment aged using UV, phase I.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-01

    Research was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of Tensars specialty polymer cement slurry : (coating) in reducing aging of asphalt binders and mixtures. The study was also aimed at evaluating the effect of this : material on performance cha...

  4. An Evaluation of the Observer Effect on Treatment Integrity in a Day Treatment Center for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Monica R.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity is an important concern in treatment centers but is often overlooked. Performance feedback is a well-established approach to improving treatment integrity, but is underused and undervalued. One way to increase its value to treatment centers may be to expose unrealized benefits on the observer who collects the performance…

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Male Rats Exhibit Abnormal Behavioral Activation in the Forced Swim Test Following Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment: Association with Altered 5-HT1A and Alpha2A Adrenergic Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n=34) or without (DEF, n=30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n=14) and DEF (n=12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (−26%, p=0.0001) and DEF+FLX (−32%, p=0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF+FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON+FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF+FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF+FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON+FLX rats. DEF+FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. PMID:24360505

  6. An evaluation of the use of new Doppler methods for detecting longitudinal function abnormalities in a pacing-induced heart failure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, Tomotsugu; Cardon, Lisa A.; Armstrong, Guy P.; Fukamach, Kiyotaka; Takagaki, Masami; Ochiai, Yoshie; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Doppler tissue echocardiography and color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity have proven useful in evaluating cross-sections of patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, but experience with serial changes is limited. Purpose and methods: We tested their use by evaluating the temporal changes of LV function in a pacing-induced congestive heart failure model. Rapid ventricular pacing was initiated and maintained in 20 dogs for 4 weeks. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and weekly during brief pacing cessation. RESULTS: With rapid pacing, LV volume significantly increased and ejection fraction (57%-28%), stroke volume (37-18 mL), and mitral annulus systolic velocity (16.1-6.6 cm/s) by Doppler tissue echocardiography significantly decreased, with ejection fraction and mitral annulus systolic velocity closely correlated (r = 0.706, P <.0001). In contrast to the mitral inflow velocities, mitral annulus early diastolic velocity decreased steadily (12.3-7.3 cm/s) resulting in a dramatic decrease in mitral annulus early/late (1.22-0.57) diastolic velocity with no tendency toward pseudonormalization. The color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity also showed significant steady decrease (57-24 cm/s) throughout the pacing period. Multiple regression analysis chose mitral annulus systolic velocity (r = 0.895, P <.0001) and propagation velocity (r = 0.782, P <.0001) for the most important factor predicting LV systolic and diastolic function, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Doppler tissue echocardiography and color M-mode Doppler flow could evaluate the serial deterioration in LV dysfunction throughout the pacing period. These were more useful in quantifying progressive LV dysfunction than conventional ehocardiographic techniques, and were probably relatively independent of preload. These techniques could be suitable for longitudinal evaluation in addition to the cross-sectional study.

  7. The relationship of abnormal foot pronation to hallux abducto valgus--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ross, F D

    1986-08-01

    Abnormal foot mechanics is the most common cause of hallux abducto valgus. To date no quantitative data regarding the relationship between abnormal foot mechanics and the degree of hallux abducto valgus has been presented. An outline of the abnormal foot mechanics responsible for hallux abducto valgus is described along with a technique for measuring the extent of abnormal function. A common intrinsic abnormality responsible for hallux abducto valgus is described along with its diagnosis and orthotic treatment.

  8. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benignmore » adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.« less

  9. The Costs and Benefits of Substance Abuse Treatment: Findings from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lane; Denmead, Gabrielle; Nguyen, Robert; Harrison, Margaret; Harwood, Henrick

    This study seeks to quantify the costs and benefits of alcohol and drug abuse treatment and the resulting economic benefits to society. Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), and client questionnaires, estimates were made of the average costs per client in terms of crime-related costs, health care costs, and…

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  11. Technology Evaluation Report: Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving Site Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving SITE Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc. BioTrol's pilot-scale, fixed-film biological treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing pentachlorophenol from groundwater. The system employs indigenous microorganisms amended wit...

  12. ETV REPORT - EVALUATION OF DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL CORP. - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Evaluation of Davis Technologies International Corp. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    The Davis Technologies International Corp. (DTIC) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metalworking and ...

  13. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison ofmore » emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.« less

  14. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  15. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  16. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and counseling and treatment programs. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...

  17. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and counseling and treatment programs. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...

  18. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and counseling and treatment programs. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...

  19. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and counseling and treatment programs. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...

  20. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and counseling and treatment programs. ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT...

  1. Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... hirsutism” because the specific cause of the excessive hair growth cannot be identified. When should androgen levels be ... adding eflornithine cream during treatment. This cream slows hair growth but doesn’t prevent it. For women with ...

  2. Sprinkle Treatment experimental project construction and three year evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-06-01

    This report documents the construction of a Sprinkle Treatment field trial on a high speed/high volume roadway (55 mph/8520 ADT) and presents the performance data obtained for three years after construction. Normal plant and roadway production rates ...

  3. Folate supplementation to prevent birth abnormalities: evaluating a community-based participatory action plan for refugees and migrant workers on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Gilder, M E; Moo, P; Hashmi, A; Toe, S E T; Doh, B B; Nosten, S; Chotivanich, K; Somerset, Shawn; McGready, Rose

    2018-06-20

    Preconception folic acid (PFA) taken at least 3 months before conception can decrease the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) by approximately 46%. NTDs contribute significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality in migrant and refugee populations on the Thailand-Myanmar border (incidence 1.57/1000 live births). This audit aimed to assess uptake of PFA among migrant and refugee women, evaluate knowledge about PFA among local healthcare workers and implement a participatory community intervention to increase PFA uptake and decrease NTD incidence in this population. A mixed-methods baseline evaluation was followed by an intervention involving health worker education and a community outreach program. A follow-up audit was performed 18 months post-intervention. Data were gathered via surveys, short interviews and focus group discussions. The intervention program included community-based workshops, production and distribution of printed flyers and posters, and outreach to various local organisations. Uptake of PFA was <2% both before and after the intervention. Despite a substantial increase in local healthcare worker knowledge of PFA, no significant improvement in PFA uptake after the intervention was detected. Most pregnancies in this local community sample were reported to be unplanned. High rates of NTDs with low PFA uptake remains a major public health challenge in this transient population. Results indicate that improved health worker knowledge alone is not sufficient to enhance PFA uptake in this population. Integration of PFA education within expanded family planning programs and broad-based food fortification may be more effective. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a Salutogenetic Concept for Inpatient Psychosomatic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Loew, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The increase of psychosomatic disorders due to cultural changes requires enhanced therapeutic models. This study investigated a salutogenetic treatment concept for inpatient psychosomatic treatment, based on data from more than 11000 patients of a psychosomatic clinic in Germany. The clinic aims at supporting patients' health improvement by fostering values such as humanity, community, and mindfulness. Most of patients found these values realized in the clinical environment. Self-assessment questionnaires addressing physical and mental health as well as symptom ratings were available for analysis of pre-post-treatment effects and long-term stability using one-year follow-up data, as well as for a comparison with other clinics. With respect to different diagnoses, symptoms improved in self-ratings with average effect sizes between 0.60 and 0.98. About 80% of positive changes could be sustained as determined in a 1-year follow-up survey. Patients with a lower concordance with the values of the clinic showed less health improvement. Compared to 14 other German psychosomatic clinics, the investigated treatment concept resulted in slightly higher decrease in symptoms (e.g., depression scale) and a higher self-rated mental and physical improvement in health. The data suggest that a successfully implemented salutogenetic clinical treatment concept not only has positive influence on treatment effects but also provides long-term stability. PMID:24159352

  5. Evaluation of Drug Abuse Treatment Effectiveness: Summary of the DARP Followup Research. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Sells, S. B.

    The Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP) was initiated in 1969 as a federally supported client reporting system for community-based drug abuse treatment programs. Posttreatment follow-up interviews were conducted with over 4,000 persons from 34 treatment agencies to describe major findings from the drug abuse treatment research of the DARP relating…

  6. Neuroimaging evidence of brain abnormalities in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boddaert, N; Salvador, A; Chandesris, M O; Lemaître, H; Grévent, D; Gauthier, C; Naggara, O; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Moura, D S; Munsch, F; Jaafari, N; Zilbovicius, M; Lortholary, O; Gaillard, R; Hermine, O

    2017-08-08

    Mastocytosis is a rare disease in which chronic symptoms are related to mast cell accumulation and activation. Patients can display depression-anxiety-like symptoms and cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of these symptoms may be associated with tissular mast cell infiltration, mast cell mediator release or both. The objective of this study is to perform morphological or functional brain analyses in mastocytosis to identify brain changes associated with this mast cell disorder. We performed a prospective and monocentric comparative study to evaluate the link between subjective psycho-cognitive complaints, psychiatric evaluation and objective medical data using magnetic resonance imaging with morphological and perfusion sequences (arterial spin-labeled perfusion) in 39 patients with mastocytosis compared with 33 healthy controls. In the test cohort of 39 mastocytosis patients with psycho-cognitive complaints, we found that 49% of them had morphological brain abnormalities, mainly abnormal punctuated white matter abnormalities (WMA). WMA were equally frequent in cutaneous mastocytosis patients and indolent forms of systemic mastocytosis patients (42% and 41% of patients with WMA, respectively). Patients with WMA showed increased perfusion in the putamen compared with patients without WMA and with healthy controls. Putamen perfusion was also negatively correlated with depression subscores. This study demonstrates, for we believe the first time, a high prevalence of morphological and functional abnormalities in the brains of mastocytosis patients with neuropsychiatric complaints. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism underpinning this association and to ascertain its specificity.

  7. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  8. An atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique: evaluation after one year.

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E; Songpaisan, Y; Phantumvanit, P; Pilot, T

    1994-10-01

    Extraction is the most common dental treatment provided for people in rural and suburban areas in many less-industrialised countries. By comparison, restorative care is rarely provided. In order to improve such situations, a treatment technique has been developed based only on hand excavation of carious lesions and using glass-ionomer cement as a filling material and a sealant. This Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) technique follows the concept of minimal intervention and does not require electrically driven equipment. This paper reports on the longevity of fillings and sealants placed using the technique under field conditions in rural Thailand. Dental caries was treated using the ART technique in one village, whilst the population in a second village received restorative care (amalgam fillings) through mobile dental units. A third village was the control. After one year, 79 per cent of single surface ART fillings and 55 per cent of ART fillings of greater than one surface placed in deciduous teeth were judged successful. The success rate of ART fillings in the permanent dentition (mainly single surface fillings) was 93 per cent and the retention rate for sealants was 78 per cent. Children were pleased at having received treatment by this technique and showed little fear. The ART technique is a promising caries treatment procedure for use in rural and sub-urban areas in less-industrialised countries.

  9. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  10. Evaluation of abnormal radiological findings in children aged 2 to 36 months followed by recurrent urinary tract infection: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Cinar; Ertan, Pelin; Aras, Feray; Gumuser, Gul; Ozkol, Mine; Horasan Dinc, Gonul

    2017-11-01

    Our aim is to determine the rational usage of imaging techniques in order to prevent or minimize permanent renal damage in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study was enrolled children aged between 2 and 36 months, following-up with the diagnosis of recurrent UTI. All children had ultrasonography (USG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning, 39 of them had underwent on voiding cystourethrography. There were 133 children (87 girls, 46 boys) with the mean age of 32.82 ± 38.10 months included into the study. Forty-three kidney units were normal in ultrasonogram of which seven units had reflux whereas among 35 units with hydronephrosis 22 units had reflux. Sensitivity and specificity presence of hydronephrosis in ultrasonogram for prediction of reflux was 75.9% and 73.5%, respectively. There were 19 dilated ureters in ultrasonogram, and among them 14 had reflux. Sensitivity and specificity of presence with ureteral dilatation in ultrasonogram for prediction of reflux was found as 48.3% and 89.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of parenchymal thinning seen in ultrasonogram for the evaluation of renal parenchyma was 15.9%, whereas specificity was 98.2% .Sensitivity and specificity of dimercaptosuccinic acid for prediction of reflux was 51.6% and 72.3%, respectively. The normal ultrasonogram findings cannot rule out neither possibility of reflux presence nor development of renal scarring. Therefore, DMSA scanning has major role both in determination of parenchymal damage and prevention of scarring. Also we get an important result as ureteral dilatation seen in USG, related to presence of reflux.

  11. Identification of potential missed opportunities for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in women referred to an academic colposcopy clinic for evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Dorton, Benjamin J; Vitonis, Allison F; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-02

    To identify possible predictors of missed opportunities for human papillomavirus (HPV) counseling and vaccination prior to presentation at an academic colposcopy clinic. We examined the characteristics of 638 vaccinated and 1,024 unvaccinated age-eligible patients using data from a patient registry of women presenting for colposcopic evaluation between 2/26/2007 and 3/10/2014 who were aged 26 or less at presentation. Demographics, smoking history, pregnancy history, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual history, contraception use, immunosuppression, and medical problems were compared between HPV vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Multivariable logistic regression models included age, race, language, marital status, insurance type, lifetime number of sexual partners, other medical illnesses, number of pregnancies, contraception use, history of STIs, and smoking history to determine predictors of HPV vaccination. In multivariable analysis, race, marital status, and language were not significantly associated with HPV vaccination. Women with fewer pregnancies were more likely to be vaccinated (p-trend <0 .0001). Vaccinated women were more likely to have other medical illnesses (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.13-1.83) and be aware of their HPV status (OR=1.75, 95% CI= 1.40-2.18). In this study, greater number of pregnancies was associated with lower vaccination rates as compared to women who had never been pregnant. Reproductive health visits, such as postpartum and family planning visits, represent an ideal opportunity to educate women about HPV and the importance of vaccination, and should be an area of focus to improve current HPV vaccination rates.

  12. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  13. Clinical evaluation of tuberculosis viability microscopy for assessing treatment response.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M; Bravard, Marjory A; Valencia, Teresa; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2015-04-15

    It is difficult to determine whether early tuberculosis treatment is effective in reducing the infectiousness of patients' sputum, because culture takes weeks and conventional acid-fast sputum microscopy and molecular tests cannot differentiate live from dead tuberculosis. To assess treatment response, sputum samples (n=124) from unselected patients (n=35) with sputum microscopy-positive tuberculosis were tested pretreatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of empiric first-line therapy. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, quantitative culture, and acid-fast auramine microscopy were all performed in triplicate. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy predicted quantitative culture results such that 76% of results agreed within ±1 logarithm (rS=0.85; P<.0001). In 31 patients with non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, viability and quantitative culture results approximately halved (both 0.27 log reduction, P<.001) daily. For patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and available data, by treatment day 9 there was a >10-fold reduction in viability in 100% (24/24) of cases and quantitative culture in 95% (19/20) of cases. Four other patients subsequently found to have MDR tuberculosis had no significant changes in viability (P=.4) or quantitative culture (P=.6) results during early treatment. The change in viability and quantitative culture results during early treatment differed significantly between patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and those with MDR tuberculosis (both P<.001). Acid-fast microscopy results changed little during early treatment, and this change was similar for non-MDR tuberculosis vs MDR tuberculosis (P=.6). Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy is a simple test that within 1 hour predicted quantitative culture results that became available weeks later, rapidly indicating whether patients were responding to tuberculosis therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  14. Evaluation of Trends in the Cost of Initial Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yabroff, K. Robin; Meekins, Angela; Topor, Marie; Lamont, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite reports of increases in the cost of cancer treatment, little is known about how costs of cancer treatment have changed over time and what services have contributed to the increases. Methods We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database for 306 709 persons aged 65 and older and diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer between 1991 and 2002 to assess the number of patients assigned to initial cancer care, from 2 months before diagnosis to 12 months after diagnosis, and mean annual Medicare payments for this care according to cancer type and type of treatment. Mutually exclusive treatment categories were cancer-related surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other hospitalizations during the period of initial cancer care. Linear regression models were used to assess temporal trends in the percentage of patients receiving treatment and costs for those treated. We extrapolated our results based on the SEER data to the US Medicare population to estimate national Medicare payments by cancer site and treatment category. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results For patients diagnosed in 2002, Medicare paid an average of $39 891 for initial care for each lung cancer patient, $41 134 for each colorectal cancer patient, and $20 964 for each breast cancer patient, corresponding to inflation-adjusted increases from 1991 of $7139, $5345, and $4189, respectively. During the same interval, the mean Medicare payment for initial care for prostate cancer declined by $196 to $18261 in 2002. Costs for any hospitalization accounted for the largest portion of payments for all cancers. Chemotherapy use increased markedly for all cancers between 1991 and 2002, as did radiation therapy use (except for colorectal cancers). Total 2002 Medicare payments for initial care for these four cancers exceeded $6.7 billion, with colorectal and lung cancers being the most costly overall

  15. Constipation: evaluation and treatment of colonic and anorectal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Satish S C

    2007-09-01

    This article focuses on the colonic and anorectal motility disturbances that are associated with chronic constipation and their management. Functional chronic constipation consists of three overlapping subtypes: slow transit constipation, dyssynergic defecation, and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The Rome criteria may serve as a useful guide for making a clinical diagnosis of functional constipation. Today, an evidence-based approach can be used to treat patients with chronic constipation. The availability of specific drugs for the treatment of chronic constipation, such as tegaserod and lubiprostone, has enhanced the therapeutic armamentarium for managing these patients. Randomized controlled trials have also established the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the treatment of dyssynergic defecation.

  16. Evaluation of remedial treatments at skid accident locations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Highways has for many years been concerned with the slipperiness of highway pavements, and has undertaken remedial action at numerous high wet accident locations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remedial actio...

  17. Evaluation of infrared treatments for managing roadside vegetation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    Environmental concerns have prompted many agencies to seek alternatives to herbicides in controlling vegetation on roadway shoulders. This study was implemented to evaluate the potential for infrared technology to address this need. Infrared technolo...

  18. Evaluation of infrared treatments for managing roadside vegetation : appendices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    Environmental concerns have prompted many agencies to seek alternatives to herbicides in controlling vegetation on roadway shoulders. This study was implemented to evaluate the potential for infrared technology to address this need. Infrared technolo...

  19. Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Abnormalities in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mourani, Peter M.; Abman, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the care of preterm infants have improved survival of infants born at earlier gestational ages. Yet, these infants remain at risk for the chronic lung disease of infancy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which results in prolonged need for supplemental oxygen, recurrent respiratory exacerbations, and exercise intolerance. Recent investigations have highlighted the important contribution of the developing pulmonary circulation to lung development, demonstrating that these infants are also at risk for pulmonary vascular disease (PVD), including pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular abnormalities, which contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. In the past few years, several epidemiological studies have delineated the incidence of PH in preterm infants and the impact on outcomes. However, these studies have also highlighted gaps in our understanding of PVD in BPD, including universally accepted definitions, approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and patient outcomes. Associated pulmonary vascular and cardiac abnormalities are increasingly recognized complications contributing to PH in these infants, but incidence of these lesions and degree of contribution to disease remains unknown. Therapeutic strategies for PVD in BPD are largely untested, but recent evidence presents the rationale for the approach to diagnosis and treatment of BPD infants with PH that can be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26593082

  20. Evaluation of the ET2000 guardrail end treatment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to monitor and report the performance of the ET2000 guardrail end treatment design in traffic crashes. The involved vehicle was inspected when available. : Data for a total of 135 collisions involving the ET2000 were...

  1. Evaluation of Extinction as a Functional Treatment for Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Amanda; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a serious behavior problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating is thought to be maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotional responding. Current treatments produce only moderate abstinence, perhaps because they do not attempt…

  2. Evaluation of Interacavitary Chemotherapy Delivery for Treatment of Mammary Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Celltiter 96 Aqueous one solution cell proliferation assay - Promega) in 96 well plates were used, each well received 100 ul of cell culture medium and...treatments: a) polotax (200 ul of 22% poloxamer/5.4mg/ml taxol suspension) in wound, b) 200 ul polotax remote (between 2 scapulae ), c) 200 ul 22% poloxamer in

  3. EVALUATING A COMPOSITE CARTRIDGE FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-layer, cartridge-based system that combines physical filtration with carbon adsorption and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection has been developed to perform as a water treatment security device to protect homes against accidental or intentional contaminant events. A seri...

  4. Field evaluation of timber preservation treatments for highway applications

    Treesearch

    Jake J. Bigelow; Carol A. Clausen; Stan T. Lebow; Lowell Greimann

    2007-01-01

    Timber material repair and replacement cost for timber bridges is a considerable expense to highway agencies in Iowa, especially to county road departments. To address these needs, the objectives of this investigation was to study the field effectiveness of various treatment alternatives used on Iowa roadway projects and to determine if the current specifications and...

  5. Internet-Based Treatment for Insomnia: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Lars; Pettersson, Richard; Andersson, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an Internet-based intervention for insomnia. Participants who met criteria for insomnia (N = 109) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment or a waiting list control condition. The 5-week intervention mainly consisted of sleep restriction, stimulus control, and cognitive…

  6. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

  7. STORMWATER TREATMENT AT CRITICAL AREAS: EVALUATION OF FILTRATION MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has identified urban runoff as a major contributor to the degradation of urban streams and rivers. Filtration, especially "slow" filtration, is of interest for stormwater runoff treatment because filters will work on intermittent flows without significant loss of ca...

  8. An Integrated Evaluation of Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article functions as an epilogue to the clinical forum examining the use of nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) to remediate speech sound disorders in children. Method: Conclusions to eight clinical questions are formed based on the findings that were reported in the clinical forum. Theoretical and clinical challenges are also…

  9. Evaluation and treatment of male hypogonadism in primary care.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Kim Anne

    2016-08-18

    Male hypogonadism is increasing in prevalence, particularly in the older male population. Signs and symptoms associated with hypogonadism are often nonspecific and may be difficult to categorize. This article discusses parameters for screening patients at risk, reviews how to establish the diagnosis of primary or secondary male hypogonadism, and offers important considerations for treatment of patients with hypogonadism.

  10. A New Prediction Model for Evaluating Treatment-Resistant Depression.

    PubMed

    Kautzky, Alexander; Baldinger-Melich, Pia; Kranz, Georg S; Vanicek, Thomas; Souery, Daniel; Montgomery, Stuart; Mendlewicz, Julien; Zohar, Joseph; Serretti, Alessandro; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kasper, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    Despite a broad arsenal of antidepressants, about a third of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond sufficiently to adequate treatment. Using the data pool of the Group for the Study of Resistant Depression and machine learning, we intended to draw new insights featuring 48 clinical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial predictors for treatment outcome. Patients were enrolled starting from January 2000 and diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) was defined by a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score ≥ 17 after at least 2 antidepressant trials of adequate dosage and length. Remission was defined by an HDRS score < 8. Stepwise predictor reduction using randomForest was performed to find the optimal number for classification of treatment outcome. After importance values were generated, prediction for remission and resistance was performed in a training sample of 400 patients. For prediction, we used a set of 80 patients not featured in the training sample and computed receiver operating characteristics. The most useful predictors for treatment outcome were the timespan between first and last depressive episode, age at first antidepressant treatment, response to first antidepressant treatment, severity, suicidality, melancholia, number of lifetime depressive episodes, patients' admittance type, education, occupation, and comorbid diabetes, panic, and thyroid disorder. While single predictors could not reach a prediction accuracy much different from random guessing, by combining all predictors, we could detect resistance with an accuracy of 0.737 and remission with an accuracy of 0.850. Consequently, 65.5% of predictions for TRD and 77.7% for remission can be expected to be accurate. Using machine learning algorithms, we could demonstrate success rates of 0.737 for predicting TRD and 0.850 for predicting remission, surpassing predictive capabilities of clinicians. Our results strengthen data

  11. Abnormal liver function in different patients with Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Ning, An; Wu, Xiaoying; Li, Hongyu; Liang, Jinyi; Gao, Zulu; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Jun; Hu, Fei; Wu, Feng; Ji, Pengyu; Wu, Zhongdao; Sun, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, is still a serious public health problem in China. It is important for schistosomiasis control to prevent from infection and advanced patients. Recent years, however, the form of the prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in China was changed these days. Paying attention to the quality of life of these patients already infected with S. japonicum becomes a new objective to schistosomiasis control program. Although most of the chronic infections with S. japonicum will finally appear as liver fibrosis symptoms, it is still unknown liver function abnormalities in patients with severe forms of schistosomiasis, and there is also no evidence whether S. japonicum infection will directly cause damage to liver cells. Thus, this study investigated 494 patients diagnosed with S. japonicum (87.7%) and 69 healthy subjects from a endemic areas belonging to Jiangxi Province of China and aimed to evaluate the liver function abnormalities in patients with severe forms of schistosomiasis and possible associations with coinfection with HBV. The results showed that the hepatic metabolism situation significantly changed in patients infected with S. japonicum; meanwhile, the abnormal rates of ALT and AST in patients with schistosomiasis were significantly higher than that in the control group, which confirmed that patients infected with S. japonicum not only had damaged liver function but also the hepatic cells were directly influenced. And the coinfection of CHB and schistosomiasis japonica can be a risk factor for more serious outcomes in patients from endemic areas. These results give us the advice that in the further treatment of patients infected with S. japonicum, especially these coinfections, we should better give the routine liver-protection treatment in advance.

  12. VITAL SIGNS AND FIRST OCCURRENCES IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL NEWBORN ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen; Kiso, Wendy K; Aria, Janice; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants. Medical management of abnormal calves is described. All calves had faster heart rates and respiratory rates than did adult elephants, but rectal temperatures were the same. Calves were precocious with regard to sitting and standing but could be very slow to nurse. The most-common medical conditions of newborn calves were umbilical abnormalities and problems associated with nursing. Two calves required cardiopulmonary resuscitation after birth but made full recoveries. Some conditions were not apparent at birth but were recognized a few hours or days later. Following veterinary intervention, six of the eight calves made full recoveries, suggesting that early identification and treatment of problems can greatly decrease mortality. This is the first report of multiple veterinary and behavioral parameters in normal and abnormal neonatal Asian elephants from a facility with a calf survival rate above 90%. This information may be helpful to other elephant-holding facilities in providing care to their newborn elephant calves.

  13. Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Azam; Ahmadnia, Elahe; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Molaei, Behnaz; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.

  14. Study on evaluation index system of operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoxin, Zhang; Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Yan, Li

    2018-05-01

    According to the undeveloped evaluation method for the operational performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plants, this paper analyzes the policies related to sewage treatment industry based on the investigation of the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The applicable evaluation method for the operational performance was proposed from environmental protection performance, resources and energy consumption, technical and economic performance, production management and main equipment, providing a reliable basis for scientific evaluation of the operation as well as improving the operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio L; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S; Salemi, Vera M C; Ianni, Barbara M; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Eduard L

    2013-01-01

    Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors. Several

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological effective dose evaluation in gynaecological brachytherapy: LDR and HDR treatments, dependence on radiobiological parameters, and treatment optimisation.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Botta, F; Conte, L; Vanoli, P; Cerizza, L

    2008-10-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the biological efficacy of different high-dose-rate (HDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) treatments of gynaecological lesions, to identify the causes of possible nonuniformity and to optimise treatment through customised calculation. The study considered 110 patients treated between 2001 and 2006 with external beam radiation therapy and/or brachytherapy with either LDR (afterloader Selectron, (137)Cs) or HDR (afterloader microSelectron Classic, (192)Ir). The treatments were compared in terms of biologically effective dose (BED) to the tumour and to the rectum (linear-quadratic model) by using statistical tests for comparisons between independent samples. The difference between the two treatments was statistically significant in one case only. However, within each technique, we identified considerable nonuniformity in therapeutic efficacy due to differences in fractionation schemes and overall treatment time. To solve this problem, we created a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet allowing calculation of the optimal treatment for each patient: best efficacy (BED(tumour)) without exceeding toxicity threshold (BED(rectum)). The efficacy of a treatment may vary as a result of several factors. Customised radiobiological evaluation is a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in planning equivalent treatments that satisfy all dosimetric constraints.

  18. Drug Treatment in Adult Probation: An Evaluation of an Outpatient and Acupuncture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Melissa M.; Latessa, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of an innovative outpatient drug-free treatment facility serving felony drug offenders who are placed on probation is evaluated. Treatment included educational and group therapy as well as acupuncture. Background characteristics, levels of treatment, and selected outcomes are described. Principles of successful interventions are…

  19. Determining Appropriate Criteria in the Evaluation of Correctional Mental Health Treatment for Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Rudolph, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that, despite changed goals of mental health treatment for inmates, some prison treatment programs still evaluate effects in terms of adjustment indicators. Discusses and critiques proposals in Ohio to use adjustment indicators as outcome measures for new treatment program for mentally ill inmates. Discusses proper outcome measures for…

  20. A Controlled Evaluation of Behavioral Treatment with Children with ADHD Attending a Summer Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Tresco, Katy E.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2005-01-01

    Individual treatment response to behavior modification was examined in the context of a summer treatment program. Four children ages 11 to 12 and diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were examined in a BABAB design in which a comprehensive behavioral program was utilized and withdrawn across an 8-week period. Dependent measures…

  1. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

    PubMed

    Kiviranta, A-M; Rusbridge, C; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Hielm-Björkman, A; Lappalainen, A K; Knowler, S P; Jokinen, T S

    2017-11-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas. Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. Scratching was the most common CM/SM-related clinical sign and decreased postural reaction the most common neurologic deficit in 73 and 87% of dogs, respectively. Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 100 and 38% of dogs, respectively. Syringomyelia was associated with the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs (P = 0.034), and medullary kinking and sum indices were higher in dogs with clinical signs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.007, respectively). Syringomyelia and CCJ abnormalities are prevalent in Chihuahuas. Syringomyelia was an important factor for the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs, but many dogs suffered from similar clinical signs without being affected by SM, highlighting the clinical importance of CCJ abnormalities in Chihuahuas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Design and Evaluation of Complex Moving HIFU Treatment Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargl, Steven G.; Andrew, Marilee A.; Kaczkowski, Peter J.; Brayman, Andrew A.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2005-03-01

    The use of moving high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment protocols is of interest in achieving efficient formation of large-volume thermal lesions in tissue. Judicious protocol design is critical in order to avoid collateral damage to healthy tissues outside the treatment zone. A KZK-BHTE model, extended to simulate multiple, moving scans in tissue, is used to investigate protocol design considerations. Prediction and experimental observations are presented which 1) validate the model, 2) illustrate how to assess the effects of acoustic nonlinearity, and 3) demonstrate how to assess and control collateral damage such as prefocal lesion formation and lesion formation resulting from thermal conduction without direct HIFU exposure. Experimental data consist of linear and circular scan protocols delivered over a range of exposure regimes in ex vivo bovine liver.

  3. Evaluation of water treatment sludges toxicity using the Daphnia bioassay.

    PubMed

    Sotero-Santos, Rosana B; Rocha, Odete; Povinelli, Jurandyr

    2005-10-01

    Alum and ferric chloride sludges from two water treatment plants (WTPs) were analyzed regarding their physicochemical characteristics and toxicity to Daphnia similis. Experiments were carried out in the dry and rainy seasons. Acute and chronic toxicity was measured using survival and reproduction as measurement endpoints. No acute toxicity of the sludge was observed in 48 h exposure. Ferric chloride sludge caused chronic toxicity, demonstrated by low fecundity and some mortality, while alum sludge caused chronic toxicity characterized by low fecundity. Some sludge characteristics varied between samplings, including turbidity, solids contents, N, P and metal (Al and Fe) concentrations. These variables and the increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were identified as the main cause of degradation of the receiving waters. However, no relationship was observed between these variables and degree of toxicity. It is apparent from these results that water treatment sludges may be toxic and therefore may impair receiving waters. Alum sludge was less toxic than ferric chloride sludge.

  4. Benign Biliary Strictures: Diagnostic Evaluation and Approaches to Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted to help identify and treat biliary strictures that can result from a variety of benign etiologies. Mainstays of noninvasive imaging for benign biliary strictures include ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and computed tomography cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the invasive diagnostic procedure of choice, allowing both localization of a stricture and treatment. Percutaneous biliary interventions are reserved for patients who are not candidates for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (eg, history of distal gastrectomy and biliary-enteric anastomosis to a jejunal roux limb). This review discusses the roles of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage in the diagnosis of benign biliary strictures. The methodology for crossing benign biliary strictures, approaches to balloon dilation, management of recalcitrant strictures (ie, large-bore biliary catheters and retrievable covered stents), and the expected outcomes and complications of percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures are also addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Restless legs syndrome/Willis Ekbom disease: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard P

    2014-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) has been recognized as a significant medical disorder since the 17th century. It was studied mostly in the last 50 years in relation to increasing interest in sleep medicine and health-related quality of life. This led to recognition that the disease is not well characterized as restless feelings in the legs. These symptoms are reported in many situations, but the subjective experience of RLS/WED patients differs from that experienced by others. Thus a new name has been introduced that avoids problems of symptom definition of a disease by naming it after those who first characterized it, i.e. 'Willis Ekbom disease'. This article emphasizes the importance of RLS/WED for psychiatry. The disease carries significant increased risk for depression and anxiety disorders. Treatment requires consideration of these co-morbid disorders. RLS/WED can exacerbate or even engender psychiatric disease, so treatment of psychiatric disease should also include consideration of RLS/WED. The need for attention to RLS/WED is particularly significant for depression. Most anti-depressants exacerbate or can even engender RLS/WED. Thus this article seeks to introduce RLS/WED in relation to psychiatric practice. It presents the RLS/WED disease, its overlap with psychiatry and the current treatment options.

  6. Evaluation of surgical treatment in mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Vesnaver, Aleš; Ahčan, Uroš; Rozman, Janez

    2012-12-01

    In the past, fractures of the mandibular condylar process were, as a rule, treated conservatively. At the Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia, our doctrine was changed in 2002 on the basis of preliminary results and reports in the literature, and these fractures were started to be treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates and screws, which led to good results and a shorter rehabilitation period. The goal of this study was to determine the safety and efficiency of surgical treatment, as well as to compare long-term results of surgical and conservative treatment, as objectively as possible. Two groups of patients, which had all sustained a unilateral, extra-articular mandibular condyle fracture, were compared. In the test group, there were 42 surgically treated patients, and in the control group, 20 conservatively treated patients. Clinical parameters and X-ray images were assessed in both groups and compared by the two tailed Student t test, and in case of attributive variables by the χ(2) test. Within the surgically treated group, postoperative and intraoperative complications were noted: temporary facial nerve palsy, development of a parotid salivary fistula, disturbance of auricle sensibility due to injury of the greater auricular nerve, miniplate fracture, as well as intraoperative bleeding, postoperative haematoma formation, infection, reoperation due to fragment malposition and other complications. Postoperative scars were also assessed. Statistically significant differences between the surgically and conservatively treated patients were found when comparing clinical parameters as well as X-ray images, the results being better in the surgically treated group. Complications of surgical treatment were also noted, the most important among them temporary paresis of facial nerve branches, which occurred in 10 patients (24%). Plate fractures occurred in five patients (12

  7. Nonsurgical correction of congenital ear abnormalities in the newborn: Case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wg; Toye, Jw; Reid, A; Smith, Rw

    2005-07-01

    To determine whether a simple, nonsurgical treatment for congenital ear abnormalities (lop-ear, Stahl's ear, protruding ear, cryptotia) improved the appearance of ear abnormalities in newborns at six weeks of age. This is a descriptive case series. All newborns with identified abnormalities were referred by their family physician to one paediatrician (WGS) in a small level 2 perinatal centre. The ears were waxed and taped in a standard manner within 10 days of birth. Pictures were taken before taping and at the end of taping (one month). All patients and pictures were assessed by one plastic surgeon (JWT) at six weeks of age and scored using a standard scoring system. A telephone survey of the nontreatment group was conducted. The total number of ears assessed was 90. Of this total, 69 ears were taped and fully evaluated in the study (77%). The refusal rate was 23%. In the treatment group, 59% had lop-ear, 19% had Stahl's ear, 17% had protruding ear and 3% had cryptotia. Overall correction (excellent/improved) for the treatment group was 90% (100% for lop-ear, 100% for Stahl's ear, 67% for protruding ear and 0% for cryptotia). In the nontreatment (refusal) group, 67% of the ears failed to correct spontaneously. No complications were recognized by the authors or parents by six weeks. The percentage of newborns in one year in the perinatal centre with recognized ear abnormalities was 6% (90 of 1600). A simple, nonsurgical treatment in a Caucasian population appeared to be very effective in correcting congenital ear abnormalities with no complications and high patient/parent satisfaction.

  8. Effective comparison of two auto-CPAP devices for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea based on polysomnographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Bo; Cheng, Lei; Nakayama, Meiho; Kakazu, Yasuhiro; Yin, Min; Miyoshi, Akira; Komune, Shizuo

    2005-09-01

    Automatic continuous positive airway pressure (auto-CPAP) machines differ mainly in algorithms used for respiratory event detection and pressure control. The auto-CPAP machines operated by novel algorithms are expected to have better performance than the earlier ones in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic characteristics between two different auto-CPAP devices, i.e., the third-generation flow-based (f-APAP) and the second-generation vibration-based (v-APAP) machines, during the first night treatment of OSAS. We retrospectively reviewed the polysomnography (PSG) recordings of 43 OSAS patients who were initially performed an overnight diagnostic PSG to confirm the disease and afterwards received the first night auto-CPAP treatment with using either the f-APAP (n=22) or v-APAP (n=21) device under another PSG evaluation. There were 13.6% and 61.9% patients who remained a residual apnea/hypopnea index more than 5 during the f-APAP and v-APAP application, respectively (P<0.005). The f-APAP was more effective than the v-APAP in reducing apnea/hypopnea index (P=0.003), hypopnea index (P=0.023) and apnea index (P=0.007), improving the lowest oxygen saturation index (P=0.007) and shortening stage 1 sleep (P=0.016). However, the f-APAP was less sufficient than the v-APAP in reducing arousal/awakening index (P=0.02). These findings suggest that the f-APAP works better than the v-APAP in abolishing breathing abnormities in the treatment of OSAS; however, the f-APAP device might still have some potential limitations in the clinical application.

  9. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  10. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  11. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  12. Prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities regardless of symptoms rise with age: systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jimmy J; Teunis, Teun; Ring, David

    2014-12-01

    Triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities seem to be more common with age, but the degree to which this is so, and the degree to which the presence of an abnormality is associated with symptoms, are topics of controversy. We wished to perform a systematic review to determine the prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities, and to determine if the prevalence of abnormalities are greater with increasing age. In addition, we stratified age groups based on symptoms. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through August 15, 2013. Studies that reported triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities by age were included. Fifteen studies including 977 wrists met our criteria and reported a total of 368 (38%) triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities. Eight studies included symptomatic patients; the remainder studied cadavers (six studies) or asymptomatic volunteers (one study). Patients were divided into four age groups (< 30, 30-49, 50-69, and 70 years and older) for pooled analysis, comparing the proportions of patients with and without abnormalities between groups using chi-square analysis. We also evaluated the proportions after stratifying each age group by symptoms. Overall, the prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities increased with age, from 27% (80/301) in patients younger than 30 years to 49% (130/265) in patients 70 years and older (p < 0.001), odds ratio (OR), 2.7, 95% CI, 1.9-3.8 (p < 0.001). In asymptomatic patients, triangular fibrocartilage complex prevalence abnormality increased from 15% (24/159) to 49% (129/263) in the same age groups (p < 0.001), OR, 5.4, 95% CI, 3.3-8.9 (p < 0.001). For symptomatic patients prevalence ranged from 39% (56/142) to 70% (14/20) in patients between 50 and 69 years old (p < 0.034), OR, 3.6, 95% CI, 1.3-9.9 (p < 0.014). Triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities are common in symptomatic and asymptomatic wrists, and they are increasingly common with age

  13. Treatment cost evaluation of extrauterine gravidity: a literature review of medical and surgical treatment costs.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Florian; Varga, Dominic; Sorg, Friederike; Vorwerk, Elena; Schochter, Fabienne; Janni, Wolfgang; Wöckel, Achim; DeGregorio, Nikolaus

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of extrauterine pregnancy is possible very early giving the patient and doctors treatment options. As the risks and success rate of medical and surgical treatment are similar, the decision is increasingly influenced by cost-effectiveness. The following article systematically reviews the known literature regarding cost, decision criteria and possible follow-up. Literature review of extrauterine gravity in combination with cost in the online National Library of Medicine since 1.1.1997 following the PRISMA recommendations. Six articles were identified in which the cost of the laparoscopic versus medical treatment is reviewed. In five articles, the medical treatment was shown to be more cost effective and in the sixth article the costs were found to be equal. The cost saving varies between 18 and 88% depending on the consideration of direct and indirect costs. If indirect expenses are considered, the total sum increases with treatment failures. Failure rates are given as up to 27% depending on the type of failure (surgical or medical). These rates seem to be linked indirectly with the β-HCG levels. Predictive parameters for the successful medical treatment are missing. The treatment of small extrauterine gravidities in haemodynamically stable patients (defined by HCG levels <1,500 IU/l) is medically successful and cost-effective. With HCG levels between 1,500 IU/l and 3,000 IU/l, the treatment costs are similar. HCG levels >5,000 IU/l favour the surgical treatment as being more cost-effective. A similar cut-off for the sonographic imaging is missing.

  14. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  15. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  16. Coronary vasomotor abnormalities in insulin-resistant individuals.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Manuel J; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel; Schelbert, Heinrich; Bulnes-Enriquez, Isabel; Jimenez, Xochitl; Hernandez, Gustavo; De La Rosa, Roxana; Chon, Yun; Yang, Huiying; Nicholas, Susanne B; Modilevsky, Tamara; Yu, Katherine; Van Herle, Katja; Castellani, Lawrence W; Elashoff, Robert; Hsueh, Willa A

    2004-05-04

    Insulin resistance is a metabolic spectrum that progresses from hyperinsulinemia to the metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and finally type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unclear when vascular abnormalities begin in this spectrum of metabolic effects. To evaluate the association of insulin resistance with the presence and reversibility of coronary vasomotor abnormalities in young adults at low cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study followed by prospective, open-label treatment study. University hospital. 50 insulin-resistant and 22 insulin-sensitive, age-matched Mexican-American participants without glucose intolerance or traditional risk factors for or evidence of coronary artery disease. 3 months of thiazolidinedione therapy for 25 insulin-resistant patients. Glucose infusion rate in response to insulin infusion was used to define insulin resistance (glucose infusion rate < or = 4.00 mg/kg of body weight per minute [range, 0.90 to 3.96 mg/kg per minute]) and insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate > or = 7.50 mg/kg per minute [range, 7.52 to 13.92 mg/kg per minute]). Myocardial blood flow was measured by using positron emission tomography at rest, during cold pressor test (largely endothelium-dependent), and after dipyridamole administration (largely vascular smooth muscle-dependent). Myocardial blood flow responses to dipyridamole were similar in the insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant groups. However, myocardial blood flow response to cold pressor test increased by 47.6% from resting values in insulin-sensitive patients and by 14.4% in insulin-resistant patients. During thiazolidinedione therapy in a subgroup of insulin-resistant patients, insulin sensitivity improved, fasting plasma insulin levels decreased, and myocardial blood flow responses to cold pressor test normalized. The study was not randomized, and it included only 1 ethnic group. Insulin-resistant patients who do not have hypercholesterolemia or hypertension and do not smoke

  17. Evaluation and Treatment of Severe Obesity in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Edmond P.; DeBoer, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is highly prevalent in developed countries globally (and worsening in developing countries) and threatens to shorten the lifespan of the current generation. At highest risk for weight-related comorbidities including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia is a sub-set of children with severe obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI) percentile ≥99th percentile for age and sex. The pathophysiology of severe obesity in childhood is complex, resulting from the dynamic interplay of a myriad of individual and societal factors including genetic predisposition and health behaviors contributing to energy imbalance. Approximately 4–6% of children have severe obesity, representing a common scenario encountered by providers, and intervention is critical to halt ongoing weight gain and, when possible, reverse the trend. Clinical approaches promoting behavioral weight loss may result in modest, albeit clinically significant, reductions in BMI; however, such changes are often difficult to maintain long-term. Data regarding the impact of targeted pharmacotherapy including agents such as orlistat are limited in the pediatric population and again only suggest modest results. However, increasing evidence suggest that surgical treatment, as an adjunct to ongoing lifestyle changes, may be a promising option in carefully-screened adolescents with severe obesity and weight-related comorbidities who are motivated to adhere to the long-term treatment needs. PMID:25567296

  18. Treatment options for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - a safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Issa, Danny; Wattacheril, Julia; Sanyal, Arun J

    2017-08-01

    There is an urgent as yet unmet need to develop highly effective and safe therapeutics for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The remarkable progress in understanding NAFLD pathogenesis allowed the identification of injury pathways which may be recruited as therapy targets. Areas covered: This article reviews the safety and tolerability data of the NAFLD therapies and explains the mechanistic basis for each of the established and investigational drugs. Treatment targets include: weight loss, anti-metabolic agents such as lipid lowering and anti-diabetic drugs, inflammation, fibrosis and others such as targeting gut microbiota, immune modulation and apoptosis. Expert opinion: Current therapies continue to remain suboptimal. Weight loss is effective but hard to achieve. Traditional and endoscopic bariatric procedures are promising although more randomized trials are needed and the long-term safety remains to be established. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of several drugs for the treatment of NASH. Of these, there remains some uncertainty about the long-term safety of vitamin E. Pioglitazone is associated with osteopenia, fluid retention and weight gain. Obeticholic acid causes pruritus in a substantial proportion of subjects and elafibranor has been associated with transient rises in creatinine. Several exciting therapies are under development and results of clinical and post-marketing trials will help elucidate their safety.

  19. Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mount, Hillary R; Boyle, Sean D

    2017-09-01

    The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care. Viral meningitis is generally self-limited with a good prognosis. Examination maneuvers such as Kernig sign or Brudzinski sign may not be useful to differentiate bacterial from aseptic meningitis because of variable sensitivity and specificity. Because clinical findings are also unreliable, the diagnosis relies on the examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from lumbar puncture. Delayed initiation of antibiotics can worsen mortality. Treatment should be started promptly in cases where transfer, imaging, or lumbar puncture may slow a definitive diagnosis. Empiric antibiotics should be directed toward the most likely pathogens and should be adjusted by patient age and risk factors. Dexamethasone should be administered to children and adults with suspected bacterial meningitis before or at the time of initiation of antibiotics. Vaccination against the most common pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis is recommended. Chemoprophylaxis of close contacts is helpful in preventing additional infections.

  20. Evaluating forest product potential as part of planning ecological restoration treatments on forested landscapes

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Ryan Singleton; Douglas A. Maguire

    2007-01-01

    As landscape-scale assessments and modeling become a more common method for evaluating alternatives in integrated resource management, new techniques are needed to display and evaluate outcomes for large numbers of stands over long periods. In this proof of concept, we evaluate the potential to provide financial support for silvicultural treatments by selling timber...

  1. [Development of performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Huang, Shui-Sheng; Gong, Xin-Guo; Cen, Li-Ping; Zhang, Cong; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Jun-Jing; Chen, Li

    2012-04-01

    To construct a performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment, and analyze and evaluate the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment over the years. By applying the database management technique and C++ programming technique, we inputted the information of the advanced schistosomiasis cases into the system, and comprehensively evaluated the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment through the cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. We made a set of software formula about cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. This system had many features such as clear building, easy to operate, friendly surface, convenient information input and information search. It could benefit the performance evaluation of the province's advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work. This system can satisfy the current needs of advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work and can be easy to be widely used.

  2. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  3. Technology Evaluation for Treatment/Disposal of TNT Red Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21010-5423 __ E=4N DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED I I TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR...ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND , MARYLAND 21010-5423 April 1990 I I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF T-HI5 PA iiREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE W 7"f 4 I. REPORT SECURITY...and ZIP Code) 7b, ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) ATTN: CETHA-TE-D Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21010-5401 BaG. NAME OF FUNDING /SPONSORING 8b

  4. Evaluation and treatment of biking and running injuries.

    PubMed

    Oser, Sean M; Oser, Tamara K; Silvis, Matthew L

    2013-12-01

    Exercise is universally recognized as a key feature for maintaining good health. Likewise, lack of physical activity is a major risk factor for chronic disease and disability, an especially important fact considering our rapidly aging population. Biking and running are frequently recommended as forms of exercise. As more individuals participate in running-related and cycling-related activities, physicians must be increasingly aware of the common injuries encountered in these pursuits. This review focuses on the evaluation and management of common running-related and cycling-related injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary Care Physicians’ Evaluation and Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Steven A.; Hooper, Lisa M.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; DePuy, Venita; Cooper, Lisa A.; Harless, William G.; Tracy, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how patient and primary care physician characteristics are associated with quality of depression care. The authors conducted structured interviews of 404 randomly selected primary care physicians after their interaction with CD-ROM vignettes of actors portraying depressed patients. Vignettes varied along the dimensions of medical comorbidity, attributions regarding the cause of depression, style, race/ethnicity, and gender. Results show that physicians showed wide variation in treatment decisions; for example, most did not inquire about suicidal ideation, and most did not state that they would inform the patient that there can be a delay before an antidepressant is therapeutic. Several physician characteristics were significantly associated with management decisions. Notably, physician age was inversely correlated with a number of quality-of-care measures. In conclusion, quality of care varies among primary care physicians and appears to be associated with physician characteristics to a greater extent than patient characteristics. PMID:18832109

  6. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  7. Algorithm for clinical evaluation and surgical treatment of gynaecomastia.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Adriana; Moschella, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Gynaecomastia can be classified on the basis of the main characterising factors, i.e. pathogenesis, histopathology and morphology. The morphological classifications of gynaecomastia currently made often use subjective parameters and qualifying adjectives. In this paper the authors propose a scheme for morphological classification of gynaecomastia which can serve as a guide for choosing the surgical technique, once the diagnosis of gynaecomastia as a benign pathology has been confirmed by preoperative examinations. A retrospective analysis was made of 121 cases of gynaecomastia operated on in the last 5 years. The extent of the clinical picture, the technique employed, the complications and the need to re-operate were observed and related. On the basis of this review the authors observed that when the nipple-areola complex is above the inframammary fold (grade I and grade II gynaecomastia), complete flattening of the thorax can be achieved by means of suction or ultrasound-assisted lipectomy and skin-sparing adenectomy. When the nipple-areola complex is at the same height as, or at most 1cm below the fold (grade III gynaecomastia), skin-sparing techniques are no longer sufficient to flatten the thorax, and it becomes necessary to remove the redundant skin by means of periareolar removal of epidermis. In cases of marked ptosis, when the nipple-areola complex is more than 1cm below the fold (grade IV gynaecomastia), reduction mastoplasty becomes necessary, with upper repositioning of the nipple-areola complex; in these cases central pedicle techniques make it possible to limit scarring in the periareolar areas. In the preoperative phase this simple classification may help in choosing the most suitable treatment, thus avoiding insufficient or invasive treatments and undesirable scars.

  8. Obstetrical complications associated with abnormal maternal serum markers analytes.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Wilson, R Douglas

    2008-10-01

    To review the obstetrical outcomes associated with abnormally elevated or decreased level of one or more of the most frequently measured maternal serum marker analytes used in screening for aneuploidy. To provide guidance to facilitate the management of pregnancies that have abnormal levels of one of more markers and to assess the usefulness of these markers as a screening test. Perinatal outcomes associated with abnormal levels of maternal serum markers analytes are compared with the outcomes of pregnancies with normal levels of the same analytes or the general population. The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for English-language articles published from 1966 to February 2007, relating to maternal serum markers and perinatal outcomes. Search terms included PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A), AFP (alphafetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), estriol, unconjugated estriol, inhibin, inhibin-A, maternal serum screen, triple marker screen, quadruple screen, integrated prenatal screen, first trimester screen, and combined prenatal screen. All study types were reviewed. Randomized controlled trials were considered evidence of the highest quality, followed by cohort studies. Key individual studies on which the recommendations are based are referenced. Supporting data for each recommendation are summarized with evaluative comments and references. The evidence was evaluated using the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Genetics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The benefit expected from this guideline is to facilitate early detection of potential adverse pregnancy outcomes when risks are identified at the time of a maternal serum screen. It will help further stratification of risk and provide options for pregnancy management to minimize the impact of pregnancy complications. The potential harms resulting from such practice

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of Performance during Robot-assisted Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peri, E; Biffi, E; Maghini, C; Servodio Iammarrone, F; Gagliardi, C; Germiniasi, C; Pedrocchi, A; Turconi, A C; Reni, G

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation". The great potential of robots in extracting quantitative and meaningful data is not always exploited in clinical practice. The aim of the present work is to describe a simple parameter to assess the performance of subjects during upper limb robotic training exploiting data automatically recorded by the robot, with no additional effort for patients and clinicians. Fourteen children affected by cerebral palsy (CP) performed a training with Armeo®Spring. Each session was evaluated with P, a simple parameter that depends on the overall performance recorded, and median and interquartile values were computed to perform a group analysis. Median (interquartile) values of P significantly increased from 0.27 (0.21) at T0 to 0.55 (0.27) at T1 . This improvement was functionally validated by a significant increase of the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function. The parameter described here was able to show variations in performance over time and enabled a quantitative evaluation of motion abilities in a way that is reliable with respect to a well-known clinical scale.

  10. [Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Behle, V; Hamm, H

    2014-12-01

    Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor.

  11. Evaluation of Client Services (ECS): a measure of treatment satisfaction for people with chronic mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Berghofer, Gerlinde; Castille, Dorothy M; Link, Bruce

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Evaluation of Client Services (ECS) measure of treatment satisfaction for people with chronic mental illnesses in community treatment settings. The ECS, a 20-item instrument, was validated in a sample of 184 individuals receiving outpatient mental health treatment in New York City. The four dimensions of the ECS, (1) treatment management and treatment outcome, (2) treatment relationship, (3) communication and information exchange, and (4) reachability of treatment facilities are internally consistent and stable over time. Analyses also show that the ECS is a valid indicator of satisfaction with mental health services which meaningfully correlates with quality of life and another measure of treatment satisfaction. The ECS is a brief and easy to understand treatment satisfaction tool with good psychometric properties.

  12. Long-term evaluation of opioid treatment in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaomei; Robinson, Rebecca L; Mease, Philip; Kroenke, Kurt; Williams, David A; Chen, Yi; Faries, Douglas; Wohlreich, Madelaine; McCarberg, Bill; Hann, Danette

    2015-01-01

    In a 12-month observational study, we evaluated the effect of opioid use on the outcomes in 1700 adult patients with fibromyalgia. Data were evaluated using propensity score matching after patients were divided into cohorts based on their baseline medication use: (1) taking an opioid (concurrent use of tramadol was permitted); (2) taking tramadol (but no opioids); and (3) not taking opioids or tramadol. Changes in outcomes were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory for severity and pain-related interference (BPI-S, BPI-I), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and economic factors. Time-to-opioid or tramadol discontinuation was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Compared with the opioid cohort, the nonopioid cohort demonstrated significantly greater reductions (P<0.05) in BPI-I, FIQ, PHQ-8, SDS, and ISI; the tramadol cohort compared with the opioid group showed greater reductions on FIQ and ISI. Reductions in BPI-S and GAD-7 did not differ significantly among cohorts. Compared with the opioid cohort, patients in the tramadol cohort had fewer outpatient visits to health care providers. Few significant differences were found between the tramadol and nonopioid cohorts across outcomes. Although pain severity was reduced over time in all cohorts, opioid users showed less improvement in pain-related interference with daily living, functioning, depression, and insomnia. Overall, the findings show little support for the long-term use of opioid medications in patients with fibromyalgia given the poorer outcomes across multiple assessment domains associated with this cohort.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Integrated Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Khan, Sumera; Naeem, Sana; Perveen, Irum; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-03-01

    Simple, budget friendly, laboratory-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) was designed to assess domestic wastewater treatment performance at a loading rate of 75 mm/d, planted with native plant species: Veronica-angallis aquatica and compared with non-vegetative control system at various residence times of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 days. Results revealed that the vegetated ICW demonstrated superior performance over non-vegetated control: 69.12 vs 17.12%, 67.77 vs 16.04%, 68 vs 16.48%, 71.19 vs 6.56%, 71.54 vs 14.80%, and 72.04 vs 11.41% for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, phosphates (PO4(-)), sulfate (SO4(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)), respectively, at 20 days residence times. Reduction in bacterial counts (2.79 × 10(4) CFU/mL) and fecal pathogens (345.5 MPN index/100 mL) was observed in V. aquatica at 20 days residence time. Therefore, the present study highlights not only the presence of vegetation but also appropriate residence time in constructed wetlands for better performances.

  14. Evaluation of energy consumption during aerobic sewage sludge treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was aerobically stabilized and dewatered with a screw press. Organic matter varied from 48% to 56% in sludge after stabilization and dewatering. It proves that sludge was properly stabilized and it was possible to apply it as a fertilizer. Measurement factors for electric energy consumption for mechanically dewatered sewage sludge were determined, which ranged between 0.94 and 1.5 kWhm -3 with the average value at 1.17 kWhm -3 . The shares of devices used for sludge dewatering and aerobic stabilization in the total energy consumption of the plant were also established, which were 3% and 25% respectively. A model of energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment was estimated according to experimental data. Two models were applied: linear regression for dewatering process and segmented linear regression for aerobic stabilization. The segmented linear regression model was also applied to total energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment in the examined dairy WWTP. The research constitutes an introduction for further studies on defining a mathematical model used to optimize electric energy consumption by dairy WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative: a proposal to evaluate presymptomatic treatments as quickly as possible

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M; Langbaum, Jessica BS; Tariot, Pierre N

    2010-01-01

    Now is the time to launch the era of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prevention research, establish the methods and infrastructure to rapidly evaluate presymptomatic AD treatments and evaluate them rigorously and rapidly in randomized clinical trials. This article is a call to arms. It contends that the evaluation of presymptomatic AD treatments must become an urgent priority, it identifies what is holding us back and proposes new public policies and scientific strategies to overcome these roadblocks. It defines the term ‘presymptomatic AD treatment,’ notes the best established biomarkers of AD progression and pathology and suggests how they could be used to rapidly evaluate presymptomatic AD treatments in the people at risk. It introduces an approach to evaluate presymptomatic AD treatments in asymptomatic people at the highest risk of imminent clinical onset and determines the extent to which the treatment’s biomarker predicts a clinical outcome. We propose an Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative, which is now being reviewed and refined in partnership with leading academic and industry investigators. It is intended to evaluate the most promising presymptomatic AD treatments, help develop a regulatory pathway for their accelerated approval using reasonably likely surrogate end points and find demonstrably effective presymptomatic AD treatments as quickly as possible. PMID:20383319

  16. EVALUATION OF FULL-FIELD ELECTRORETINOGRAM REDUCTIONS AFTER OCRIPLASMIN TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Matthew S.; Miller, Daniel M.; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Markoff, Joseph; Kozma, Petra; Meunier, Esmeralda; Sergott, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To explore a possible association between full-field electroretinograms with vitreomacular adhesion resolution and best-corrected visual acuity as part of the prospective, randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled Ocriplasmin for Treatment for Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Including Macular Hole (OASIS) trial studying ocriplasmin. Methods: The ERG substudy enrolled 62 of 220 OASIS subjects (randomized 2:1) and analyzed full-field electroretinograms and their association with both vitreomacular adhesion resolution and best-corrected visual acuity from baseline through Month 24. Electroretinogram reductions were defined as acute full-field electroretinogram reductions in amplitude of ≥40% from baseline occurring at postinjection Day 7 or Day 28. Results: In the ocriplasmin group, 16/40 (40%) subjects developed ERG reductions, compared to 1/21 (4.8%) in the sham group; 13/16 (81.3%) and 1/1 (100%) resolved by study end, respectively. A total of 11/16 (68.8%) ocriplasmin-treated subjects with ERG reductions achieved vitreomacular adhesion resolution, compared to those without (9/24, 37.5%). The ocriplasmin-treated subjects with ERG reductions also gained more letters on average (11.3 vs. 9.3 letters) from baseline and had a difference of 6.7 letters in mean best-corrected visual acuity by study end compared to those without ERG reductions. Conclusion: Ocriplasmin-treated subjects with ERG reductions had a higher rate of vitreomacular adhesion resolution and showed better visual improvement than their counterparts without ERG reductions or sham subjects by study end. PMID:28198785

  17. Seasonal versus perennial immunotherapy: evaluation after three years of treatment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lejarazu, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audícana, M; Ventas, P; Martín, S; Fernández de Corres, L

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a comparative study to evaluate seasonal and perennial schedules after 3 years of immunotherapy. Sixty patients suffering from rhinitis and/or asthma due to grass pollen sensitization were randomly allocated to receive a semi-depot extract of Phleum pratense according to a perennial or seasonal schedule. The last year of the study, 14 patients were recruited as a control group without immunotherapy. The cumulative dose was 602 BU in the perennial group and 372 BU in the seasonal group. The frequency and severity of side-effects were similar and very low in both treated groups. The IgE level was significantly lower after perennial immunotherapy at the end of the first 2 years. A seasonal decrease in specific IgG levels was observed in patients who interrupted immunotherapy, while this was not observed in patients under the perennial schedule. Symptoms and medication scores did not show differences between groups. Nevertheless, we found a significant difference between treated patients and the control group.

  18. Functional evaluation in young patients undergoing orthopedical interceptive treatment.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Guido; Maspero, Cinzia; Giannini, Lucia; Tagliatesta, Costanza; Farronato, Giampietro

    2016-04-22

    The aim of this study is to examining the activity of jaw muscles through electromyograph and electrognatograph in children with unilateral posterior cross-bite and functional lateral shift before and after rapid palatal expansion, and to find out a relationship between the results. The sample included 71 children (35 females and 36 males; range: 6-10 years) with unilateral posterior crossbite and functional mandibular lateral shift in mixed dentition. Superficial Electromiographic activity coming from the muscles areas (anterior temporalis and masseters) and electrognatographic exam were obtained before (T0) and after rapid palatal expansion (T1) and after a follow-up period of 6 months (T2). A significant increase was found in the value of activity index between T0, T1 and T2 in all the analyzed muscles both in rest position and during the exercises of the different acquisitions, at the end of the active phase of the rapid palatal expansion. The evaluation of EMG activity after rapid palatal expansion is important to confirm the adaptation of the neuromuscular system to the new occlusal condition. In this study, the muscular activity was increased after therapy producing important changes in muscular tone.

  19. Functional evaluation in young patients undergoing orthopedical interceptive treatment.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Guido; Maspero, Cinzia; Giannini, Lucia; Tagliatesta, Costanza; Farronato, Giampietro

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examining the activity of jaw muscles through electromyograph and electrognatograph in children with unilateral posterior cross-bite and functional lateral shift before and after rapid palatal expansion, and to find out a relationship between the results. The sample included 71 children (35 females and 36 males; range: 6-10 years) with unilateral posterior crossbite and functional mandibular lateral shift in mixed dentition. Superficial Electromiographic activity coming from the muscles areas (anterior temporalis and masseters) and electrognatographic exam were obtained before (T0) and after rapid palatal expansion (T1) and after a follow-up period of 6 months (T2). A significant increase was found in the value of activity index between T0, T1 and T2 in all the analyzed muscles both in rest position and during the exercises of the different acquisitions, at the end of the active phase of the rapid palatal expansion. The evaluation of EMG activity after rapid palatal expansion is important to confirm the adaptation of the neuromuscular system to the new occlusal condition. In this study, the muscular activity was increased after therapy producing important changes in muscular tone.

  20. Evaluation of sternochondroplasty efficacy in treatment of pectus deformities.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Nouri Dalouee, Marzie; Ebrahimi, Kolsoumeh; Rajabnejad, Ata'ollah

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sternochondroplasty for repair of pectus deformities. Thirty-three patients underwent repair of pectus deformity with a sternochondroplasty technique between 1989 and 2009. Studied variables were age, sex, symptoms, pulmonary function tests before and after surgery, Haller index, complications, recurrence, and cosmetic results. The median age at operation was 13.27 years. Twenty patients (13 male and 7 female) had pectus excavatum, and 13 (11 male and 2 female) had pectus carinatum. Congenital anomalies associated with pectus excavatum included a skeletal anomaly in 6 (30%) patients and a cardiac anomaly in 4 (20%); only 1 patient with pectus carinatum had cardiac anomaly. Inspiratory vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly different before and after surgery in patients with pectus excavatum, but there was no significant difference in functional residual capacity. Pulmonary function tests showed no significant differences before and after surgery in patients with pectus carinatum. Complications after surgery were seroma in 2 cases and 1 case each of pneumothorax and atelectasis. Recurrence was observed in 2 cases of pectus excavatum. The cosmetic result was excellent in 93.9% of cases. Hospital mortality was zero. Sternochondroplasty is a desirable procedure for repairing pectus deformities. This procedure has minimal complications and the cosmetic and physiologic results are excellent. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. A Causal Model for Joint Evaluation of Placebo and Treatment-Specific Effects in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Kotz, Richard M.; Wang, Chenguang; Ruan, Shiling; Ho, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Evaluation of medical treatments is frequently complicated by the presence of substantial placebo effects, especially on relatively subjective endpoints, and the standard solution to this problem is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. However, effective blinding does not guarantee that all patients have the same belief or mentality about which treatment they have received (or treatmentality, for brevity), making it difficult to interpret the usual intent-to-treat effect as a causal effect. We discuss the causal relationships among treatment, treatmentality and the clinical outcome of interest, and propose a causal model for joint evaluation of placebo and treatment-specific effects. The model highlights the importance of measuring and incorporating patient treatmentality and suggests that each treatment group should be considered a separate observational study with a patient's treatmentality playing the role of an uncontrolled exposure. This perspective allows us to adapt existing methods for dealing with confounding to joint estimation of placebo and treatment-specific effects using measured treatmentality data, commonly known as blinding assessment data. We first apply this approach to the most common type of blinding assessment data, which is categorical, and illustrate the methods using an example from asthma. We then propose that blinding assessment data can be collected as a continuous variable, specifically when a patient's treatmentality is measured as a subjective probability, and describe analytic methods for that case. PMID:23432119

  2. An Evaluation of Culture Results during Treatment for Tuberculosis as Surrogate Endpoints for Treatment Failure and Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Fielding, Katherine; Nunn, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that new regimens are urgently needed for the treatment of tuberculosis. The primary endpoint in the Phase III trials is a composite outcome of failure at the end of treatment or relapse after stopping treatment. Such trials are usually both long and expensive. Valid surrogate endpoints measured during or at the end of treatment could dramatically reduce both the time and cost of assessing the effectiveness of new regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate sputum culture results on solid media during treatment as surrogate endpoints for poor outcome. Data were obtained from twelve randomised controlled trials conducted by the British Medical Research Council in the 1970s and 80s in East Africa and East Asia, consisting of 6974 participants and 49 different treatment regimens. The month two culture result was shown to be a poor surrogate in East Africa but a good surrogate in Hong Kong. In contrast, the month three culture was a good surrogate in trials conducted in East Africa but not in Hong Kong. As well as differences in location, ethnicity and probable strain of Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Hong Kong trials more often evaluated regimens with rifampicin throughout and intermittent regimens, and patients in East African trials more often presented with extensive cavitation and were slower to convert to culture negative during treatment. An endpoint that is a summary measure of the longitudinal profile of culture results over time or that is able to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis later in treatment is more likely to be a better endpoint for a phase II trial than a culture result at a single time point and may prove to be an acceptable surrogate. More data are needed before any endpoint can be used as a surrogate in a confirmatory phase III trial. PMID:23667677

  3. An evaluation of culture results during treatment for tuberculosis as surrogate endpoints for treatment failure and relapse.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Patrick P J; Fielding, Katherine; Nunn, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that new regimens are urgently needed for the treatment of tuberculosis. The primary endpoint in the Phase III trials is a composite outcome of failure at the end of treatment or relapse after stopping treatment. Such trials are usually both long and expensive. Valid surrogate endpoints measured during or at the end of treatment could dramatically reduce both the time and cost of assessing the effectiveness of new regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate sputum culture results on solid media during treatment as surrogate endpoints for poor outcome. Data were obtained from twelve randomised controlled trials conducted by the British Medical Research Council in the 1970s and 80s in East Africa and East Asia, consisting of 6974 participants and 49 different treatment regimens. The month two culture result was shown to be a poor surrogate in East Africa but a good surrogate in Hong Kong. In contrast, the month three culture was a good surrogate in trials conducted in East Africa but not in Hong Kong. As well as differences in location, ethnicity and probable strain of Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Hong Kong trials more often evaluated regimens with rifampicin throughout and intermittent regimens, and patients in East African trials more often presented with extensive cavitation and were slower to convert to culture negative during treatment. An endpoint that is a summary measure of the longitudinal profile of culture results over time or that is able to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis later in treatment is more likely to be a better endpoint for a phase II trial than a culture result at a single time point and may prove to be an acceptable surrogate. More data are needed before any endpoint can be used as a surrogate in a confirmatory phase III trial.

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awarenessmore » to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.« less

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Variations in uterine bleeding, termed abnormal uterine bleeding, occur commonly among women and often are physiologic in nature with no significant consequences. However, abnormal uterine bleeding can cause significant distress to women or may signify an underlying pathologic condition. Most women experience variations in menstrual and perimenstrual bleeding in their lifetimes; therefore, the ability of the midwife to differentiate between normal and abnormal bleeding is a key diagnostic skill. A comprehensive history and use of the PALM-COEIN classification system will provide clear guidelines for clinical management, evidence-based treatment, and an individualized plan of care. The purpose of this Clinical Bulletin is to define and describe classifications of abnormal uterine bleeding, review updated terminology, and identify methods of assessment and treatment using a woman-centered approach. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. An evaluation of oxygen systems for treatment of childhood pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxygen therapy is recommended for all of the 1.5 – 2.7 million young children who consult health services with hypoxemic pneumonia each year, and the many more with other serious conditions. However, oxygen supplies are intermittent throughout the developing world. Although oxygen is well established as a treatment for hypoxemic pneumonia, quantitative evidence for its effect is lacking. This review aims to assess the utility of oxygen systems as a method for reducing childhood mortality from pneumonia. Methods Aiming to improve priority setting methods, The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) has developed a common framework to score competing interventions into child health. That framework involves the assessment of 12 different criteria upon which interventions can be compared. This report follows the proposed framework, using a semi-systematic literature review and the results of a structured exercise gathering opinion from experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies), to assess and score each criterion as their “collective optimism” towards each, on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results A rough estimate from an analysis of the literature suggests that global strengthening of oxygen systems could save lives of up to 122,000 children from pneumonia annually. Following 12 CHNRI criteria, the experts expressed very high levels of optimism (over 80%) for answerability, low development cost and low product cost; high levels of optimism (60-80%) for low implementation cost, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, acceptance to end users and health workers; and moderate levels of optimism (40-60%) for impact on equity, affordability and sustainability. The median estimate of potential effectiveness of oxygen systems to reduce the overall childhood pneumonia mortality was ~20% (interquartile range: 10-35%, min. 0%, max. 50%). However

  7. Evaluation of treatment options for ASR-affected concrete : final report, December 11, 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-11

    This research project was undertaken to evaluate the potential of using surface treatments including lithium nitrate, : sodium tartarate, siloxanes, silane, and boiled linseed oil to mitigate or slow the rate of concrete deterioration : associated wi...

  8. Notification: Preliminary Research to Evaluate Hazardous Waste Passing Through Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    March 13, 2013. The EPA's OIG plans to start preliminary research to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPA’s programs in preventing and addressing contamination of surface water from hazardous wastes passing through publicly owned treatment works.

  9. [An integrated model for examination of aphasic patients and evaluation of treatment results].

    PubMed

    Ansink, B J; Vanneste, J A; Endtz, L J

    1980-02-01

    This article is an overview of the literature on integrated, multidisciplinar examination of aphasic patients, its consequences for treatment and the evaluation of the results thereof; the need of virtually standardized methods of investigation for each language is stressed.

  10. Historical performance evaluation of Iowa pavement treatments using data analytics : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-11-01

    The pavement network in Iowa has reached a mature state making maintenance and rehabilitation activities more important than new construction. As such, a need exists to evaluate the performance of the pavement treatments and estimate their performanc...

  11. Outpatient evaluation, recognition, and initial management of pediatric overweight and obesity in U.S. military medical treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Wayne; Arday, David R; Kelly, Joseph; Carnahan, Col David

    2017-02-01

    As childhood obesity is a concern in many communities, this study investigated outpatient evaluation and initial management of overweight and obese pediatric patients in U.S. military medical treatment facilities (MTFs). Samples of 579 overweight and 341 obese patients (as determined by body mass index [BMI]) aged 3-17 years were drawn from MTFs. All available FY2011 outpatient records were searched for documentation of BMI assessment, overweight/obesity diagnosis, and counseling. Administrative data for these patients were merged to assess coded diagnostic and counseling rates and receipt of recommended laboratory screenings. Generic BMI documentation was high, but BMI percentile assessments were found among fewer than half the patients. Diagnostic recording or recognition totaled 10.9% of overweight and 32.0% of obese. Counseling rates were higher, with 46.4% and 61.0% of overweight and obese patients, respectively, receiving weight related counseling. Among patients 10 years of age or older, rates of recommended lab screenings for diabetes, liver abnormality, and dyslipidemia were not greater than 33%. BMI percentile recording was strongly associated with diagnostic recording, and diagnostic recording was strongly associated with counseling. Improvements to electronic health records or implementation of local procedures to facilitate better diagnostic recording would likely improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Applying the Growth Failure in CKD Consensus Conference: evaluation and treatment algorithm in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D

    2006-07-01

    Growth failure is a common and significant clinical problem for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Children with CRI (typically defined by a glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <75 mL/min/1.73 m2) who have growth impairment exhibit a variety of medical and psychological problems in addition to increased mortality. Growth failure in children with CKD is usually multifactorial in etiology, including abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis and a variety of nutritional and metabolic concerns characteristic of CKD. Proper management of these factors contributes to better growth in affected children. Although the safety and efficacy of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy in promoting growth in children with CKD are well established, recent data indicate that the use of rhGH administration in children with CKD and growth failure remains low. Recently, guidelines were developed by the Consensus Conference for Evaluation and Treatment of Growth Failure in Children with CKD. This paper focuses on the application of these guidelines to children with CKD.

  13. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Griw, Mohamed A.; Treesh, Soad A.; Alghazeer, Rabia O.; Regeai, Sassia O.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day). The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide) in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring generations. Hence

  14. Pediatric constipation in the emergency department: evaluation, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Thull-Freedman, Jennifer; Rumantir, Maggie; Eltorki, Mohamed; Schuh, Suzanne

    2014-09-01

    Limited knowledge exists surrounding the pharmacologic management of pediatric constipation in the emergency department (ED) setting and the success of interventions. Our primary objective was to determine whether enema administration is associated with 7-day ED revisits for persistent symptoms. Secondary objectives focused on assessing other predictors of ED revisits. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children <18 years old, diagnosed as having constipation (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes F98.1 nonorganic encopresis, K59.0 constipation) in a pediatric ED in Toronto, Canada, between November 2008 and October 2010. A total of 3592 visits were included; 6% (n = 225) were associated with a revisit. Children with revisits more frequently had vomiting (28% vs 17%, P = 0.001), more pain (5.7 ± 3.6 vs 4.6-3.6 of 10, P = 0.01), and underwent more blood tests (19% 05, 11%, 95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference 3%-14%] and diagnostic imaging (62% vs 47%, 95% CI of the difference 9%-22%). Children administered an enema were 1.54 times more likely to revisit the ED than those who did not receive an enema (8.6% vs 5.5%, 95% CI of the difference 1.1%-5.2%, P = 0.001). Type of enema administered varied by age (P < 0.001). Regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of revisits: diagnostic imaging (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.15-2.06), vomiting (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), enema administration (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.05-1.88), and significant medical history (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.53). Enema administration and diagnostic imaging are associated with revisits in children diagnosed with constipation. Their role in the ED management of pediatric constipation requires further evaluation.

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Dental Treatment under General Anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Erdoğan, Mehmet Ali; Şanlı, Mukadder; Kaçmaz, Osman; Durmuş, Mahmut; Çolak, Cemil

    2015-10-01

    Most dental procedures can be performed with local anaesthesia, however noncompliant paediatric patients, patients with mental retardation or psychiatric disorders, severe anxiety, severe craniofacial anomalies and orofacial trauma may need general anaesthesia. In these patients accompanying central nervous system diseases and airway problems increase the risk of complications. Anaesthesia records of 467 cases of dental surgery performed under general anaesthesia between 2011-2014 is reported with information from the recent literature. In the study, 467 cases of dental procedures performed under general anaesthesia were taken from the İnönü University of Medicine, Dentistry Disabled Treatment Centre, after approval of the İnönü University Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee. Demographic data, ASA classification, Mallampati (MP) score, duration of surgery, type of intubation and difficulties, comorbid diseases, premedication application, endocarditis prophylaxis, recovery time, analgesia and reasons for general anaesthesia were recorded as mean±standard deviation (SD) or as a number. The mean age of the patients was 16.78±12 years and the female/male ratio was 277/190 (59.3%/40.7%). Of the 467 patients, 219 (46.9%) were classified as ASA I, 234 (50.1%) as ASA II and 14 (3%) as ASA III. Furthermore, 182 (38.9%) patients with mental retardation, 33 (7.1%) with cerebral palsy and 28 (6%) with autism were identified. The mean operative time was 114.53±35.4 min, and the average recovery time 40.4±6 was min. Of the endotracheal intubations 277 (59.3%) were oral, 82 (17.6%) were nasal, and 108 (23.1%) were nasal with the help of fibreoptics. Difficult intubation was observed in 20 (4.3%) patients. The MP score was 1 in 397 (85%) patients, 2 in 50 (10.7%) patients, 3 in 18 (3.9%) patients and 4 in 2 (0.4%) patients. General anaesthesia was applied because of cooperation difficulties in 213 (45.6%), mental retardation in 182 (38.9%), autism in 28 (5

  16. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  17. Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass sickness.

    PubMed

    Fintl, C; McGorum, B C

    2002-09-28

    Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13 horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing care.

  18. Summary and Evaluation of the Regional Educational Diagnostic Treatment Center 1966-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    A diagnostic treatment center for learning disabilities and emotional problems was developed to serve six school systems. Evaluation by the multidisciplinary staff covered behavior, family background, health, and intellectual, perceptual motor, emotional, and educational functioning. Treatment plans, developed by the team which subsequently met…

  19. Evaluating alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce wildfire losses in a Mediterranean area

    Treesearch

    Michele Salis; Maurizio Laconi; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Olga Lozano; Ana Fernandes de Oliveira; Donatella Spano

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate by a modeling approach the effectiveness of alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce potential losses from wildfires in Mediterranean areas. We compared strategic fuel treatments located near specific human values vs random locations, and treated 3, 9 and 15% of a 68,000 ha study area located in Sardinia, Italy. The...

  20. Evaluation and Treatment of Swimming Pool Avoidance Exhibited by an Adolescent Girl with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and treated swimming pool avoidance that was exhibited by a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. In part, treatment involved blocking for flopping (dropping to the ground) and elopement (running away from the pool) and access to food for movements toward a swimming pool. Treatment also involved reinforcement for exposure to various…

  1. Evaluation of treatment effects in obese children with co-morbid medical or psychiatric conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for effective treatments for pediatric overweight is well known. We evaluated the applicability of an evidence-based treatment in an applied clinic setting that includes children with severe obesity and comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. Forty-eight overweight children and their fa...

  2. Evaluating Treatments for Functionally Equivalent Problem Behavior Maintained by Adult Compliance with Mands during Interactive Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Bednar, Mary K.; Willse, Lena V.; Goetzel, Amanda L.; Concepcion, Anthony; Pincus, Shari M.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of behavioral interventions is to reduce dangerous or inappropriate behavior and to generalize treatment effects across various settings. However, there is a lack of research evaluating generalization of treatment effects while individuals with functionally equivalent problem behavior interact with each other. For the current study,…

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AT A LONG-TERM FOOD PROCESSING LAND TREATMENT SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to determine the performance of a full scale, operating overland flow land (GEL) treatment system treating nonhazardous waste. Performance was evaluated in terms of treatment of the applied waste and the environmental impact of the system, partic...

  4. Manual for Drug Abuse Treatment Program Self-Evaluation. Supplement II: CODAP Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, L. Lynn; Tuchfeld, Barry S.

    This is the second of two supplements to a manual on the self-evaluation of drug abuse treatment programs. Data based on treatment outcome information that agencies and clinics routinely collect or have available in the files of individual clients are presented. While it is possible to use this volume without referring to the discussion of…

  5. An Evaluation of Programmed Treatment-integrity Errors during Discrete-trial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Regina A.; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of programmed treatment-integrity errors on skill acquisition for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during discrete-trial instruction (DTI). In Study 1, we identified common treatment-integrity errors that occur during academic instruction in schools. In Study 2, we simultaneously manipulated 3…

  6. Abnormal aortic arch morphology in Turner syndrome patients is a risk factor for hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Katya; Devos, Daniël; Van Herck, Koen; Demulier, Laurent; Buysse, Wesley; De Schepper, Jean; De Wolf, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension in Turner syndrome (TS) is a multifactorial, highly prevalent and significant problem that warrants timely diagnosis and rigorous treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between abnormal aortic arch morphology and hypertension in adult TS patients. This was a single centre retrospective study in 74 adult TS patients (age 29.41 ± 8.91 years) who underwent a routine cardiac MRI. Patients were assigned to the hypertensive group (N = 31) if blood pressure exceeded 140/90 mmHg and/or if they were treated with antihypertensive medication. Aortic arch morphology was evaluated on MRI images and initially assigned as normal (N = 54) or abnormal (N = 20), based on the curve of the transverse arch and the distance between the left common carotid-left subclavian artery. We additionally used a new more objective method to describe aortic arch abnormality in TS by determination of the relative position of the highest point of the transverse arch (AoHP). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension is significantly and independently associated with age, BMI and abnormal arch morphology, with a larger effect size for the new AoHP method than for the classical method. TS patients with hypertension and abnormal arch morphology more often had dilatation of the ascending aorta. There is a significant association between abnormal arch morphology and hypertension in TS patients, independent of age and BMI, and not related to other structural heart disease. We suggest that aortic arch morphology should be included in the risk stratification for hypertension in TS and propose a new quantitative method to express aortic arch morphology.

  7. Abnormalities associated with congenital scoliosis: a retrospective study of 226 Chinese surgical cases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianxiong; Wang, Zijia; Liu, Jiaming; Xue, Xuhong; Qiu, Guixing

    2013-05-01

    Retrospective study of a series of 226 consecutive Chinese patients with congenital scoliosis. To identify the incidence of intraspinal abnormalities and other organ defects in surgical patients with congenital scoliosis in Chinese population. Previous studies have revealed high rates of intraspinal anomalies and other organ defects in patients with congenital scoliosis. The incidence of abnormalities in patients with congenital scoliosis in Chinese population has not been reported. A total of 226 patients with congenital scoliosis underwent surgical treatment in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2005 and March 2011 were identified. A definitive diagnosis of congenital scoliosis for all patients was made. Complete data were reviewed, including medical records, plain radiograph, magnetic resonance (MR) image of the whole spine, echocardiography, and renal ultrasound. The incidence of intraspinal abnormalities and other organ defects were analyzed. Intraspinal abnormalities were found in 99 (43%) patients. Diastematomyelia was identified to be the most common intraspinal pathological anomaly, which was different from the previous reports. The incidence of intraspinal anomaly in patients with failures of segmentation and mixed defects were significantly higher than those with failures of formation. Patients with thoracic hemivertebrae were found to have a higher incidence of intraspinal abnormalities than patients with lumbar hemivertebrae. Patients with intraspinal abnormality had a higher incidence of positive clinical findings than those with normal magnetic resonance imaging. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. Other organic defects were found in 91(40%) patients. Cardiac defects were detected in 18%, urogenital anomalies in 12%, and gastrointestinal anomalies in 5% of the patients in this study. Diastematomyelia was found to be the most common intraspinal pathological anomaly and cardiac defects were

  8. Evaluation of Chlorine Treatment Levels for Inactivation of Human Norovirus and MS2 Bacteriophage during Sewage Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, David H; Fay, Johnna P; Calci, Kevin; Pouillot, Régis; Woods, Jacquelina; Chen, Haiqiang; Niemira, Brendan A; Van Doren, Jane M

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) GI.1 and GII.4 by chlorine under conditions mimicking sewage treatment. Using a porcine gastric mucin-magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay, no statistically significant loss in HuNoV binding (inactivation) was observed for secondary effluent treatments of ≤25 ppm total chlorine; for both strains, 50 and 100 ppm treatments resulted in ≤0.8-log 10 unit and ≥3.9-log 10 unit reductions, respectively. Treatments of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm chlorine inactivated 0.31, 1.35, >5, and >5 log 10 units, respectively, of the norovirus indicator MS2 bacteriophage. Evaluation of treatment time indicated that the vast majority of MS2 and HuNoV inactivation occurred in the first 5 min for 0.2-μm-filtered, prechlorinated secondary effluent. Free chlorine measurements of secondary effluent seeded with MS2 and HuNoV demonstrated substantial oxidative burdens. With 25, 50, and 100 ppm treatments, free chlorine levels after 5 min of exposure ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 ppm, from 0.28 to 16.7 ppm, and from 11.6 to 53 ppm, respectively. At chlorine treatment levels of >50 ppm, statistically significant differences were observed between reductions for PGM-MB-bound HuNoV (potentially infectious) particles and those for unbound (noninfectious) HuNoV particles or total norovirus particles. While results suggested that MS2 and HuNoV (measured as PGM-MB binding) behave similarly, although not identically, both have limited susceptibility to chlorine treatments of ≤25 ppm total chlorine. Since sewage treatment is performed at ≤25 ppm total chlorine, targeting free chlorine levels of 0.5 to 1.0 ppm, these results suggest that traditional chlorine-based sewage treatment does not inactivate HuNoV efficiently. IMPORTANCE HuNoV is ubiquitous in sewage. A receptor binding assay was used to assess inactivation of HuNoV by chlorine-based sewage treatment, given that the virus cannot be routinely propagated in vitro Results reported here

  9. Evaluation of Chlorine Treatment Levels for Inactivation of Human Norovirus and MS2 Bacteriophage during Sewage Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Johnna P.; Calci, Kevin; Pouillot, Régis; Woods, Jacquelina; Chen, Haiqiang; Niemira, Brendan A.; Van Doren, Jane M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) GI.1 and GII.4 by chlorine under conditions mimicking sewage treatment. Using a porcine gastric mucin-magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay, no statistically significant loss in HuNoV binding (inactivation) was observed for secondary effluent treatments of ≤25 ppm total chlorine; for both strains, 50 and 100 ppm treatments resulted in ≤0.8-log10 unit and ≥3.9-log10 unit reductions, respectively. Treatments of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm chlorine inactivated 0.31, 1.35, >5, and >5 log10 units, respectively, of the norovirus indicator MS2 bacteriophage. Evaluation of treatment time indicated that the vast majority of MS2 and HuNoV inactivation occurred in the first 5 min for 0.2-μm-filtered, prechlorinated secondary effluent. Free chlorine measurements of secondary effluent seeded with MS2 and HuNoV demonstrated substantial oxidative burdens. With 25, 50, and 100 ppm treatments, free chlorine levels after 5 min of exposure ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 ppm, from 0.28 to 16.7 ppm, and from 11.6 to 53 ppm, respectively. At chlorine treatment levels of >50 ppm, statistically significant differences were observed between reductions for PGM-MB-bound HuNoV (potentially infectious) particles and those for unbound (noninfectious) HuNoV particles or total norovirus particles. While results suggested that MS2 and HuNoV (measured as PGM-MB binding) behave similarly, although not identically, both have limited susceptibility to chlorine treatments of ≤25 ppm total chlorine. Since sewage treatment is performed at ≤25 ppm total chlorine, targeting free chlorine levels of 0.5 to 1.0 ppm, these results suggest that traditional chlorine-based sewage treatment does not inactivate HuNoV efficiently. IMPORTANCE HuNoV is ubiquitous in sewage. A receptor binding assay was used to assess inactivation of HuNoV by chlorine-based sewage treatment, given that the virus cannot be routinely propagated in vitro. Results reported

  10. Reducing Therapist Contact in Parenting Programs: Evaluation of Internet-Based Treatments for Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Rabbitt, Sarah M.; Carrubba, Erin; Lecza, Bernadette; McWhinney, Emily; Pope, Jennifer; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated two Internet-based versions of Parent Management Training (PMT) and the effects of greatly reducing the contact required of a mental health professional on treatment of children referred for conduct problems. We were interested whether reduced contact with a therapist influenced treatment outcome, therapeutic alliance, parent adherence to treatment prescriptions, and parent reactions to and evaluations of the treatment procedures. Sixty children and their caregivers were assigned to receive either Full Contact PMT (with the amount of weekly contact similar to traditional PMT; approximately 50 minutes of direct therapist contact each week) or Reduced Contact PMT (with most information provided through recordings; approximately 10 minutes of therapist contact each week). Children in both groups showed significant and similar reductions in antisocial behaviors specifically, internalizing and externalizing symptoms more generally, and improvements in overall adaptive functioning. Therapeutic alliance also was similar across the two treatment groups. However, parents rated Full Contact treatment as more acceptable than the reduced version. Both treatments were similar in outcomes to in-person treatment as evaluated by a nonrandomized matched sample used as a benchmark in supplementary analyses. Overall, the findings indicate that therapist contact can be reduced while positive treatment outcomes are maintained but that interventions that reduce direct time with a therapist may be viewed less positively by clients. PMID:27453678

  11. Evaluating treatment of obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia disorder using an incomplete factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Megan R.; Turner, Arlener D.; Wyatt, James K.; Fogg, Louis F.; Ong, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic insomnia disorder is a prevalent condition and a significant proportion of these individuals also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These two sleep disorders have distinct pathophysiology and are managed with different treatment approaches. High comorbidity rates have been a catalyst for emerging studies examining multidisciplinary treatment for OSA comorbid with insomnia disorder. In this article, we describe a randomized clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) for OSA. Participants are randomized to receive one of three treatment combinations. Individuals randomized to treatment Arm A receive sequential treatment beginning with CBT-I followed by PAP, in treatment Arm B CBT-I and PAP are administered concurrently. These treatment arms are compared to a control condition, treatment Arm C, where individuals receive PAP alone. Adopting an incomplete factorial study design will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (Arms A & B) versus standard treatment alone (Arm C). In addition, the random allocation of individuals to the two different combined treatment sequences (Arm A and Arm B) will allow us to understand the benefits of the sequential administration of CBT-I and PAP relative to concurrent treatment of PAP and CBT-I. These findings will provide evidence of the clinical benefits of treating insomnia disorder in the context of OSA. PMID:26733360

  12. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  13. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  14. Evaluation of treatment-effect heterogeneity using biomarkers measured on a continuous scale: subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ann A; Cole, Bernard F; Bonetti, Marco; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-10-10

    The discovery of biomarkers that predict treatment effectiveness has great potential for improving medical care, particularly in oncology. These biomarkers are increasingly reported on a continuous scale, allowing investigators to explore how treatment efficacy varies as the biomarker values continuously increase, as opposed to using arbitrary categories of expression levels resulting in a loss of information. In the age of biomarkers as continuous predictors (eg, expression level percentage rather than positive v negative), alternatives to such dichotomized analyses are needed. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of an intuitive statistical approach-the subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP)-for evaluating treatment-effect heterogeneity when a biomarker is measured on a continuous scale. STEPP graphically explores the patterns of treatment effect across overlapping intervals of the biomarker values. As an example, STEPP methodology is used to explore patterns of treatment effect for varying levels of the biomarker Ki-67 in the BIG (Breast International Group) 1-98 randomized clinical trial comparing letrozole with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. STEPP analyses showed patients with higher Ki-67 values who were assigned to receive tamoxifen had the poorest prognosis and may benefit most from letrozole.

  15. [Success of treatment, experience of treatment, and satisfaction with treatment from the perspective of patients, parents, and therapists--results of an evaluative study on inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bredel, Susanne; Brunner, Romuald; Haffner, Johann; Resch, Franz

    2004-04-01

    In spite of the high importance of subjective opinions as essential evaluation criteria there are hardly any studies available, dealing with the research of subjective judgements made by children and adolescent patients in relation to their inpatient treatment, and comparison with the evaluation of their parents. The evaluative study on an age-group random sample survey (n=95) of patients and parents at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Heidelberg includes success of treatment, experience of treatment and satisfaction with treatment by means of specially constructed and parallelized questionnaires for patients, parents and therapists. Apart from the extent of subjectively experienced changes in precisely defined success variables, not only agreements and differences were studied, but also connections between success of treatment, experience of treatment and satisfaction with treatment as well as influences of success variables and experience variables on treatment satisfaction. Parents', patients' and therapists' evaluations of the treatment in regard of most success variables were all positive. At the end of treatment a perspective convergence was noticeable in some variables. The pressure on the parents requires special therapeutic attention. In the sense of therapy evaluation the change in the way the problem was viewed proved to be a worthwile success criterium. From the patients' and parents' point of view the change in the problem "as a whole" is mainly characterized by a positive change in emotional disposition. The therapeutic atmosphere and organisation of therapeutic relationships were highly appreciated by patients and parents. All in all patients, parents and therapists were highly satisfied with inpatient treatment. The correlations found between the grade of success, experience of treatment and satisfaction with treatment were clearly positive. On the patients' side treatment satisfaction was dictated more by their

  16. Causes and Diagnosis of Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Elizabeth; Peddinti, Radhika

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding in a postmenarchal adolescent patient is most often related to dysfunctional uterine bleeding. However, there are other potential etiologies, including hematologic disorders, infections, and oncologic problems. We present a 12-year-old girl who presented with prolonged vaginal bleeding and was ultimately diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma. In this article, we discuss the approach to a patient with vaginal bleeding along with a more in-depth review of risk stratification in rhabdomyosarcoma, including treatment options such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  18. An evaluation of programmed treatment-integrity errors during discrete-trial instruction.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Regina A; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of programmed treatment-integrity errors on skill acquisition for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during discrete-trial instruction (DTI). In Study 1, we identified common treatment-integrity errors that occur during academic instruction in schools. In Study 2, we simultaneously manipulated 3 integrity errors during DTI. In Study 3, we evaluated the effects of each of the 3 integrity errors separately on skill acquisition during DTI. Results showed that participants either demonstrated slower skill acquisition or did not acquire the target skills when instruction included treatment-integrity errors. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Transvaginal Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Karen C; Goldstein, Steven R

    2017-03-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound is the first-line imaging test for the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Transvaginal ultrasound can be used to diagnose structural causes of abnormal bleeding such as polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyomas, hyperplasia, and malignancy, and can also be beneficial in making the diagnosis of ovulatory dysfunction. Traditional 2-dimensional imaging is often enhanced by the addition of 3-dimension imaging with coronal reconstruction and saline infusion sonohysterography. In this article we discuss specific ultrasound findings and technical considerations useful in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Residual Symptoms and Impairment in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, William; Roseborough, David

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of persons with schizophrenia who experienced significant residual symptoms and impaired functioning despite their adherence to medication. The study used an aggregated AB single-system research design across 22 participants to evaluate change in clinical…

  1. COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  2. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  3. Initial evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Brian C; Jimerson, Michelle; Haxton, Christina; Jimerson, David C

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are life-threatening conditions that are challenging to address; however, the primary care setting provides an important opportunity for critical medical and psychosocial intervention. The recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., includes updated diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (e.g., elimination of amenorrhea as a diagnostic criterion) and for bulimia nervosa (e.g., criterion for frequency of binge episodes decreased to an average of once per week). In addition to the role of environmental triggers and societal expectations of body size and shape, research has suggested that genes and discrete biochemical signals contribute to the development of eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa occur most often in adolescent females and are often accompanied by depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. For low-weight patients with anorexia nervosa, virtually all physiologic systems are affected, ranging from hypotension and osteopenia to life-threatening arrhythmias, often requiring emergent assessment and hospitalization for metabolic stabilization. In patients with frequent purging or laxative abuse, the presence of electrolyte abnormalities requires prompt intervention. Family-based treatment is helpful for adolescents with anorexia nervosa, whereas short-term psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavior therapy, is effective for most patients with bulimia nervosa. The use of psychotropic medications is limited for anorexia nervosa, whereas treatment studies have shown a benefit of antidepressant medications for patients with bulimia nervosa. Treatment is most effective when it includes a multidisciplinary, teambased approach.

  4. Abnormal stress echocardiography findings in cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kevin C; Askew, J Wells; Dispenzieri, Angela; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Klarich, Kyle W; Anavekar, Nandan S; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Grogan, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac involvement in immunoglobulin light chain (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis is characterized by myocardial interstitial deposition but can also cause obstructive deposits in the coronary microvasculature. We retrospectively identified 20 patients who underwent stress echocardiography within 1 year prior to the histologic diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. Only patients with cardiac amyloidosis and no known obstructive coronary disease were included. Stress echocardiograms (13 exercise; 7 dobutamine) were performed for evaluation of dyspnea and/or chest pain. Stress-induced wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) occurred in 11 patients (55%), 4 of whom had normal left ventricular wall thickness. Coronary angiogram was performed in 9 of 11 patients and demonstrated no or mild epicardial coronary artery disease. Seven (54%) patients had an abnormal exercise blood pressure which occurred with similar likelihood between those with and without stress-induced WMAs. Stress-induced WMAs and abnormal exercise blood pressure may occur in patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis despite the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. This finding should raise the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis even in the absence of significant myocardial thickening.

  5. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Connectomics and graph theory analyses: Novel insights into network abnormalities in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Kocher, Madison; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of neural networks in epilepsy has become increasingly relevant in the context of translational research, given that localized forms of epilepsy are more likely to be related to abnormal function within specific brain networks, as opposed to isolated focal brain pathology. It is notable that variability in clinical outcomes from epilepsy treatment may be a reflection of individual patterns of network abnormalities. As such, network endophenotypes may be important biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. Despite its exceptional potential, measuring abnormal networks in translational research has been thus far constrained by methodologic limitations. Fortunately, recent advancements in neuroscience, particularly in the field of connectomics, permit a detailed assessment of network organization, dynamics, and function at an individual level. Data from the personal connectome can be assessed using principled forms of network analyses based on graph theory, which may disclose patterns of organization that are prone to abnormal dynamics and epileptogenesis. Although the field of connectomics is relatively new, there is already a rapidly growing body of evidence to suggest that it can elucidate several important and fundamental aspects of abnormal networks to epilepsy. In this article, we provide a review of the emerging evidence from connectomics research regarding neural network architecture, dynamics, and function related to epilepsy. We discuss how connectomics may bring together pathophysiologic hypotheses from conceptual and basic models of epilepsy and in vivo biomarkers for clinical translational research. By providing neural network information unique to each individual, the field of connectomics may help to elucidate variability in clinical outcomes and open opportunities for personalized medicine approaches to epilepsy. Connectomics involves complex and rich data from each subject, thus collaborative efforts to enable the

  7. Objective and subjective treatment evaluation of scars using optical coherence tomography, sonography, photography, and standardised questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Markus; Schwaiger, Hannah; Poetschke, Julian; Epple, Andreas; Ruzicka, Thomas; Von Braunmühl, Tanja; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-12-01

    Currently, different types of treatments for pathological scars are available, however, to date, there is no established method of measurement to objectively assess therapeutic outcome. Treatment success is usually evaluated clinically by the physician and patient. Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as HD-OCT (high-definition optical coherence tomography), may represent a valuable diagnostic tool to objectively measure therapeutic outcome. To compare HD-OCT with ultrasound and subjective evaluation tools, such as questionnaires. In total, eight patients with pathological scars were treated in this pilot study with cryotherapy and intralesional steroid injections, and evaluated pre- and post-treatment using clinical examination, photography, sonography, and HD-OCT. The analysis of objective and subjective measuring methods was used to draw direct comparisons. HD-OCT revealed reduced epidermal and dermal thickness of the scar after four treatments with triamcinolone acetonide and cryotherapy. Based on sonography, a total reduction in scar height and reduction in scar depth was demonstrated. Both methods correlated well with the injected amount of triamcinolone acetonide. In addition, a positive correlation between well-established subjective and objective evaluation methods was found. We demonstrate that HD-OCT may be used as an objective diagnostic instrument to evaluate skin thickness under therapy for pathological scars, and serves as a valuable adjunctive device in combination with ultrasound and subjective evaluation tools. This provides additional information for the therapist concerning the quality and success of the applied treatment.

  8. Sleep abnormalities in children with Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Radhika; Eric