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Sample records for abnormally adherent placenta

  1. Postpartum monitoring of retained placenta.Two cases of abnormally adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    Torrenga, Bas; Huirne, Judith A; Bolte, Antoinette C; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein T M; de Vries, Johanna I P

    2013-04-01

    To save fertility, hysterectomy may be avoided with abnormal placental adherence by leaving the placenta in situ. Several reports support this strategy, but no reports are available on optimal follow-up strategies. We present two women with conservative treatment of placenta accreta and describe the prospective monitoring of the clinical course, placental regression, and recovery of the uterine anatomy using serial sonography, hysteroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. There was no postpartum hemorrhage. Menstrual cyclicity resumed within 18 weeks. The human chorionic gonadotropin serum levels normalized within 10 weeks, whereas regression of placenta tissue was slow and continued up to nine months after delivery. In both cases placental remnants persisted; in one woman they were removed and uterine anatomy restored. She had a subsequent uneventful pregnancy afterwards. The presented systematic follow-up provides tools to monitor and treat other women in similar ways. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Morbidly adherent placenta treatments and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    To describe recent maternal and neonatal delivery outcomes among women with a morbidly adherent placenta in major centers across the United States. This study reviewed a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011 from the Assessment of Perinatal EXcellence data set. All cases of morbidly adherent placenta were identified. Maternal demographics, procedures undertaken, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There were 158 women with a morbidly adherent placenta (1/731 births, 95% confidence interval 1/632-866). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous and 37% had no prior cesarean delivery. Only 53% (84/158) were suspected to have a morbidly adherent placenta before delivery. Women with a prenatally suspected morbidly adherent placenta experienced large blood loss (33%), hysterectomy (92%), and intensive care unit admission (39%) compared with 19%, 45%, and 22%, respectively, in those not suspected prenatally to have a morbidly adherent placenta (P<.05 for all). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous. Half of the morbidly adherent placenta cases were suspected before delivery and outcomes were poorer in this group, probably because the more clinically significant morbidly adherent placentas are more likely to be suspected before delivery. : II.

  3. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Interprofessional Management Strategies for the Intrapartum Period.

    PubMed

    Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H; Kennedy, Margaret Betsy Babb

    "Morbidly adherent placenta" is a term that describes the continuum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. The incidence of this type of abnormal placentation has increased significantly over recent decades. The reason is probably multifactorial but, partly, because of factors such as the increasing number of cesarean births. Women at greatest risk are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean birth, with either anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. This condition poses significant risks of morbidity and/or mortality to the pregnant woman and her fetus. A multidisciplinary approach to care throughout pregnancy is essential. This article describes the classification of morbidly adherent placenta, risk factors, methods of diagnosis, potential maternal and fetal complications, and intrapartum clinical management strategies to optimize outcomes.

  4. Prediction of adherent placenta in pregnancy with placenta previa using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kenji; Yamasaki, Yui; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-04-01

    Adherent placenta is a life-threatening condition in pregnancy, and is often complicated by placenta previa. The aim of this prospective study was to determine prenatal imaging findings that predict the presence of adherent placenta in pregnancies with placenta previa. The study included 58 consecutive pregnant women with placenta previa who underwent both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging prenatally. Ultrasonographic findings of anterior placental location, grade 2 or higher placental lacunae (PL≥G2), loss of retroplacental hypoechoic clear zone (LCZ) and the presence of turbulent blood flow in the arteries were evaluated, in addition to MRI findings. Forty-three women underwent cesarean section alone; 15 women with adherent placenta underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy with pathological examination. To determine imaging findings that predict adherent placenta, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that anterior placental location, PL≥G2, LCZ, and MRI were associated with the presence of adherent placenta. Multivariate analyses revealed that LCZ (p<0.01, odds ratio 15.6, 95%CI 2.1-114.6) was a single significant predictor of adherent placenta in women with placenta previa. This prospective study demonstrated for the first time that US findings, especially LCZ, might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for adherent placenta among pregnant women with placenta previa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservative management of placenta previa complicated by abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bręborowicz, Grzegorz H; Markwitz, Wiesław; Gaca, Michał; Koziołek, Agnieszka; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Dera, Anna; Brych, Mariusz; Szymankiewicz-Bręborowicz, Marta; Kruszyński, Grzegorz; Gruca-Stryjak, Karolina; Madejczyk, Mateusz; Szpera-Goździewicz, Agata; Krzyścin, Mariola

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal implantation of placenta previa is life-threatening condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the conservative management of pregnancies with such complication on maternal morbidity rate and the chance for uterine preservation (fertility). Eleven patients with abnormal implantation of placenta previa were analyzed prospectively. This complication was diagnosed antenatally by two-dimensional ultrasound and color flow Doppler. The following outcomes were analyzed: need for blood transfusion, admission and duration of stay in intensive care unit, infections, coagulopathies, time between cesarean section and delivery of placenta, hysterectomy and preservation of uterus. Among the 20 085 women who had a singleton gestation, 11 (0.054%) were identified with placenta previa with abnormal placentation. In five patients (group A), hysterectomy was performed because of hemorrhage or placenta ablation. In six patients (group B), conservative management succeeded and placenta were preserved. In group A, placenta were delivered earlier (2 d-8 weeks) in comparison with group B (6-15 weeks). Estimated blood loss during the delayed delivery of placenta was higher in the group with hysterectomy (respectively, 450-1600 and 300-500 ml). Conservative management of placenta previa with abnormal implantation decreases the risk of severe hemorrhage at the time of delivery and can preserve fertility.

  6. Abnormal Placentation: Placenta Previa, Vasa Previa, and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Placental disorders such as placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are all associated with vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. They are also important causes of serious fetal and maternal morbidity and even mortality. Moreover, the rates of previa and accreta are increasing, probably as a result of increasing rates of cesarean delivery, maternal age, and assisted reproductive technology. The routine use of obstetric ultrasonography as well as improving ultrasonographic technology allows for the antenatal diagnosis of these conditions. In turn, antenatal diagnosis facilitates optimal obstetric management. This review emphasizes an evidence-based approach to the clinical management of pregnancies with these conditions as well as highlights important knowledge gaps.

  7. Abnormal Labyrinthine Zone in the Hectd1-null Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anjali A.; Sabatino, Julia A.; Sugrue, Kelsey F.; Zohn, Irene E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The labyrinthine zone of the placenta is where exchange of nutrients and waste occurs between maternal and fetal circulations. Proper development of the placental labyrinth is essential for successful growth of the developing fetus and abnormalities in placental development are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia and fetal demise. Our previous studies demonstrate that Hectd1 is essential for development of the junctional and labyrinthine zones of the placenta. Here we further characterize labyrinthine zone defects in the Hectd1 mutant placenta. Methods The structure of the mutant placenta was compared to wildtype littermates using histological methods. The expression of cell type specific markers was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Hectd1 is expressed in the labyrinthine zone throughout development and the protein is enriched in syncytiotrophoblast layer type I cells (SynT-I) and Sinusoidal Trophoblast Giant cells (S-TGCs) in the mature placenta. Mutation of Hectd1 results in pale placentas with frequent hemorrhages along with gross abnormalities in the structure of the labyrinthine zone including a smaller overall volume and a poorly elaborated fetal vasculature that contain fewer fetal blood cells. Examination of molecular markers of labyrinthine trophoblast cell types reveals increased Dlx3 positive cells and Syna positive SynT-I cells, along with decreased Hand1 and Ctsq positive sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells (S-TGCs). Discussion Together these defects indicate that Hectd1 is required for development of the labyrinthine zone or the mouse placenta. PMID:26907377

  8. Abnormal labyrinthine zone in the Hectd1-null placenta.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anjali A; Sabatino, Julia A; Sugrue, Kelsey F; Zohn, Irene E

    2016-02-01

    The labyrinthine zone of the placenta is where exchange of nutrients and waste occurs between maternal and fetal circulations. Proper development of the placental labyrinth is essential for successful growth of the developing fetus and abnormalities in placental development are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia and fetal demise. Our previous studies demonstrate that Hectd1 is essential for development of the junctional and labyrinthine zones of the placenta. Here we further characterize labyrinthine zone defects in the Hectd1 mutant placenta. The structure of the mutant placenta was compared to wildtype littermates using histological methods. The expression of cell type specific markers was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Hectd1 is expressed in the labyrinthine zone throughout development and the protein is enriched in syncytiotrophoblast layer type I cells (SynT-I) and Sinusoidal Trophoblast Giant cells (S-TGCs) in the mature placenta. Mutation of Hectd1 results in pale placentas with frequent hemorrhages along with gross abnormalities in the structure of the labyrinthine zone including a smaller overall volume and a poorly elaborated fetal vasculature that contain fewer fetal blood cells. Examination of molecular markers of labyrinthine trophoblast cell types reveals increased Dlx3 positive cells and Syna positive SynT-I cells, along with decreased Hand1 and Ctsq positive sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells (S-TGCs). Together these defects indicate that Hectd1 is required for development of the labyrinthine zonethe mouse placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel scoring system for predicting adherent placenta in women with placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kenji; Morizane, Mayumi; Deguchi, Masashi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Utaru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Yamada, Hideto

    2018-04-01

    Placenta previa (PP) is one of the most significant risk factors for adherent placenta (AP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a novel scoring system for predicting AP in pregnant women with PP. This prospective cohort study enrolled 175 women with PP. The placenta previa with adherent placenta score (PPAP score) is composed of 2 categories: (1) past history of cesarean section (CS), surgical abortion, and/or uterine surgery; and (2) ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Each category is graded as 0, 1, 2, or 4 points, yielding a total score between 0 and 24. When women with PP had PPAP score ≥8, they were considered to be at a high risk for AP and received placement of preoperative internal iliac artery occlusion balloon catheters. If they were found to have AP during CS, they underwent hysterectomy or placenta removal using advanced bipolar with balloon catheter occlusion. The predictive accuracy of PPAP score was evaluated. In total, 23 of the 175 women with PP were diagnosed as having AP, histopathologically or clinically. Twenty-one of 24 women with PPAP score ≥8 had AP, whereas two of 151 women with PPAP score <8 had AP. The scoring system yielded 91.3% sensitivity, 98.0% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, and 98.7% negative predictive value for predicting AP in women with PP. This prospective study demonstrated that PPAP scoring system may be useful for predicting AP in women with PP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Placenta accreta: diagnosis, management and the molecular biology of the morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    Goh, William A; Zalud, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta is now the chief cause of postpartum hemorrhage resulting in maternal and neonatal morbidity. Prenatal diagnosis decreases blood loss at delivery and intra and post-partum complications. Ultrasound is critical for diagnosis and MRI is a complementary tool when the diagnosis is uncertain. Peripartum hysterectomy has been the standard of therapy but conservative management is increasingly being used. The etiology of accreta is due to a deficiency of maternal decidua resulting in placental invasion into the uterine myometrium. The molecular basis for the development of invasive placentation is yet to be elucidated but may involve abnormal paracrine/autocrine signaling between the deficient maternal decidua and the trophoblastic tissue. The interaction of hormones such as Relaxin which is abundant in maternal decidua and insulin-like 4, an insulin-like peptide found in placental trophoblastic tissue may play role in the formation of placenta accreta.

  11. Placenta accreta: Diagnosis, management and the molecular biology of the morbidly adherent placenta

    PubMed Central

    Goh, William; Zalud, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    Placenta accreta is now the chief cause of postpartum hemorrhage resulting in maternal and neonatal morbidity. Prenatal diagnosis decreases blood loss at delivery and intra and post-partum complications. Ultrasound is critical for diagnosis and MRI is a complementary tool when the diagnosis is uncertain. Peripartum hysterectomy has been the standard of therapy but conservative management is increasingly being used. The etiology of accreta is due to a deficiency of maternal decidua resulting in placental invasion into the uterine myometrium. The molecular basis for the development of invasive placentation is yet to be elucidated but may involve abnormal paracrine/autocrine signaling between the deficient maternal decidua and the trophoblastic tissue. The interaction of hormones such as Relaxin which is abundant in maternal decidua and INSL4, an insulin like peptide found in placental trophoblastic tissue may play role in the formation of placenta accreta. PMID:26135782

  12. Bedside risk estimation of morbidly adherent placenta using simple calculator.

    PubMed

    Maymon, R; Melcer, Y; Pekar-Zlotin, M; Shaked, O; Cuckle, H; Tovbin, J

    2018-03-01

    To construct a calculator for 'bedside' estimation of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) risk based on ultrasound (US) findings. This retrospective study included all pregnant women with at least one previous cesarean delivery attending in our US unit between December 2013 and January 2017. The examination was based on a scoring system which determines the probability for MAP. The study population included 471 pregnant women, and 41 of whom (8.7%) were diagnosed with MAP. Based on ROC curve, the most effective US criteria for detection of MAP were the presence of the placental lacunae, obliteration of the utero-placental demarcation, and placenta previa. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, US findings of placental lacunae (OR = 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-9.5; P = 0.01), obliteration of the utero-placental demarcation (OR = 12.4; 95% CI, 3.7-41.6; P < 0.0001), and placenta previa (OR = 10.5; 95% CI, 3.5-31.3; P < 0.0001) were associated with MAP. By combining these three parameters, the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated, yielding an area under the curve of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.97). Accordingly, we have constructed a simple calculator for 'bedside' estimation of MAP risk. The calculator is mounted on the hospital's internet website ( http://www.assafh.org/Pages/PPCalc/index.html ). The risk estimation of MAP varies between 1.5 and 87%. The present calculator enables a simple 'bedside' MAP estimation, facilitating accurate and adequate antenatal risk assessment.

  13. Placenta previa without morbidly adherent placenta: comparison of characteristics and outcomes between planned and emergent deliveries in a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Hadi; Kassir, Elias; Fox, Karin A; Clark, Steven L; Karbasian, Niloofar; Salmanian, Bahram; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Espinoza, Jimmy; Nassr, Ahmed A; Eppes, Catherine S; Belfort, Michael A; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2017-11-05

    The objective of this study is to compare patient outcomes between planned and emergent cesarean deliveries for placenta previa without morbidly adherent placenta. All patients with confirmed, persistent placenta previa (without morbidly adherent placentation) who underwent the surgery between January 2010 and April 2016 were included in this retrospective study. Primary outcome was composite maternal morbidity defined as the presence of at least one of the followings: death, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, hysterectomy, reoperation, hospital stay >7 d, ureteral injury, bowel injury, or cystotomy. Three hundred and four patients with placenta previa were identified during the study period, of whom 154 (50.65%) had an antenatal and 10 (3.28%) had an intraoperative diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta. One hundred and forty patients met the inclusion criteria. Eighty (57.1%) underwent planned cesarean delivery (planned cesarean delivery (PCD) group), and 60 (42.8%) required emergent cesarean delivery due to uterine contractions and/or bleeding (emergent cesarean delivery (ECD) group). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups except for the gestational age at delivery (36.0 weeks (36.0, 37.0) in PCD versus 34.0 weeks (32.0, 36.0) in ECP, p < .001). Composite maternal morbidity was not significantly different between two groups: 11 (18.3%) in ECD and 10 (12.5%) in PCD (p = .35) Conclusions: In our referral tertiary centre, emergent and planned cesarean deliveries for placenta previa without morbidly adherent placenta have similar maternal outcomes. In patients without significant hemorrhage, delivery may be safely deferred until 36-37 weeks.

  14. Changes in ultrasonography indicators of abnormally invasive placenta during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Calì, Giuseppe; Timor-Trisch, Ilan E; Palacios-Jaraquemada, Josè; Monteaugudo, Ana; Forlani, Francesco; Minneci, Gabriella; Foti, Francesca; Buca, Danilo; Familiari, Alessandra; Scambia, Giovanni; Liberati, Marco; D'Antonio, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    To ascertain whether the prevalence of ultrasonography signs of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) changes during pregnancy. The present retrospective analysis included women with a prenatal diagnosis of AIP that was confirmed at delivery between January 1, 2007, and April 30, 2017, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Arnas Civico Hospital, Palermo, Italy. Ultrasonography signs of AIP were recorded at four different intervals during pregnancy: early first (6-9 weeks), first (11-14 weeks), second (15-24 weeks), and third trimester (25-36 weeks). There were 105 pregnancies included. Low implantation of the gestational sac was present on all ultrasonography images from the early first trimester compared with on 23 of 83 (27.7%) images from 11-14 weeks of pregnancy. The identification of loss of the clear space, placental lacunae, bladder wall interruption, and uterovesical hypervascularity all increased (all P<0.001) from the early first trimester onwards; these could all be identified in a majority of patients at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of ultrasonography signs suggestive of AIP varied throughout pregnancy. During the early first trimester, indicators of AIP were similar to those of a cesarean scar pregnancy; classical ultrasonography signs of AIP were already present at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy for most patients. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Intrauterine Inflated Foley's Catheter Balloon in the Management of Abnormally Invasive Placenta Previa: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Mahmoud; Abdelhafez, Mohamed Sayed; Fyala, Emad Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    To describe the use of intrauterine inflated Foley's catheter balloon for control of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) during cesarean section (CS) in cases of abnormally invasive placenta previa aiming to preserve the uterus. Retrospective case-control study of the data of women who underwent elective CS on abnormally adherent placenta previa was carried out. Women in whom inflated Foley's catheter balloon was used for control of PPH during CS ( n  = 40) were compared with a control group of women who underwent elective CS by the same technique but without use of intrauterine catheter balloon ( n  = 38). Use of intrauterine inflated Foley's catheter balloon significantly reduced the estimated amount of blood loss ( P  = 0.008), amounts of crystalloids, colloids and packed red blood cells transfusion ( P  = 0.025, 0.017 and 0.022, respectively), and the need for bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA) ligation ( P  = 0.016). No significant difference was observed between both groups regarding the use of massive transfusion protocol, performing cesarean hysterectomy, relaparotomy, and admission to the intensive care unit. Application of an intrauterine inflated Foley's catheter balloon during CS in cases of morbidly adherent placenta previa helps to control PPH with preservation of the uterus and decreases the need for the invasive IIA ligation.

  16. Utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum abnormality.

    PubMed

    Sannananja, Bhagya; Ellermeier, Anna; Hippe, Daniel S; Winter, Thomas C; Kang, Stella K; Lee, Susanna I; Kilgore, Mark R; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2018-04-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of added DWI sequences as an adjunct to traditional MR imaging in the evaluation of abnormal placentation in patients with suspicion for placenta accreta spectrum abnormality or morbidly adherent placenta (MAP). The study was approved by local ethics committee. The subjects included pregnant women with prenatal MRI performed between July 2013 to July 2015. All imaging was performed on a Philips 1.5T MR scanner using pelvic phased-array coil. Only T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) series were compiled for review. Two randomized imaging sets were created: set 1 included T2-weighted series only (T2W); set 2 included T2W with DWI series together (T2W + DWI). Three radiologists, blinded to history and pathology, reviewed the imaging, with 2 weeks of time between the two image sets. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for MAP were calculated and compared between T2W only and T2W + DWI reads. Associations between imaging findings and invasion on pathology were tested using the Chi-squared test. Confidence scores, inter-reader agreement, and systematic differences were documented. A total of 17 pregnant women were included in the study. 8 cases were pathologically diagnosed with MAP. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic accuracy between T2W and T2W + DWI in the diagnosis of MAP in terms of overall accuracy (62.7% for T2W vs. 68.6% for T2W + DWI, p = 0.68), sensitivity (70.8% for T2W vs. 95.8% for T2W + DWI, p = 0.12), and specificity (55.6% for T2W vs. 44.4% for T2W + DWI, p = 0.49). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic confidence between the review of T2W images alone and the T2W + DWI review (mean 7.3 ± 1.8 for T2W vs. 7.5 ± 1.8 for T2W + DWI, p = 0.37). With the current imaging technique, addition of DWI sequence to the traditional T2W images cannot be shown to significantly increase the accuracy or

  17. Alternative approaches to surgical hemostasis in patients with morbidly adherent placenta undergoing fertility-sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Shmakov, Roman G; Vinitskiy, Aleksandr A; Chuprinin, Vladimir D; Yarotskaya, Ekaterina L; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2018-02-05

    To evaluate the efficacy of different methods of surgical hemostasis, including the ligation of internal iliac arteries (IIA), temporary occlusion of the common iliac artery (CIA) and combined compression hemostasis, during cesarean section in patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP). The study included 54 patients with MAP. All patients underwent cesarean section with application of surgical hemostasis techniques. In Group 1 (n = 15), ligation of IIA was performed, in Group 2 (n = 18) extravasal temporary occlusion of CIA, and in Group 3 (n = 21) combined compression hemostasis was applied. The latter technique included placement of bilateral tourniquets on the upper uterine pedicles and on the cervicoisthmic segment, and controlled Zhukovsky balloon tamponade of the uterus, with subsequent resection of the uterine wall with abnormal placental invasion, evacuation of placenta from the uterine cavity and closure of the uterine wall defect with a double suture. The studied outcomes were total blood loss, duration of surgery, the hemoglobin level alteration, hysterectomy rate, and length of postoperative hospital stay. Total blood loss in Group 1 was 2440 ± 1215 ml, in Group 2 - 2186 ± 1353 ml, and in Group 3 - 1295 ± 520.3 ml (p = .0045). In Group 3, the lowest number of cases with blood loss >2000 ml was observed [8 (53.3%) versus 9 (50.0%) and 2 (9.5%), respectively; p = .0411]. The duration of surgery, the hemoglobin level alteration, hysterectomy rate, and length of hospital stay after delivery did not differ significantly between the groups. All surgical techniques used in the study were effective to decrease the blood loss during cesarean section in patients with MAP; however, the combined compression hemostasis showed the highest efficacy.

  18. Human placental lactogen and color Doppler in predicting expulsion of retained adherent placenta: a new clinical observation.

    PubMed

    Zepiridis, L; Zafrakas, M; Theodoridis, T D; Assimakopoulos, E; Tzevelekis, P; Athanatos, D; Bontis, J N; Tarlatzis, B C

    2009-12-01

    To present a new clinical observation made in three cases of retained adherent placenta, a rare obstetrical complication, associated with potentially life-threatening hemorrhage. Three consecutive cases of retained adherent placenta are presented. Diagnosis of placenta increta in two and placenta percreta in one case was established with ultrasound and MRI. Methotrexate 50 mg i.v. (300 mg total dose) and follinic acid 0.1 mg/kg were administered on alternating days, over 12 days. On follow-up, placental perfusion on color Doppler was present up to the point when circulating hPL levels were no longer detectable; this was followed in all cases by spontaneous placental expulsion within 10 days. The observation that both color Doppler and human placental lactogen can be used to monitor response to therapy and predict placental expulsion should be evaluated in future cases of retained adherent placenta.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of placenta lacunae and a lack of a clear zone in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shoko; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the frequencies of placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are higher in cases of placenta previa compared with those without it. Ultrasonographic findings just before delivery, including placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were prospectively evaluated in consecutive subjects. After collection, a case-control study with 1:5 matched pairs was conducted. The frequencies of ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta. Seventy cases with placenta previa and 350 cases with normal placentas were observed. Five and zero cases with abnormal placental adherence were observed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta, respectively. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 60 and 1.5% of cases with and without the placental adherence (p = 0.001). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were observed in 31.4 and 9.7% of cases with and without placenta previa [odds ratio (OR) 4.2]. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 5.7 and 0.9% of cases with and without placenta previa (OR 7.0). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are frequently observed in placenta previa even when there is no adherence of the placenta. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Does the presence of placental basal plate myometrial fibres increase the risk of subsequent morbidly adherent placenta: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miller, E S; Linn, R L; Ernst, L M

    2016-12-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta has been shown to improve outcomes, but existing predictors lack sensitivity. Our objective was to determine whether the presence of myometrial fibres attached to the placental basal plate (BPMYO) in an antecedent pregnancy is associated with subsequent morbidly adherent placenta. A case-control study. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Women who had at least two pregnancies with placental pathological evaluation. Cases were defined as women with evidence of morbidly adherent placenta (both clinically and pathologically) in their most recent pregnancy whereas women without evidence of morbidly adherent placenta served as controls. Pathological specimens of placentas from previous pregnancies were evaluated for BPMYO. The presence of BPMYO on a previous placenta was evaluated to determine whether it could be used to improve the antenatal diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta. Of the 25 cases of morbidly adherent placenta, 19 (76%) had BPMYO present on their previous placenta compared with 41 (41%) of controls (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-13.0). Adding BPMYO to a regression including other risk factors for morbidly adherent placenta (i.e. maternal age, number of previous caesarean sections, placenta praevia, previous multiple gestation, any previous curettage, and ultrasonographic suspicion of placenta accreta) significantly improved the sensitivity of antenatal diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta (61% versus 39%, P < 0.001) without a change in specificity (97% versus 97%, P = 1.00). BPMYO on previous placental pathology is associated with an increased risk of morbidly adherent placenta in a subsequent pregnancy. These findings may shed light on the pathophysiology of accreta and inform future research on predictors of accreta. Previous basal plate myometrium improves the ability to detect subsequent morbidly adherent placenta. © 2015 Royal

  1. Infectious complications in morbidly adherent placenta treated with leaving placenta in situ: a cohort series and suggested approach.

    PubMed

    Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Kilic, Aysegul; Ak, Mehmet; Ozgun, Mahmut

    2018-04-26

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and microbiological features of infections in patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) treated by leaving placenta in situ (LPIS). Retrospective analysis of MAP cases who were treated by LPIS between 2 May 2010 and 15 March 2017. The inclusion criteria were gestational age at or above 24 weeks, prenatal diagnosis, elective operation, and complete data. Nineteen MAP cases were treated by LPIS during the study period. The mean ± SD duration for total placental resorbtion was 145 ± 47 days. Three patients were readmitted to the hospital because of fever (3/19). A total of 65 culture samples were taken from the patients during their follow- up periods. In four cases (4/12) cervical cultures showed positive growth [Escherichia coli (2), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1), mixed culture with Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (1)]. Fifteen (15/26) urine samples were sterile, three were polymicrobial. In eight cases, urine culture revealed E. coli growth (one E. coli and Enterococcus spp.). Three out of 16 (3/16) surgical incision samples revealed growth of E. coli. No bacterial growth was detected in blood cultures. Susceptibility results of Gram-negatives indicate that the resistance rates of beta-lactam antibiotics are high (14/20, 70%). No secondary surgical intervention occurred during the study period due to infection. Majority of postpartum cervical discharge, fever, and increased CRP levels do not represent morbid infections and/or sepsis. With early detection, and implementation of antibiotherapy (combination of an aminoglycoside and clindamycin), they can be easily controlled and secondary surgical interventions can be prevented.

  2. Can 3-dimensional power Doppler indices improve the prenatal diagnosis of a potentially morbidly adherent placenta in patients with placenta previa?

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ziad A; Papanna, Ramesha; Sibai, Baha M; Tatevian, Nina; Viteri, Oscar A; Vowels, Patricia C; Blackwell, Sean C; Moise, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, 2-dimensional ultrasound parameters have been used for the diagnosis of a suspected morbidly adherent placenta previa. More objective techniques have not been well studied yet. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of prenatal 3-dimensional power Doppler analysis of flow and vascular indices to predict the morbidly adherent placenta objectively. A prospective cohort study was performed in women between 28 and 32 gestational weeks with known placenta previa. Patients underwent a two-dimensional gray-scale ultrasound that determined management decisions. 3-Dimensional power Doppler volumes were obtained during the same examination and vascular, flow, and vascular flow indices were calculated after manual tracing of the viewed placenta in the sweep; data were blinded to obstetricians. Morbidly adherent placenta was confirmed by histology. Severe morbidly adherent placenta was defined as increta/percreta on histology, blood loss >2000 mL, and >2 units of PRBC transfused. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Student t and χ 2 tests, logistic regression, receiver-operating characteristic curves, and intra- and interrater agreements using Kappa statistics were performed. The following results were found: (1) 50 women were studied: 23 had morbidly adherent placenta, of which 12 (52.2%) were severe morbidly adherent placenta; (2) 2-dimensional parameters diagnosed morbidly adherent placenta with a sensitivity of 82.6% (95% confidence interval, 60.4-94.2), a specificity of 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 69.7-97.1), a positive predictive value of 86.3% (95% confidence interval, 64.0-96.4), a negative predictive value of 85.7% (95% confidence interval, 66.4-95.3), a positive likelihood ratio of 7.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.9), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.48); (3) mean values of the vascular index (32.8 ± 7.4) and the vascular flow index

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Abnormal Invasive Placenta by Ultrasound: Measurement of Highest Peak Systolic Velocity of Subplacental Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; Li, Hezhou; Wang, Fang; Qin, Hongyan; Qin, Qiaohong

    2018-05-07

    The aim of the study described here was to identify an efficient criterion for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. We evaluated 129 women with anterior placenta previa who underwent trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation in the third trimester. Spectral Doppler ultrasonography was performed to assess the subplacental blood flow of the anterior lower uterine segment by measuring the highest peak systolic velocity and resistive index. These patients were prospectively followed until delivery and evaluated for abnormal placental invasion. The peak systolic velocity and resistive index of patients with and without abnormal placental invasion were then compared. Postpartum examination revealed that 55 of the patients had an abnormal invasive placenta, whereas the remaining 74 did not. Patients with abnormal placental invasion had a higher peak systolic velocity of the subplacental blood flow in the lower segment of the anterior aspect of the uterus (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.96) than did those without abnormal placental invasion. Our preliminary investigations suggest that a peak systolic velocity of 41 cm/s can be considered a cutoff point to diagnose abnormal invasive placenta, with both good sensitivity (87%) and good specificity (78%), and the higher the peak systolic velocity, the greater is the chance of abnormal placental invasion. Resistive index had no statistical significance (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.66) in the diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. In conclusion, measurement of the highest peak systolic velocity of subplacental blood flow in the anterior lower uterine segment can serve as an additional marker of anterior abnormal invasive placenta. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acardiac twin with externalized intestine adherent to placenta: unusual manifestation of omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Emery, Shawn Clark; Vaux, Keith K; Pretorius, Dolores; Masliah, Eliezer; Benirschke, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    TRAP (twin reversed arterial perfusion) syndrome produces an acardiac twin (acardiac monster, acardius, acardiacus, chorioangiopagus parasiticus, etc.). Acardiacs result from monozygotic multiple births in which three anatomic anomalies occur: (1) a fetus' cardiac development is disturbed; (2) artery-artery anastomosis carries blood from a normal ("pump") twin to the acardiac; (3) vein-vein anastomosis carries blood from the acardiac back to the normal twin. Whether reversal of blood flow in the acardiac results from or causes cardiac dysmorphogenesis has not been resolved. Acardiac twins demonstrate a complex constellation of malformations usually thought to result from reversed blood flow; omphalocele is particularly common. We report monochorionic monoamnionic male twins in which an acardiac twin demonstrated externalized intestines adherent to the placenta. The twins were delivered from a 30-year-old primigravida mother by cesarean section without maternal complications at 33 w. The mother has no significant past medical history. The macerated acardius had a 4-cm long attenuated umbilical cord with indeterminate number of vessels. Structures rostral to the thorax were absent save for one poorly developed hand and arm. The abdomen contained loose mesenchyme and no organs. The entire intestine (21 cm) along with two testes was located in a sac on the surface of the placenta. No histopathologic anomalies of formed structures were identified aside from spatial relationships and incomplete development. The normal twin required no intensive care and is doing well. To our knowledge, this is the first report of externalized intestine, which may represent an unusual consequence of omphalocele.

  5. Adherent basal plate myometrial fibers in the delivered placenta as a risk factor for development of subsequent placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Linn, Rebecca L; Miller, Emily S; Lim, Grace; Ernst, Linda M

    2015-12-01

    Placenta accreta is implantation of chorionic tissue directly upon the myometrium without normal intervening decidua. The clinical significance of myometrial fibers attached to the basal plate (BPMYO) has yet to be fully elucidated. To determine the importance of depth and quantity of BPMYO in predicting subsequent accreta in the next pregnancy. Women with placentas from two successive pregnancies submitted for pathologic evaluation were included. 50 cases had clinical and/or pathologic diagnosis of accreta in an index pregnancy. 100 controls had no evidence of accreta in an index pregnancy. H&E slides were re-reviewed and stage of accreta/BPMYO was determined. The stages were defined as: Stage 0-no BPMYO; Stage 1-BPMYO with intervening decidua; Stage 2 < 2 decidual cells separating myometrium from chorionic tissue; Stage 3-accreta; Stage 4-increta; Stage 5-percreta. The amount of BPMYO for each placenta was quantified. Prior placentas of cases were twice as likely to have BPMYO compared to controls (84%vs42%, P < 0.001). The frequency of stage 1 BPMYO was not significantly different between the two groups (46%v40%, P = 0.489), but cases were more likely to have higher stages of BPMYO (stage 2-3) in a prior placenta (38%vs2%, P < 0.001). A significantly higher number of BPMYO foci and a larger proportion of BPMYO on the basal plate (6.2%vs0.7%, P < 0.001) in cases compared to controls. Small amounts and low stage BPMYO (stage 1) may be common; however, higher stages of BPMYO (stage 2-3) and greater quantities of BPMYO in a delivered placenta are significantly associated with the subsequent development of accreta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Failed manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Bjurström, Johanna; Collins, Sally; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sundberg, Karin; Jørgensen, Annemette; Duvekot, Johannes J; Groenbeck, Lene

    2018-02-01

    A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. Members of the European Working group on Abnormally Invasive Placenta (EW-AIP) were invited to report all recent cases of retained placenta that were not antenatally suspected to be abnormally adherent or invasive, but could not be removed manually despite several attempts. The six cases from Denmark, The Netherlands and the UK provide examples of various treatment strategies such as ultrasound-guided vaginal removal, removal of the placenta through a hysterotomy and just leaving the placenta in situ. The placentas were all retained, but it was only possible to diagnose abnormal invasion in the one case, which had a histopathological diagnosis of increta. Based on these cases we present a flow chart to aid clinical management for future cases. We need properly defined stringent terminology for the different types of retained placenta, as well as improved tools to predict and diagnose both abnormally invasive and abnormally adherent placenta. Clinicians need to be aware of the options available to them when confronted by the rare case of a retained placenta that cannot be removed manually in a hemodynamically stable patient.

  7. Accuracy of three-dimensional multislice view Doppler in diagnosis of morbid adherent placenta

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Moniem, Alaa M.; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Akl, Sherif A.; Aboul-Enen, Loay; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect the accuracy of the three-dimensional multislice view (3D MSV) Doppler in the diagnosis of morbid adherent placenta (MAP). Material and Methods Fifty pregnant women at ≥28 weeks gestation with suspected MAP were included in this prospective study. Two dimensional (2D) trans-abdominal gray-scale ultrasound scan was performed for the subjects to confirm the gestational age, placental location, and findings suggestive of MAP, followed by the 3D power Doppler and then the 3D MSV Doppler to confirm the diagnosis of MAP. Intraoperative findings and histopathology results of removed uteri in cases managed by emergency hysterectomy were compared with preoperative sonographic findings to detect the accuracy of the 3D MSV Doppler in the diagnosis of MAP. Results The 3D MSV Doppler increased the accuracy and predictive values of the diagnostic criteria of MAP compared with the 3D power Doppler. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) (79.6% and 82.2%, respectively) of crowded vessels over the peripheral sub-placental zone to detect difficult placental separation and considerable intraoperative blood loss in cases of MAP using the 3D power Doppler was increased to 82.6% and 84%, respectively, using the 3D MSV Doppler. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) (90.9%, 68.8%, and 47%, respectively) of the disruption of the uterine serosa-bladder interface for the detection of emergency hysterectomy in cases of MAP using the 3D power Doppler was increased to 100%, 71.8%, and 50%, respectively, using the 3D MSV Doppler. Conclusion The 3D MSV Doppler is a useful adjunctive tool to the 3D power Doppler or color Doppler to refine the diagnosis of MAP. PMID:26401104

  8. Morbidly adherent placenta previa in current practice: prediction and maternal morbidity in a series of 23 women who underwent hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Alchalabi, Haifa'a; Lataifeh, Isam; Obeidat, Basil; Zayed, Faheem; Khader, Yousef S; Obeidat, Nail

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prediction and maternal morbidity of morbidly adherent placenta previa (PP) when currently available management options are used. This is a retrospective study of all women with PP/morbidly adherent placenta previa (MAPP) delivered at our hospital over a period of 9 years. Data were obtained through hospital registry and medical records search. A total of 81 PP were identified, 23 (28.4%) of them had MAPP. All MAPP had previous lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). The following are associated with increased odds of MAPP versus PP, LSCS (OR for each additional LSCS was 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 4.5, p ≤ 0.005), age ≥35 years (OR 4.3 (95% CI: 1.4, 12.7, p = 0.008). Anterior or central placenta (OR = 11.6; p = 0.028). Women with previous PP were at risk. Fifteen women were diagnosed by ultrasound [sensitivity 0.65 (0.43, 0.83) and PPV 0.79 (0.54, 0.93)]. MAPP was associated with risk of massive transfusion, bladder injury, DIC and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (p < 0.005, 0.008, 0.036 and 0.008, respectively). One maternal death was reported in the MAPP group. MAPP is associated with high morbidity and mortality. As the diagnosis is often not certain before delivery, we recommend that all PP and previous LSCS are assumed to be morbidly adherent, and should be managed in properly equipped centers.

  9. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716

  10. The value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostics and prediction of morbidity in cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Algebally, Ahmed M; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients' files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97-100% and 94-100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient's morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI.

  11. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  12. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Placenta-Derived Adherent Stromal Cell Therapy for Hematopoietic Disorders: A Case Study of PLX-R18.

    PubMed

    Sher, Noa; Ofir, Racheli

    2018-01-01

    The ephemeral placenta provides a noncontroversial source of young, healthy cells of both maternal and fetal origin from which cell therapy products can be manufactured. The 2 advantages of using live cells as therapeutic entities are: (a) in their environmental-responsive, multifactorial secretion profile and (b) in their activity as a "slow-release drug delivery system," releasing secretions over a long time frame. A major difficulty in translating cell therapy to the clinic involves challenges of large-scale, robust manufacturing while maintaining product characteristics, identity, and efficacy. To address these concerns early on, Pluristem developed the PLacental eXpanded (PLX) platform, the first good manufacturing practice-approved, 3-dimensional bioreactor-based cell growth platform, to enable culture of mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells harvested from the postpartum placenta. One of the products produced by Pluristem on this platform is PLX-R18, a product mainly comprising placental fetal cells, which is proven in vivo to alleviate radiation-induced lethality and to enhance hematopoietic cell counts after bone marrow (BM) failure. The identified mechanism of action of PLX-R18 cells is one of the cell-derived systemic pro-hematopoietic secretions, which upregulate endogenous secretions and subsequently rescue BM and peripheral blood cellularity, thereby boosting survival. PLX-R18 is therefore currently under study to treat both the hematopoietic syndrome of acute radiation (under the US Food and Drug Administration [FDA]'s Animal Rule) and the incomplete engraftment after BM transplantation (in a phase I study). In the future, they could potentially address additional hematological indications, such as aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, primary graft failure, and acute or chronic graft versus host disease.

  14. Hysterectomy for placenta accreta; methods for gross and microscopic pathology examination.

    PubMed

    Dannheim, Katelyn; Shainker, Scott A; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2016-05-01

    Placenta accreta is an abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall. As the incidence of placenta accreta continues to rise, it has been useful to develop standard protocols for the diagnosis and management of affected patients. Pathologists have the opportunity to take an active role in evaluating these resource intensive protocols. We describe methods of gross dissection, microscopic examination and reporting of hysterectomy specimens containing placenta accreta. This protocol facilitates retrospective correlation with surgical and radiographic findings as well as standardized tissue sampling for potential research. Through regular review of such quality measures pathologists can give feedback on the quality of surgical planning and use of imaging.

  15. The role of prophylactic internal iliac artery ligation in abnormally invasive placenta undergoing caesarean hysterectomy: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ahmed M; Dakhly, Dina Mohamed Refaat; Raslan, Ayman N; Kamel, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Ali; Moussa, Manal; Hosny, Ahmed Samir; Momtaz, Mohamed

    2018-04-25

    To identify the role of bilateral internal iliac artery (IIA) ligation on reducing blood loss in abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) undergoing caesarean hysterectomy. In this parallel-randomized control trial, 57 pregnant females with ultrasound features suggestive of AIP were enrolled. They were randomized into two groups; IIA group (n = 29 cases) performed bilateral IIA ligation followed by caesarean hysterectomies, while Control group (n = 28 cases) underwent caesarean hysterectomy only. The main outcome was the difference in the estimated intraoperative blood loss between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the intraoperative estimated blood loss (1632 ± 804 versus 1698 ± 1251, p value .83). The operative procedure duration (minutes) (223 ± 66 versus 171 ± 41.4, p value .001) varied significantly between the two groups. Bilateral internal iliac artery ligation, in cases of AIP undergoing caesarean hysterectomy, is not recommended for routine practice to minimize blood loss intraoperatively.

  16. [Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with conservative management for placenta morbidly adherent (accreta) diagnosed during pregnancy. Report of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Daney de Marcillac, F; Lecointre, L; Guillaume, A; Sananes, N; Fritz, G; Viville, B; Boudier, E; Nisand, I; Gaudineau, A; Langer, B; Akladios, C Y

    2016-10-01

    High risk of morbidly adherent placenta increased during past years. Their management is controversial. Cesarean hysterectomy, considered the gold standard treatment by American Society, is associated with high risk of maternal morbimortality. Conservative management has been sought to reduce maternal morbidity associated with caesarean hysterectomy while maintaining fertility. It consists of leaving the placenta in place but long-term monitoring. Our main objective was to determine advantage/disadvantage of conservative management on patient with an antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta, increta or percreta. This retrospective study included all patients with an antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta, increta or percreta between 2007 and 2014. Conservative treatment was systematically attempted according to our protocol. The primary outcome was defined as uterine conservation and the secondary outcome as maternal morbimortality defined as any medical or surgical condition occurring after childbirth. Fifteen patients (0.07 % of all living childbirths) were included. Conservative management was successful in 80 % of patients. There was no case of maternal death. Severe post-partum hemorrhage occurred in 4 patients (33.3 %) requiring uterine arteries embolization in one patient and hysterectomy in the 3 others. They underwent immediate blood transfusion of 13.5±4.5 average of red blood cell units. No severe septic condition occurred but 4 patients suffered from endometritis, 2.6±0.5 months after birth requiring intravenous antibiotics treatment in conventional hospitalization. Mean duration for spontaneous abortion of the placenta was 23.0±7.2 weeks. Three spontaneous pregnancies occurred in 2 patients after 19±16.9 months. Conservative management seems encouraging but is associated with a non-insignificant risk of secondary complication requiring long-term monitoring in conciliant patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  17. Log-linear human chorionic gonadotropin elimination in cases of retained placenta percreta.

    PubMed

    Stitely, Michael L; Gerard Jackson, M; Holls, William H

    2014-02-01

    To describe the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) elimination rate in patients with intentionally retained placenta percreta. Medical records for cases of placenta percreta with intentional retention of the placenta were reviewed. The natural log of the hCG levels were plotted versus time and then the elimination rate equations were derived. The hCG elimination rate equations were log-linear in three cases individually (R (2) = 0.96-0.99) and in aggregate R (2) = 0.92). The mean half-life of hCG elimination was 146.3 h (6.1 days). The elimination of hCG in patients with intentionally retained placenta percreta is consistent with a two-compartment elimination model. The hCG elimination in retained placenta percreta is predictable in a log-linear manner that is similar to other reports of retained abnormally adherent placentae treated with or without methotrexate.

  18. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  19. Vascular complications following prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries resolved by successful interventional thrombolysis in a patient with morbidly adherent placenta*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Lou, Wei-hua; Zhang, Xue-bin; Fu, Jia-ning; Chen, Yun-yan; Zhuang, Zhi-guo; Lin, Jian-hua

    2017-01-01

    The increasing incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is placing women at a higher risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage. The involvement of interventional radiology to manage this complex condition by performing prophylactic iliac artery balloon occlusion has been reported recently. However, the effectiveness and safety of this technique have not been fully determined. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old woman with placenta increta with preemptive bilateral internal iliac artery balloons who had external iliac artery thrombosis detected by computed tomography angiography (CTA) 72 h post cesarean section. A digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) and intra-arterial thrombolysis were instantly performed followed by supplementary conservative treatments, leading to a desirable resolution of thrombus without sequela. This is the first report of vascular complications with successful interventional thrombolysis in this setting. Our experience suggests that prophylactic iliac artery balloon occlusion should be used cautiously in cases of MAP and consideration given to minimizing vascular complications given the hypercoagulable state of pregnancy. PMID:28271663

  20. Combined thickness of the uterus and placenta and ultrasonographic examinations of uteroplacental tissues in normal pregnancy, placentitis, and abnormal parturitions in heavy draft horses.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuki; Haneda, Shingo; Aoki, Takahiro; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Miki, Wataru; Fukumoto, Natsuko; Matsui, Motozumi; Nambo, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) and ultrasonographic images of uteroplacental tissues were investigated in 35 pregnant heavy draft horses in Months 7-12 of pregnancy. The mares were divided into three groups: those pathologically diagnosed as placentitis (placentitis group, n=3); those who had abortion, premature birth, or fetal malformation (abnormal group, n=7); and those who had no abnormal findings (normal group, n=25). In the normal group, CTUP increased as pregnancy progressed from Months 7 (median, 7.08 mm; range, 5.68-11.27) to 12 (13.31 mm; 7.44-16.31 mm) (P<0.05) and was higher than those reported previously in Thoroughbred, quarter, and American paint horses. Values of CTUP greater than the 75th percentile of the normal group from Months 7 (7.54 mm) to 12 (15.19 mm) were detected in 100% of the placentitis group (3/3) and in 86% of the abnormal group (6/7). Ultrasonographic images showing placental separation were obtained in 67% of the placentitis group (2/3), 29% of the abnormal group (2/7), and 20% of the normal group (5/25). Pathological placental edema and ultrasonographic images showing uteroplacental roughness or distinguishability were observed even in the normal group. These findings suggest that increased CTUP and placental separation would reflect placentitis and abnormal pregnancies and may help to detect them in heavy draft horses.

  1. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery.

    PubMed

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2015-07-01

    To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Placenta accreta spectrum: pathophysiology and evidence-based anatomy for prenatal ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Eric; Collins, Sally; Burton, Graham J

    2018-01-01

    Placenta accreta spectrum is a complex obstetric complication associated with high maternal morbidity. It is a relatively new disorder of placentation, and is the consequence of damage to the endometrium-myometrial interface of the uterine wall. When first described 80 years ago, it mainly occurred after manual removal of the placenta, uterine curettage, or endometritis. Superficial damage leads primarily to an abnormally adherent placenta, and is diagnosed as the complete or partial absence of the decidua on histology. Today, the main cause of placenta accreta spectrum is uterine surgery and, in particular, uterine scar secondary to cesarean delivery. In the absence of endometrial reepithelialization of the scar area the trophoblast and villous tissue can invade deeply within the myometrium, including its circulation, and reach the surrounding pelvic organs. The cellular changes in the trophoblast observed in placenta accreta spectrum are probably secondary to the unusual myometrial environment in which it develops, and not a primary defect of trophoblast biology leading to excessive invasion of the myometrium. Placenta accreta spectrum was separated by pathologists into 3 categories: placenta creta when the villi simply adhere to the myometrium, placenta increta when the villi invade the myometrium, and placenta percreta where the villi invade the full thickness of the myometrium. Several prenatal ultrasound signs of placenta accreta spectrum were reported over the last 35 years, principally the disappearance of the normal uteroplacental interface (clear zone), extreme thinning of the underlying myometrium, and vascular changes within the placenta (lacunae) and placental bed (hypervascularity). The pathophysiological basis of these signs is due to permanent damage of the uterine wall as far as the serosa, with placental tissue reaching the deep uterine circulation. Adherent and invasive placentation may coexist in the same placental bed and evolve with advancing

  3. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    PubMed

    van Beekhuizen, H J; Joosten, I; Lotgering, F K; Bulten, J; van Kempen, L C

    2010-12-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in immune response in the basal decidua between PA and control placentas (CP). We performed a descriptive analysis of immunohistochemical differences in 17 PA and 10 CP. Our results show that in PA the amount of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells is significantly reduced (0.2 uNK cell/standardised area) as compared to CP (9.8 uNK cell/standardised area, p < 0.001) whereas the number of trophoblast cells and the expression of HLA-G by trophoblast are similar in the decidua of PA and CP. We speculate that adequate numbers of uNK cells in the basal decidua are needed for normal expulsion of the placenta. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Wadhwa, Leena; Gupta, Taru; Kohli, Supreethi; Chandoke, Rajkumar; Gupta, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) with color Doppler (CDUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta). All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity) and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity). MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity) and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity). There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00) and specificity (P = 0.687) between USG and MRI. Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however, specificity does not appear to be as good as reported in other studies. Both modalities have complimentary

  5. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Wadhwa, Leena; Gupta, Taru; Kohli, Supreethi; Chandoke, Rajkumar; Gupta, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Context: Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Aims: To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) with color Doppler (CDUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Settings and Design: Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Results: Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta). All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity) and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity). MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity) and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity). There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00) and specificity (P = 0.687) between USG and MRI. Conclusions: Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however

  6. Placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S.; Bahkali, Nedaa M.; Al-Basri, Samera F.; Hachim, Estabrq Al; Shoudary, Ibrahim H.; Dause, Wesam R.; Mira, Mohammed Y.; Khojah, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review cases of placenta previa in the last 13 years in a tertiary teaching hospital to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases of placenta previa managed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2013. Results: The total number of deliveries was 55,862 deliveries, and 11,412 (20.3%) delivered by cesarean section (C/S). The charts of 230 cases diagnosed with placenta previa was reviewed, and different variables were collected and analyzed. Diagnoses were achieved in 94% of them using ultrasound. The prevalence rate of placenta previa was 4.1 per 1000 births. Cesarean section was carried out as an emergency procedure in 130 (56.5%) women and as elective in 100 (43.5%) women. Of them, 26 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (11.3%), all of which received blood transfusion >6 units and 22 patients had a hysterectomy for uncontrollable bleeding. Conclusion: Placenta previa is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Every hospital must have a protocol, or algorithm for the management of placenta previa. Risk factors for maternal morbidity included complete previa, history of previous C/S, emergency C/S at a gestational age of <36 weeks, and estimated blood loss >2000 ml. PMID:27381536

  7. Impact of upper airway abnormalities on the success and adherence to mandibular advancement device treatment in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prescinotto, Renato; Haddad, Fernanda Louise Martinho; Fukuchi, Ilana; Gregório, Luiz Carlos; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Tufik, Sérgio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2015-01-01

    The mandibular advancement device (MAD) is a option to treat patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). To assess the influence of upper airway abnormalities on the success of and adherence to MAD in patients with OSAS. Prospective study with 30 patients with mild to moderate OSAS and indications for MAD. The protocol included questionnaires addressing sleep and nasal complaints, polysomnography, and upper airway assessment. The analyzed parameters of patients who showed therapeutic success and failure and those who exhibited good and poor treatment adherence were compared. 28 patients completed the protocol; 64.3% responded successfully to treatment with MAD, and 60.7% exhibited good adherence to treatment. Factors associated with greater success rates were younger age (p=0.02), smaller cervical circumference (p=0.05), and lower AHI at baseline (p=0.05). There was a predominance of patients without nasal abnormalities among patients treated successfully compared to those with treatment failure (p=0.04), which was not observed in relation to adherence. Neither pharyngeal nor facial skeletal abnormalities were significantly associated with either therapeutic success or adherence. MAD treatment success was significantly lower among patients with nasal abnormalities; however, treatment adherence was not influenced by the presence of upper airway or facial skeletal abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Placenta accreta is associated with decreased decidual natural killer (dNK) cells population: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laban, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Eman Abdel-Salam; Elsafty, Mohammed Saeed Eldin; Hassanin, Alaa Sayed

    2014-10-01

    Placenta accreta is a general term describes abnormal adherent placenta to the uterine wall. When the chorionic villi invade the myometrium, the term placenta increta is appropriate. Nowadays, it is one of the increasing causes of materno-fetal morbidities and mortality. The aim of this research was to evaluate density of decidual natural killer cells (dNK, CD56+(bright)) in decidua basalis in patients with placenta accreta. We recruited 76 patients from Ain Shams Maternity Hospital between June 2012 to August 2013, they were divided into study subgroup (A) which included 10 patients who underwent cesarean hysterectomy due to unseparated placenta accreta, study subgroup (B) included 16 patients with separated placenta accreta, a comparison group included 25 patients with placenta previa and a control group included 25 patients with normally situated placenta. All patients underwent elective cesarean delivery. Decidual biopsies were taken during the operation. An immunohistochemical staining for (dNK, CD56+(bright)) and a semi quantitative scoring were done. One-way ANOVA and Fisher Exact tests were used for statistical correlation. The mean dNK cells scores were (0.4±0.5, 1.9±1, 3.3±0.5 and 3.5±0.5) for study subgroups (A), (B) comparison and control groups respectively) with a highly significant statistical difference (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference between study subgroups (A) and (B) P=0.002 .There was an insignificant statistical correlation between dNK scores and number of previous uterine scars (P=0.46). These findings suggest that low dNK score was associated with cases of morbidly adherent placenta accreta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased placental trophoblast inclusions in placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Adler, E; Madankumar, R; Rosner, M; Reznik, S E

    2014-12-01

    Trophoblast inclusions (TIs) are often found in placentas of genetically abnormal gestations. Although best documented in placentas from molar pregnancies and chromosomal aneuploidy, TIs are also associated with more subtle genetic abnormalities, and possibly autism. Less than 3% of non-aneuploid, non-accreta placentas have TIs. We hypothesize that placental genetics may play a role in the development of placenta accreta and aim to study TIs as a potential surrogate indicator of abnormal placental genetics. Forty cases of placenta accreta in the third trimester were identified in a search of the medical records at one institution. Forty two third trimester control placentas were identified by a review of consecutively received single gestation placentas with no known genetic abnormalities and no diagnosis of placenta accreta. Forty percent of cases with placenta accreta demonstrated TIs compared to 2.4% of controls. More invasive placenta accretas (increta and percreta) were more likely to demonstrate TIs than accreta (47% versus 20%). Prior cesarean delivery was more likely in accreta patients than controls (67% versus 9.5%). Placenta accreta is thought to be the result of damage to the endometrium predisposing to abnormal decidualization and invasive trophoblast growth into the myometrium. However, the etiology of accreta is incompletely understood with accreta frequently occurring in women without predisposing factors and failing to occur in predisposed patients. This study has shown that TIs are present at increased rates in cases of PA. Further studies are needed to discern what underlying pathogenic mechanisms are in common between abnormal placentation and the formation of TIs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p < 0.05). Placental TRAIL-R2 levels and previous cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p < 0.001, respectively). Placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were positively correlated. Decreased levels of placental TRAIL-R2 and previous history of cesarean section were found to be significantly associated with placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Placenta previa

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding. This can be deadly to both the mother and baby. If the placenta is near or covering part of the cervix, your provider may recommend: Reducing your activities Bed rest Pelvic rest, which means no sex, no tampons, and no douching Nothing should be ...

  12. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Baumfeld, Yael; Herskovitz, Reli; Niv, Zehavi Bar; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications (IUGR, preeclampsia, placental abruption and perinatal mortality). Our study included all deliveries that occurred at Soroka University Medical Center (Beer Sheva, Israel) between January 1998 and December 2013. Of them 1,249 were complicated by placenta previa and represented our study group. A composite outcome was created to include conditions associated with placental insufficiency. It included hypertensive disorders (i.e. gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia, HELLP and eclampsia), small for gestational age neonates and placental abruption. Patients with pregnancy complicated by placenta previa had significantly different obstetrical characteristics including bad obstetric history (8% vs. 4%, p < 0.001), recurrent abortions (11% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Patients with placenta previa had higher rates of vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy (3% vs. 0%, p < 0.001), gestational diabetes (8% vs. 5.5%, p < 0.001), placental abruption (10% vs. 1%, p < 0.001), adherent placenta (4% vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001), preterm delivery (52% vs. 8%, p < 0.001), with a median gestational age of 36 vs. 39 weeks, p < 0.001. The composite outcome was significantly more prevalent in the placenta previa group (21% vs. 13%, p < 0,001). Our study demonstrated an increased rate of placental insufficiency associated complications in women with placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Perioperative Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion, In the Setting of Placenta Accreta and Its Variants: The Role of the Interventional Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Petrov, David A; Karlberg, Benjamin; Singh, Kamalpreet; Hartman, Matthew; Mittal, Pardeep K

    2017-11-10

    Placenta accreta and its variants (increta and percreta) are conditions of abnormal placentation that are encountered with increasing frequency. The spectrum of placenta accreta (including placenta increta and percreta) involves an abnormal attachment of the placental chorionic villi to the uterine myometrium. This abnormal attachment leads to increased adherence of the placenta to the uterus and abnormal placental-uterine separation at the time of delivery. Placental invasion into, or through the myometrium is associated with increased postpartum morbidity and mortality as a result of uterine hemorrhage during and following cesarean section. A multidisciplinary clinical approach to the treatment of patients with placenta accreta is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. As potential members of an interdisciplinary team, interventional radiologists can perform prophylactic internal iliac arterial balloon occlusion as an adjunctive therapy for reducing potentially life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. The procedure involves placement of a balloon catheter into the internal iliac or common iliac arteries bilaterally prior to cesarean section. Following delivery, and prior to placental separation, the catheter balloons are inflated with a pre-determined volume of saline leading to transient occlusion of the internal iliac arteries and reduced uterine blood flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of shear wave elastography in the assessment of placenta previa-accreta.

    PubMed

    Alıcı Davutoglu, Ebru; Ariöz Habibi, Hatice; Ozel, Ayşegül; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Madazlı, Riza

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the value of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the prediction of morbidly adherent placenta. Forty-three women with normal placental location and 26 women with anteriorly localized placenta previa were recruited for this case-control study. Placental elasticity values in both the groups were determined by SWE imaging. SWE values were higher in the placenta previa group in all regions than in normal localized placentas (p < .01). However, there was no statistically significant difference between SWE values of placenta previa with and without morbidly adherent placenta (p > .05). Placental stiffness is significantly higher in placenta previa than normal localized placentas. However, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in the elasticity values between the placenta previa with and without accreta.

  15. Placenta percreta: methotrexate treatment and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Kröger, Jaana; Kainulainen, Sakari; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Our patient was a 24-year-old gravida 2 para 0 woman. After delivery, placenta percreta was noticed. There was no postpartum hemorrhage, and the patient desired future pregnancies. Although placenta percreta is rare, its sequelae include potentially lethal hemorrhage and loss of reproduction function. Placenta percreta was confirmed histologically and with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Placenta percreta was treated conservatively with methotrexate. On follow-up, MRI showed a small calcified transmural extension of the placenta throughout the uterus in the right fundal area. Color Doppler ultrasonography showed no blood flow in the corresponding area, and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was undetectable. Use of MRI is a new method to detect abnormal placentation, and it could be used on follow-up in selective cases with other follow-up modalities. However, it seems likely that conservative management to preserve future fertility remains a secured and reasonable alternative when a patient has no active bleeding.

  16. Placenta: chronicle of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Jeffrey M

    2010-09-23

    The foundation for adult health is laid in utero and requires a healthy placenta. A common manifestation of abnormal placental development is impaired fetal growth. While placental pathology is the final common denominator in many cases of fetal growth restriction, a variety of discreet lesions have been described involving both the maternal and fetal circulations at their confluence in the placenta. Detailed examination of the placenta provides a means of elucidating the pathophysiology of poor fetal growth. This is an essential step in developing effective strategies for the prediction, prevention, and possible treatment of the growth restricted fetus.

  17. Placenta percreta is associated with more frequent severe maternal morbidity than placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Marcellin, Louis; Delorme, Pierre; Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Grange, Gilles; Kayem, Gilles; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François

    2018-05-04

    Abnormally invasive placentation is the leading cause of obstetric hysterectomy and can cause poor to disastrous maternal outcomes. Most previous studies of peripartum management and maternal morbidity have included variable proportions of severe and less severe cases. The aim of this study was to compare maternal morbidity from placenta percreta and accreta. This retrospective study at a referral center in Paris includes all women with abnormally invasive placentation from 2003 to 2017. Placenta percreta and accreta were diagnosed histologically or clinically. When placenta percreta was suspected before birth, a conservative approach leaving the placenta in situ was proposed because of the intraoperative risk of cesarean delivery. When placenta accreta was suspected, parents were offered a choice of a conservative approach or an attempt to remove the placenta, to be followed in case of failure by hysterectomy. Maternal outcomes were compared between women with placenta percreta and those with placenta accreta/increta. The primary outcome measure was a composite criterion of severe acute maternal morbidity including at least one of the following: hysterectomy during cesarean delivery, delayed hysterectomy, transfusion of ≥ 10 units of packed red blood cells, septic shock, acute kidney injury, cardiovascular failure, maternal transfer to intensive care, or death. Of the 156 women included, 51 had placenta percreta and 105 placenta accreta. Abnormally invasive placentation was suspected antenatally nearly four times more frequently in the percreta than the accreta group (96.1% (49/51) vs. 25.7% (27/105), P <0.01). Among the 76 women with antenatally suspected abnormally invasive placentation (48.7%), the rate of antenatal decisions for conservative management was higher in the percreta than the accreta group (100% (49/49) vs. 40.7% (11/27), P<0.01). The composite maternal morbidity rate was significantly higher in the percreta than the accreta group (86.3% (44

  18. Escalating placenta invasiveness: repeated placenta accreta at the limit of viability

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Shirley; Khashper, Alla; Leron, Elad; Ohana, Eric; Meirovitz, Mihai; Hershkovitz, Reli; Erez, Offer

    2016-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an obstetric condition in which the placenta invades through the myometrium. This is the most severe form of placenta accreta and may result in spontaneous uterine rupture, a rare complication that threatens the life of both mother and fetus. In this case report, we describe a 32-year-old woman in her fourth pregnancy, diagnosed with repeated placenta accreta, which was eventually complicated by spontaneous uterine rupture at 24 weeks’ gestation. This patient had a history of abnormal placentation in prior pregnancies and previous uterine injuries. This case demonstrates a pattern of escalating placental invasiveness, and raises questions regarding the process of abnormal placentation and the manifestation of uterine rupture in scarred uteri. PMID:27143953

  19. Psychosocial barriers to follow-up adherence after an abnormal cervical cytology test result among low-income, inner-city women.

    PubMed

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Fang, Zhu; Li, Tianyu; Buzaglo, Joanne; Hernandez, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Low-income, inner-city women bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer in both incidence and mortality rates in the United States, largely because of low adherence to follow-up recommendations after an abnormal cervical cytology result in the primary care setting. The goals of the present study were to delineate the theory-based psychosocial barriers underlying these persistent low follow-up rates and their sociodemographic correlates. Guided by a well-validated psychosocial theory of health behaviors, this cross-sectional, correlational study assessed the barriers to follow-up adherence among underserved women (N = 210) who received an abnormal cervical cytology result. Participants were recruited through an inner-city hospital colposcopy clinic, and were assessed by telephone prior to the colposcopy appointment. Participants were largely of African American race (82.2%), lower than high school completion education (58.7%), single, never married (67.3%), and without full-time employment (64.1%). Knowledge barriers were most often endorsed (68%, M = 3.22), followed by distress barriers (64%, M = 3.09), and coping barriers (36%, M = 2.36). Forty-six percent reported more than one barrier category. Less education and being unemployed were correlated with higher knowledge barriers (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively) and more coping barriers (P < .05 and P < .05, respectively). Women who were younger than 30 years displayed greater distress barriers (P < .05). In the primary care setting, assessing and addressing knowledge and distress barriers after feedback of an abnormal cervical cytology result may improve adherence to follow-up recommendations. The use of structured counseling protocols and referral to navigational and other resources may facilitate this process and thereby reduce disparities in cervical cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Management of placenta previa and accreta].

    PubMed

    Kayem, G; Keita, H

    2014-12-01

    Produce recommendations for the management of placenta previa and placenta accrete. A literature search was conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library over a period from 1950 to 31/12/2013. Recommendations of the latest scientific societies have also been consulted. In cases of placenta previa, if bleeding episode before 34weeks gestation occurs, a short hospitalization and tocolysis may help stop bleeding (grade C). Vaginal delivery is preferable when the distance between the internal cervical os and the placental edge is greater than 20mm. When this distance is less than 20mm, vaginal delivery is possible (professional consensus). Caesarean section is recommended in cases of placenta overlapping the internal os (professional consensus). Antenatal screening placenta accreta could improve care (EL3). Upon discovery of a placenta accreta during childbirth, it is better to avoid a forced removal of the placenta (grade C). Conservative treatment or cesarean hysterectomy are possible (grade C). The management of placental abnormalities should be planned and managed with a multidisciplinary team (professional consensus). The use of blood-saving techniques such as "cell saver" is possible in situations where early intraoperative bleeding would be>1500mL (grade C). There are no studies that have sufficient methodological value to recommend an anesthetic technique [general anaesthesia (GA) or neuraxial anaesthesia] over another in the context of placental abnormalities (grade B). When a major bleeding risk is identified, GA can be chosen in order to avoid emergency conversions in difficult conditions (professional consensus). Placental insertion abnormalities require anesthetic and obstetric coordination. Delivery must be planned in a suitable structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. The retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    The incidence and importance of retained placenta (RP) varies greatly around the world. In less developed countries, it affects about 0.1% of deliveries but has up to 10% case fatality rate. In more developed countries, it is more common (about 3% of vaginal deliveries) but very rarely associated with mortality. There are three main types of retained placenta following the vagina delivery: placenta adherens (when there is failed contraction of the myometrium behind the placenta), trapped placenta (a detached placenta trapped behind a closed cervix) and partial accreta (when there is a small area of accreta preventing detachment). All can be treated by manual removal of placenta, which should be carried out at 30-60 minutes postpartum. Medical management is also an option for placenta adherens and trapped placenta. The need for manual removal can be reduced by 20% by the use of intraumbilical oxytocin (30 i.u. in 30 mL saline). A trapped placenta may respond to glyceryl trinitrate (500 mcg sublingually) or gentle, persistent, controlled cord traction.

  2. Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta by Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Patients With Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Young; Hwang, Han Sung; Jung, Inkyung; Park, Yong Won; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young Han

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the potential value of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in diagnosing placenta accreta. Clinical records of all deliveries between April 1991 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases of intrauterine growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, multiple pregnancies, fetal anomalies, chromosomal abnormalities, and maternal medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were excluded. A total of 11,210 cases were evaluated, including 403 cases of placenta previa without accreta (placenta previa) and 39 cases of placenta previa with accreta (placenta accreta). All patients underwent uterine artery Doppler velocimetry to measure the mean resistive index and pulsatility index (PI) in the third trimester. The analysis included participant characteristics such as age, parity, abortion history, previous cesarean delivery, gestational age at delivery, neonatal sex, and birth weight. The mean uterine artery PI was significantly lower in the placenta accreta group compared to previa alone (0.51 versus 0.57; P = .002). The odds ratios for placenta accreta were 2.4 for 2 or more previous abortions (P = .011) and 5.3 and 7.0 for 1 and 2 or more previous cesarean deliveries (P = .001 and .005). With an increase in the mean PI by 0.01, the odds ratio for placenta accreta decreased by 0.94 (P < .001). The area under the receive operating characteristic curve was 0.72 for previous cesarean delivery alone, increasing to 0.77 with the combination of the mean PI and previous cesarean delivery (P = .047). This study suggests that the mean PI measured by uterine artery Doppler velocimetry is reduced in patients with placenta accreta compared to those without accreta. The diagnostic accuracy of placenta accreta can be potentially improved if uterine artery Doppler values and the history of cesarean delivery are combined. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Placental pathologic changes and perinatal outcomes in placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Jung; Cho, Hwa Jin; Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Sung, Moon Su; Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Nam

    2018-03-01

    Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta implants in the poorly vascularized lower uterine segment, which may result in inadequate uteroplacental perfusion, in turn, adversely affect the neonatal outcome. Abnormal placentation may also lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage as placenta separation proceeds. We aimed to evaluate the differences in placental histopathology and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and controls. We undertook a retrospective case-control study of 93 pregnancies with placenta previa and 81 controls between 2011 and 2017. Gross findings of the placenta showed that the placentas in placenta previa had significantly higher mean large chorionic plate diameters (18.5 ± 3.2 vs 17.5 ± 2.6 cm, P = .0298), chorionic plate areas (218.4 ± 62.9 cm 2 vs 198.7 ± 56.0 cm 2 , P = .0344), and marginal cord insertion (19.8% vs 8.6%, P = .0411) than control groups. Placental histopathological findings showed that placentas in placenta previa was significantly associated with maternal underperfusion, including villous infarction (50.5% vs 25.9%, P = .0009) and increased intervillous fibrin deposition (38.7% vs 7.4%, P < .0001). Also, women in the placenta previa group had a higher rate of abnormally invasive placenta and severe postpartum hemorrhage. However, placenta previa was not associated with the increased risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal placentation into the poorly vascularized lower uterine segment induces compensatory placental growth and increased surface area in response to reduced placental perfusion, which was consistent with the histopathological findings of coagulative necrosis of chorionic villi and fibrin deposition in the intervillous space. The morphological changes occurring in placenta previa may have important roles in maintaining adequate uteroplacental-fetal perfusion, which may prevent adverse neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2017

  4. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight <10th percentile by the Alexander growth standard. Univariable, stratified and multivariable analyses were used to estimate the effect of placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of pregnancy. Call your health care provider right away if you have vaginal bleeding anytime during your pregnancy. If the bleeding is severe, go to the hospital. Not all women with placenta previa have vaginal bleeding. In fact, ...

  6. Differences in physical activity domains, guideline adherence, and weight history between metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal obese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Thakkar, Niels A; Kuk, Jennifer L; Churilla, James R; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-05-16

    Despite the accepted health consequences of obesity, emerging research suggests that a significant segment of adults with obesity are metabolically healthy (MHO). To date, MHO individuals have been shown to have higher levels of physical activity (PA), but little is known about the importance of PA domains or the influence of weight history compared to their metabolically abnormal (MAO) counterpart. To evaluate the relationship between PA domains, PA guideline adherence, and weight history on MHO. Pooled cycles of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 (≥20 y; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); N = 2,753) and harmonized criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Participants were categorized as "inactive" (no reported PA), "somewhat active" (>0 to < 500 metabolic equivalent (MET) min/week), and "active" (PA guideline adherence, ≥ 500 MET min/week) according to each domain of PA (total, recreational, transportation and household). Logistic and multinomial regressions were modelled for MHO and analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, ethnicity, income, smoking and alcohol intake. Compared to MAO, MHO participants were younger, had lower BMI, and were more likely to be classified as active according to their total and recreational PA level. Based on total PA levels, individuals who were active had a 70% greater likelihood of having the MHO phenotype (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.19-2.43); however, once stratified by age (20-44 y; 45-59 y; and; ≥60 y), the association remained significant only amongst those aged 45-59 y. Although moderate and vigorous PA were inconsistently related to MHO following adjustment for covariates, losing ≥30 kg in the last 10 y and not gaining ≥10 kg since age 25 y were significant predictors of MHO phenotype for all PA domains, even if adherence to the PA guidelines were not met. Although PA is associated with MHO, the beneficial effects of PA may be moderated by longer-term changes in

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Binoj; Singh, Navdeep; George, Regi A.N; Gilvaz, Sareena

    2013-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) is a severe pregnancy complication which occurs when the chorionic villi (CV) invade the myometrium abnormally. Optimal management requires accurate prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities for prenatal diagnosis of PA, although USG remains the primary investigation of choice. MRI is a complementary technique and reserved for further characterization when USG is inconclusive or incomplete. Breath-hold T2-weighted half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and balanced steady-state free precession imaging in the three orthogonal planes is the key MRI technique. Markedly heterogeneous placenta, thick intraplacental dark bands on half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and disorganized abnormal intraplacental vascularity are the cardinal MRI features of PA. MRI is less reliable in differentiating between different degrees of placental invasion, especially between accreta vera and increta. PMID:24604945

  8. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  9. Evaluation of placenta in foetal demise and foetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Ch, Ujwala; Guruvare, Shyamala; Bhat, Sudha S; Rai, Lavanya; Rao, Sugandhi

    2013-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the pathological changes of the placenta in foetal death and foetal growth restriction and to find correlation of the findings with clinical causes. Prospective study at a tertiary care hospital. Gross and histopathological examinations of the placentae were carried out in pregnancies with foetal demise (IUD) and Foetal Growth Restriction (FGR). SPSS, version 11.5. Placentae of twenty seven women with foetal demise and of equal number of women with foetal growth restriction were studied. Placental weight was less than 10(th) percentile in 61.5% women in IUD group and in 93% women in the FGR group. Gross examination of placentae showed abnormalities in 12 (44%) women of IUD group and in 16 (59%) women of FGR group. Histopathological abnormalities were observed in 74.1% women of the IUD group and in 66.7% women of FGR group. Placental histopathology correlated with clinical risk factors in 60% women of IUD group and in 40% women of FGR group. Among the women with no clinically explainable cause for IUD and FGR, 86% and 57% had placental histopathological abnormalities respectively. The histopathological abnormalities of the placenta can be used to document the clinical causes of foetal demise and growth restriction; it may explain the causes in cases of clinically unexplained foetal demise and foetal growth restriction.

  10. The recurrence risk of placenta accreta following uterine conserving management.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, K M; Anwar, A; Lindow, S W

    2015-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a condition of abnormal placental attachment that was usually treated by hysterectomy. Techniques to conserve the uterus are now commonly used and series of subsequent pregnancy outcomes have been reported. The recurrence risk of placenta accreta is now a relevant detail and is currently not known. This work was performed to calculate the recurrence risk by reviewing the published literature. A literature search using the terms "placenta accreta", "placenta percreta", "placenta increta", "abnormal placental attachment" and "placental attachment disorder" followed by hand-searching identified 6 papers that contained data concerning recurrence of placenta accreta in subsequent pregnancies following initial conservative treatment. Overall 407 pregnancies were recorded and 85.7% of women reported achieved a subsequent pregnancy following conservative treatment. The risk of recurrence of placental attachment disorder in a subsequent pregnancy was 19.9% (weighted mean, 95% CI 12.2-27.7). The recurrence risk of placental attachment disorder following uterine conservation treatments is 20% . This risk should be discussed with women with an antenatal diagnosis of a placental attachment disorder who may be considering uterine conservation in order to retain the option of a future pregnancy.

  11. Retained placenta aspect of clinical management in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agwu, U M; Umeora, O U J; Ejikeme, B N; Egwuatu, V E

    2008-01-01

    Retained placenta is a significant cause of postpartum haemorrhage, maternal morbidity and occasionally mortality. This study assessed the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of retained placenta at the Ebonyi State University teaching Hospital. Analysis of records relating to retained placenta managed in the hospital over a three year period (August 2003 to July 2006. The incidence of retained placenta was 0.22% (1 in 456 vaginal deliveries). Eleven (32.4%) patients were admitted with retained placenta following home delivery. Two (5.6%) delivery in a peripheral hospital, 6 (17.7%) delivered in a. Health center and 2 (5.9%) delivered in a maternity home. Preterm deliveries accounted for 17.7% of the cases. Eighteen parturient were admitted in shock. One patient had hysterectomy for adherent placenta. Improved peripatum services, education on the dangers of unsupervised home deliveries, women empowernment and prompt referral for emergency obstetrics care will reduce the associated mortality and morbidity.

  12. Treating the dysfunctional placenta

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Placental dysfunction underlies major obstetric diseases such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Whilst there has been a little progress in prophylaxis, there are still no treatments for placental dysfunction in normal obstetric practice. However, a combination of increasingly well-described in vitro systems for studying the human placenta, together with the availability of more appropriate animal models of pre-eclampsia and FGR, has facilitated a recent surge in work aimed at repurposing drugs and therapies, developed for other conditions, as treatments for placental dysfunction. This review: (1) highlights potential candidate drug targets in the placenta – effectors of improved uteroplacental blood flow, anti-oxidants, heme oxygenase induction, inhibition of HIF, induction of cholesterol synthesis pathways, increasing insulin-like growth factor II availability; (2) proposes an experimental pathway for taking a potential drug or treatment for placental dysfunction from concept through to early phase clinical trials, utilizing techniques for studying the human placenta in vitro and small animal models, particularly the mouse, for in vivo studies; (3) describes the data underpinning sildenafil citrate and adenovirus expressing vascular endothelial growth as potential treatments for placental dysfunction and summarizes recent research on other potential treatments. The importance of sharing information from such studies even when no effect is found, or there is an adverse outcome, is highlighted. Finally, the use of adenoviral vectors or nanoparticle carriers coated with homing peptides to selectively target drugs to the placenta is highlighted: such delivery systems could improve efficacy and reduce the side effects of treating the dysfunctional placenta. PMID:28483805

  13. Conservative and timely treatment in retained products of conception: a case report of placenta accreta ritention.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Antonella; Di Benedetto, Luisa; Assorgi, Chiara; Rocca, Alessandra; Caserta, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The term retained products of conception (RPOC) refers to intrauterine tissue that develops after conception and persists after medical and surgical pregnancy termination, miscarriage, and vaginal or cesarean delivery. One of the most important factor risk for RPOC is placenta accreta, defined as "the abnormal adherence, either in whole or in part, of the afterbirth to the underlying uterine wall". We report a case of a 37 years old woman referred to our gynecologic department with irregular vaginal bleeding. On her medical history, she had a cesarean occurred 3 months before. Ultrasonography revealed in the uterine cavity hyperechoic mass, treated with curettage. Two weeks later the curettage, patient complained still vaginal bleeding. On the transvaginal ultrasound, the uterine cavity was occupied again by a hyperechoic mass. She underwent to hysteroscopic resection and histological diagnosis was compatible with placenta accreta residual. In the follow up she had not complications. Early diagnosis, prompt evaluation of bleeding is important for timely treatment and for preventing immediate complications and demolitive approach. A careful follow up is necessary to prevent late consequences. The purpose of this study is to report our experience in timely diagnosis and conservative management.

  14. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    PubMed

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  15. Risk-stratification, resource availability, and choice of surgical location for the management of parturients with abnormal placentation: a survey of United States-based obstetric anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Grant, T R; Ellinas, E H; Kula, A O; Muravyeva, M Y

    2018-05-01

    Parturients with abnormally adherent placentas present anesthetic challenges that include risk-stratification, management planning and resource utilization. The labor and delivery unit may be remote from the main operating room services. Division chiefs of North American obstetric anesthesiology services were surveyed about their practices and management of parturients with an abnormally adherent placenta. Eighty-four of 122 chiefs, representing 103 hospital sites, responded to the survey (response rate 69%). Sixty-one percent of respondents agreed that women with preoperative placental imaging that was "suspicious" of placenta accreta represented a lower risk category; all other suggested descriptions fell into a higher risk category. Seventy-nine percent of respondents indicated that lower risk cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit, while 71% indicated that higher risk cases would be managed in the main operating room. Institutions where all cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit had better access to human and technical resources, were less remote from their main operating areas, and promoted neuraxial rather than general anesthesia, even for parturients perceived to be at higher risk. Obstetric anesthesia leaders identified patients at lower clinical risk and those less likely to require greater resources. Additional resources were available in institutions where all abnormal placentation cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit. Practitioners should consider risk-stratification and resource availability when planning high-risk cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  17. Multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta complicated by embolic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Styron, A G; George, R B; Allen, T K; Peterson-Layne, C; Muir, H A

    2008-07-01

    Hemorrhage and thrombosis are major causes of maternal mortality. This case discusses the management of a woman with placenta percreta complicated by intraoperative pulmonary embolism. A 39-year-old gravida 3 with two previous cesarean deliveries presented at 34 weeks of gestation with an antepartum hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed placenta percreta. The multidisciplinary group including obstetricians, gynecological oncologists, interventional radiologists and anesthesiologists developed a delivery plan. Cesarean delivery was performed with internal iliac artery occlusion and embolization catheters in place. After the uterine incision our patient experienced acute hypotension and hypoxia associated with a drop in the end-tidal carbon dioxide and sinus tachycardia. She was resuscitated and the uterus closed with the placenta in situ. Postoperatively, uterine bleeding was arrested by immediate uterine artery embolization. With initiation of embolization, hypotension and hypoxia recurred. Oxygenation and hemodynamics slowly improved, the case continued and the patient was extubated uneventfully at the end of the procedure. Computed tomography revealed multiple pulmonary emboli. The patient was anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin and returned six weeks later for hysterectomy. Placenta percreta with invasion into the bladder can be catastrophic if not recognized before delivery. The chronology of events suggests that this may have been amniotic fluid emboli. An intact placenta with abnormal architecture, such as placenta percreta, may increase the risk of amniotic fluid embolus. The clinical findings and co-existing filling defects on computed tomography may represent a spectrum of amniotic fluid embolism syndrome.

  18. Assessment of total placenta previa by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography to detect placenta accreta and its variants.

    PubMed

    Peker, Nuri; Turan, Volkan; Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ozgur; Sever, Ahmet; Kazandi, Mert; Zekioglu, Osman

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting placental adherence defects. Patients diagnozed with total placenta previa (n = 40) in whom hysterectomy was performed due to placental adherence defects (n = 20) or in whom the placenta detached spontaneously after a Cesarean delivery (n = 20) were included into the study between June 2008 and January 2011, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ege University (lzmir Turkey). Gray-scale US was used to check for any placental lacunae, sub-placental sonolucent spaces or a placental mass invading the vesicouterine plane and bladder Intra-placental lacunar turbulent blood flow and an increase in vascularization in the vesicouterine plane were evaluated with color Doppler mode. Subsequently all patients had MRI and the results were compared with the histopathologic examinations. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of placental adherence defects before the operation was 95%, with a specificity of 95%. In the presence of at least one diagnostic criterion, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 87.5% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of color Doppler US was 62.5% with a specificity of 100%. Currently MRI appears to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. None of the ultrasonographic criteria is solely sufficient to diagnose placental adherence defects, however they assist in the diagnostic process.

  19. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2) expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta.

    PubMed

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Blaise, Sandra; Handschuh, Karen; Gerbaud, Pascale; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Heidmann, Thierry; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2008-01-23

    Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT). During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies.

  20. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2) expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

    PubMed Central

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Blaise, Sandra; Handschuh, Karen; Gerbaud, Pascale; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Heidmann, Thierry; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT). During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies. PMID:18215254

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta by colour Doppler ultrasonography: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Pongrojpaw, Densak; Chanthasenanont, Athita; Nanthakomon, Tongta; Suwannarurk, Komsun

    2014-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of colour Doppler ultrasonography to diagnose placenta accreta. The authors reviewed cases of placenta accreta between January, 2008 and December, 2012. Ultrasonographic images consistent with signs ofplacenta accreta (numerous vascular lacunae, loss ofsubplacentalsonolucent space, absent lower uterine segment between bladder-placenta, turbulent or complicated blood flow at the uteroplacental interface) were correlated with findings at the time of surgery and pathologic examination. Over 60 months, 12 cases (0.48/1,000 deliveries) with suspected placenta accreta by ultrasonography were studied. The median gestational age atfirst diagnosis was 24 weeks. All cases had at least one previous cesarean delivery. At surgery, all cases had an adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy (five accreta, three increta, andfourpercreta). Four cases (33%) had accidental tear of urinary bladder Nine cases (75%) required blood transfusions. Colour Doppler ultrasonography appears useful in antenatal diagnosis ofplacenta accreta.

  2. Complete Placenta Previa: Ultrasound Biometry and Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wortman, Alison C.; Schaefer, Stephanie L.; McIntire, Donald D.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Twickler, Diane M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective  To evaluate the relationship between surgical outcomes and ultrasound measurement of placental extension beyond the cervical os in women with placenta previa. Study Design  This is a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with placenta previa undergoing third-trimester ultrasound and delivering at our institution from 2002 through 2011. For study purposes, an investigator measured placental extension, defined as the placental distance from the internal os across the placenta continuing out to the lowest placental edge. If morbidly adherent placentation was suspected, women were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were developed for pertinent surgical outcomes, and multivariate analysis was performed to determine the placental extension with the best predictive discriminatory zone. Results  In total, 157 women had placenta previa, ultrasound, and delivery data: 86 (55%) had a placental extension of <40 mm, and 71 (45%) had a placental extension of ≥40 mm. Women with placental extension of ≥40 mm had increased surgical time, blood loss > 2,000 mL, blood transfusion, and rate of peripartum hysterectomy. After multivariate analysis, only peripartum hysterectomy and surgical time > 90 minutes remained significant, p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively. Conclusion  In women with placenta previa, the placental extension ultrasound measurement of ≥40 mm is a predictor of adverse surgical outcomes. PMID:29686936

  3. Complete Placenta Previa: Ultrasound Biometry and Surgical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wortman, Alison C; Schaefer, Stephanie L; McIntire, Donald D; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Twickler, Diane M

    2018-04-01

    Objective  To evaluate the relationship between surgical outcomes and ultrasound measurement of placental extension beyond the cervical os in women with placenta previa. Study Design  This is a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies with placenta previa undergoing third-trimester ultrasound and delivering at our institution from 2002 through 2011. For study purposes, an investigator measured placental extension, defined as the placental distance from the internal os across the placenta continuing out to the lowest placental edge. If morbidly adherent placentation was suspected, women were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were developed for pertinent surgical outcomes, and multivariate analysis was performed to determine the placental extension with the best predictive discriminatory zone. Results  In total, 157 women had placenta previa, ultrasound, and delivery data: 86 (55%) had a placental extension of <40 mm, and 71 (45%) had a placental extension of ≥40 mm. Women with placental extension of ≥40 mm had increased surgical time, blood loss > 2,000 mL, blood transfusion, and rate of peripartum hysterectomy. After multivariate analysis, only peripartum hysterectomy and surgical time > 90 minutes remained significant, p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively. Conclusion  In women with placenta previa, the placental extension ultrasound measurement of ≥40 mm is a predictor of adverse surgical outcomes.

  4. [Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Malinova, M

    2014-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition. Diagnosis of placenta accreta before delivery allows multidisciplinary planning in an attempt to minimize potential maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality The diagnosis is usually established by 2D, 3D Ultrasonography and Color Doppler ultrasonography and occasionally supplemented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  5. Prophylactic Hypogastric Artery Ballooning in a Patient with Complete Placenta Previa and Increta

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Kyong Wook; Seo, Tae-Seok; So, Kyeong A; Paek, Yu Chin; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal attachment of the placenta (Placenta accreta, increta, and percreta) is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of maternal mortality from massive postpartum hemorrhage. A 33-yr-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a placenta previa, was referred at 30 weeks gestation. On ultrasound, a complete type of placenta previa and multiple intraplacental lacunae, suggestive of placenta accreta, were noted. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis MRI was performed and revealed findings suspicious of a placenta increta. An elective cesarean delivery and subsequent hysterectomy were planned for the patient at 38 weeks gestation. On the day of delivery, endovascular catheters for balloon occlusion were placed within the hypogastric arteries, prior to the cesarean section. In the operating room, immediately after the delivery of the baby, bilateral hypogastric arteries were occluded by inflation of the balloons in the catheters previously placed within. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed in the usual fashion. The occluding balloons were deflated after closure of the vaginal cuff with hemostasis. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period; she was discharged six days after delivery without complications. The final pathology confirmed a placenta increta. PMID:20358016

  6. [Features of cytotrophoblast invasion in complete placenta previa and increta].

    PubMed

    Milovanov, A P; Bushtarev, A V; Fokina, T V

    to investigate the characteristics of cytotrophoblast invasion in complete placenta previa and increta. Three groups of placentas and amputated uteri were examined. These were: 1) 10 placentas at 20-22 weeks' gestation after drug-induced abortion; 2) 4 uteri with typical placentation at 34-36 weeks and wall ruptures; 3) 12 uteri with ultrasound-confirmed complete placenta previa and subsequent hysterectomy (at 34-36 weeks.) due to massive bleeding. In all cases, the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, azan by the Mallory's method; immunovisualization of invasive cells with the marker cytokeratin 8 was also used. In Groups 2 and 3, the uterine distribution density of invasive cells was compared in a standard slice area (×200) separately, within the endometrium and myometrium. Complete placenta previa was found to have the following characteristics: 1) all the uteri exhibited focal or diffuse friable, or thick scars after cesarean section; 2) multiple active anchor villi with villous cytotrophoblast layers, which were characteristic of Group 1 placentas and absent in the uteri women of Group 2; 3) bays diagnosed in the basal endometrium with ingrown villi (placenta increta); 4) a morphometrically significant increase in the distribution density of interstitial cytotrophoblast in the endometrium and only a similar trend in the myometrium. Invasive cells did not penetrate into the area of scars. Failure of the second wave of cytotrophoblast invasion was confirmed by incomplete gestational restructuring and partial obliteration of the myometrial radial arteries. Real risks for severe clinical forms of abnormal placentation declare more stringent indications for surgical delivery.

  7. [Accuracy of placenta accreta prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and MRI in a high-risk population].

    PubMed

    Daney de Marcillac, F; Molière, S; Pinton, A; Weingertner, A-S; Fritz, G; Viville, B; Roedlich, M-N; Gaudineau, A; Sananes, N; Favre, R; Nisand, I; Langer, B

    2016-02-01

    Main objective was to compare accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI for antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Secondary objectives were to specify the most common sonographic and RMI signs associated with diagnosis of placenta accreta. This retrospective study used data collected from all potential cases of placenta accreta (patients with an anterior placenta praevia with history of scarred uterus) admitted from 01/2010 to 12/2014 in a level III maternity unit in Strasbourg, France. High-risk patients beneficiated antenatally from ultrasonography and MRI. Sonographic signs registered were: abnormal placental lacunae, increased vascularity on color Doppler, absence of the retroplacental clear space, interrupted bladder line. MRI signs registered were: abnormal uterine bulging, intraplacental bands of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images, increased vascularity, heterogeneous signal of the placenta on T2-weighed, interrupted bladder line, protrusion of the placenta into the cervix. Diagnosis of placenta accreta was confirmed histologically after hysterectomy or clinically in case of successful conservative treatment. Twenty-two potential cases of placenta accreta were referred to our center and underwent both ultrasonography and MRI. All cases of placenta accreta had a placenta praevia associated with history of scarred uterus. Sensibility and specificity for ultrasonography were, respectively, 0.92 and 0.67, for MRI 0.84 and 0.78 without significant difference (p>0.05). The most relevant signs associated with diagnosis of placenta accreta in ultrasonography were increased vascularity on color Doppler (sensibility 0.85/specificity 0.78), abnormal placental lacunae (sensibility 0.92/specificity 0.55) and loss of retroplacental clear space (sensibility 0.76/specificity 1.0). The most relevant signs in MRI were: abnormal uterine bulging (sensitivity 0.92/specificity 0.89), dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images (sensitivity 0.83/specificity 0.80) or

  8. Random placenta margin incision for control hemorrhage during cesarean delivery complicated by complete placenta previa: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Lijuan; Fu, Yao; Zeng, Meng; Liu, Yan; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2018-04-03

    Complete placenta previa (CPP) is one of the most problematic types of abnormal placenta, which is further complicated by placenta accreta or percreta that can unexpectedly lead to catastrophic blood loss, infection, multiple complications, emergency hysterectomy, and even death. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of random placenta margin incision in controlling intraoperative and total blood loss during cesarean section for CPP women. A prospective cohort study, including a total of 100 consecutive pregnant women with CPP, was performed at a tertiary university-affiliated medical center between March 2016 and July 2017. All of them underwent random placenta margin incision, and intraoperative and total blood loss were analyzed. Through antenatal diagnosis using color Doppler, women were further divided into abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) and non-AIP groups, and anterior and posterior placenta groups. The protocol was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry under registration number NCT02695069. Mean maternal age and gestational age at delivery were 32.26 ± 5.03 years old and 36.21 ± 2.07 weeks, respectively. Total duration of the surgical procedure time was 52.50 (42.43-64.00) min. Median estimated intraoperation blood loss was 746.43 (544.44-1092.86) ml. Total blood loss was 875.00 (604.50-1196.67) ml, and 38 (38.0%) had post-partum hemorrhage. The change from baseline in the median hemoglobin level was -0.33 (6.00-13.20). No women underwent hysterectomy due to massive hemorrhage during the study period. No women had an intraoperative urinary bladder injury, postoperative wound infection, and required relaparotomy, owing to intra-abdominal bleeding. The median hospitalization time was 5.41 (4.18-7.58) d. The random placenta margin incision may be a potentially valuable surgical procedure to control the volumes of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and reduce the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage among women with complete

  9. Morphological and ultrasound findings in the placenta of diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berceanu, Costin; Tetileanu, Adrian Victor; Ofiţeru, Anca Maria; Brătilă, Elvira; Mehedinţu, Claudia; Voicu, Nicoleta Loredana; Szasz, Florin Adrian; Berceanu, Sabina; Vlădăreanu, Simona; Navolan, Dan Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphological, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrasound findings in the placenta of maternal type 1 and gestational diabetes, to compare the pathological changes of the placental structure in the two types of metabolic disruptions, but also to establish correlations with the expression of these findings, influenced by different associated conditions. This multicenter study includes 53 pregnancies, of which 37 with pregestational and 16 with gestational diabetes. All cases undergone specific obstetric ultrasound assessment and detailed placental scan. There were assessed 49 singleton and four twin pregnancies, all of which having live births as fetal outcome. Maternal preexisting hypertension, preeclampsia and obesity were the main associated conditions. Placental ultrasound scan revealed increased placental thickness even from the second trimester, with significant increases in the first half, and placentomegaly at the end of the third trimester. Macroscopic analysis of the placentas and umbilical cords has shown that the placentas of women with diabetes are heavier, and abnormal cord insertion has been also found. Gross analysis of maternal and fetal surfaces of the placentas revealed certain changes in both metabolic conditions. We observed 14 types of placental pathological findings in pregestational and 11 in gestational diabetes. In diabetic placenta, it is not appropriate to discuss about specific changes, but rather about a pathological diabetic pattern, influenced by associated conditions. Preconceptional and first trimester glycemic control is the key element, and euglycemia throughout pregnancy is a purpose whose accomplishment depends the maternal-fetal outcome.

  10. Risk factors for retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Coviello, Elizabeth M; Grantz, Katherine L; Huang, Chun-Chih; Kelly, Tara E; Landy, Helain J

    2015-12-01

    Retained placenta complicates 2-3% of vaginal deliveries and is a known cause of postpartum hemorrhage. Treatment includes manual or operative placental extraction, potentially increasing risks of hemorrhage, infections, and prolonged hospital stays. We sought to evaluate risk factors for retained placenta, defined as more than 30 minutes between the delivery of the fetus and placenta, in a large US obstetrical cohort. We included singleton, vaginal deliveries ≥24 weeks (n = 91,291) from the Consortium of Safe Labor from 12 US institutions (2002-2008). Multivariable logistic regression analyses estimated the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for potential risk factors for retained placenta stratified by parity, adjusting for relevant confounding factors. Characteristics such as stillbirth, maternal age, race, and admission body mass index were examined. Retained placenta complicated 1047 vaginal deliveries (1.12%). Regardless of parity, significant predictors of retained placenta included stillbirth (nulliparous adjusted OR, 5.67; 95% CI, 3.10-10.37; multiparous adjusted OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.08-9.94), maternal age ≥30 years, delivery at 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 compared with 34 weeks or later and delivery in a teaching hospital. In nulliparous women, additional risk factors were identified: longer first- or second-stage labor duration, whereas non-Hispanic black compared with non-Hispanic white race was found to be protective. Body mass index was not associated with an increased risk. Multiple risk factors for retained placenta were identified, particularly the strong association with stillbirth. It is plausible that there could be something intrinsic about stillbirth that causes a retained placenta, or perhaps there are shared pathways of certain etiologies of stillbirth and a risk of retained placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [MRI evaluation of placenta accreta treated by embolization. Apropos of a case. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Lemercier, E; Genevois, A; Descargue, G; Clavier, E; Benozio, M

    1999-04-01

    Placenta accreta results from an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the uterine myometrium. The reported incidence in literature is variable, with an average of 1/7000 pregnancies. This condition is associated with a significant risk of bleeding at the time of delivery, usually requiring hysterectomy. Sonography associated with color Doppler is useful for diagnosis, but MRI can be used successfully to evaluate the degree of placental tissue invading into the myometrium, the serosa, and for follow-up after conservative management. To our knowledge, only two cases of placenta accreta evaluated with MR and six cases of placenta accreta treated by embolization have been reported in the literature. The authors report one case of placenta accreta treated successfully by embolization, and followed-up by MRI.

  12. [Placenta accreta: can prenatal diagnosis be performed? Ultrasound and MRI interests. About 27 cases].

    PubMed

    Bauwens, J; Coulon, C; Azaïs, H; Bigot, J; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2014-05-01

    To list ultrasonography signs identified when a placenta accreta is suspected. Secondary objectives are to analyze the relevance of diagnosis with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and to know diagnosis circumstances in order to identify main risk factors. We present a monocentric retrospective study. All the cases of placentas accreta, observed from 2005 to 2010 at Lille University Hospital (France), have been included. Twenty-seven patients had a placenta accreta during this period. There was an antenatal suspicion for 22 cases and 21 were confirmed after delivery. Six cases were discovered per-partum. Diagnosis was suspected after metrorrhagia for 41% of women. In case of antenatal diagnosis, 100% of the patients had an anterior placenta praevia and an uterine scare. Fifty percent of the placentas accreta diagnosed per-partum were posterior. The most frequently ultrasonography signs are "intra-placental lacuna" (85.7%), "abnormal vascularization" (71.4%), "loss of normal hypoechoic retroplacental myometrial zone" (66.7%), "irregularity of the vesical wall" (66.7%). Sensibility of ultrasonography screening is 78%. Twenty-one magnetic resonance imaging examinations executed secondarily confirmed the diagnosis in 66.7% of the cases. Ultrasonography is a relevant exam for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. Posterior placenta should not be forsaken. Anterior placenta praevia in multiparous patients with a uterine scare should be a warning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Placenta accreta--prenatal diagnosis, treatment].

    PubMed

    Tsankova, M; Marinov, B; Bozhilov, D; Pirnareva, E

    2013-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a potentially life threatening obstetric condition that requires a multidisciplinary management. Placenta praevia and previous Cesarean section are the two most important known risk factors for placenta accreta. This study presents two patients having both of the foremention risk factors diagnosed ultrasonographically with placenta accreta in the second trimester. Ultrasound findings considered suggestive of placenta accreta are: presence of placental lacunae (vascular spaces), loss of the hyperehoic uterine serosa-bladder wall interface, loss of the retroplacental hypoechoic clear space, hypervascularity of the interface between the uterine wall and the bladder wall/isthmico-cervical zone, presence of placenta praevia, either anterior or posterior, overlying the uterine scar. Both of the cases with suspected placenta accreta ended successfully by planned preterm Cesarean hysterectomy with the placenta left in situ. Placenta accreta is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and the most common reason for urgent postpartum hysterectomy.

  14. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email ... in many cases. Do these blockages always cause kidney damage? No. Before birth, the mother's placenta performs ...

  15. Antenatal Sonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Significance of Placenta Previa Accreta after Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Wei, Yao; Wang, Ruo-Jiao; Xu, Wen; Shi, Zhi-Min; Dai, Qing

    2017-10-30

    Objective To investigate the clinical and antenatal sonographic characteristics of placenta previa accreta after cesarean section. Methods The data of 21 inpatients diagnosed as placenta previa accreta after cesarean section in PUMC Hospital from 2006 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical and ultrasound features were recorded and compared among three placental accreta groups,including placenta accrete group(n=5),increta group(n=12),and percreta group(n=4). The relationship between the placental thickness at the uterine anterior lower segment level and the blood loss of the following cesarean section was tested. Results Of 21 patients,placenta previa was diagnosed by ultrasound in 20 cases(95.2%) and placenta previa accreta was diagnosed in 9 cases(42.9%). Antenatal ultrasound findings included following signs:loss of "clear zone"(15/18,83.3%),myometrial thinning(12/18,66.7%),abnormal placental lacunae(12/19,63.2%),bladder wall interruption(2/18,11.1%),and uterovesical hypervascularity(4/9,44.4%). Myometrial thinning(J-T=64.000,P=0.036),abnormal placental lacunae(J-T=74.500,P=0.032) and the placental thickness at the uterine anterior lower segment level(U=83.000,P=0.010) showed significant difference among different placenta accreta groups. Placental thickness at the uterine anterior lower segment level showed linear correlation with the blood loss of the following cesarean section(r=0.669,P=0.002). The blood loss of the following cesarean section showed significant difference among different placenta accreta groups(U=118.500,P=0.000). Conclusions The clinical and sonographic manifestations of placenta previa accreta after cesarean section show a spectrum of demographic characteristics. The measurement of thickness of placenta at the anterior lower segment may help the evaluation of the clinical prognosis of this special pathology.

  16. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis. Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis, the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed. PMID

  17. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis . Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis , the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed.

  18. [A retrospective analysis on the pernicious placenta previa from 2008 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Hu, K J; Yang, H X

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the incidence changes, clinical characteristics and pregnant outcomes of pernicious placenta previa. A retrospective cohort analysis on 316 cases with placenta previa in the Peking University First Hospital from January 2008 to December 2014. The research group were 60 cases with the patients of placenta previa with the history of cesarean section, and the control group were placenta previa without the history of cesarean section. Compared with the incidence, intraoperative blood loss, the pregnancy outcomes and so on. (1) The average incidence rate of placenta previa during the past 7 years was 10.96 ‰ (316/28 837). And the cases of pernicious placenta previa was 60 (2.08‰, 60/28 837), the incidence of pernicious placenta previa was rising from 2008 to 2014 (0.91‰-3.08‰). (2) There were 145 cases of placenta privia had been translation from other hospitals in the past 7 years. The referral rate of pregnant women with placenta previa was 45.9% (145/316), and the referral rate of pernicious placenta previa (63.3%, 38/60) was significantly higher than that of non-pernicious placenta previa group (41.8%, 107/256; χ(2)=9.080, P=0.003). Referral the outcomes of these patients were good, and no maternal death occurred. (3) The placenta in the research group were mainly adhered in the front wall of the uterine, and the incidence was 38.5% (15/39), higher than that in the group of non-pernicious placenta previa (12.1%, 21/174; χ(2)=57.636, P<0.01). The incidence rate of complicated placenta increased in research group was 53.3% (32/60), higher than that in the group of non-pernicious placenta previa, compared with the control group, there was significant difference (15.6%, 40/256; χ(2)= 39.041, P<0.01). (4) The incidence of blood loss was more than 1 000 ml, blood transfusion rate, the rate of hysterectomy and the rate of asphyxia of newborn in the research group were respectively 41.7% (25/60), 38.3% (23/60), 8.3% (5/60), 15.0% (9/60), and the

  19. Ultrasound predictors of placental invasion: the Placenta Accreta Index.

    PubMed

    Rac, Martha W F; Dashe, Jodi S; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; McIntire, Donald D; Twickler, Diane M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to apply a standardized evaluation of ultrasound parameters for the prediction of placental invasion in a high-risk population. This was a retrospective review of gravidas with ≥1 prior cesarean delivery who received an ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa or low-lying placenta in the third trimester at our institution from 1997 through 2011. Sonographic images were reviewed by an investigator blinded to pregnancy outcome and sonography reports. Parameters assessed included loss of retroplacental clear zone, irregularity and width of uterine-bladder interface, smallest myometrial thickness, presence of lacunar spaces, and bridging vessels. Diagnosis of placental invasion was based on histologic confirmation. Statistical analyses were performed using linear logistic regression and multiparametric analyses to generate a predictive equation evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Of 184 gravidas who met inclusion criteria, 54 (29%) had invasion confirmed on hysterectomy specimen. All sonographic parameters were associated with placental invasion (P < .001). Constructing a receiver operating characteristic curve, the combination of smallest sagittal myometrial thickness, lacunae, and bridging vessels, in addition to number of cesarean deliveries and placental location, yielded an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.95). Using logistic regression, a predictive equation was generated, termed the "Placenta Accreta Index." Each parameter was weighted to create a 9-point scale in which a score of 0-9 provided a probability of invasion that ranged from 2-96%, respectively. Assignment of the Placenta Accreta Index may be helpful in predicting individual patient risk for morbidly adherent placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [The conservative treatment of placenta accreta. A clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Artuso, A; Rocchi, B; Garbo, S; Baudino, G; Repetti, F

    1993-09-01

    The following description is a clinical case of placenta accreta and its conservative treatment. According to some authors, abnormal adhesion of the placenta depends on the alteration of the equilibrium between the trophoblastic tissue invasion and the reaction of the decidua. Consequently we have various degrees of penetration of the myometrium by chorionic villi into areas of deficit, sparse or absent decidua. Whatever the pathogenetic mechanism, the final clinical picture is slight to deep penetration of the trophoblastic tissue into the uterine wall. That causes absence of the normal plane of cleavage between placenta and maternal decidua, no spontaneous placental detachment during the third stage of labour and no possible manual removal. The patient, primigravida, was admitted at the 36th Week of gestation with PROM and physiologically delivered a neonate weighing 1820 g, after she spontaneously began labour. The newborn was admitted in the neonatal-pathology ward because it was premature although the Apgar score at 1-5 minutes after birth was 5-9. Placental ejection was awaited for 1 hour, then manual exploration of the uterine cavity was undertaken. The normal plane of cleavage between placental tissue and decidua was absent and therefore manual extraction of the placenta was impossible. Surgery was stopped and, after informed consensus was obtained from the patient, a conservative treatment was tried. After cutting the umbilical cord as short as possible and checking for vaginal bleeding, the patient was moved to obstetrics ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Severe Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Placenta Previa and Prior Cesarean Delivery].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Li; He, Guo-Lin; He, Lei; Wei, Qiang; Li, Tao; Liu, Xing-Hui

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the severe adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies with placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery and its risk factors. This retrospective casecontrol study reviewed all pregnancies with placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery delivered by repeat cesarean section in our institution between January 2005 and June 2015,and investigated the incidence of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. A composite of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes (including transfusion of 10 units or more red blood cells,maternal ICU admission,unanticipated injuries,repeat operation,hysterectomy,and maternal death) and other maternal and neonatal outcomes were described. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to quantify the effects of risk factors on severe adverse pregnancy outcomes. There were 478 women with placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery in our hospital over the last decade. The average age of them was 32.5±4.8 years old,most women were beyond 30 years old,the average gravidity and parity were 4 and 1,131 cases (27.4%) had severe adverse pregnancy outcomes. Transfusion of 10 units or more red blood cells happened in 75 cases (15.7%,75/478); 44 cases (9.2%,44/478) necessitated maternal ICU admission; unanticipated bladder injury occurred in 11 cases,but non ureter or bowel injury happened; All 4 repeat operations were due to delayed hemorrhage after conservative management during cesarean delivery,and an emergent hysterectomy was performed for all of the 4 cases. Hysterectomy (107 cases,22.4%) was the most common severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Among all 311 morbidly adherent placenta cases finally confirmed by pathological or surgical findings or both,only 172 (55.3%) were suspected before delivery. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly increased by pernicious placenta previa (i.e. anterior placenta overlying the prior cesarean scar),suspicion of

  2. PLACENTA OF THE INDIAN ELEPHANT, ELEPHAS INDICUS.

    PubMed

    COOPER, R A; CONNELL, R S; WELLINGS, S R

    1964-10-16

    The placenta of the Indian elephant is incompletely annular and zonary macroscopically and occupies the equator of an ovoid chorioallantoic sac. The amnion is fused with the chorion over the zone. Microscopically, the placenta is labyrinthine and endotheliochorial with a rudimentary marginal hematoma. Both macroscopically and microscopically it resembles the placentas of thecarnivores, particularly the racoon, the cat, and the dog.

  3. Manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery: an unsolved problem in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Urner, Fiona; Zimmermann, Roland; Krafft, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The third stage of labor is associated with considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. The major complication is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas in the event of PPH due to atony of the uterus there exist numerous treatment guidelines; for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more difficult to establish. Active management of the third stage of labour is generally accepted as standard of care as already its duration is contributing to the risk of PPH. Despite scant evidence it is commonly advised that if the placenta has not been expelled 30 minutes after delivery, manual removal of the placenta should be carried out under anaesthesia. Pathologic adhesion of the placenta in the low risk situation usually is diagnosed at the time of delivery; therefore a pre- or intrapartum screening opportunity for placenta accreta would be desirable. But diagnosis of abnormalities of placentation other than placenta previa remains a challenge. Nevertheless the use of ultrasound and doppler sonography might be helpful in the third stage of labor. An improvement might be the implementation of standardized operating procedures for retained placenta which could contribute to a reduction of maternal morbidity.

  4. Manual Removal of the Placenta after Vaginal Delivery: An Unsolved Problem in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The third stage of labor is associated with considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. The major complication is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas in the event of PPH due to atony of the uterus there exist numerous treatment guidelines; for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more difficult to establish. Active management of the third stage of labour is generally accepted as standard of care as already its duration is contributing to the risk of PPH. Despite scant evidence it is commonly advised that if the placenta has not been expelled 30 minutes after delivery, manual removal of the placenta should be carried out under anaesthesia. Pathologic adhesion of the placenta in the low risk situation usually is diagnosed at the time of delivery; therefore a pre- or intrapartum screening opportunity for placenta accreta would be desirable. But diagnosis of abnormalities of placentation other than placenta previa remains a challenge. Nevertheless the use of ultrasound and doppler sonography might be helpful in the third stage of labor. An improvement might be the implementation of standardized operating procedures for retained placenta which could contribute to a reduction of maternal morbidity. PMID:24812585

  5. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-10-01

    Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa planning and implementation adequate health care systems and treatment

  6. The Evolution of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R Michael; Green, Jonathan A; Schulz, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    The still apt definition of a placenta is that coined by Mossman, namely apposition or fusion of the fetal membranes to the uterine mucosa for physiological exchange. As such it is a specialized organ whose purpose is to provide continuing support to the developing young. By this definition, placentas have evolved within every vertebrate class other than birds. They have evolved on multiple occasions, often within quite narrow taxonomic groups. As the placenta and the maternal system associate more intimately, such that the conceptus relies extensively on maternal support, the relationship leads to increased conflict that drives adaptive changes on both sides. The story of vertebrate placentation, therefore, is one of convergent evolution at both the macro- and molecular levels. In this short review, we first describe the emergence of placental-like structures in non-mammalian vertebrates and then transition to mammals themselves. We close the review by discussing mechanisms that might have favored diversity and hence evolution of the morphology and physiology of the placentas of eutherian mammals. PMID:27486265

  7. Interventions for suspected placenta praevia.

    PubMed

    Neilson, J P

    2000-01-01

    Because placenta praevia is implanted unusually low in the uterus, it may cause major, and/or repeated, antepartum haemorrhage. The traditional policy of care of women with symptomatic placenta praevia includes prolonged stay in hospital and delivery by caesarean section. To assess the impact of any clinical intervention applied specifically because of a perceived likelihood that a pregnant woman might have placenta praevia. A comprehensive electronic search was performed to identify relevant literature. Searched databases included the Trials Register maintained by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register. Any controlled clinical trial that has assessed the impact of an intervention in women diagnosed as having, or being likely to have, placenta praevia. Data were extracted from the three identified trial reports, unblinded, by the author without consideration of results. Two comparisons could be made - home versus hospitalisation and cervical cerclage versus no cerclage. Both were associated with reduced lengths of stay in hospital antenatally. Otherwise, there was little evidence of any clear advantage or disadvantage to a policy of home versus hospital care. Cervical cerclage may reduce the risk of delivery before 34 weeks, or the birth of a baby weighing less than 2 kg or having a low 5 minute Apgar score. In general, these possible benefits were more evident in the trial of lesser methodological quality. There are insufficient data from trials to recommend any change in clinical practice. Available data should, however, should encourage further work to address the safety of more conservative policies of hospitalisation for women with suspected placenta praevia, and the possible value of insertion of a cervical suture.

  8. Myostatin in the placentae of pregnancies complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Peiris, H N; Lappas, M; Georgiou, H M; Vaswani, K; Salomon, C; Rice, G E; Mitchell, M D

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterised by maternal glucose intolerance and insulin resistance during pregnancy. Myostatin, initially identified as a negative regulator of muscle development may also function in the regulation of placental development and glucose uptake. Myostatin expression in placentae of GDM complicated pregnancies is unknown. However, higher myostatin levels occur in placentae of pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia. We hypothesise that myostatin will be differentially expressed in GDM complicated pregnancies. Myostatin concentrations (ELISA) were evaluated in plasma of presymptomatic women who later developed GDM and compared to plasma of normal glucose tolerant (NGT) women. Furthermore, myostatin protein expression (Western blot) was studied in placentae of pregnant women with GDM (treated with diet or insulin) compared to placentae of NGT women. No significant difference in myostatin concentration was seen in plasma of pre-symptomatic GDM women compared to NGT women. In placenta significant differences in myostatin protein expressions (higher precursor; p < 0.05and lower dimer: p < 0.005) were observed in GDM complicated compared to NGT pregnancies. Furthermore, placentae of GDM women treated with insulin compared to diet have higher dimer (p < 0.005) and lower precursor (p < 0.05). Compared to lean women, placentae of obese NGT women were lower in myostatin dimer expression (p < 0.05). Myostatin expression in placental tissue is altered under stress conditions (e.g. obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism) found in pregnancies complicated with GDM. We hypothesise that myostatin is active in these placentae and could affect glucose homoeostasis and/or cytokine production thereby altering the function of the placenta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI in the diagnosis and surgical management of abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Jaraquemada, José Miguel; Bruno, Claudio Hernán; Martín, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    To determine the usefulness of placental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and surgical management of abnormal placentation. Retrospective follow-up. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 547 pregnant women. In all cases, a direct and reliable description of abnormal placentation features was obtained by the operating surgeon. Placental MRI was analyzed according to: (1) primary description, (2) invasion topography, (3) modification required to the surgical tactics or techniques and (4) by positive and negative predictive values. Ultrasound and MRI findings were compared with surgical results, which were considered a final diagnosis in relation to primary diagnostic indications. Placental MRI was obtained because of diagnostic doubt in 78 cases, for deep invasion diagnosis in 148 cases and to define the invasion area in 346 cases. Placental MRI allowed accurate demarcation and assessment of the degree of placental invasion, parametrial involvement and cervico-trigonal vascular hyperplasia, permitting changes in the surgical tactical approach. Ultrasound and MRI differences were associated with placenta previa, uterine scar thinning and use of different criteria for placental invasion through definitions or terminology. Six cases of false-negative and 11 of false-positive findings were reported. Placental MRI provides excellent characterization of the degree and extension of placental invasion. Its usefulness in cases of adherent placentation is directly associated to the therapeutic measures, especially where dissection maneuvers are needed. Diagnostic differences between ultrasound and MRI related to the presence or not of placenta previa and uterine scar thinning. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Invasive placenta previa: Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Shan, Ruiqin; Zhao, Lianxin; Song, Qingxu; Zuo, Changting; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Guangbin; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P <0.05). Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.165, P = 0.018 respectively), and the combination of the two MRI features to distinguish PP from PA yielded an AUC of 0.92 for its predictive performance. Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. • Placental bulge type-II demonstrated the strongest independent association with PP. • Uterine serosal hypervascularity is a useful feature for differentiating PP from PA. • MRI features associated with abnormal vessels increase the risk of massive haemorrhage.

  11. Optimal transport and the placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Simon; Xia, Qinglan; Salafia, Carolym

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highlymore » correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.« less

  12. [Risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ji-shun; Pan, Fei-xia; He, Sai-nan; Hu, Wen-sheng

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa. Clinical data of 24 pregnant women of second and third trimester with a scarred uterus and placenta previa,who requested termination in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from July 2009 to June 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. The method of mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate was adopted for all cases. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate and uterine artery embolization were routinely given for patients with complete placenta previa. Cesarean section was performed for patients who failed to delivery or underwent massive vaginal bleeding before delivery. Age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity, times of previous cesarean section, the interval from previous operation, the position and the type of placenta previa, placenta accretet, the indication and method of termination, postpartum hemorrhage, successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and uterus rupture were documented. The successful rate of labor induction was 83.3%. The analysis showed that age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity and times of previous cesarean section were not risk factors for failed labor induction, however the interval time from previous operation was related to induction failure (P<0.05). Patients with previous cesarean section ≥ 13 years were more likely to require cesarean section than those <13 years (P<0.05). The placenta adhered to the antetheca of the uterus or placenta accrete increased risk to have cesarean section. There were no significant differences in postpartum hemorrhage, the successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and the rate of uterine rupture between patients with uterine artery embolization and those without. The labor induction would be feasible for women with a scarred uterus and placenta previa in second and third-trimester pregnancy

  13. Prophylactic temporary abdominal aorta balloon occlusion in women with placenta previa accretism during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Jifen; Wu, Jianbo; Chen, Lihong

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa accretism during cesarean section. Twenty-three consecutive patients, prenatally confirmed with placenta previa accretism were retrospectively analyzed in our center from August 2012 to October 2014. All 23 subjects underwent cesarean section with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. All of the 23 subjects experienced singleton pregnancies leading to the birth of live infants. Of these subjects, the following problems were diagnosed: placenta accrete (n = 10), placenta increte (n = 10), and placenta precrete (n = 3). Mean intraoperative hemorrhage was 1170.0 mL. Fifteen patients received red blood cell transfusion with a mean transfusion volume of 2.3 units. The incidence of hysterectomy was 21.74% (5/23) with blood loss ranging from 2000 to 5000 mL (mean 3360.0 mL). One complication encountered in this retrospective study was lower extremity arterial thrombosis. Eighteen patients were followed-up by telephone to 14 months following discharge, all babies were noted to be healthy. Prophylactic abdominal aorta balloon occlusion (ABO) was relatively safe in the treatment of patients with placenta previa accretism. This approach could represent a key aspect in a multidisciplinary algorithm in reducing hemorrhage in abnormal placentation.

  14. Prophylactic temporary abdominal aorta balloon occlusion in women with placenta previa accretism during late gestation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Jifen; Wu, Jianbo; Chen, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa accretism during cesarean section. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients, prenatally confirmed with placenta previa accretism were retrospectively analyzed in our center from August 2012 to October 2014. All 23 subjects underwent cesarean section with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Results: All of the 23 subjects experienced singleton pregnancies leading to the birth of live infants. Of these subjects, the following problems were diagnosed: placenta accrete (n = 10), placenta increte (n = 10), and placenta precrete (n = 3). Mean intraoperative hemorrhage was 1170.0 mL. Fifteen patients received red blood cell transfusion with a mean transfusion volume of 2.3 units. The incidence of hysterectomy was 21.74% (5/23) with blood loss ranging from 2000 to 5000 mL (mean 3360.0 mL). One complication encountered in this retrospective study was lower extremity arterial thrombosis. Eighteen patients were followed-up by telephone to 14 months following discharge, all babies were noted to be healthy. Conclusion: Prophylactic abdominal aorta balloon occlusion (ABO) was relatively safe in the treatment of patients with placenta previa accretism. This approach could represent a key aspect in a multidisciplinary algorithm in reducing hemorrhage in abnormal placentation. PMID:29145299

  15. Interventions for suspected placenta praevia.

    PubMed

    Neilson, J P

    2003-01-01

    Because placenta praevia is implanted unusually low in the uterus, it may cause major, and/or repeated, antepartum haemorrhage. The traditional policy of care of women with symptomatic placenta praevia includes prolonged stay in hospital and delivery by caesarean section. To assess the impact of any clinical intervention applied specifically because of a perceived likelihood that a pregnant woman might have placenta praevia. A comprehensive electronic search was performed to identify relevant literature. Searched databases included the Trials Register maintained by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (August 2002), and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2002). Any controlled clinical trial that has assessed the impact of an intervention in women diagnosed as having, or being likely to have, placenta praevia. Data were extracted, unblinded, by the author without consideration of results. Three trials were included, involving a total of 114 women. Both tested interventions (home versus hospitalisation and cervical cerclage versus no cerclage) were associated with reduced lengths of stay in hospital antenatally: weighted mean difference (WMD) respectively -18.50 days (95% confidence interval (CI) -26.83 to -10.17), -4.80 days (95% CI -6.37 to -3.23). Otherwise, there was little evidence of any clear advantage or disadvantage to a policy of home versus hospital care. The one woman who had a haemorrhage severe enough to require immediate transfusion and delivery was in the home care group. Cervical cerclage may reduce the risk of delivery before 34 weeks: relative risk (RR) 0.45 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.87), or the birth of a baby weighing less than two kilograms RR 0.34 (0.14 to 0.83) or having a low five minute Apgar score RR 0.19 (0.04 to 1.00). In general, these possible benefits were more evident in the trial of lower methodological quality. There are insufficient data from trials to recommend any change in clinical practice

  16. The double life of MULE in preeclamptic and IUGR placentae.

    PubMed

    Rolfo, A; Garcia, J; Todros, T; Post, M; Caniggia, I

    2012-05-03

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase MULE (Mcl-1 Ubiquitin Ligases E3) targets myeloid cell leukemia factor 1 (Mcl-1) and tumor suppressor p53 for proteasomal degradation. Although Mcl-1 and p53 have been implicated in trophoblast cell death in preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), the mechanisms regulating their expression in the human placenta remains elusive. Herein, we investigated MULE's involvement in regulating Mcl-1 and p53 degradation during normal and abnormal (PE, IUGR) placental development. MULE expression peaked at 5-7 weeks of gestation, when oxygen tension is low and inversely correlated with that of Mcl-1 and p53. MULE efficiently bound to Mcl-1 and p53 and regulated their ubiquitination during placental development. Exposure of first trimester villous explants to 3% O(2) resulted in elevated MULE expression compared with 20% O(2). Low-oxygen-induced MULE expression in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells was abolished by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α siRNA. MULE was overexpressed in both PE and IUGR placentae. In PE, MULE preferentially targeted p53 for degradation, allowing accumulation of pro-apoptotic Mcl-1 isoforms. In IUGR, however, MULE targeted pro-survival Mcl-1, allowing p53 to accumulate and exert its apoptotic function. These data demonstrate that oxygen regulates Mcl-1 and p53 stability during placentation via HIF-1-controlled MULE expression. The different preferential targets of MULE in PE and IUGR placentae classify early-onset PE and IUGR as distinct molecular pathologies.

  17. Placenta accreta spectrum: accreta, increta, and percreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M; Barbour, Kelli D

    2015-06-01

    Placenta accreta can lead to hemorrhage, resulting in hysterectomy, blood transfusion, multiple organ failure, and death. Accreta has been increasing steadily in incidence owing to an increase in the cesarean delivery rate. Major risk factors are placenta previa in women with prior cesarean deliveries. Obstetric ultrasonography can be used to diagnose placenta accreta antenatally, which allows for scheduled delivery in a multidisciplinary center of excellence for accreta. Controversies exist regarding optimal management, including optimal timing of delivery, surgical approach, use of adjunctive measures, and conservative (uterine-sparing) therapy. We review the definition, risk factors, diagnosis, management, and controversies regarding placenta accreta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Creation of plastinated placentas as a novel teaching resource for medical education in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    McRae, Karalyn E; Davies, Gregory A L; Easteal, Ronald A; Smith, Graeme N

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of the gross anatomy of the placenta is fundamental in order to help identify potential complications during pregnancy. The placenta is difficult to study without a three-dimensional appreciation of its structure. The aim of this study was to develop a collection of plastinated placenta specimens and accompanying clinical educational materials to provide learning resources for placental abnormalities and their associated pregnancy outcomes. These plastinates and educational modules were used as teaching resources for both undergraduate and post-graduate medical trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Placentas were plastinated by S10 silicone plastination. Clinical education materials were created that included ultrasound images, photographs and information on the associated pregnancy outcomes. Utility of the plastinates was assessed using questionnaires completed by 70 medical students and 33 attendees at the 8th and 9th Annual International Human Placenta Workshop held at Queen's University, Kingston, ON. Attendees included graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, medical residents, research investigators and clinicians. Data collected demonstrated that 76.7% of medical student (n = 60) and 78.1% of Placenta Workshop attendees (n = 32) preferred plastinates as a supplemental learning resource compared to textbooks and images alone (36.7% and 37.5% respectively). All respondents also expressed the desire to have plastinated placentas available for future learning opportunities. Plastinated placentas are a valuable addition as teaching resources for many demographic groups with an interest in placental anatomy and pathology. Medical trainees and residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology would benefit from the availability of plastinates as educational tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [MANAGEMENT OF PLACENTA ACCRETA, DIAGNOSED BEFORE BIRTH].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A; Garnizov, T; Frundeva, B; Masseva, A; Zlatkov, V

    2015-01-01

    The optimal management of placenta accreta and until now remains unclear. The reasons for this are a rarity of this condition and the considerable heterogeneity of the group under the term "placenta accreta." Total hysterectomy during caesarean section is the most common approach to a known placenta accreta. Planned or emergency perinatal hysterectomy is associated with several complications--damage to the urinary tract, relaparotomiya, massive blood transfusions and stay in ICU. The average blood loss is about 3000 ml. To reduce blood loss in perinatal hysterectomy contribute: preliminary uterine artery occlusion, istmus-coporal longitudinal hysterectomy for extraction of the fetus, placental extraction along with the uterus. To save the woman's uterus at placenta accreta are using the following methods: cutting the uterine wall on which is located the placenta, imposing single stitches covering 2-3 cm in 1 cm, around the placental area; removal of the maximum possible part of the placenta; using longitudinal hysterectomy. So far, there are no comparative studies of the efficacy of different surgical techniques to preserve the uterus cases of placenta accreta. Extraction of the placenta to be done after the administration of uterotonics and devascularization the uterus. To reduce bleeding from the uterus after removal of parts of the placenta and according to the situation can be used: x-back hemostatic sutures from internal side of the uterus, tamponade with gauze roll, balloon catheters or haemostatic mushrooms. Conservative surgical treatment of placenta accreta is not always possible. In hospital Maternity Hospital-Sofia for the period 1986-2000 there were 17 cases of placenta accreta diagnosed only at birth. Maintaining the uterus was successful in 35% of these cases.

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors for Placenta Accreta/Increta/Percreta in the UK: A National Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E.; Sellers, Susan; Spark, Patsy; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background Placenta accreta/increta/percreta is associated with major pregnancy complications and is thought to be becoming more common. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors. Methods A national case-control study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System was undertaken, including 134 women diagnosed with placenta accreta/increta/percreta between May 2010 and April 2011 and 256 control women. Results The estimated incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta was 1.7 per 10,000 maternities overall; 577 per 10,000 in women with both a previous caesarean delivery and placenta praevia. Women who had a previous caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 14.41, 95%CI 5.63–36.85), other previous uterine surgery (aOR 3.40, 95%CI 1.30–8.91), an IVF pregnancy (aOR 32.13, 95%CI 2.03–509.23) and placenta praevia diagnosed antepartum (aOR 65.02, 95%CI 16.58–254.96) had raised odds of having placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There was also a raised odds of placenta accreta/increta/percreta associated with older maternal age in women without a previous caesarean delivery (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.13–1.50 for every one year increase in age). Conclusions Women with both a prior caesarean delivery and placenta praevia have a high incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There is a need to maintain a high index of suspicion of abnormal placental invasion in such women and preparations for delivery should be made accordingly. PMID:23300807

  1. Rethinking adherence.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John F

    2012-10-16

    In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will introduce measures of adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs into its Medicare Advantage quality program. To meet these quality goals, delivery systems will need to develop and disseminate strategies to improve adherence. The design of adherence interventions has too often been guided by the mistaken assumptions that adherence is a single behavior that can be predicted from readily available patient characteristics and that individual clinicians alone can improve adherence at the population level.Effective interventions require recognition that adherence is a set of interacting behaviors influenced by individual, social, and environmental forces; adherence interventions must be broadly based, rather than targeted to specific population subgroups; and counseling with a trusted clinician needs to be complemented by outreach interventions and removal of structural and organizational barriers. To achieve the adherence goals set by CMS, front-line clinicians, interdisciplinary teams, organizational leaders, and policymakers will need to coordinate efforts in ways that exemplify the underlying principles of health care reform.

  2. Prophylactic use of intravascular balloon catheters in women with placenta accreta, increta and percreta.

    PubMed

    Cali, Giuseppe; Forlani, Francesco; Giambanco, Laura; Amico, Maria Luisa; Vallone, Mario; Puccio, Giuseppe; Alio, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate outcomes of women undergoing cesarean hysterectomy for abnormal invasive placenta (AIP) with and without preoperative balloon catheter placement in internal iliac arteries. A prospective observational study of women with ultrasound diagnosis of AIP and a planned delivery at our institution. From January 2004 to June 2009, all AIP cases were treated with planned multidisciplinary cesarean hysterectomy alone (CHa group). From July 2009 to September 2013 a pre-operative balloon catheter protocol was introduced (BC group). Statistical analysis considered the entire sample (placenta accreta/increta and percreta) and the individual subgroups (accreta/increta vs percreta). Twenty-three cases of AIP (10 accreta/increta and 13 percreta) were treated with cesarean hysterectomy alone, and 30 cases of AIP (12 accreta/increta and 18 percreta) were treated with cesarean hysterectomy and pre-operative balloon catheters. For the entire sample, a significant difference in estimated blood loss and transfused blood products units was observed between CHa group and BC group. When women with placenta accreta/increta and women with placenta percreta were analysed separately, no difference in estimated blood loss and transfused blood products units was found between the BC and the CHa groups in women with placenta accreta/increta. However, in women with placenta percreta, mean estimated blood loss and transfused blood products units were higher in the CHa group compared with BC group (1507ml vs 933.33ml; 3.31 units vs 0.67 units). Postoperative recovery differed between the two groups, but no differences were observed in any other outcomes. Pre-operative placement of intravascular balloon catheters is a feasible treatment for AIP, and is particularly useful in cases of placenta percreta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A 5-year review of pattern of placenta previa in Ilorin, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omokanye, L. O.; Olatinwo, A. W. O.; Salaudeen, A. G.; Ajiboye, A. D.; Durowade, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Placenta previa, a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, is potentially life-threatening to the mother and frequently results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Methodology: This is a retrospective study of all cases of placenta previa managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 5-year from January 2011 to December 2015. A pro forma template was used to harvest information from case notes of patients involved in the study. Results: There were a total of 10,250 deliveries over the 5-year study and 164 cases of placenta previa were managed during this period; giving an incidence of 1.6% of the total deliveries. Of these patients, 65.9% were unbooked while 34.1% were booked. 110 (67%) were above 30 years of age and 51.2% were grand multiparous women. The majority (81.7%) of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. Painless vaginal bleeding (62.2%), intrapartum hemorrhage (22.6%), and abnormal lie presentation (8.5%) were the most common mode of presentation. Vaginal delivery occurred in (29.3%) of patients while 70. 7% were delivered through cesarean section. There was a significant association between patients’ age, parity, booking status, and types of placenta previa (P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a significant association between gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, intraoperative blood loss, and birth weight at delivery and types of placenta previa (P < 0.05). Perinatal mortality was 12.2%, 15.6% of babies had severe birth asphyxia, and there was no maternal mortality. Conclusion: From this study, the risk factors for placenta previa are advanced maternal age above 35 years, grand multiparity, and booking status. Early recognition, appropriate referral of these patients and availability of ultrasound facilities, blood transfusion facilities, improvement in neonatal facilities and trained personnel will go a long way in reducing the perinatal mortality from placenta previa. PMID:28539861

  4. A 5-year review of pattern of placenta previa in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokanye, L O; Olatinwo, A W O; Salaudeen, A G; Ajiboye, A D; Durowade, K A

    2017-01-01

    Placenta previa, a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, is potentially life-threatening to the mother and frequently results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective study of all cases of placenta previa managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 5-year from January 2011 to December 2015. A pro forma template was used to harvest information from case notes of patients involved in the study. There were a total of 10,250 deliveries over the 5-year study and 164 cases of placenta previa were managed during this period; giving an incidence of 1.6% of the total deliveries. Of these patients, 65.9% were unbooked while 34.1% were booked. 110 (67%) were above 30 years of age and 51.2% were grand multiparous women. The majority (81.7%) of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. Painless vaginal bleeding (62.2%), intrapartum hemorrhage (22.6%), and abnormal lie presentation (8.5%) were the most common mode of presentation. Vaginal delivery occurred in (29.3%) of patients while 70. 7% were delivered through cesarean section. There was a significant association between patients' age, parity, booking status, and types of placenta previa ( P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a significant association between gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, intraoperative blood loss, and birth weight at delivery and types of placenta previa ( P < 0.05). Perinatal mortality was 12.2%, 15.6% of babies had severe birth asphyxia, and there was no maternal mortality. From this study, the risk factors for placenta previa are advanced maternal age above 35 years, grand multiparity, and booking status. Early recognition, appropriate referral of these patients and availability of ultrasound facilities, blood transfusion facilities, improvement in neonatal facilities and trained personnel will go a long way in reducing the perinatal mortality from placenta previa.

  5. Delayed hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues and uterine conservation after conservative treatment for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Hequet, Delphine; Morel, Olivier; Soyer, Philippe; Gayat, Etienne; Malartic, Cécile; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    Conservative management of both the uterus and the abnormal placenta, which is left inside the uterus at the time of delivery, is one option of placenta accreta management. Complete elimination of the residual placenta is the main challenge of this procedure. To report the role, efficacy and safety of hysteroscopic resection in women presenting with severe pelvic pain and chronic intra-uterine retention after conservative treatment of placenta accreta. Four consecutive women who were treated with hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues after conservative treatment of placenta accreta or percreta at the time of delivery. Clinical files and surgical procedures were reviewed. All procedures were performed because of chronic pelvic pain and the absence of a complete spontaneous placental elimination. All procedures were successful and uneventful. The uterus was conserved with a complete disappearance of the symptoms in the four women, and two of them became pregnant. Hysteroscopic resection seems effective and safe for shortening the duration of placental elimination after conservative treatment in women with severe pelvic pain due to uterine retention. This approach allows conserving the uterus and future fertility. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Analysis of placenta vascularization in patients with uterine altered artery Doppler flow velocity exams.

    PubMed

    Gilio, Daniel Bruno; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa; Souza de Oliveira Guimarães, Camila; Peres, Luiz Cesar; Marques Salge, Ana Karina; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Costa da Cunha Castro, Eumenia

    2009-08-01

    One of the frequent questions in obstetric practice is to determine placental vascular changes that may account for abnormal Doppler flow velocity alterations in maternal uterine vessels from women and fetuses without pregnancy pathology. A retrospective morphometric study was realized using 27 placentas from patients submitted for Doppler flow velocity exam during pregnancy. The placentas were morphologically examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Measurements of villi were made with the use of a video camera coupled to a common light microscope and a computer with automatic image analyzing software. Of the 27 placentas, 13 (48%) were of patients showing unaltered Doppler and 14 (52%) showing altered Doppler. The number of stem villi vessels was significantly larger in the placentas of patients with Doppler exam alterations (P = 0.003). This group also presented greater stem villi vessel thickness, although without significant difference. The number of intermediary and terminal villi vessels was greater in the placentas of patients with altered Doppler exams (P < 0.001), and a greater terminal villi area was observed in these cases (P < 0.001). The morphological proof that uterine artery Doppler flow velocity exam alterations are associated with placental vascular alterations demonstrates the importance of this exam during prenatal care, even in the absence of maternal-fetal alterations.

  7. Placenta previa and long-term morbidity of the term offspring.

    PubMed

    Walfisch, Asnat; Beharier, Ofer; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniella; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of placenta previa on term infants is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether abnormal placentation increases the risk for long-term morbidity of the term offspring. A population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term hospitalizations up to the age of 18 due to cardiovascular, endocrine, neurological, hematological, respiratory and urinary morbidity of children born at term in pregnancies diagnosed with placenta previa and those without. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies, and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare cumulative morbidity incidence over time. A multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression model analysis was used to control for confounders and for maternal clusters. During the study period 233,123 term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 0.2% (n=502) of the children were born to mothers with placenta previa. During the follow-up period, children born to mothers with placenta previa did not have an increased risk for long-term cardiovascular, endocrine, hematological, neurological, respiratory, and urinary morbidity. Term offsprings of mothers diagnosed with placenta previa do not appear to be at an increased risk for long-term morbidity up to the age of 18. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute and massive bleeding from placenta previa and infants' brain damage.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Ken; Tokunaga, Shuichi; Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Among the causes of third trimester bleeding, the impact of placenta previa on cerebral palsy is not well known. To clarify the effect of maternal bleeding from placenta previa on cerebral palsy, and in particular when and how it occurs. A descriptive study. Sixty infants born to mothers with placenta previa in our regional population-based study of 160,000 deliveries from 1998 to 2012. Premature deliveries occurring at<26 weeks of gestation and placenta accreta were excluded. Prevalence of cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). Five infants had PVL and 4 of these infants developed CP (1/40,000 deliveries). Acute and massive bleeding (>500g within 8h) occurred at around 30-31 weeks of gestation, and was severe enough to deliver the fetus. None of the 5 infants with PVL underwent antenatal corticosteroid treatment, and 1 infant had mild neonatal hypocapnia with a PaCO2 <25mmHg. However, none of the 5 PVL infants showed umbilical arterial acidemia with pH<7.2, an abnormal fetal heart rate monitoring pattern, or neonatal hypotension. Our descriptive study showed that acute and massive bleeding from placenta previa at around 30 weeks of gestation may be a risk factor for CP, and requires careful neonatal follow-up. The underlying process connecting massive placental bleeding and PVL requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Placenta-specific drug delivery by trophoblast-targeted nanoparticles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baozhen; Tan, Lunbo; Yu, Yan; Wang, Baobei; Chen, Zhilong; Han, Jinyu; Li, Mengxia; Chen, Jie; Xiao, Tianxia; Ambati, Balamurali K; Cai, Lintao; Yang, Qing; Nayak, Nihar R; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Xiujun

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking, mainly due to the risk of harm to the fetus. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the surfaces of trophoblasts. Based on this principle, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta using a synthetic placental CSA-binding peptide (plCSA-BP) derived from VAR2CSA, a CSA-binding protein expressed on IEs. Methods: A biotinylated plCSA-BP was used to examine the specificity of plCSA-BP binding to mouse and human placental tissue in tissue sections in vitro. Different nanoparticles, including plCSA-BP-conjugated nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (plCSA-INPs) or methotrexate (plCSA-MNPs), were administered intravenously to pregnant mice to test their efficiency at drug delivery to the placenta in vivo. The tissue distribution and localization of the plCSA-INPs were monitored in live animals using an IVIS imaging system. The effect of plCSA-MNPs on fetal and placental development and pregnancy outcome were examined using a small-animal high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging system, and the concentrations of methotrexate in fetal and placental tissues were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: plCSA-BP binds specifically to trophoblasts and not to other cell types in the placenta or to CSA-expressing cells in other tissues. Moreover, we found that intravenously administered plCSA-INPs accumulate in the mouse placenta, and ex vivo analysis of the fetuses and placentas confirmed placenta-specific delivery of these nanoparticles. We also demonstrate successful delivery of methotrexate specifically to placental cells by plCSA-BP-conjugated nanoparticles, resulting in dramatic impairment of placental and fetal development. Importantly, plCSA-MNPs treatment had no apparent adverse effects on maternal

  10. Grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mohamed Abd-Allah; Shawky, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound (US) versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. A prospective observational study including a total of 74 patients with placenta previa and previous uterine scar (n = 74). Grey-scale and colour Doppler US was done followed by MRI by different observers to diagnose adherent placenta. Test validity of US and MRI were calculated. Maternal morbidity and mortality were also assessed. A total of 53 patients confirmed to have placenta accreta at operation. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of US was 94.34, 91.67, 96.15 and 88% compared to 96.08, 87.50, 94.23 and 91.3% for MRI, respectively. The most relevant US sign was turbulent blood flow by colour Doppler, while dark intra-placental band was the most sensitive MRI sign. Venous thromboembolism (1.3%), bladder injury (29.7%), ureteric injury (18.9%), postoperative fever (10.8%), admission to ICU (50%) and re-operation (31.1%). Placenta accreta can be successfully diagnosed by grey-scale and colour Doppler US. MRI would be more likely suggested for either posteriorly or laterally situated placenta previa in order to exclude placental invasion.

  11. Cervical varicosities may predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Shinnmoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Wakana; Soyama, Hiroaki; Nakatsuka, Masaya; Natsuyama, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Takano, Masashi; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prenatally predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. We identified 81 patients with singleton pregnancy who had undergone cesarean section due to posterior placenta previa at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of several well-known findings, and of cervical varicosities quantified using magnetic resonance imaging, in predicting placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa. To quantify cervical varicosities, we calculated the A/B ratio, where "A" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the deciduous placenta, and "B" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the amniotic placenta. The appropriate cut-off value of the A/B ratio was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Three patients (3.7%) were diagnosed as having placenta accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of the well-known findings were 0 and 97.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the A/B ratio ranged from 0.02 to 0.79. ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the combined placenta accreta and A/B ratio curve was 0.96. When the cutoff value of the A/B ratio was set 0.18, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 91%, respectively. It was difficult to diagnose placenta accreta in the posterior placenta previa using the well-known findings. The quantification of cervical varicosities could effectively predict placenta accreta.

  12. Decreased oxidative stress may contribute to the disease process in placenta accreta

    PubMed

    Öztaş, Efser; Özler, Sibel; Ergin, Merve; Erel, Özcan; Gümüş Güler, Başak; Çağlar, Ali Turhan; Yücel, Aykan; Uygur, Dilek; Danışman, Nuri

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: The main aim of this study was to investigate serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and arylesterase levels in pregnant women with placenta accreta and to compare those with age-matched healthy pregnant women. Materials and methods: A total of 27 pregnant women who had clinically and pathologically proven placenta accreta and 30 age- and BMI- matched healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this case control study. Maternal serum TOS, TAS, OSI, and arylesterase levels were evaluated using logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association with abnormal placental invasion or not. Results: Decreased OSI (OR= 0.999, 95%CI: 0.998-1.000, P = 0.035) and increased arylesterase levels (OR= 0.981, 95%CI: 0.970-0.993, P = 0.001) were significantly associated with the presence of placenta accreta. Maternal serum TOS, TAS, OSI, and arylesterase levels were not predictive for adverse perinatal outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Decreased OSI and increased arylesterase levels are significantly associated with placenta accreta and may contribute to the abnormal invasion process.

  13. Accuracy of ultrasound for the prediction of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Zachary S; Eller, Alexandra G; Kennedy, Anne M; Richards, Douglas S; Winter, Thomas C; Woodward, Paula J; Silver, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasound has been reported to be greater than 90% sensitive for the diagnosis of accreta. Prior studies may be subject to bias because of single expert observers, suspicion for accreta, and knowledge of risk factors. We aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound for the prediction of accreta. Patients with accreta at a single academic center were matched to patients with placenta previa, but no accreta, by year of delivery. Ultrasound studies with views of the placenta were collected, deidentified, blinded to clinical history, and placed in random sequence. Six investigators prospectively interpreted each study for the presence of accreta and findings reported to be associated with its diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. Characteristics of accurate findings were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Six investigators examined 229 ultrasound studies from 55 patients with accreta and 56 controls for 1374 independent observations. 1205/1374 (87.7% overall, 90% controls, 84.9% cases) studies were given a diagnosis. There were 371 (27.0%) true positives; 81 (5.9%) false positives; 533 (38.8%) true negatives, 220 (16.0%) false negatives, and 169 (12.3%) with uncertain diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 53.5%, 88.0%, 82.1%, 64.8%, and 64.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, true positives were more likely to have placental lacunae (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.6), loss of retroplacental clear space (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9), or abnormalities on color Doppler (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4). Ultrasound for the prediction of placenta accreta may not be as sensitive as previously described. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Invasion of the Placenta during Murine Listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Monnier, Alban; Join-Lambert, Olivier F.; Jaubert, Francis; Berche, Patrick; Kayal, Samer

    2006-01-01

    Feto-placental infections due to Listeria monocytogenes represent a major threat during pregnancy, and the underlying mechanisms of placental invasion remain poorly understood. Here we used a murine model of listeriosis (pregnant mice, infected at day 14 of gestation) to investigate how this pathogen invades and grows within the placenta to ultimately infect the fetus. When L. monocytogenes is injected intravenously, the invasion of the placenta occurs early after the initial bacteremia, allowing the placental growth of the bacteria, which is an absolute requirement for vertical transmission to the fetus. Kinetically, bacteria first target the cells lining the central arterial canal of the placenta, which stain positively with cytokeratin, demonstrating their fetal trophoblast origin. Bacteria then disseminate rapidly to the other trophoblastic structures, like syncytiotrophoblast cells lining the villous core in the labyrinthine zone of placenta. Additionally, we found that an inflammatory reaction predominantly constituted of polymorphonuclear cells occurs in the villous placenta and participates in the control of infection. Altogether, our results suggest that the infection of murine placenta is dependent, at the early phase, on circulating bacteria and their interaction with endovascular trophoblastic cells. Subsequently, the bacteria spread to the other trophoblastic cells before crossing the placental barrier. PMID:16369023

  15. A placenta clinic approach to the diagnosis and management of fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Kingdom, John C; Audette, Melanie C; Hobson, Sebastian R; Windrim, Rory C; Morgen, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Effective detection and management of fetal growth restriction is relevant to all obstetric care providers. Models of best practice to care for these patients and their families continue to evolve. Since much of the disease burden in fetal growth restriction originates in the placenta, the concept of a multidisciplinary placenta clinic program, managed primarily within a maternal-fetal medicine division, has gained popularity. In this context, fetal growth restriction is merely one of many placenta-related disorders that can benefit from an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating expertise from specialist perinatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, reproductive genetics, neonatal pediatrics, internal medicine subspecialties, perinatal pathology, and nursing. The accurate diagnosis and prognosis for women with fetal growth restriction is established by comprehensive clinical review and detailed sonographic evaluation of the fetus, combined with uterine artery Doppler and morphologic assessment of the placenta. Diagnostic accuracy for placenta-mediated fetal growth restriction may be enhanced by quantification of maternal serum biomarkers including placenta growth factor alone or combined with soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. Uterine artery Doppler is typically abnormal in most instances of early-onset fetal growth restriction and is associated with coexistent preeclampsia and underlying maternal vascular malperfusion pathology of the placenta. By contrast, rare but potentially more serious underlying placental diagnoses, such as massive perivillous fibrinoid deposition, chronic histiocytic intervillositis, or fetal thrombotic vasculopathy, may be associated with normal uterine artery Doppler waveforms. Despite minor variations in placental size, shape, and cord insertion, placental function remains, largely normal in the general population. Consequently, morphologic assessment of the placenta is not currently incorporated into current screening

  16. Relationship between placenta location and resolution of second trimester placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Li, Xue-Yin; Xiao, Juan; Li, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zeng, Xue; Chen, Xi; Chen, Kai-Yue; Fan, Lei; Chen, Su-Hua

    2017-06-01

    This prospective study was conducted to assess the rate of resolution of second trimester placenta previa in women with anterior placenta and posterior placenta, and that in women with and without previous cesarean section. In this study, placenta previa was defined as a placenta lying within 20 mm of the internal cervical os or overlapping it. We recruited 183 women diagnosed with previa between 20 +0 weeks and 25 +6 weeks. They were grouped according to their placenta location (anterior or posterior) and history of cesarean section. Comparative analysis was performed on demographic data, resolution rate of previa and pregnancy outcomes between anterior group and posterior group, and on those between cesarean section group and non-cesarean section group. Women with an anterior placenta tended to be advanced in parity (P=0.040) and have increased number of dilatation and curettage (P=0.044). The women in cesarean section group were significantly older (P=0.000) and had more parity (P=0.000), gravidity (P=0.000), and dilatation and curettage (P=0.048) than in non-cesarean section group. Resolution of previa at delivery occurred in 87.43% women in this study. Women with a posterior placenta had a higher rate of resolution (P=0.030), while history of cesarean section made no difference. Gestational age at resolution was earlier in posterior group (P=0.002) and non-cesarean section group (P=0.008) than in anterior group and cesarean section group correspondingly. Placenta location and prior cesarean section did not influence obstetric outcomes and neonatal outcomes. This study indicates that it is more likely to have subsequent resolution of the previa when the placenta is posteriorly located for women who are diagnosed with placenta previa in the second trimester.

  17. Retained placenta still a continuing cause of maternal morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Naushaba; Abbasi, Razia Mustafa; Jatoi, Nasreen

    2009-12-01

    To determine the frequency, causes and outcome of patients with retained placenta. Descriptive case series. This study was carried out at Liaquat University Hospital, Gynae Unit-I, from January 2005 to December 2007. Two years retrospective and one year prospective analysis of patients was done according to age, parity, causes, place of delivery, person who conducted the delivery, conservative and surgical procedures, maternal morbidity and mortality. Patients were examined and appropriate investigations were done. The patients who came with or developed retained placenta at Liaquat University Hospital were included in the study. The patients having retained placenta due to uterine abnormalities were excluded from the study. All the information was collected on a predesigned proforma and analyzed on SPSS version 10.0. About 8782 patients were admitted during the specified period. Ninety patients had retained placenta. Frequency of retained placenta was 37.7% in women of age group 26 to 30 years, 26.6% upto age of 35 years, 22.2% in age 20-25 years, it was low between 36-40 years of age, while the frequency was high in women of low parity (44.4%). Causes included augmentation by oxytocics in 38.8%, manipulation 38.8%, inertia 14.4% and tumour (fibroid) 7.7%. Majority of patients (60%) had a home delivery. Delivery by Dai was done in 72.2%. The commonest complication was anaemia 48.8%, followed by puerperal pyrexia 24.4%, hypovolaemic shock 22.2%, acute renal failure 3.3% and hepatic failure in 1.1% respectively. Retained placenta is a frequent cause of maternal morbidity in Pakistan.

  18. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05). The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL) in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL) in the balloon success group (p<0.01). Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  19. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Results Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05). The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20–1200 mL) in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5–500 mL) in the balloon success group (p<0.01). Conclusion Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance. PMID:26263014

  20. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  1. Assessing gene function in the ruminant placenta.

    PubMed

    Anthony, R V; Cantlon, J D; Gates, K C; Purcell, S H; Clay, C M

    2010-01-01

    The placenta provides the means for nutrient transfer from the mother to the fetus, waste transfer from the fetus to the mother, protection of the fetus from the maternal immune system, and is an active endocrine organ. While many placental functions have been defined and investigated, assessing the function of specific genes expressed by the placenta has been problematic, since classical ablation-replacement methods are not feasible with the placenta. The pregnant sheep has been a long-standing animal model for assessing in vivo physiology during pregnancy, since surgical placement of indwelling catheters into both maternal and fetal vasculature has allowed the assessment of placental nutrient transfer and utilization, as well as placental hormone secretion, under unanesthetized-unstressed steady state sampling conditions. However, in ruminants the lack of well-characterized trophoblast cell lines and the inefficiency of creating transgenic pregnancies in ruminants have inhibited our ability to assess specific gene function. Recently, sheep and cattle primary trophoblast cell lines have been reported, and may further our ability to investigate trophoblast function and transcriptional regulation of genes expressed by the placenta. Furthermore, viral infection of the trophoectoderm layer of hatched blastocysts, as a means for placenta-specific transgenesis, holds considerable potential to assess gene function in the ruminant placenta. This approach has been used successfully to "knockdown" gene expression in the developing sheep conceptus, and has the potential for gain-of-function experiments as well. While this technology is still being developed, it may provide an efficient approach to assess specific gene function in the ruminant placenta.

  2. Intentional placental removal on suspicious placenta accreta spectrum: still prohibited?

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hironori

    2018-01-01

    Intentional placental removal for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is fundamentally abandoned at planned surgery for it. Whether this holds true even after recent introduction of various hemostatic procedures is unclear. We discussed on this issue based on our own experiences and also on the recent reports on various hemostatic procedures. Studies directly answering this question have been lacking. We must weigh the balance between the massive bleeding and possibility of uterus-preservation when intentional placental removal strategy is employed. An almost forgotten strategy, the "intentional placental removal" for planned AIP surgery may regain its position when appropriate hemostatic procedures are concomitantly used depending on the situation. Even employing this strategy, quick decision to perform hysterectomy under multidisciplinary team may be important.

  3. Manifestations of Hypoxia in the Second and Third Trimester Placenta.

    PubMed

    Parks, W Tony

    2017-10-16

    The placental pathologies that develop in the context of hypoxic insults to the fetus and placenta are termed maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM). On molecular analysis, these lesions primarily show evidence of oxidative damage, suggesting that they arise in the context of hypoxia-reperfusion injury. The earliest abnormalities are likely incomplete or absent remodeling of maternal spiral arteries (decidual arteriopathy). These vascular remodeling defects then lead to subsequent damage patterns, including accelerated villous maturation, distal villous hypoplasia, increased syncytial knots, villous infarction, retroplacental hemorrhage, and placental hypoplasia. MVM may occur in a surprisingly wide array of clinical disorders, but the relation between these clinical disorders and placental MVM is complex. It seems likely that these clinical disorders represent final common pathways for multiple etiologies, only some of which result in MVM. Birth Defects Research 109:1345-1357, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Tocolysis for management of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A; Shaaban, Omar M

    2011-01-19

    Retained placenta affects 0.5% to 3% of women following delivery, with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Use of tocolytics, either alone or in combination with uterotonics, may be of value to minimise the need for manual removal of the placenta in theatre under anaesthesia. Evaluate the benefits and harms of tocolytics alone or in addition to uterotonics in the management of retained placenta in order to reduce the need for manual removal of placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2010) and contacted experts in the field. Any adequately randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the use of tocolytics, either alone or in combination with uterotonics, with no intervention or with other interventions in the management of retained placenta. All women having a vaginal delivery with a retained placenta, regardless of the management of the third stage of labour (expectant or active). We included all trials with haemodynamically stable women in whom the placenta was not delivered at least within 15 minutes after delivery of the baby. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Consultation of the third author was done if needed. We included one RCT (involving 24 women). It compared the use of nitroglycerin tablets versus placebo after the treatment with oxytocin failed. There was a statistically significant reduction in the need for manual removal of placenta (risk ratio (RR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00 to 0.66). There was also a statistically significant reduction in mean blood loss during the third stage of labour (mean difference (MD) -262.50 ml, 95% CI -364.95 to -160.05). Sublingual nitroglycerin caused some haemodynamic changes as it lowers the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure by a means of 6 and 5 mmHg respectively. Pulse rate increased by a mean of two beats per minute. Sublingual nitroglycerin, given when oxytocin fails, seems to reduce

  6. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  7. Myocytes of chorionic vessels from placentas with meconium-associated vascular necrosis exhibit apoptotic markers.

    PubMed

    King, Erin L; Redline, Raymond W; Smith, Steven D; Kraus, Frederick T; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael

    2004-04-01

    Meconium-associated vascular necrosis (MAVN) is a histological abnormality of human placental chorionic vessels that is associated with poor neonatal outcome. We tested the hypothesis that MAVN shows apoptosis in the walls of chorionic vessels. Archival placental specimens with MAVN (n = 5) were compared with specimens from uncomplicated pregnancies at term (n = 5) and from placentas with intense chorionic vasculitis associated with acute chorioamnionitis with (n = 5) or without (n = 5) a clinical history of meconium in the amniotic fluid. Sections from all placentas were processed by the TUNEL method, and 2 observers who were blinded to specimen diagnosis quantified the immunofluorescent TUNEL staining in both the amnion-facing and villous-facing walls of the larger chorionic vessels in each specimen. Compared with the other 3 groups, only the amnion-facing wall of chorionic vessels in MAVN showed a significantly greater number of apoptotic cells. This was verified by morphological criteria and caspase 3 staining. There were limited or no detectable TUNEL-stained cells in either the villous-facing walls of vessels in the MAVN specimens or in any of the vessels of the placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies. There was a negligible level of apoptosis in chorionic vessels of placentas with intense chorionic vasculitis, with or without meconium, despite the inflammatory response or presence of meconium. We conclude that apoptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of MAVN.

  8. Modulation of Wolframin Expression in Human Placenta during Pregnancy: Comparison among Physiological and Pathological States

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Angelica; Iannaccone, Alessandro; Cobellis, Luigi; De Luca, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The WFS1 gene, encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum called wolframin, is mutated in Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and further organ abnormalities. Disruption of the WFS1 gene in mice causes progressive β-cell loss in the pancreas and impaired stimulus-secretion coupling in insulin secretion. However, little is known about the physiological functions of this protein. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of wolframin in human placenta throughout pregnancy in normal women and diabetic pregnant women. In normal placenta, there was a modulation of wolframin throughout pregnancy with a strong level of expression during the first trimester and a moderate level in the third trimester of gestation. In diabetic women, wolframin expression was strongly reduced in the third trimester of gestation. The pattern of expression of wolframin in normal placenta suggests that this protein may be required to sustain normal rates of cytotrophoblast cell proliferation during the first trimester of gestation. The decrease in wolframin expression in diabetic placenta suggests that this protein may participate in maintaining the physiologic glucose homeostasis in this organ. PMID:24588001

  9. Accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Riteau, Anne-Sophie; Tassin, Mikael; Chambon, Guillemette; Le Vaillant, Claudine; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Quéré, Marie-Pierre; Joubert, Madeleine; Prevot, Sophie; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P = 0.03). Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P = 0.6). The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%). At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85%) and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs.

  10. The relationship between fetal growth restriction and small placenta in 6-mercaptopurine exposed rat.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Hayashi, Seigo; Usuda, Koji; Abe, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of placental size on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IURG), we examined the morphology and alterations in the expression of glucose transporter in the placentas of rats exposed to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). 6-MP was administered orally at 0 and 60 mg/kg/day on gestation day (GD) 9, 11, 13 or 15, and the placentas were sampled on GDs 17 and 21. The main findings in the treated groups were small placenta caused by mitotic inhibition and apoptosis, fetal resorption and IUGR with or without some malformations. The most sensitive period to 6-MP-induced fetal mortality was found to be in the GD9-treated group, and the small placenta and fetal abnormalities in the GD11-treated group, respectively. However, the litters in a quarter of the dams with the treatment on GD 11 had no fetotoxicity despite 25% decline in the placental weight. Histopathologically, the expression of glucose transporter GLUT3 was increased in the trophoblastic septa in all treated groups, particularly remarkable with proliferation of trophoblasts in the above litters, where the fetal-placental weight ratio was increased. Thus, we consider that the normal fetal growth and development can be maintained caused by adaptive change, even if the placental weight decreased by approximately 25% in 6-MP exposed rats. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal Diet Modulates Placenta Growth and Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kappen, Claudia; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Salbaum, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable maternal diet during pregnancy can predispose the offspring to diseases later in life, such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. However, the molecular basis for this phenomenon of “developmental programming” is poorly understood. We have recently shown that a diet nutritionally optimized for pregnancy can nevertheless be harmful in the context of diabetic pregnancy in the mouse, associated with a high incidence of neural tube defects and intrauterine growth restriction. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities may contribute to impaired fetal growth in these pregnancies, and therefore investigated the role of maternal diet in the placenta. LabDiet 5015 diet was associated with reduced placental growth, commencing at midgestation, when compared to pregnancies in which the diabetic dam was fed LabDiet 5001 maintenance chow. Furthermore, by quantitative RT-PCR we identify 34 genes whose expression in placenta at midgestation is modulated by diet, diabetes, or both, establishing biomarkers for gene-environment interactions in the placenta. These results implicate maternal diet as an important factor in pregnancy complications and suggest that the early phases of placenta development could be a critical time window for developmental origins of adult disease. PMID:22701643

  12. Angiogenic factor imbalance precedes complement deposition in placentae of the BPH/5 model of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sones, Jennifer L; Merriam, Audrey A; Seffens, Angelina; Brown-Grant, Dex-Ann; Butler, Scott D; Zhao, Anna M; Xu, Xinjing; Shawber, Carrie J; Grenier, Jennifer K; Douglas, Nataki C

    2018-05-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the etiology is unknown, PE is thought to be caused by defective implantation and decidualization in pregnancy. Pregnant blood pressure high (BPH)/5 mice spontaneously develop placentopathies and maternal features of human PE. We hypothesized that BPH/5 implantation sites have transcriptomic alterations. Next-generation RNA sequencing of implantation sites at peak decidualization, embryonic day (E)7.5, revealed complement gene up-regulation in BPH/5 vs. controls. In BPH/5, expression of complement factor 3 was increased around the decidual vasculature of E7.5 implantation sites and in the trophoblast giant cell layer of E10.5 placentae. Altered expression of VEGF pathway genes in E5.5 BPH/5 implantation sites preceded complement dysregulation, which correlated with abnormal vasculature and increased placental growth factor mRNA and VEGF 164 expression at E7.5. By E10.5, proangiogenic genes were down-regulated, whereas antiangiogenic sFlt-1 was up-regulated in BPH/5 placentae. We found that early local misexpression of VEGF genes and abnormal decidual vasculature preceded sFlt-1 overexpression and increased complement deposition in BPH/5 placentae. Our findings suggest that abnormal decidual angiogenesis precedes complement activation, which in turn contributes to the aberrant trophoblast invasion and poor placentation that underlie PE.-Sones, J. L., Merriam, A. A., Seffens, A., Brown-Grant, D.-A., Butler, S. D., Zhao, A. M., Xu, X., Shawber, C. J., Grenier, J. K., Douglas, N. C. Angiogenic factor imbalance precedes complement deposition in placentae of the BPH/5 model of preeclampsia.

  13. [Gross characteristics of placentas from an assisted reproduction program].

    PubMed

    Tabs, Dunja; Vejnović, Tihomir; Lalosević, Dusan; Radunović, Nebojsa

    2006-01-01

    Even though placentas from assisted reproduction programs often differ from placentas of women who conceived naturally, they are rarely examined. The aim of our investigation was to determine some gross characteristics of placentas of women who conceived with assisted reproduction. We examined 30 placentas from an assisted reproduction program (20 from in vitro fertilization and 10 from intrauterine insemination) and 30 placentas of women who conceived naturally. All women were age matched. All the women were at term. The mean weight of placentas from assisted reproduction program was 573 g and of those after natural conception--582.67g. The mean length of the umbilical cords was 64.3cm after assisted reproduction and 66.3cm after natural conception. The mean placenta thickness after assisted reproduction was 2,22 cm and after natural conception 2.28 cm. Eight placentas of the study group had a marginal insertion of the umbilical cord, which lead to a statistically significant difference when compared to placentas of women who conceived naturally: chi-square = 7.07; p>0.01. Marginal cord insertion into the placenta after assisted reproduction is also often described in the literature (as a possible "consequence" of embryo-transfer). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean weight and dimensions of placentas, length of the umbilical cord, gross pathological features of placentas and cords, mean birth weight of babies and placental/fetal ratios between women from assisted reproduction program and those who conceived naturally.

  14. Nitroglycerin for management of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A; Shaaban, Omar M

    2015-11-12

    Retained placenta affects 0.5% to 3% of women following delivery, with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Use of nitroglycerin (NTG), either alone or in combination with uterotonics, may be of value to minimise the need for manual removal of the placenta in theatre under anaesthesia. To evaluate the benefits and harms of NTG as a tocolytic, either alone or in addition to uterotonics, in the management of retained placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted experts in the field. Any adequately randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the use of NTG, either alone or in combination with uterotonics, with no intervention or with other interventions in the management of retained placenta. All women having a vaginal delivery with a retained placenta, regardless of the management of the third stage of labour (expectant or active). We included all trials with haemodynamically stable women in whom the placenta was not delivered at least within 15 minutes after delivery of the baby. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 175 women. The three published RCTs compared NTG alone versus placebo. The detachment status of retained placenta was unknown in all three RCTs. Collectively, among the three included trials, two were judged to be at low risk of bias and the third trial was judged to be at high risk of bias for two domains: incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. The three trials reported seven out of 23 of the review's pre-specified outcomes.The primary outcome "manual removal of the placenta" was reported in all three studies. No differences were seen between NTG and placebo for manual removal of the placenta (average risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.46; women = 175; I

  15. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options. PMID:26199801

  16. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  17. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the placenta: A tool for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta?

    PubMed

    Millischer, A E; Deloison, B; Silvera, S; Ville, Y; Boddaert, N; Balvay, D; Siauve, N; Cuenod, C A; Tsatsaris, V; Sentilhes, L; Salomon, L J

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasound (US) is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis of placenta accreta, but it is not sufficiently accurate. MRI morphologic criteria have recently emerged as a useful tool in this setting, but their analysis is too subjective. Recent studies suggest that gadolinium enhancement may help to distinguish between the stretched myometrium and placenta within a scar area. However, objective MRI criteria are still required for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast gadolinium enhancement (DCE) MRI patterns for placenta accreta. MR images were acquired with a 1.5-T unit at 30-35 weeks of gestation in women with a history of Caesarian section, a low-lying anterior placenta, and US features compatible with placenta accreta. Sagittal, axial and coronal SSFP (Steady State Free Precession) sequences were acquired before injection. Then, contrast-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted images were acquired through the entire cross-sectional area of the placenta. Images were obtained sequentially at 10- to 14-s intervals for 2 min, beginning simultaneously with the bolus injection. Functional analysis was performed retrospectively, and tissular relative enhancement parameters were extracted from the recorded images. The suspected area of accreta (SAA) was placed in the region of the previous scar, and a control area (CA) of similar size was placed on the same image plane, as far as possible from the SAA. Semi-quantitative analysis of DCE-MR images was based on the kinetic enhancement curves in these two regions of interest (ROI). Three tissular relative enhancement parameters were compared according to the pregnancy outcomes, namely time to peak, maximal signal intensity, and area under the enhancement curve. We studied 9 women (43%) with accreta and 12 women (57%) with a normal placenta. All three tissular relative enhancement parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 10

  18. Resolution of a Low-Lying Placenta and Placenta Previa Diagnosed at the Midtrimester Anatomy Scan.

    PubMed

    Durst, Jennifer K; Tuuli, Methodius G; Temming, Lorene A; Hamilton, Owen; Dicke, Jeffrey M

    2018-02-05

    To identify the incidence and resolution rates of a low-lying placenta or placenta previa and to assess the optimal time to perform follow-up ultrasonography (US) to assess for resolution. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with a diagnosis of a low-lying placenta or placenta previa at routine anatomic screening. Follow-up US examinations were reviewed to estimate the proportion of women who had resolution. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was generated to estimate the median time to resolution. The distance of the placental edge from the internal cervical os was used to categorize the placenta as previa or low-lying (0.1-10 or ≥ 10-20 mm). A time-to-event analysis was used to estimate predictive factors and the time to resolution by distance from the os. A total of 1663 (8.7%) women had a diagnosis of a low-lying placenta or placenta previa. The cumulative resolution for women who completed 1 or more additional US examinations was 91.9% (95% confidence interval, 90.2%-93.3%). The median time to resolution was 10 (interquartile range [IQR], 7-13) weeks. The distance from the internal cervical os was known for 658 (51.0%) women. The probability of resolution was inversely proportional to the distance from the internal os: 99.5% (≥10-20 mm), 95.4% (0.1-10 mm), and 72.3% (placenta previa; P < .001). The median times to resolution were 9 (IQR, 7-12) weeks for 10 to 20 mm, 10 (IQR, 7-13) weeks for 0.1 to 10 mm, and 12 (IQR, 9-15) weeks for placenta previa (P = .0003, log rank test). A low-lying placenta or placenta previa diagnosed at the midtrimester anatomy survey resolves in most patients. Resolution is near universal in patients with an initial distance from the internal os of 10 mm or greater. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Placenta: How It Works, What's Normal

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward placentophagy: A brief report. Health Care for Women International. 2015;35:113. Ananth CV, et al. Placental abruption: Clinical features and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed March 20, 2018. Lockwood CJ, et al. Placenta previa: ...

  20. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  1. The Placenta: Applications in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, James Alexander; Jones, Ian A; Danilkovich, Alla; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Placenta has a long history of use for treating burns and wounds. It is a rich source of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, tissue reparative growth factors, and stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recent data show its therapeutic potential for orthopaedic sports medicine indications. To provide orthopaedic surgeons with an anatomic description of the placenta, to characterize its cellular composition, and to review the literature reporting the use of placenta-derived cells and placental tissue allografts for orthopaedic sports medicine indications in animal models and in humans. Systematic review. Using a total of 63 keyword combinations, the PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched for published articles describing the use of placental cells and/or tissue for orthopaedic sports medicine indications. Information was collected on placental tissue type, indications, animal model, study design, treatment regimen, safety, and efficacy outcomes. Results were categorized by indication and subcategorized by animal model. Outcomes for 29 animal studies and 6 human studies reporting the use of placenta-derived therapeutics were generally positive; however, the placental tissue source, clinical indication, and administration route were highly variable across these studies. Fourteen animal studies described the use of placental tissue for tendon injuries, 13 studies for osteoarthritis or articular cartilage injuries, 3 for ligament injuries, and 1 for synovitis. Both placenta-derived culture-expanded cells (epithelial cells or MSCs) and placental tissue allografts were used in animal studies. In all human studies, commercial placental allografts were used. Five of 6 human studies examined the treatment of foot and ankle pathological conditions, and 1 studied the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A review of the small number of reported studies revealed a high degree of variability in placental cell types, placental tissue preparation, routes

  2. Extracellular matrix proteins in healthy and retained placentas, comparing hemochorial and synepitheliochorial placentas.

    PubMed

    Franczyk, M; Lopucki, M; Stachowicz, N; Morawska, D; Kankofer, M

    2017-02-01

    The placenta expresses structural and biologically active proteins. Their synthesis is mainly regulated by genomic or nongenomic signals and modulated by hormones. These protein profiles are altered during different stages of pregnancy. The biological properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were defined and described in a number of tissues including placenta. These properties enable them to be the main players in the processes of attachment or invasion into the endometrium during initial placenta formation and its timely separation after delivery and detachment. In this review, we focused on the role of ECM proteins during attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall, its timely separation, and the implications of this process on retained or pathologically attached placenta. Although the amount of published information in this area is relatively scant, some of the key proteins and processes are well defined. We focused on the available data detailing the ECM protein profiles of human (histologically thin; hemochorial) and bovine (histologically thick; epitheliochorial) placentas and compared the shared and unique ECM proteins that are relevant to placental attachment and separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of placenta previa on fetal growth and pregnancy outcome, in correlation with placental pathology.

    PubMed

    Weiner, E; Miremberg, H; Grinstein, E; Mizrachi, Y; Schreiber, L; Bar, J; Kovo, M

    2016-12-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics and placental histopathology between pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and controls. Between 2009 and 2015, cesarean deliveries (CDs) of 119 pregnancies with placenta previa were identified from which maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes and placental pathology were reviewed. Results were compared with CDs matched for maternal age and pregnancy complications (control group, n=119). Placental lesions were classified into maternal and fetal vascular supply lesions and inflammatory response. Composite neonatal outcome was defined as one or more of early neonatal complications. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) was defined as birth weight ⩽10th percentile. Placentas from the previa group had higher rates of weights <10th percentile (P<0.001) and of maternal and fetal vascular supply lesions (P<0.001, for both). Higher rate of SGA (P=0.003) and worse composite neonatal outcome (P<0.001) were also observed in the previa group as compared with controls. After controlling for potential confounding bias using multivariable logistic regression models, placenta previa remained statistically significantly associated with placental maternal (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.9, P=0.009) and fetal (aOR 7.05, 95% CI 2.4-20.2, P<0.001) vascular supply lesions, SGA (aOR 10, 95% CI 2.3-44.2, P=0.002) and adverse neonatal outcome (aOR 6.87, 95% CI 2.9-11.8, P<0.001). More placental vascular supply lesions, higher rate of SGA and worse neonatal outcome characterized pregnancies with placenta previa in the current study. These findings may suggest that abnormal placentation is accompanied by suboptimal implantation that interferes with fetal growth.

  4. Placenta accreta as a cause of peripartum hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Palova, E; Redecha, M; Malova, A; Hammerova, L; Kosibova, Z

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors associated with placenta accreta. Cases of peripartum hysterectomy at University Hospital of Bratislava were identified in the period from January 1st 2008 to December 31th 2013. Included were only those cases which had a histological evidence of placenta accreta. Fifty patients, who underwent peripartum hysterectomy were included in the study. Between 2008 and 2013 eight cases of placenta accreta were identified. Five (62.5 %) of these were suspected before delivery. The overall incidence of PA was 0.19 per 1000 deliveries. Median gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks (range 25-41 weeks). Six of eight (75 %) women with placenta accreta had a previous caesarean delivery or curettage. In 5 patients both placenta praevia and prior Caesarean delivery were present. Among the 50 women who underwent peripartum hysterectomy, 8 (16 %) were patients with both prenatally diagnosed placenta praevia and previous caesarean delivery, placenta accreta was suspected in 4 of these (50 %) compared with 10 of 42 (24 %) without this combination of risk factors. Those in whom placenta accreta was suspected were delivered earlier than 37 weeks of gestation and were less likely to have emergency delivery. Placenta accreta is the second most common indication for an emergency peripartum hysterectomy. There is a high suspicion of placenta accreta in patients with placenta praevia and after previous Caesarean section (Tab. 3, Ref. 17).

  5. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with hysteroscopic resection to treat retained placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Seong; Hong, Gi-Youn; Park, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Rayon; Kim, Tae-Eung

    2016-09-01

    We present a case of retained placenta accreta treated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation followed by hysteroscopic resection. The patient was diagnosed as submucosal myoma based on ultrasonography in local clinic. Pathologic examination of several pieces of tumor mass from the hysteroscopic procedure revealed necrotic chorionic villi with calcification. HIFU was performed using an ultrasound-guided HIFU tumor therapeutic system. The ultrasound machine had been used for real-time monitoring of the HIFU procedure. After HIFU treatment, no additional vaginal bleeding or complications were observed. A hysteroscopic resection was performed to remove ablated placental tissue 7 days later. No abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge was seen after the procedure. The patient was stable postoperatively. We proposed HIFU and applied additional hysteroscopic resection for a safe and effective method for treating retained placenta accreta to prevent complications from the remaining placental tissue and to improve fertility options.

  6. Focal myometrial defect and partial placenta accreta in a pregnancy following bilateral uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    El-Miligy, Magdy; Gordon, Adam; Houston, Graeme

    2007-06-01

    A 29-year-old nulliparous patient was treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for a large symptomatic uterine fibroid, resulting in a marked reduction of the tumor volume. She subsequently conceived and progressed through pregnancy uneventfully. At cesarean section for breech presentation at term, a large fundal myometrial defect was encountered. In addition, the patient presented with unexpected partial placenta accreta, which resulted in massive atonic uterine bleeding. It is suggested that UAE was implicated in the pathogenesis of myometrial damage and abnormal placentation. It is proposed that the antenatal care of pregnancies after UAE include careful imaging of the placenta, its vasculature, and the thickness of overlying uterine wall so peripartum management can be appropriately planned.

  7. Preliminary experience in uterine artery embolization for second trimester pregnancy induced labor with complete placenta previa, placenta implantation, and pernicious placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Wang, Y; Man, Y C; Luo, F Y

    2017-01-01

    To explore the application of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in complete placenta previa, placenta implantation, and pernicious placenta previa during second trimester pregnancy induced labor. From April 2013 to April 2014, the present hospital admitted 12 cases of second-trimester complete placenta previa, placenta implantation, and pernicious placenta previa. Six of 12 cases at first were given UAE before cesarean section or labor induction. The other six cases, which were introduced into the present hospital after a failed embolization, underwent UAE, followed by hysteroscopy or curettage or laparotomy. None of the 12 patients underwent hysterectomy. The average blood loss of six patients with UAE was 383 ml and the average hospitalization was 8.66 days. While the remaining six patients without embolization in advance experienced 1,533 ml mean blood loss and 18 days in average stay. Among 12 patients, seven reported abdominal pain following embolization, four had a fever, and two had nausea and vomiting. Nine patients were followed-up and the menstrual cycles of seven returned to normal in one+ month, one in two+ months, and one suffered amenorrhea. Among the same nine patients, six menstruated regularly, two had menstrual disorders, and one had amenorrhea. No serious short- and long-term complications were observed. UAE is the safe method to avoid serious bleeding due to complete placenta previa, placenta implantation, and pernicious placenta previa with second-trimester pregnancy termination.

  8. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  9. Placental development and function in women with a history of placenta-related complications: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Ignatia F; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; Koster, Maria P H

    2018-03-01

    Women with a history of placenta-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery, have an increased risk for recurrence of such complications. This recurrence is likely the result of underlying endothelial dysfunction that leads to abnormal placentation, especially in complications with an early onset. This study provides an overview of biomarkers of placental development and function in pregnancies from women with a history of placenta-related complications. A systematic literature search was conducted limited to human studies and including keywords related to a history of placenta-related complications and markers of placental development and function. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility and quality of 1553 retrieved unique articles. Five articles reporting on placental development and function in women with an obstetric history of preeclampsia (n = 3), intrauterine growth restriction (n = 1) and preterm delivery (n = 2) were eligible for quality assessment. We identified associations between a history of preeclampsia and abnormal placental histological findings at term in the current pregnancy, but found contradictory results regarding presence of uterine artery notching. In women with a history of very preterm delivery (<32 weeks), one study showed associations with abnormal placental histology. Literature on the association between a history of placenta-related complications and placental development and function in subsequent pregnancies is scarce and studies are heterogeneous. However, literature shows that placenta-related pregnancy complications are associated with subsequent placental histology. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. A life threatening uterine inversion and massive post partum hemorrhage caused by placenta accrete during Caesarean section in a primigravida: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsivos, Dimitris; Malik, Fozia; Arambage, Kirana; Hagan, Philip; Lee, Cheng

    2009-02-12

    A 32-year-old Caucasian primigravida was admitted for elective Caesarean Section at 36 weeks and 6 days with the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Traction of the umbilical cord after delivery of a healthy baby resulted in uterine inversion. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the posterior uterine wall. Piecemeal excision of the placenta as close as possible to the uterine lining was then performed. In this way we were able to control a massive post partum hemorrhage and preserve the fertility of the patient.

  11. A life threatening uterine inversion and massive post partum hemorrhage caused by placenta accrete during Caesarean section in a primigravida: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A 32-year-old Caucasian primigravida was admitted for elective Caesarean Section at 36 weeks and 6 days with the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Case presentation Traction of the umbilical cord after delivery of a healthy baby resulted in uterine inversion. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the posterior uterine wall. Piecemeal excision of the placenta as close as possible to the uterine lining was then performed. Conclusion In this way we were able to control a massive post partum hemorrhage and preserve the fertility of the patient. PMID:19210798

  12. Optimal timing of antenatal corticosteroids in women with bleeding placenta previa or low-lying placenta.

    PubMed

    Alsayegh, Eman; Barrett, Jon; Melamed, Nir

    2018-01-11

    Administrating a single course of antenatal corticosteroids to women at risk of preterm birth between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that the optimal timing for the administration of antenatal corticosteroids is within 1-7 days before birth as the effect of antenatal corticosteroids has been shown to decline 7 days after administration. Therefore, given that antenatal corticosteroids are the single most effective intervention in cases of preterm birth, efforts should be made to optimize the timing of administration of antenatal corticosteroids. To test the hypothesis that the timing of antenatal corticosteroids in women with vaginal bleeding due to placenta previa or low-lying placenta can be optimized by identifying women at low risk of imminent delivery. This was a retrospective cohort study of all women admitted to a tertiary referral center at 24-34 weeks' gestation with vaginal bleeding due to placenta previa or low-lying placenta between 2003 and 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that are independently associated with delivery within 14 days from admission. A total of 202 women who met the inclusion criteria were admitted with vaginal bleeding in the presence of placenta previa or low-lying placenta during the study period, of whom 31 (15.3%) and 44 (21.8%) gave birth within 7 and 14 days from admission, respectively. The following factors were independently associated with delivery within 14 days from admission: complete placenta previa (odds (OR) 3.57, 95%CI 1.57-9.03), severe bleeding at presentation (OR 17.14, 95%CI 2.92-100.70), uterine contractions at presentation (OR 6.02, 95%CI 1.91-19.00), and cervical length <25 mm at presentation (OR 6.33, 95%CI 1.37-29.11). A predictive test based on the presence of ≥1 of these risk factors was associated with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 94.6% for delivery

  13. Umbilical vein oxytocin in the management of retained placenta: an alternative to manual removal of placenta?

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei Shan; Singh, Surinder; Lee, Alice; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil

    2011-11-01

    Retained placenta is potentially life threatening due to possible complications associated with manual removal. Our aim was to determine whether umbilical vein injection of oxytocin in saline reduces the need for manual removal of placenta. This was a randomised controlled trial conducted at a tertiary hospital from December 2002 to March 2004. A total of 61 women delivering singletons, who had no sign of placental separation 20 min after vaginal delivery, were randomised to receive either intra-umbilical oxytocin 100 IU diluted in 30 ml of saline or controlled cord traction only. Manual removal was done if the placenta was not expelled in another 30 min in both arms. There was a significant reduction in the rate of subsequent manual removal of placenta (30 vs. 67.7%, p < 0.05), incidence of uterine atony (3.3 vs. 25.8%, p < 0.05) and the need for uterotonic agents (33.3 vs. 64.5%, p < 0.05) in the oxytocin group when compared with the control group. No significant differences were found in the need for blood transfusion, uterine curettage, incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and haemoglobin level reduction. Intra-umbilical vein oxytocin injection is clinically effective for the management of a retained placenta.

  14. Maternal plasma levels of cell-free β-HCG mRNA as a prenatal diagnostic indicator of placenta accrete.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Li, J; Yan, P; Ye, Y H; Peng, W; Wang, S; Wang, X Tong

    2014-09-01

    Several biomarkers, including maternal serum creatinine kinase and α-fetoprotein, have been described as potential tools for the diagnosis of placental abnormalities. This study aimed to determine whether maternal plasma mRNA levels of the β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) could predict placenta accreta prenatally. Sixty-eight singleton pregnant women with prior cesarean deliveries (CDs) were classified into three groups: normal placentation (35 women, control group); placenta previa alone (21 women, placenta previa group); and both placenta previa and placenta accreta (12 women, placenta previa/accreta group). Maternal plasma concentrations of cell-free β-HCG mRNA were measured by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM). Cell-free β-HCG mRNA concentrations (MoM, range) were significantly higher in women with placenta accreta (3.65, 2.78-7.19) than in women with placenta previa (0.94, 0.00-2.97) or normal placentation (1.00, 0.00-2.69) (Steel-Dwass test, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). In the placenta previa/accreta group, the concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA was significantly higher among women who underwent CDs with hysterectomy (4.41, 3.49-7.19) than among women whose CDs did not result in hysterectomy (3.20, 2.78-3.70) (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.012). An increased level of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in the maternal plasma of women with placenta accreta may arise from direct uteroplacental transfer of cell-free placental mRNA molecules. The concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in maternal plasma may be applicable to the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta, especially to identify women with placenta accreta likely to require hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The placenta of the salp (Tunicata: Thaliacea).

    PubMed

    Bone, Q; Pulsford, A L; Amoroso, E C

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of the mature 'placenta' of the pelagic tunicate Salpa fusiformis is described, and it is shown that two syncytial layers, intimately connected by interdigitating microvilli, separate maternal and embryonic circulations. The central placental layer facing the maternal circulation is bordered by membrane infoldings; the cortical layer facing the embryonic circulation is bordered by extensively branching microvilli. Both layers are of maternal origin, although embryonic leucocytes pass into, and add to, the cortical layer.

  16. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Graham J.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain. PMID:25602070

  17. Does cervical ureaplasma/mycoplasma colonization increase the lower uterine segment bleeding risk during cesarean section among patients with placenta previa? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, P; Kahyaoglu, S; Saygan, S; Kaymak, O; Mollamahmutoglu, L; Danisman, N

    2014-08-01

    The underlying inflammation of endometrium may impede normal implantation of placenta during pregnancy. Our objective is to show cervical colonization of ureaplasma and/or mycoplasma as a marker of endometritis in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa that can be a risk factor for placenta accreta and peripartum hemorrhage. Cervical cultures for ureaplasma urealyticum and mycoplasma genitalium have been taken from the endocervical region of the cervix of the patients. Subsequent uterine lower segment bleeding suggesting placenta implantation defects have been evaluated during cesarean section. Of 25 patients: ten (40%) had negative cervical cultures for cervical mycoplasma and/or ureaplasma, 9 (36%) were found to be culture positive for cervical ureaplasma, 1 (4%) was found to be culture positive for cervical mycoplasma. Half of the 10 patients with positive cervical cultures for ureaplasma or mycoplasma and 6 of (40%) 15 patients with negative results had experienced lower uterine segment bleeding during cesarean section. Bacterial colonization of cervix in particular with ureaplasma and/or mycoplasma is found to be strongly associated with placenta previa. Before a planned pregnancy, treatment of this infection with appropriate antibiotics is necessary to prevent underlying uterine endometritis that increases the risk for abnormal implantation of placenta.

  18. A thick placenta: a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Ichiro; Sase, Masakatsu; Torii, Mayumi; Sanai, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ueda, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an ultrasonographic measurement of placental thickness and the correlation of a thick placenta with adverse perinatal outcome. Placental thickness was measured in single gravidas, 16 to 40 weeks of gestation, between 2005 and 2009. Placentas were considered to be thick if their measured thickness were above the 95th percentile for gestational age. The incidence of thick placentas was 4.3% (138/3,183). Perinatal morbidity and neonatal conditions were worse in cases with thick placenta rather than without thick placenta. Ultrasonographic measurement of placental thickness is a simple method to estimate placental size. Thick placenta may be a useful predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Prediction of maternal near-miss in placenta previa: a retrospective analysis from a tertiary center in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Bora; Akkurt, Iltac; Dur, Rıza; Akkurt, Mehmet O; Ergani, Seval Y; Turan, Ozerk T; Coskun, Bugra

    2018-02-01

    To determine risk factors for severe complications during and after cesarean delivery (CD) in placenta previa (PP). We reviewed retrospectively collected data from women with PP who underwent CD during a 6-year study period. We identified the complicated group based on the modified WHO near-miss criteria. Complicated and noncomplicated groups were compared considering clinical, laboratory, and sonographic features. Thirty-seven of 256 cases classified as near miss consisting of 14 peripartum hysterectomies, 12 uterine balloon placements, 10 great artery ligations, and four B-lynch suture placement procedures without maternal mortality. Perioperative complications included surgical wound infections (n = 5), bladder injury (n = 4), pelvic abscess (n = 1), and uterine rupture (n = 1). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated following features to be associated with maternal near miss in PP: (1) coexistent abruption (aOR 13.2, 95% CI 5.8-75.3), (2) morbidly adherent placenta (aOR 11.92, 95% CI 3.24-43.82), (3) number of hospitalizations for vaginal bleeding (≥3) (aOR 8.88, 95% CI 3.32-26.69), and (4) transvaginal cervical length (CL) measurement <10th percentile (aOR 5.5, 95% CI 2.1-15.4). Short cervical length, recurrent vaginal bleeding, morbidly adherent placenta, and concurrent placental abruption are independent predictors for subsequent severe maternal morbidity in PP cases. Early identification of these risk factors during PP follow-up may improve maternal outcome.

  20. Sonoembryological evaluations of the development of placenta previa and velamentous cord insertion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations using ultrasound examinations during pregnancy can be used to clarify the mechanisms and pathophysiology of abnormal fetal and placental development. Such sonoembryological assessments are useful as a method for clarifying the etiology of disease. In the present review, we describe current knowledge based on our experience with applying sonoembryological methods to determine the developmental mechanisms of placenta previa and velamentous cord insertion. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Abnormal placental invasion--a novel approach to treatment case report and review.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Ella; Singer-Jordan, Jonathan; Odeh, Marwan; Hirch, Yael; Maksimovsky, Olga; Shaider, Oleg; Yvry, Simon; Solt, Ido; Bornstein, Jacob

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of abnormal placental invasion has increased 10-fold in the past 50 years, reflecting the increased number of cesarean sections performed. Management relies on accurate early diagnosis with appropriate perioperative multidisciplinary planning to anticipate and avoid massive obstetric hemorrhage at delivery. Women at risk should plan to deliver at an institution with appropriate expertise and resources for managing this condition. We report a case of placenta increta management comprising preoperative placement of a pelvic artery balloon catheter, prophylactic balloon occlusion after delivery of the fetus, and embolization-assisted resection of the invaded uterine wall. We review incidence, methods of prenatal diagnosis, risk factors, and management of abnormally invasive placenta.

  2. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Riteau, Anne-Sophie; Tassin, Mikael; Chambon, Guillemette; Le Vaillant, Claudine; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Quéré, Marie-Pierre; Joubert, Madeleine; Prevot, Sophie; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. Material and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. Results Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P = 0.03). Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P = 0.6). The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%). At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85%) and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. Conclusion Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs. PMID:24733409

  3. Alcohol, Methamphetamine, and Marijuana Exposure Have Distinct Effects on the Human Placenta.

    PubMed

    Carter, R Colin; Wainwright, Helen; Molteno, Christopher D; Georgieff, Michael K; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Fleur; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. Little is known about effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on placental development. Placentas were collected from 103 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-six heavy drinkers and 37 nondrinkers were interviewed about their alcohol, cigarette smoking, and drug use at 3 antenatal visits. A senior pathologist, blinded to exposure status, performed comprehensive pathology examinations on each placenta using a standardized protocol. In multivariable regression models, effects of prenatal exposure were examined on placental size, structure, and presence of infections and meconium. Drinkers reported a binge pattern of heavy drinking, averaging 8.0 drinks/occasion across pregnancy on 1.4 d/wk. 79.6% smoked cigarettes; 22.3% used marijuana; and 17.5% used methamphetamine. Alcohol exposure was related to decreased placental weight and a smaller placenta-to-birthweight ratio. By contrast, methamphetamine was associated with larger placental weight and a larger placenta-to-birthweight ratio. Marijuana was also associated with larger placental weight. Alcohol exposure was associated with increased risk of placental hemorrhage. Prenatal alcohol, drug, and cigarette use were not associated with chorioamnionitis, villitis, deciduitis, or maternal vascular underperfusion. Alcohol and cigarette smoking were associated with a decreased risk of intrauterine passing of meconium, a sign of acute fetal stress and/or hypoxia; methamphetamine, with an increased risk. This is the first human study to show that alcohol, methamphetamine, and marijuana were associated with distinct patterns of pathology, suggesting different mechanisms mediating their effects on placental development. Given the growing

  4. Proteomics of the Human Placenta: Promises and Realities

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Kniss, D.A.; Takizawa, T.; Vandré, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics is an area of study that sets as its ultimate goal the global analysis of all of the proteins expressed in a biological system of interest. However, technical limitations currently hamper proteome-wide analyses of complex systems. In a more practical sense, a desired outcome of proteomics research is the translation of large protein data sets into formats that provide meaningful information regarding clinical conditions (e.g., biomarkers to serve as diagnostic and/or prognostic indicators of disease). Herein, we discuss placental proteomics by describing existing studies, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses. In so doing, we strive to inform investigators interested in this area of research about the current gap between hyperbolic promises and realities. Additionally, we discuss the utility of proteomics in discovery-based research, particularly as regards the capacity to unearth novel insights into placental biology. Importantly, when considering under studied systems such as the human placenta and diseases associated with abnormalities in placental function, proteomics can serve as a robust ‘shortcut’ to obtaining information unlikely to be garnered using traditional approaches. PMID:18222537

  5. The sonographic appearance and obstetric management of placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Charleen Sze-yan; Chan, Ben Chong-pun

    2012-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a condition of abnormal placental implantation in which the placental tissue invades beyond the decidua basalis. It may invade into or even through the myometrium and adjacent organs, such as the urinary bladder. The incidence has been rising in recent years. It is one of the important obstetric complications nowadays, leading to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. In the past, this condition was often diagnosed at the time of delivery when massive and unexpected hemorrhage occurred. Hysterectomy, associated with significant physical and psychological consequences, was usually the only management option. As more obstetricians have become aware of this condition, early identification with antenatal imaging diagnostic technology has become possible. Ultrasound scan plays an important role in the antenatal diagnosis. Various sonographic features with different specificity and sensitivity have been described in the literature. In equivocal cases, magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful. With such information, more accurate counseling can be offered to the mothers and their families before delivery. The delivery can also be arranged at a favorable time and in an institution where multidisciplinary support is available. Input from a hematologist, interventional radiologist, intensive care physician, urology surgeon, and/or other specialist are desirable. Apart from hysterectomy, various forms of conservative management can also be considered when the diagnosis is made prior to delivery. Fertility can therefore be preserved. After delivery, with or without hysterectomy performed, psychological support to the mothers and their families is essential. PMID:23239929

  6. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery. Nested cohort study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, university-affiliated teaching hospital. 10 334 nulliparous singleton pregnancies who delivered vaginally at the hospital during 2000-2009. Data from a computerized database information system were used to identify 287 women who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of retained placenta and 572 randomly selected controls matched by the date of first delivery. At chart review the diagnosis was confirmed by: (1) excessive bleeding <30 minutes after delivery without placental separation, (2) placenta not separated 30 minutes after delivery or (3) confirmation of retained placental tissue >2 hours postpartum. Confirmation of the diagnosis and prevalence of retained placenta. Risk of reoccurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery. The prevalence of retained placenta increased from 2.8 to 7.0% after confirmation according to the set criteria. Of the selected women, 48.4% had a subsequent vaginal delivery. Of these women, 25.3% (23/91) with a previous retained placenta and 5.3% (11/206) without previously retained placenta, experienced retained placenta in subsequent delivery. This corresponds to an adjusted odds ratio of 5.5 (95% confidence interval 2.6-12.7) in the multivariate analysis for recurrence of retained placenta in a subsequent vaginal delivery. The use of the ICD-10 diagnosis of retained placenta underestimated the prevalence. The risk of reoccurrence of retained placenta is significantly increased in a subsequent vaginal delivery. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Placenta-on-a-chip: a novel platform to study the biology of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Soo; Romero, Roberto; Han, Yu Mi; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Chong Jai; Hong, Joon-Seok; Huh, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Studying the biology of the human placenta represents a major experimental challenge. Although conventional cell culture techniques have been used to study different types of placenta-derived cells, current in vitro models have limitations in recapitulating organ-specific structure and key physiological functions of the placenta. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to leverage microfluidic and microfabrication technologies to develop a microengineered biomimetic model that replicates the architecture and function of the placenta. A "Placenta-on-a-Chip" microdevice was created by using a set of soft elastomer-based microfabrication techniques known as soft lithography. This microsystem consisted of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels separated by a thin extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. To reproduce the placental barrier in this model, human trophoblasts (JEG-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto the opposite sides of the ECM membrane and cultured under dynamic flow conditions to form confluent epithelial and endothelial layers in close apposition. We tested the physiological function of the microengineered placental barrier by measuring glucose transport across the trophoblast-endothelial interface over time. The permeability of the barrier study was analyzed and compared to that obtained from acellular devices and additional control groups that contained epithelial or endothelial layers alone. Our microfluidic cell culture system provided a tightly controlled fluidic environment conducive to the proliferation and maintenance of JEG-3 trophoblasts and HUVECs on the ECM scaffold. Prolonged culture in this model produced confluent cellular monolayers on the intervening membrane that together formed the placental barrier. This in vivo-like microarchitecture was also critical for creating a physiologically relevant effective barrier to glucose transport. Quantitative investigation of barrier function was

  8. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    derived from the subplacenta. Conclusion All important characteristics of placental development and organization in the capybara resembled those found in smaller hystricognath rodents including the guinea pig. These features apparently do not dependent on body size. Clearly, placentation in hystricognaths adheres to an extraordinarily stable pattern suggesting they can be used interchangeably as models of human placenta. PMID:19493333

  9. Retained placenta--a major cause of maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Marahatta, Rita

    2012-03-01

    Retained placenta is a condition when placenta is not delivered by 30 minutes after delivery of baby. It commonly occurs among those women who deliver at home and it is responsible for more of maternal morbidity and mortality. One reason behind this is it mostly occurs in home delivery where active management of third stage of labour is lacking and once it takes place it increases the chances of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) and sepsis irrespective of place of delivery. In this prospective study carried out in a Hospital which is located at a distance of 10-12 kilometers from the centre of the capital, we tried to find out the prevalence of retained placenta, its relation with the place of delivery, steps taken to manage the cases of retained placenta and morbidity in terms of blood loss and hospital stay. The frequency of retained placenta in this study is 3.96% with majority having home delivery (82.8%). Those women who had blood loss of more than 1 litre (4.0%) all were home deliveries. Among all 12.0% cases had severe anaemia and needed significant amount of blood transfusion. All cases with retained placenta were first tried with use of oxytocics and controlled cord traction followed by manual removal of placenta under general anaesthesia. All cases were successfully managed with control cord traction (CCT) except 18 cases who needed manual removal of placenta (MRP).

  10. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies after conservative treatment for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Doron; Hants, Yael; Shanwetter, Neta; Simons, Moshe; Weiniger, Carolyn F; Gielchinsky, Yuval; Ezra, Yossef

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the association between conservative treatment for placenta accreta and subsequent pregnancy outcomes. In a retrospective study, data were analyzed on women who received conservative treatment for placenta accreta (removal of the placenta with uterine preservation) at a tertiary hospital in Jerusalem, Israel, between 1990 and 2000. Data were collected on subsequent pregnancies and neonatal outcomes until 2010, and compared with those from a matched control group of women who did not have placenta accreta. A total of 134 women were included in both groups. Placenta accreta occurred in 62 (22.8%) of 272 subsequent deliveries in the study group for which data were available and 5 (1.9%) of 266 in the control group (relative risk [RR] 12.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.95-29.69; P<0.001). Early postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 23 (8.6%) of 268 deliveries in the study group and 7 (2.6%) of 268 in the control group (RR 3.29; 95% CI 1.43-7.53; P<0.001). The odds ratio for recurrent placenta accreta in subsequent deliveries in the study group was 15.41 (95% CI 6.09-39.03; P<0.001). Although subsequent pregnancies after conservative treatment for placenta accreta were mostly successful, the risk of recurrent placenta accreta and postpartum hemorrhage is high in future deliveries. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 ...

  12. [Placenta percreta--a severe obstetric complication despite correct diagnosis--a case report].

    PubMed

    Gruca-Stryjak, Karolina; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Breborowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a case of a pregnant woman with a history of two cesarean sections. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of vaginal bleeding. The ultrasound revealed a placenta covering the internal os. The placenta was characterized by heterogeneous echogenicity with visible irregular hypoechogenic areas and blurred border between the placenta and the cervix. Rich vascularity was observed on the border of the placenta, urethra and the urinary bladder. Cystoscopy showed severe congestion around the urethra. On the back wall of the bladder a slightly increased vascularity was seen, which did not allow to confirm or exclude placental ingrowth in the urinary bladder. At 38 weeks, the patient was scheduled for an elective cesarean section. A classic perpendicular incision and leaving the placenta in the uterine cavity were proposed. After opening the abdomen, a strong vascularization in the region of lower part of the uterus and the urinary bladder was seen. Uterine incision in the fundus and the posterior wall was performed. A female fetus (weight: 2950g, Apgar: 10,10) was born. Then, the umbilical cord was ligated with non-absorbable suture and inserted back into the uterus. However, due to the presence of abundant and persistent vaginal bleeding during the next few minutes, conversion to obstetric hysterectomy was required. During relaparotomy fragments of the placenta appeared on the right side after sliding the urinary bladder. The bladder and the left ureter were damaged during surgery. The urinary bladder was sewn after removal of the uterus. Next, the urologist anastomosed end-to-end the left ureter on the pigtail catheter In the third hour of operation, cardiac arrest was caused by ventricular fibrillation. Immediate resuscitation with defibrillation allowed to restore normal function of the cardiovascular system. Total blood loss during the operation was 3000-4000 ml. During surgery 10 units of packed RBCs, 7 units of fresh frozen plasma, and

  13. Environmental exposures to lead and cadmium measured in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Falcón, María; Viñas, Pilar; Osuna, Eduardo; Luna, Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant women exposed to even low levels of environmental lead and cadmium may experience adverse perinatal effects. To evaluate the usefulness of the placenta for monitoring environmental lead and cadmium exposure, concentrations of both metals were measured in placentas (n = 86) with atomic absorption spectrometry. Environmental exposure was assessed in accordance with the degree of industrial activity and transport pollution near the places of residence. The authors found significantly higher lead and cadmium levels in placentas of women living in urban-industrial areas than in placentas of women living in rural areas. Lead concentrations in placenta reflect environmental exposures; smoking during gestation explained a large portion of placental cadmium. This finding suggests that when a pregnant woman is a heavy smoker, tobacco exposure masks environmental cadmium exposure, especially in areas with low levels of cadmium pollution.

  14. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  15. Prostaglandins for management of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Grillo-Ardila, Carlos F; Ruiz-Parra, Ariel I; Gaitán, Hernando G; Rodriguez-Malagon, Nelcy

    2014-05-16

    Retained placenta affects 0.5% to 3% of women following delivery and it is a major cause of maternal death due to postpartum haemorrhage. Usually, retained placenta has been managed by manual removal or curettage under anaesthesia, which may be associated with haemorrhage, infection and uterine perforation. Medical management to facilitate the delivery of the retained placenta could be a safe alternative avoiding surgical intervention. To assess the effectiveness and safety of prostaglandins for the management of retained placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013), LILACS (1982 to 1 December 2013), SciELO (1998 to 1 December 2013), Web of Science (2001 to 1 December 2013), openSIGLE (1997 to 1 December 2013), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 December 2013) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (1 December 2013). We also contacted authors of included studies and reviewed the reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled clinical trials comparing the use of prostaglandins (or prostaglandin analogues) with placebo, expectant management, tocolytic drugs, any other prostaglandins or surgical interventions for the management of retained placenta after vaginal delivery of singleton live infants of 20 or more weeks of gestation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Any disagreements were resolved through consensus or consultation with a third review author when required. Authors of the included studies were contacted for additional information. We included three trials, involving 244 women. The studies were considered to be at high risk of bias.The prostaglandins used were PG E2 analogue (sulprostone) in 50 participants and PG E1 analogue (misoprostol) in 194 participants at a dose of 250 mcg and 800 mcg

  16. Placenta Defects and Embryonic Lethality Resulting from Disruption of Mouse Hydroxysteroid (17-β) Dehydrogenase 2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rantakari, Pia; Strauss, Leena; Kiviranta, Riku; Lagerbohm, Heidi; Paviala, Jenni; Holopainen, Irma; Vainio, Seppo; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Poutanen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxysteroid (17-β) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD17B2) is a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily, known to catalyze the inactivation of 17β-hydroxysteroids to less active 17-keto forms and catalyze the conversion of 20α-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone in vitro. To examine the role of HSD17B2 in vivo, we generated mice deficient in Hsd17b2 [HSD17B2 knockout (KO)] by a targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells. From the homozygous mice carrying the disrupted Hsd17b2, 70% showed embryonic lethality appearing at the age of embryonic d 11.5 onward. The embryonic lethality was associated with reduced placental size measured at embryonic d 17.5. The HSD17B2KO mice placentas presented with structural abnormalities in all three major layers: the decidua, spongiotrophoblast, and labyrinth. Most notable was the disruption of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers, together with liquid-filled cysts in the junctional region and the basal layer. Treatments with an antiestrogen or progesterone did not rescue the embryonic lethality or the placenta defect in the homozygous mice. In hybrid background used, 24% of HSD17B2KO mice survived through the fetal period but were born growth retarded and displayed a phenotype in the brain with enlargement of ventricles, abnormal laminar organization, and increased cellular density in the cortex. Furthermore, the HSD17B2KO mice had unilateral renal degeneration, the affected kidney frequently appearing as a fluid-filled sac. Our results provide evidence for a role for HSD17B2 enzyme in the cellular organization of the mouse placenta. PMID:18048640

  17. Retrospective multicenter study of leaving the placenta in situ for patients with placenta previa on a cesarean scar.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Kei; Otani, Toshimitsu; Kondoh, Eiji; Makino, Shintaro; Tanaka, Mamoru; Takeda, Satoru

    2018-03-01

    To investigate maternal outcomes after leaving the placenta in situ for placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders in patients with placenta previa on a cesarean delivery scar. The present retrospective study reviewed medical records from women with placenta previa on a cesarean scar underwent perinatal care at secondary- or tertiary-level perinatal centers in Japan between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. Perinatal management was conducted based on each leading obstetrician's discretion. The primary outcome was success of the leaving the placenta in situ approach for PAS disorders (defined as preserving the uterus without hysterectomy). Of 178 eligible centers, 126 (71%) participated in this study; data from 613 patients were included. Of these, 41 had the placenta left in situ owing to PAS disorders and follow-up data were available for 36 women. Leaving the placenta in situ was successful in 25 (69%) patients, with placental resorption occurring postpartum (median 89 days; range 6-510). Hysterectomy was performed for 11 patients, primarily owing to hemorrhage and/or infection (median 30 days; range 0-95 days, postpartum). Leaving the placenta in situ, with close postpartum follow-up for at least several months, could be a uterus-preserving option for patient with PAS disorders. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  18. Glycine uptake by microvillous and basal plasma membrane vesicles from term human placentae.

    PubMed

    Dicke, J M; Verges, D; Kelley, L K; Smith, C H

    1993-01-01

    Like most amino acids, glycine is present in higher concentrations in the fetus than in the mother. Unlike most amino acids, animal studies suggest fetal concentrations of glycine are minimally in excess of those required for protein synthesis. Abnormal glycine utilization has also been demonstrated in small-for-gestational age human fetuses. The mechanism(s) of glycine uptake in the human placenta are unknown. In other mammalian cells glycine is a substrate for the A, ASC and Gly amino acid transport systems. In this study human placental glycine uptake was characterized using microvillous and basal plasma membrane vesicles each prepared from the same placenta. In both membranes glycine uptake was mediated predominantly by the sodium-dependent A system. Competitive inhibition studies suggest that in microvillous vesicles the small percentage of sodium-dependent glycine uptake not inhibited by methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) shares a transport system with glycine methyl ester and sarcosine, substrates of the Gly system in other tissues. In addition there are mediated sodium-independent and non-selective transport mechanisms in both plasma membranes. If fetal glycine availability is primarily contingent upon the common and highly regulated A system, glycine must compete with many other substrates potentially resulting in marginal fetal reserves, abnormal utilization and impaired growth.

  19. Retrospective analysis: Conservative treatment of placenta increta with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Li, Hongyan; Zuo, Changting; Wang, Xietong

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment with methotrexate against placenta increta by two different routes of administration through retrospective analysis. A total of 54 women diagnosed with placenta increta after vaginal delivery were enrolled in this retrospective study. The participants accepted conservative management with methotrexate through either intravenous injection or local multi-point injection under ultrasound guidance. The treatment was considered effective if no hysterectomy was mandatory during the follow-up period. Out of the 54 cases, 21 patients were treated with methotrexate intravenously (group 1), and 33 patients received local multi-point injection to the placenta increta under ultrasound guidance (group 2). No maternal death occurred. In group 1, 10 patients expelled the placentas spontaneously, 7 patients underwent uterine curettage and 4 patients underwent hysterectomy for uncontrollable post-partum hemorrhage and infection. In group 2, 25 patients expelled placentas spontaneously and 8 patients underwent uterine curettage with no incidence of hysterectomy. The success rate in group 1 and group 2 was 17/21 and 33/33, respectively. The average time of the spontaneous placenta expulsion was 79.13 ± 29.87 days in group 1 and 42.42 ± 31.83 days in group 2. Local multi-point methotrexate injection under ultrasound guidance is a better alternative for patients with placenta increta, especially for preserving fertility. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Conservative management of placenta accreta: hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Guillaume; Zoulovits, Félicia Joinau; Kinn, Juliette; Senthiles, Loïc; Fernandez, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and the results of hysteroscopic removal of tissue after conservative management of retained placenta accreta. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Tertiary care university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients with hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues after conservative management of placenta accreta. Hysteroscopic removal of retained placenta tissue using a 24F bipolar resectoscope. Twelve patients with retained placenta tissue, complete in 2 and partial in 10, were included. Mean retained placenta size on magnetic resonance imaging was 54 mm (range, 13-110 mm). Complete removal was achieved in all but 1 patient who underwent a secondary hysterectomy after the first incomplete hysteroscopic resection. Complete evacuation of the uterus was completed after 1 procedure in 5 patients, after 2 procedures in 2 patients, and after 3 procedures in 4 patients. All but 2 patients had normal menstrual bleeding after hysteroscopy. Four pregnancies occurred in our series, resulting in 1 ectopic pregnancy, 1 miscarriage, and 2 deliveries. Hysteroscopic resection of retained placenta seems to be a safe and effective procedure to prevent major complications and to preserve fertility in cases of conservative management of placenta accreta. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methotrexate management for placenta accreta: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaiqing; Qin, Jiale; Xu, Kaihong; Hu, Wen; Lin, Jun

    2015-06-01

    To observe efficacy following methotrexate (MTX) management in women with placenta accreta. Twenty-four stable patients with placenta accreta were treated with MTX. Beta-hCG values, vascular indices of the residual placenta, and other clinical characteristics were collected prospectively and were compared between the success and failure groups. After MTX management, the residual placentas were expulsed spontaneously in 33.3% of the patients. This was done through dilatation and curettage (D & C) in 45.8% of the patients. The residuals in the uterine wall were completely absorbed within 5.7 months. In the patients who were successfully treated with MTX, their beta-hCG values and vascular indices of the placentas decreased faster than those of failure patients (P < 0.05). Those (20.8%) failing MTX management and subsequent D & C showed that their vascular indices persisted high levels and some even experienced elevations despite significantly decreased hCG values. MTX management, when the beta-hCG value and vascular indices of placenta decreased significantly, is a conservative option for a stable patient with placenta accreta in China. 3D power Doppler ultrasound should be utilized for the follow-up of this condition.

  2. Placenta previa and immediate outcome of the term offspring.

    PubMed

    Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Immediate neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa is largely dependent on gestational age. We aimed to investigate whether placenta previa increases the risk for perinatal mortality and immediate morbidity of the offspring born at term. A population-based cohort study included all singleton pregnancies, with and without placenta previa, delivered at term. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics as well as immediate neonatal morbidity and mortality were compared. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies, and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. During the study period 233,123 consecutive term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 0.2 % of the babies were born to mothers diagnosed with placenta previa. Women with placenta previa were significantly older and more likely to have had a previous cesarean section. Pregnancies were more likely to be complicated with pathological presentations and cesarean hysterectomies. Babies born at term following pregnancies with placenta previa were more likely to weigh less than 2500 g (OR 2.78 CI 1.9-3.9, p < 0.001). However, 5 min Apgar score and perinatal mortality rates were comparable between the groups. Neonatal outcomes remained comparable between the groups in a sub-analysis of cesarean deliveries only. Although placenta previa pregnancies involve higher maternal morbidity rates, term offsprings are not at an increased risk for immediate adverse outcome.

  3. Study of placenta of children born with congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Alembik, Yves; Dott, Béatrice; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2003-01-01

    The malformations in this study were observed in a series of 279,642 consecutive births of known outcome registered in our Registry of congenital anomalies. For each case, more than 50 factors included in the registration forms were studied. One of the factors studied was the placenta. For each malformed child, a control was chosen. Cases with maternal known factors impairing placenta function, i.e. vasculopathy and diabetes, were excluded. In each category of malformations studied, the malformed children were divided into isolated and non-isolated (multiple malformed) cases. The weight of placenta of isolated cases was not lower than the weight of placenta of the controls. In contrast, the weight of placenta of the cases with non-isolated malformations was lower than the weight of placenta of the controls and of the isolated cases, for all categories of malformations but gastroschisis and omphalocele. The mean weights at birth of the cases with multiple malformations were also lower than those of the controls. The human placenta discounts a principal functional part, the maternal blood in the intervillous space. Congenital malformations may interact with this function.

  4. Association of Placenta Previa with a History of Previous Cesarian Deliveries and Indications for a Possible Role of a Genetic Component

    PubMed Central

    M, Matalliotakis; A, Velegrakis; GN, Goulielmos; E, Niraki; AE, Patelarou; I, Matalliotakis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A prior Cesaria section (C-section) is an important risk factor that leads to endometrial damage and abnormal implantation of the placenta. Our retrospective study aims to correlate the frequency of placenta previa to previous C-sections, to determine the effect of male gender in this condition and to evaluate further the maternal outcome. Seventy-six cases with placenta previa were selected out of 5200 live births. Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and in the operating theater. In the 76 women examined, we found 50 cases with a history of a previous C-section (66.0%) and 49 male offspring (65.0%) (p <0.001), with a mean birth weight of 2635 ± 740 g. Of all these patients, six (8.0%) cases developed placenta percreta, seven (9.0%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), 14 (18.0%) women needed blood transfusion and eight (11.0%) underwent hysterectomy. The results of our series show a strong correlation of placenta previa to a history of previous C-sections and a predominance of male fetuses. Early recognition and proper monitoring could minimize the possibility of a poor outcome. PMID:29876227

  5. Association of Placenta Previa with a History of Previous Cesarian Deliveries and Indications for a Possible Role of a Genetic Component.

    PubMed

    M, Matalliotakis; A, Velegrakis; Gn, Goulielmos; E, Niraki; Ae, Patelarou; I, Matalliotakis

    2017-12-01

    A prior Cesaria section (C-section) is an important risk factor that leads to endometrial damage and abnormal implantation of the placenta. Our retrospective study aims to correlate the frequency of placenta previa to previous C-sections, to determine the effect of male gender in this condition and to evaluate further the maternal outcome. Seventy-six cases with placenta previa were selected out of 5200 live births. Diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and in the operating theater. In the 76 women examined, we found 50 cases with a history of a previous C-section (66.0%) and 49 male offspring (65.0%) ( p <0.001), with a mean birth weight of 2635 ± 740 g. Of all these patients, six (8.0%) cases developed placenta percreta, seven (9.0%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), 14 (18.0%) women needed blood transfusion and eight (11.0%) underwent hysterectomy. The results of our series show a strong correlation of placenta previa to a history of previous C-sections and a predominance of male fetuses. Early recognition and proper monitoring could minimize the possibility of a poor outcome.

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta: Sonography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Bonnie K.; Belogolovkin, Victoria; Tran, Lan; Rao, Anjali; Carroll, Ian; Barth, Richard; Chitkara, Usha

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of transabdominal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Methods A historical cohort study was undertaken at 3 institutions identifying women at risk for placenta accreta who had undergone both sonography and MRI prenatally. Sonographic and MRI findings were compared with the final diagnosis as determined at delivery and by pathologic examination. Results Thirty-two patients who had both sonography and MRI prenatally to evaluate for placenta accreta were identified. Of these, 15 had confirmation of placenta accreta at delivery. Sonography correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 14 of 15 patients (93% sensitivity; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80%–100%) and the absence of placenta accreta in 12 of 17 patients (71% specificity; 95% CI, 49%–93%). Magnetic resonance imaging correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 12 of 15 patients (80% sensitivity; 95% CI, 60%–100%) and the absence of placenta accreta in 11 of 17 patients (65% specificity; 95% CI, 42%–88%). In 7 of 32 cases, sonography and MRI had discordant diagnoses: sonography was correct in 5 cases, and MRI was correct in 2. There was no statistical difference in sensitivity (P = .25) or specificity (P = .5) between sonography and MRI. Conclusions Both sonography and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however, specificity does not appear to be as good as reported in other studies. In the case of inconclusive findings with one imaging modality, the other modality may be useful for clarifying the diagnosis. PMID:18716136

  7. Placenta hominis protects osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Chae, H J; Choi, K H; Chae, S W; Kim, H M; Shin, T K; Lee, G Y; Jeong, G S; Park, H R; Choi, H I; Kim, S B; Yoo, S K; Kim, H R

    2006-01-01

    In China, Japan, and Korea, placenta hominis extracts (PHEs) are used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis. The anti-osteoporotic effect of PHEs was studied. The trabecular bone area and thickness in OVX rats decreased by 50% from those in sham-operated rats; these decreases were completely inhibited by administration of PHEs for 7 weeks. Osteoclast numbers and the osteoblast surface were enhanced in OVX rats, but PHEs had no effect on these phenomena. Serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in OVX rats increased compared to those in sham-operated rats, but the increases were not affected by the administration of PHEs. Thyroxine (T4) level was stimulated in OVX rats. The extracts inhibited the T4 level in the OVX rats. These results strongly suggest that PHEs be effective in preventing the development of bone loss induced by OVX in rats.

  8. Immediate postpartum ultrasound evaluation for suspected retained placental tissue in patients undergoing manual removal of placenta.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, T; Haikin-Herzberger, E; Bacci-Hugger, K; Shechter-Maor, G; Fejgin, M; Biron-Shental, T

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 1% of term deliveries are complicated by retained products of conception. Untreated, this condition may cause bleeding, infection and intrauterine adhesions. This study assessed whether performing routine bedside uterine ultrasound immediately after manual removal of the placenta reduced the occurrence of undiagnosed, retained products of conception and its associated complications. A retrospective study was conducted using the records of patients who delivered and underwent manual removal of placenta at a single obstetrics center over a 6-year period. The outcomes of patients who were assessed using immediate bedside ultrasound were compared to a similar group who were treated based on clinical evaluation alone. All patients underwent ultrasound examination prior to discharge. Outcome variables included the rate of additional interventions (medical or surgical), abnormal pre-discharge uterine ultrasound findings, postpartum hemorrhage rate, puerperal fever and length of hospital stay. A total of 399 charts were reviewed. Immediate post-procedural ultrasound was performed in 235 patients. The remaining 164 women did not undergo immediate post-procedural ultrasound. All patients underwent an ultrasound examination prior to discharge. Among the patients who had an immediate post-procedural ultrasound, 12 (5.1%) received immediate re-intervention (2 methergine, 6 curettage and 4 manual uterine revision) vs. no intervention in the second group (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the group of patients who had immediate post-procedural ultrasound and those who did not, in the rates of postpartum hemorrhage (3.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.13), abnormal ultrasound findings prior to discharge (14.9% vs. 14.8%, p=0.96) or additional late intervention (7.2% vs. 7.9%, p=0.79), respectively. Our findings suggest that immediate, bedside uterine ultrasound examination after manual removal of placenta might not change patient outcomes

  9. Investigation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) at multiple sites in post-delivery placentas derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Minor, Agata; Harmer, Karynn; Peters, Nicole; Yuen, Basil Ho; Ma, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Although earlier studies on pregnancies derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) reported increased non-mosaic aneuploidy among ICSI children, undetected mosaicism, such as confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has not been evaluated. We investigated the incidence of CPM in post-delivery placentas derived from ICSI, evaluated whether CPM was increased and whether it was a contributing factor to negative pregnancy outcome. [Fifty-one post-delivery placentas were collected from patients who underwent ICSI with a normal or negative pregnancy outcome]. Trophoblast and chorionic stroma from three sites were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and flow cytometry. Detected abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The incidence of CPM in the ICSI population was compared to the general population from published data. We detected three cases of CPM in our study. One abnormality was found by CGH analysis; partial trisomy 7q and a partial monosomy Xp limited to the trophoblast at two sites. The abnormality was associated with a child affected by spina bifida. Two cases of mosaic tetraploidy were observed by flow cytometry in pregnancies with a normal outcome. All three abnormalities were confirmed by FISH analysis. The incidence of CPM in the ICSI study population was 5.88% (3/51), which was not statistically different from published reports in the general population (5.88% (42/714), Chi square, P > 0.05). The post-ICSI population was not at risk for CPM in this study. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion in patients with placenta previa and/or placenta accreta: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fangyuan; Xie, Lan; Xie, Ping; Liu, Siwei; Zhu, Yue

    2017-04-01

    To introduce the primary experience of using aortic balloon catheters during cesarean section for placenta previa and/or placenta accreta. From January 2013 to May 2015, 43 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed with major placenta previa and/or placenta accreta and who underwent prophylactic aortic catheterization before caesarean section (CS) were included in the study. We analyzed the clinical data of the study population. Surgery- and catheterization-related complications were also reported. Major placenta previa or placenta accreta was surgically confirmed in 42 patients, 28 of whom had both conditions. The mean patient age was 32.3 ± 5.5 years, whereas the median gestational age at delivery was 260 (range, 153-280) days. Twenty-nine (67.4%) patients had previously undergone CS, and 13 (30%) patients had undergone emergency surgery for antenatal hemorrhage. The median estimated blood loss during surgery was 500 (range, 100-3,000) mL, and the median duration of occlusion was 20 (range, 5-32) minutes. Hysterectomy was performed in five (11.6%) patients and uterine artery embolization in two (4.6%) patients. Two patients with placenta percreta experienced surgery-related complications, and two patients required hospital readmission. No major catheterization-related complications were observed. Forty-two live births were recorded, and the Apgar score of the infants at 5 minutes was > 7. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion is a relatively safe method for treating placenta previa and/or placenta accreta during scheduled and emergency CS and might be helpful to prevent hysterectomy and embolization in women wishing to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A positive immunoselection method to isolate villous cytotrophoblast cells from first trimester and term placenta to high purity.

    PubMed

    Pötgens, A J G; Kataoka, H; Ferstl, S; Frank, H-G; Kaufmann, P

    2003-04-01

    We developed a method for isolating highly pure villous cytotrophoblast cells from first trimester and term placenta that excludes extravillous trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast fragments. The method is based on positive immunoselection using an antibody (mAb C76/18) reacting with hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1, HAI-1, a membrane antigen on villous cytotrophoblast. As a comparison, we also immunopurified cells using an antibody against CD105, present on syncytiotrophoblast and some extravillous trophoblast cells. The isolates were characterized by flow cytometry. HAI-1-positive cells from first trimester and term placentae were highly pure (>98 per cent cytokeratin 7-positive) mononuclear trophoblast cells. These isolations were contaminated with only very small percentages of vimentin and CD45-positive cells. HAI-1-positive trophoblast cells lacked CD105 and also HLA class I, a marker for extravillous trophoblast. In culture HAI-1-positive cells adhered, displayed an epithelial morphology, and survived for more than three days. In contrast, CD105-positive cell fractions from first trimester placenta were a heterogeneous mixture of mononuclear and multinuclear elements consisting of syncytiotrophoblast fragments, extravillous trophoblast cells, as well as around 5 per cent non-trophoblastic contaminants. In conclusion, the positive immunoselection method using antibody C76/18 yielded highly pure villous cytotrophoblast cells devoid of elements derived from syncytiotrophoblast or extravillous trophoblast.

  12. The retained placenta: historical and geographical rate variations.

    PubMed

    Cheung, W M C; Hawkes, A; Ibish, S; Weeks, A D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to explore the variation in reported rates of retained placenta around the world and over time in the UK. A systematic review of observational studies was performed to obtain retained placenta rates from around the world and annual hospital reports from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists archives were examined to obtain historical retained placenta rates. The data show that the median rate of retained placenta at 30 minutes was higher in developed countries (2.67% vs 1.46%, p < 0.02), as was the median manual removal rate (2.24% vs 0.45%, p < 0.001). In addition to this, there appears to have been a rise in rate of manual removal in the UK from a mean of 0.66% in the 1920s to 2.34% in the 1980s (p < 0.0001).

  13. Origin stories from a regional placenta tissue collection

    PubMed Central

    Fannin, Maria; Kent, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago when women and their children were recruited to a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study during pregnancy, placentas were collected at birth. This paper explores the history of a regional placenta biobank and contemporary understandings of its value for the constitution of a research population. We draw on interviews with some of the mothers and those responsible for the establishment and curation of the placenta collection in order to explore the significance and meaning of the collection for them. Given its capacity to stand in for the study cohort of mothers and children, we argue that the material significance of the placenta biobank as a research tool seems far less important than the work it does in constituting a population. The stories about this collection may be understood within the wider context of developments in biobanking and the bioeconomy. PMID:25745355

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  16. Vascular corrosion casting of normal and pre-eclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Yin, Geping; Chen, Ming; Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Yang, Shujun; Li, Xiuyun; Yuan, Zheng; Wu, Aifang

    2017-12-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality that is associated with decreased placental perfusion. In the present study, vascular corrosion casting was used to investigate the differences in structural changes of the fetoplacental vasculature between normal and pre-eclamptic placentas. An improved epoxy resin vascular casting technique was used in the present study. Casting media were infused into 40 normal and 40 pre-eclamptic placentas through umbilical arteries and veins in order to construct three dimensional fetoplacental vasculatures. The number of branches, diameter, morphology and peripheral artery-to-vein ratio were measured for each specimen. The results indicated that the venous system of normal placentas was divided into 5-7 grades of branches and the volume of the vascular bed was 155.5±45.3 ml. In severe pre-eclamptic placentas, the volume was 106.4±36.1 ml, which was significantly lower compared with normal placentas (P<0.01). The venous system of pre-eclamptic placentas was divided into 4-5 grades of branches, which was much more sparse compared with normal placentas. In additions, the diameters of grade 1-3 veins and grade 2-3 arteries were significantly smaller in severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05). In conclusion, pre-eclamptic placentas displayed a decreased volume of vascular bed, smaller diameters of grade 1-3 veins and grade 2-3 arteries, and an increased peripheral artery-to-vein ratio, which may be a cause of the placental dysfunction during severe pre-eclampsia.

  17. Myomectomy for Retained Placenta Due to Incarcerated Fibroid Mass

    PubMed Central

    Mbamara, SU; Daniyan, ABC; Osaro, Ejenobo; Mbah, IC

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta is one of the most common complications of preterm delivery and/or mid-trimester miscarriage. It is an important cause of increased maternal morbidity and sometimes mortality especially in developing countries. It is associated with several complications that could be tasking to the facility and of great challenge to the obstetrician. Here we present a very rare event in obstetrics which is retained placenta due to incarcerated, posteriorly-sited fibroid that was successfully managed with myomectomy. PMID:25861539

  18. Is epidural analgesia during labor related to retained placenta?

    PubMed

    Sarit, Avraham; Sokolov, Amit; Many, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    To explore the influence of epidural analgesia on the course of the third stage of labor and on the incidence of the complete retained placenta as well as retained parts of the placenta. This is a population-based cohort study in a tertiary medical center. We collected data from all 4227 spontaneous singleton vaginal deliveries during 6 months and compared the incidence of retained placenta in deliveries with epidural analgesia with those without analgesia. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for possible confounders. More than two-thirds of the women (69.25%) used epidural analgesia during their delivery. A need for intervention due to placental disorder during the third stage of labor was noted in 4.2% of all deliveries. Epidural analgesia appeared to be significantly (P=0.028) related to placental disorders compared with no analgesia: 4.8% vs. 3%, respectively. Deliveries with manual interventions during the third stage, for either complete retained placenta or suspected retained parts of the placenta, were associated with the use of epidural analgesia (P=0.008), oxytocin (P=0.002) and older age at delivery (P=0.000), but when including all factors in a multivariable analysis, using a stepwise logistic regression, the factors that were independently associated with interventions for placental disruption during the third stage of delivery were previous cesarean section, oxytocin use and, marginally, older age. Complete retained placenta and retained parts of the placenta share the same risk factors. Epidural analgesia does not directly influence the incidence of complete retained placenta or retained parts, though clinically linked through increased oxytocin use. The factors that were independently associated with interventions for placental disruption during the third stage of delivery were previous cesarean section, oxytocin use and older age.

  19. Myomectomy for retained placenta due to incarcerated fibroid mass.

    PubMed

    Mbamara, S U; Daniyan, Abc; Osaro, Ejenobo; Mbah, I C

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta is one of the most common complications of preterm delivery and/or mid-trimester miscarriage. It is an important cause of increased maternal morbidity and sometimes mortality especially in developing countries. It is associated with several complications that could be tasking to the facility and of great challenge to the obstetrician. Here we present a very rare event in obstetrics which is retained placenta due to incarcerated, posteriorly-sited fibroid that was successfully managed with myomectomy.

  20. Transient, Inducible, Placenta-Specific Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Petitt, Matthew; Gamboa, Matthew; Huang, Mei; Dhal, Sabita; Druzin, Maurice L.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular understanding of placental functions and pregnancy disorders is limited by the absence of methods for placenta-specific gene manipulation. Although persistent placenta-specific gene expression has been achieved by lentivirus-based gene delivery methods, developmentally and physiologically important placental genes have highly stage-specific functions, requiring controllable, transient expression systems for functional analysis. Here, we describe an inducible, placenta-specific gene expression system that enables high-level, transient transgene expression and monitoring of gene expression by live bioluminescence imaging in mouse placenta at different stages of pregnancy. We used the third generation tetracycline-responsive tranactivator protein Tet-On 3G, with 10- to 100-fold increased sensitivity to doxycycline (Dox) compared with previous versions, enabling unusually sensitive on-off control of gene expression in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing Tet-On 3G were created using a new integrase-based, site-specific approach, yielding high-level transgene expression driven by a ubiquitous promoter. Blastocysts from these mice were transduced with the Tet-On 3G-response element promoter-driving firefly luciferase using lentivirus-mediated placenta-specific gene delivery and transferred into wild-type pseudopregnant recipients for placenta-specific, Dox-inducible gene expression. Systemic Dox administration at various time points during pregnancy led to transient, placenta-specific firefly luciferase expression as early as d 5 of pregnancy in a Dox dose-dependent manner. This system enables, for the first time, reliable pregnancy stage-specific induction of gene expression in the placenta and live monitoring of gene expression during pregnancy. It will be widely applicable to studies of both placental development and pregnancy, and the site-specific Tet-On G3 mouse will be valuable for studies in a broad range of tissues. PMID:23011919

  1. Patient adherence in COPD.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J; Bartlett, S J

    2008-09-01

    Patient adherence to treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential to optimise disease management. As with other chronic diseases, poor adherence is common and results in increased rates of morbidity, healthcare expenditures, hospitalisations and possibly mortality, as well as unnecessary escalation of therapy and reduced quality of life. Examples include overuse, underuse, and alteration of schedule and doses of medication, continued smoking and lack of exercise. Adherence is affected by patients' perception of their disease, type of treatment or medication, the quality of patient provider communication and the social environment. Patients are more likely to adhere to treatment when they believe it will improve disease management or control, or anticipate serious consequences related to non-adherence. Providers play a critical role in helping patients understand the nature of the disease, potential benefits of treatment, addressing concerns regarding potential adverse effects and events, and encouraging patients to develop self-management skills. For clinicians, it is important to explore patients' beliefs and concerns about the safety and benefits of the treatment, as many patients harbour unspoken fears. Complex regimens and polytherapy also contribute to suboptimal adherence. This review addresses adherence related issues in COPD, assesses current efforts to improve adherence and highlights opportunities to improve adherence for both providers and patients.

  2. Effect of Placenta Previa on Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hao; Lu, Yi; Dong, Yi-Nuo; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between gestational hypertension-preeclampsia (GH-PE) and placenta previa (PP) is controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether placenta previa has any effect on the various types of preeclampsia (PE), and the role PP with concurrent placenta accreta (PA) play in the occurrence of GH-PE are not well understood. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the effects of PP on GH, mild and severe preeclampsia (MPE and SPE), and early- and late-onset preeclampsia (EPE and LPE). Another aim of the study was to determine if concurrent PA impacts the relationship between PP and GH-PE. Methods A retrospective single-center study of 1,058 patients having singleton pregnancies with PP was performed, and 2,116 pregnant women were randomly included as controls. These cases were collected from a tertiary hospital and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Clinical information, including PP and the gestational age at the onset of GH-PE were collected. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted after the confounding variables were controlled to assess the effects of PP on different types of GH-PE. Results There were 155 patients with GH-PE in the two groups. The incidences of GH-PE in the PP group and the control group were 2.5% (26/1058) and 6.1% (129/2116), respectively (P = 0.000). Binary and multiple regression analyses were conducted after controlling for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, in the PP group, the risk of GH-PE was reduced significantly by 78% (AOR: 0.216; 95% CI: 0.135–0.345); the risks of GH and PE were reduced by 55% (AOR: 0.451; 95% CI: 0.233–0.873) and 86% (AOR: 0.141; 95% CI: 0.073–0.271), respectively; the risks of MPE and SPE were reduced by 73% (AOR: 0.269; 95% CI: 0.087–0828) and 88% (AOR: 0.123; 95% CI: 0.055–0.279), respectively; and the risks of EPE and LPE were reduced by 95% (AOR: 0.047; 95% CI: 0.012–0.190) and 67% (AOR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.153–0

  3. Longitudinal parallel compression suture to control postopartum hemorrhage due to placenta previa and accrete.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Tai; Li, Xiao-Fan; Wu, Baoping; Li, Guangrui

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of longitudinal parallel compression suture to control heavy postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in patients with placenta previa/accreta. Fifteen women received a longitudinal parallel compression suture to stop life-threatening PPH due to placenta previa with or without accreta during cesarean section. The suture apposed the anterior and posterior walls of the lower uterine segment together using an absorbable thread A 70-mm round needle with a Number-1 absorbable thread was used. The point of needle entry was 1 cm above the upper margin of the cervix and 1 cm from the right lateral border of the lower segment of the anterior wall. The suture was threaded through the uterine cavity to the serosa of the posterior wall. Then, it was directed upward and threaded from the posterior to the anterior wall at ∼1-2 cm above the upper boundary of the lower uterine segment and 3-cm medial to the right margin of the uterus. Both ends of the suture were tied on the anterior aspect of uterus. The left side was sutured in the same way. The success rate of the procedure was 86.7% (13/15). Two of 15 cases were concurrently administered gauze packing and achieved satisfactory hemostasis. All patients resumed a normal menstrual flow, and no postoperative anatomical or physiological abnormalities related to the suture were observed. Three women achieved further pregnancies after the procedure. Longitudinal parallel compression suture is a safe, easy, effective, practical, and conservative surgical technique to stop intractable PPH from the lower uterine segment, particularly in women who have a cesarean scar and placenta previa/accreta. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Altered Global Gene Expression in First Trimester Placentas of Women Destined to Develop Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Founds, Sandra A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Lyons-Weiler, James F.; Jeyabalan, Arun; Hogge, W. Allen; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that remains a leading cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is associated with risk for future cardiovascular disease. There are no reliable predictors, specific preventative measures or treatments other than delivery. A widely-held view is that the antecedents of preeclampsia lie with impaired placentation in early pregnancy. Accordingly, we hypothesized dysregulation of global gene expression in first trimester placentas of women who later manifested preeclampsia. Methods Surplus chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tissues were collected at 10–12 weeks gestation in 160 patients with singleton fetuses. Four patients developed preeclampsia, and their banked CVS specimens were matched to 8 control samples from patients with unaffected pregnancies. Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips were utilized for microarray analysis. Naïve Bayes prediction modeling and pathway analysis were conducted. qRT-PCR examined three of the dysregulated genes. Results Thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified in the preeclampsia placentas. qRT-PCR verified the microarray analysis. Thirty-one genes were down-regulated. Many were related to inflammation/immunoregulation and cell motility. Decidual gene dysregulation was prominent. No evidence was found for alterations in hypoxia and oxidative stress regulated genes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show dysregulation of gene expression in the early placentas of women ~6 months before developing preeclampsia, thereby reinforcing a placental origin of the disorder. We hypothesize that placentation in preeclampsia is compromised in the first trimester by maternal and fetal immune dysregulation, abnormal decidualization, or both, thereby impairing trophoblast invasion. Several of the genes provide potential targets for the development of clinical biomarkers in maternal blood during the first trimester. Supplementary

  5. Intravenous sulprostone infusion in the treatment of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Vedran; Paavonen, Jorma; Loukovaara, Mikko; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ahonen, Jouni; Tikkanen, Minna

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of intravenous sulprostone infusion for the treatment of retained placenta without massive primary hemorrhage among women at an university hospital over a three-year period. Retrospective observational study. University teaching hospital. 126 consecutive women with placental retention and intravenous sulprostone infusion as primary treatment performed from October 2007 up to December 2011. Hospital records of women who received sulprostone infusion to attempt placental expulsion were reviewed. Primary endpoints of the study were expulsion of placenta and the total amount of blood loss during delivery. The placenta was successfully expelled in 39.7% of cases, whereas 60.3% of women underwent manual removal of placenta. Blood loss was significantly lower in women with successful placental expulsion than in women who had manual removal of the placenta (582 ± 431 ml vs. 1275 ± 721 ml, p < 0.0001). Sulprostone infusion did not cause adverse effects or significant postpartum morbidity. Intravenous sulprostone infusion is safe and reduces both blood loss and the need for manual removal of the placenta. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Retained placenta: will medical treatment ever be possible?

    PubMed

    Akol, Achier D; Weeks, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    The standard treatment for retained placenta is manual removal whatever its subtype (adherens, trapped or partial accreta). Although medical treatment should reduce the risk of anesthetic and surgical complications, they have not been found to be effective. This may be due to the contrasting uterotonic needs of the different underlying pathologies. In placenta adherens, oxytocics have been used to contract the retro-placental myometrium. However, if injected locally through the umbilical vein, they bypass the myometrium and perfuse directly into the venous system. Intravenous injection is an alternative but exacerbates a trapped placenta. Conversely, for trapped placentas, a relaxant could help by resolving cervical constriction, but would worsen the situation for placenta adherens. This confusion over medical treatment will continue unless we can find a way to diagnose the underlying pathology. This will allow us to stop treating the retained placenta as a single entity and to deliver targeted treatments. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  7. Rectal misoprostol in management of retained placenta: a contradictory result.

    PubMed

    Pongsatha, Saipin; Tongsong, Theera

    2011-05-01

    Retained placenta is one of the common problems in obstetric practice. The most common procedure to manage cases with retained placenta is manual removal of placenta (MROP) under general anesthesia. Recent data indicates that misoprostol may be helpful in decreasing the rate of MROP. To assess the efficacy of rectal misoprostol in women with delayed placental separation. A descriptive, retrospective cohort was conducted. All pregnant women with retained placenta longer than 30 minutes after fetal delivery, either in second or third trimester that received 800 mcg rectal misoprostol were included in the present study. Successful treatment was defined as spontaneous placental expulsion within 30 minutes after rectal misoprostol administration. The rate of spontaneous placental expulsion within 30 minutes after misoprostol administration was very low, only three out of 20 cases (15%). High dose rectal misoprostol does not give a promising result in cases of retained placenta. It is ineffective to facilitate placental separation in cases of retained placenta and does not seem to decrease the rate of MROP.

  8. Retroviruses facilitate the rapid evolution of the mammalian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian placenta exhibits elevated expression of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), but the evolutionary significance of this feature remains unclear. I propose that ERV-mediated regulatory evolution was, and continues to be, an important mechanism underlying the evolution of placenta development. Many recent studies have focused on the co-option of ERV-derived genes for specific functional adaptations in the placenta. However, the co-option of ERV-derived regulatory elements has the potential to co-opt entire gene regulatory networks, which, I argue, would facilitate relatively rapid developmental evolution of the placenta. I suggest a model in which an ancient retroviral infection led to the establishment of the ancestral placental developmental gene network through the co-option of ERV-derived regulatory elements. Consequently, placenta development would require elevated tolerance to ERV activity, which in turn would expose a continuous stream of novel ERV mutations that may have catalyzed the developmental diversification of the mammalian placenta. PMID:23873343

  9. Recrudescent Plasmodium berghei from pregnant mice displays enhanced binding to the placenta and induces protection in multigravida.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Claudio R F; Neres, Rita; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Gonçalves, Lígia A; Catarino, Manuela Beirão; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2009-05-20

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is associated with placenta pathology and poor pregnancy outcome but the mechanisms that control the malaria parasite expansion in pregnancy are still poorly understood and not amenable for study in human subjects. Here, we used a set of new tools to re-visit an experimental mouse model of pregnancy-induced malaria recrudescence, BALB/c with chronic Plasmodium berghei infection. During pregnancy 60% of the pre-exposed primiparous females showed pregnancy-induced malaria recrudescence and we demonstrated that the recrudescent P. berghei show an unexpected enhancement of the adherence to placenta tissue sections with a marked specificity for CSA. Furthermore, we showed that the intensity of parasitemia in primigravida was quantitatively correlated with the degree of thickening of the placental tissue and up-regulation of inflammation-related genes such as IL10. We also confirmed that the incidence of pregnancy-induced recrudescence, the intensity of the parasitemia peak and the impact on the pregnancy outcome decreased gradually from the first to the third pregnancy. Interestingly, placenta pathology and fetal impairment were also observed at low frequency among non-recrudescent females. Together, the data raise the hypothesis that recrudescent P. berghei displays selected specificity for the placenta tissue enabling on one hand, the triggering of the pathological process underlying PAM and on the other hand, the induction of PAM protection mechanisms that are revealed in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, by exploiting P. berghei pregnancy-induced recrudescence, this experimental system offers a mouse model to study the susceptibility to PAM and the mechanisms of disease protection in multigravida.

  10. Interleukin-33 in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Topping, Vanessa; Romero, Roberto; Than, Nandor Gabor; Tarca, Adi L.; Xu, Zhonghui; Kim, Sun Young; Wang, Bing; Yeo, Lami; Kim, Chong Jai; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is the newest member of the IL-1 cytokine family, a group of key regulators of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether IL-33 is expressed in the human placenta and to investigate its expression in the context of acute and chronic chorioamnionitis. Methods Placental tissues were obtained from five groups of patients: (1) normal pregnancy at term without labor (n=10); (2) normal pregnancy at term in labor (n=10); (3) preterm labor without inflammation (n=10); (4) preterm labor with acute chorioamnionitis (n=10); and (5) preterm labor with chronic chorioamnionitis (n=10). Immunostaining was performed to determine IL-33 protein expression patterns in the placental disk, chorioamniotic membranes, and umbilical cord. mRNA expression of IL-33 and its receptor IL1RL1 (ST2) was measured in primary amnion epithelial and mesenchymal cells (AECs and AMCs, n=4) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, n=4) treated with IL-1β (1ng/ml and 10ng/ml) and CXCL10 (0.5ng/ml and 1ng/ml or 5ng/ml). Results 1) Nuclear IL-33 expression was found in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the placenta, chorioamniotic membranes, and umbilical cord; 2) IL-33 was detected in the nucleus of CD14+ macrophages in the chorioamniotic membranes, chorionic plate, and umbilical cord, and in the cytoplasm of myofibroblasts in the Wharton’s jelly; 3) acute (but not chronic) chorioamnionitis was associated with the presence of IL-33+ macrophages in the chorioamniotic membranes and umbilical cord; 4) expression of IL-33 or IL1RL1 (ST2) mRNA in AECs was undetectable; 5) IL-33 mRNA expression increased in AMCs and HUVECs after IL-1β treatment but did not change with CXCL10 treatment; and 6) IL1RL1 (ST2) expression decreased in AMCs and increased in HUVECs after IL-1β but not CXCL10 treatment. Conclusions IL-33 is expressed in the nucleus of placental endothelial cells, CD14+ macrophages, and myofibroblasts in the Wharton’s jelly. IL

  11. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery for pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Ju; Shen, Jian; Jin, Jiaxi; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Wan

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery with hemostatic gelatin sponge particles to treat pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta during cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted of data from women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta who underwent direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery at a center in China between September 1, 2013, and February 28, 2015. Information regarding surgical procedures, operative data, and outcomes during hospitalization were obtained from medical records. The procedure was successful in all 16 cases included. Mean operative time was 78 minutes (range 65-90) and mean estimated blood loss was 1550 mL (range 1000-2500). Complications such as fever, buttock pain, or acute limb ischemia were not observed. The procedure was performed after partial cystectomy for two patients with bladder invasion. Postoperative Doppler imaging indicated uterine recovery and normalized uterine blood flow in all patients. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery was a safe, effective, simple, and rapid method to control hemorrhage among women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  13. Risk factors for retained placenta in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, A T; Dare, F O; Fasubaa, O B; Ogunlola, I O; Kuti, O; Bisiriyu, L A

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of, and identify independent risk factors to retained placenta in Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. This was a prospective case-control study involving 120 women with retained placenta after vaginal birth at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria over a period of seven years. Two consecutive normal deliveries after each retained placenta served as controls. Following a bivariate analysis, a multivariate logistic regression model was constructed in order to define independent risk factors for retained placenta while controlling for confounding variables. During the study period, there were 120 cases of retained placenta, and the total number of deliveries was 6,160, making the incidence 1.9 percent. Independent risk factors associated with retained placenta include non-use of antenatal care (odds-ratio [OR] 22.71, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 10.5-49.12, p-value is less than 0.000), previous retained placenta (OR 15.22, 95 percent CI 3.30-70.19, p-value is less than 0.000), previous caesarean section (OR 12.00, 95 percent CI 2.05-70.19, p-value is less than 0.006), maternal age 35 years or more (OR 7.10, 95 percent CI 1.5-32.40, p-values is less than 0.012), grand multiparity (OR 6.63, 95 percent CI 1.88-23.40, p-value is less than 0.003), previous dilatation and curettage (OR 4.44, 95 percent CI 1.69-11.63, p-value is less than 0.002), preterm delivery (OR 3.12, 95 percent CI 1.12-8.68, p-value is less than 0.029) and placenta weight less than 501 g (OR 2.91, 95 percent CI 1.34-6.32, p-value is less than 0.007). Women with identifiable risk factors should be targeted for the prevention of retained placenta. There is a need for the training of birth attendants in the proper conduct of delivery and third stage of labour to prevent placenta retention and postpartum haemorrhage.

  14. Cervical Length in Patients at Risk for Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Rac, Martha W F; McIntire, Donald D; Wells, C Edward; Moschos, Elysia; Twickler, Diane D

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate cervical length measurements in women with placenta accreta compared to women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa and evaluate this relationship in terms of vaginal bleeding, preterm labor, and preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study between 1997 and 2011 of gravidas with more than 1 prior cesarean delivery who had a transvaginal ultrasound examination between 24 and 34 weeks for a low-lying placenta or placenta previa. Cervical length was measured from archived images in accordance with national guidelines by a single investigator, who was blinded to outcomes and ultrasound reports. The diagnosis of placental accreta was based on histologic confirmation. For study purposes, preterm birth was defined as less than 36 weeks, and cervical lengths of 3 cm or less were considered short. Standard statistical analyses were used. A total of 125 patients met inclusion criteria. The cohort was divided into patients with (n = 43 [34%]) and without (n = 82 [66%]) placenta accreta and stratified by gestational age at the ultrasound examinations. Women with placenta accreta had shorter cervical length measurements during their 32- to 34-week ultrasound examinations (mean ± SD, 3.23 ± 0.98 versus 3.95 ± 1.0 cm; P < .01) and were more likely to have a short cervix of 3 cm or less (P = .001). However, these findings did not correlate with the degree of invasion (P = .3), or higher rates of vaginal bleeding and preterm labor (P = .19) resulting in preterm birth before 36 weeks (P = .64). Women with placenta accreta had shorter cervical lengths at 32 to 34 weeks than women with a nonadherent low-lying placenta or placenta previa, but this finding did not correlate with a higher risk of vaginal bleeding or preterm labor resulting in preterm birth before 36 weeks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. [Influence of valproic acid (depakine I.V.) on human placenta metabolism--experimental model].

    PubMed

    Semczuk-Sikora, Anna; Rogowska, Wanda; Semczuk, Marian

    2003-08-01

    The pregnancy in women with epilepsy is associated with an increased incidence of congenital malformations in offspring. Currently, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are concerned to be a major etiologic factor of abnormal fetal development but the pathomechanism of teratogenicity of AEDs is complex and not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an influence of one of the AED-valproic acid (VPA) on placental metabolism (glucose consumption and lactate production). Term human placental cotyledons were perfused in vitro using a recycling perfusion of maternal and fetal circulations. A total 18 placentas were perfused either with 75 micrograms/ml of VPA (therapeutic dose) or with 225 micrograms/ml of VPA (toxic dose). Eight placentas were perfused with a medium without VPA and served as controls. During 2.5 h of experiment, both maternal and fetal glucose consumption and lactate production were measured every 30 minutes. The introduction of different concentrations of VPA into the perfusion system did not effect placental glucose consumption and lactate production rates in both maternal and fetal compartments. The teratogenic effect of valproic acid is not associated with metabolic disturbances of glucose or lactate in the placental tissue.

  16. Exercise Adherence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Pat

    This digest discusses exercise adherence, noting its vital role in maximizing the benefits associated with physical activity. Information is presented on the following: (1) factors that influence adherence to self-monitored programs of regular exercise (childhood eating habits, and psychological, physical, social, and situational factors); (2)…

  17. The cervix as a natural tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    El Gelany, Saad A A; Abdelraheim, Ahmed R; Mohammed, Mo'men M; Gad El-Rab, Mohammed T; Yousef, Ayman M; Ibrahim, Emad M; Khalifa, Eissa M

    2015-11-11

    Placenta previa and placenta accreta carry significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Several techniques have been described in the literature for controlling massive bleeding associated with placenta previa cesarean sections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the use of the cervix as a natural tamponade in controlling postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta. This prospective study was conducted on 40 pregnant women admitted to our hospital between June 2012 and November 2014. All participating women had one or more previous cesarean deliveries and were diagnosed with placenta previa and/or placenta previa accreta. Significant bleeding from the placental bed during cesarean section was managed by inverting the cervix into the uterine cavity and suturing the anterior and/or the posterior cervical lips into the anterior and/or posterior walls of the lower uterine segment. The technique of cervical inversion described above was successful in stopping the bleeding in 38 out of 40 patients; yielding a success rate of 95%. We resorted to hysterectomy in only two cases (5%). The mean intra-operative blood loss was 1572.5 mL, and the mean number of blood units transfused was 3.1. The mean time needed to perform the technique was 5.4 ± 0.6 min. The complications encountered were as follows: bladder injury in the two patients who underwent hysterectomy and wound infection in one patient. Postoperative fever that responded to antibiotics occurred in 1 patient. The mean duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 days This technique of using the cervix as a natural tamponade appears to be safe, simple, time-saving and potentially effective method for controlling the severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) caused by placenta previa/placenta previa accreta. This technique deserves to be one of the tools in the hands of obstetricians who face the life-threatening hemorrhage of placenta

  18. Evaluation of interobserver variability and diagnostic performance of developed MRI-based radiological scoring system for invasive placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Utaru; Tanimura, Kenji; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Suenaga, Yuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Hideto; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the interobserver variability and diagnostic performance of a developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based scoring system for invasive placenta previa. Prenatal MR images of 70 women were retrospectively evaluated, 18 of whom were diagnosed with invasive placenta. The six MR features (dark band on T2 -weighted images, intraplacental abnormal vascularity, placental bulge, heterogeneous placenta, myometrial thinning, and placental protrusion sign) were scored on 5-point Likert scale separately, and the cumulative radiological score (CRS) was defined as the sum of each score. Two more experienced radiologists (readers A and B) and two less experienced residents (readers C and D) calculated the CRS. Interobserver variability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Interobserver variability for CRS was excellent for the more experienced radiologists (0.85), and good for all readers (0.72) and the less experienced residents (0.66). The area under the ROC curve (Az) and accuracy (Acc) for CRS were significantly higher or equivalent to those of other MR features for all readers (Az and Acc for reader A; CRS, 0.92, 91.4%; intraplacental T2 dark band, 0.83, P = 0.009, 81.4%, P = 0.03; intraplacental abnormal vascularity, 0.9, P = 0.3, 90.0%, P = 1.00; placental bulge, 0.81, P = 0.0008, 80.0%, P = 0.02; heterogeneous placenta, 0.85, P = 0.11, 74.3%, P = 0.002; myometrial thinning, 0.84, P = 0.06, 60.0%, P < 0.0001; placental protrusion sign, 0.81, P = 0.01, 81.4%, P = 0.26). This developed MRI-based scoring system demonstrated excellent or good interobserver variability, and good diagnostic performance for invasive placenta previa. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:573-583. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Low expression of soluble human leukocyte antigen G in early gestation and subsequent placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marozio, Luca; Garofalo, Anna; Berchialla, Paola; Tavella, Anna Maria; Salton, Loredana; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal placentation is a common pathogenic mechanism of many placenta-mediated complications of late pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, and placental abruption. During successful placentation, the trophoblast (which is a semi-allograft) is not rejected by decidual immune cells because of maternal immune tolerance, mainly induced by human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G). Deficient HLA-G expression seems to be associated with the development of complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether low soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels in maternal blood at the beginning of pregnancy may be associated with subsequent placenta-mediated complications. For this retrospective case-control study, 117 cases of placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy and 234 controls with uneventful pregnancy were selected. Plasma sHLA-G levels were measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in blood samples previously obtained at first-trimester prenatal screening for chromosomal fetal abnormalities. Women who subsequently developed placenta-mediated complications had significantly lower sHLA-G levels at the beginning of pregnancy (median, 43.08 IU/mL) than controls (median, 49.10 IU/mL; P = 0.008). An sHLA-G level lower than 43.50 IU/mL at the end of the first trimester was associated with a twofold increased risk of developing a pregnancy complication (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.73). The strongest association, although only moderately strong, was observed with severe pre-eclampsia (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.56). Placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy may be associated with low sHLA-G levels in the first trimester, suggesting a potential role of sHLA-G in the early stages of placentation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Medication Adherence: WHO Cares?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marie T.; Bussell, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of chronic illnesses commonly includes the long-term use of pharmacotherapy. Although these medications are effective in combating disease, their full benefits are often not realized because approximately 50% of patients do not take their medications as prescribed. Factors contributing to poor medication adherence are myriad and include those that are related to patients (eg, suboptimal health literacy and lack of involvement in the treatment decision–making process), those that are related to physicians (eg, prescription of complex drug regimens, communication barriers, ineffective communication of information about adverse effects, and provision of care by multiple physicians), and those that are related to health care systems (eg, office visit time limitations, limited access to care, and lack of health information technology). Because barriers to medication adherence are complex and varied, solutions to improve adherence must be multifactorial. To assess general aspects of medication adherence using cardiovascular disease as an example, a MEDLINE-based literature search (January 1, 1990, through March 31, 2010) was conducted using the following search terms: cardiovascular disease, health literacy, medication adherence, and pharmacotherapy. Manual sorting of the 405 retrieved articles to exclude those that did not address cardiovascular disease, medication adherence, or health literacy in the abstract yielded 127 articles for review. Additional references were obtained from citations within the retrieved articles. This review surveys the findings of the identified articles and presents various strategies and resources for improving medication adherence. PMID:21389250

  1. The risk of placenta accreta following primary cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Zeevi, Gil; Tirosh, Dan; Baron, Joel; Sade, Maayan Yitshak; Segal, Adi; Hershkovitz, Reli

    2018-05-01

    To (a) evaluate the risk for placenta accreta following primary cesarean section (CS), in regard to the stage of labor, the cesarean section was taken (elective prelabor vs. unplanned during labor); and (b) investigate whether the association between placenta accreta and maternal and neonatal complications is modified by the type of the primary CS. In a population-based retrospective cohort study, we included all singleton deliveries occurred in Soroka University Medical Center between 1991 and 2015, of women who had a history of a single CS. The deliveries were divided into three groups according to the delivery stage the primary CS was carried out: 'Unplanned 1' (first stage-up to 10 cm), 'Unplanned 2' (second stage-10 cm) and 'Elective' prelabor CS. We assessed the association between the study group and placenta accreta using logistic generalized estimation equation (GEE) models. We additionally assessed maternal and neonatal complications associated with placenta accreta among women who had elective and unplanned CS separately. We included 22,036 deliveries to 13,727 women with a history of one CS, of which 0.9% (n = 207) had placenta accreta in the following pregnancies: 12% (n = 25) in the 'Unplanned 1' group, 7.2% (n = 15) in the ' Unplanned 2' group and 80.8% (n = 167) in the 'elective' group. We found no difference in the risk for subsequent placenta accreta between the groups. In a stratified analysis by the timing of the primary cesarean delivery, the risk for maternal complications, associated with placenta accreta, was more pronounced among women who had an unplanned CS (OR 27.96, P < 0.01) compared to women who had an elective cesarean delivery (OR 13.72, P < 0.01). The stage in which CS is performed has no influence on the risk for placenta accreta in the following pregnancies, women who had an unplanned CS are in a higher risk for placenta accrete-associated maternal complications. This should be taken into consideration while

  2. Which type of placenta previa requires blood transfusion more frequently? A new concept of indiscernible edge total previa.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yosuke; Takahashi, Hironori; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    During cesarean section (CS) for placenta previa (PP), the size/area/portion of the lower uterine segment occupied by the placenta may affect the bleeding amount and the subsequent need for a blood transfusion (BT). We propose a new concept, indiscernible edge total PP (IEPP), when vaginal ultrasound does not discern the lower placental edge because the placenta covers the visible lower segment. We characterized IEPP, focusing on its allogeneic BT requirement. We classified PP (n = 307) into four types: marginal, partial, discernible edge total PP (DEPP) and IEPP: internal ostium (os)-placental edge distance measurable or unmeasurable on vaginal ultrasound in DEPP or IEPP, respectively. We determined the clinical characteristics according to the four types; the relationship between the intraoperative blood loss and os-edge distance in DEPP; and risk factors for allogeneic BT. The following were significantly higher/larger in cases of IEPP: previous CS; anterior placentation; lacunae; elective cesarean hysterectomy; intraoperative blood loss; autologous BT; allogeneic BT; intensive care unit admission; and an abnormally invasive placenta (AIP). In DEPP, the os-edge distance was weakly correlated with the bleeding amount (r = 0.214). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that previous CS, lacunae, AIP and IEPP were independent risk factors for allogeneic BT (odds ratios 3.8, 3.1, 13.8 and 4.6, respectively). After excluding patients undergoing hemostatic procedures during CS, IEPP remained the only independent risk factor for allogeneic BT (odds ratio 5.2). The new concept of IEPP may be useful for predicting BT in CS for patients with PP. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Fertility and obstetric outcome after conservative management of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Provansal, Magali; Courbiere, Blandine; Agostini, Aubert; D'Ercole, Claude; Boubli, Léon; Bretelle, Florence

    2010-05-01

    To determine the fertility and obstetric outcomes after conservative management of placenta accreta. A retrospective observational cohort study of all identified cases of placenta accreta from 1993 to 2007 in 2 tertiary university hospitals in France. For patients treated conservatively, maternal and fetal morbidity, reproductive function, fertility, and subsequent pregnancies were recorded. During the study period, 46 patients were treated by conservative management; 6 patients underwent a secondary hysterectomy. Of the remaining 40 patients, 35 were followed up for a median of 65 months (range 18-156 months). Patients resumed their menstrual cycles after a median of 130 days (range 48-176 days). Menses were irregular in 11 patients (31%), but none had amenorrhea. Twelve of the 14 patients desiring another pregnancy achieved a total of 15 pregnancies; 2 patients had recurrent placenta accreta. Five spontaneous abortions and 1 termination of pregnancy occurred during the first trimester. The median term at delivery was 37 weeks (range, 35-40 weeks). Four patients delivered prematurely. Conservative management of placenta accreta can preserve fertility, although the risk of recurrent placenta accreta appears to be high. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acupuncture for retained placenta: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Djakovic, Ivka; Bilic, Nada

    2014-12-01

    A placenta is considered to be retained when it remains undelivered 30 or 60 min after the birth of the baby following active or physiological management of the third stage of labour, respectively. It can be life threatening for the mother. We retrospectively examined the influence of acupuncture on the delivery of retained placentas in the third stage of labour in 70 women. In all cases the third stage of labour was actively managed, and acupuncture was provided 30 min after delivery at points KI16 and SP6 for 15 min. After acupuncture 77% of placentas separated successfully. In 10% of cases some retained placental tissue was detected and manual removal of the avulsed cotyledon was performed, while in 13% the entire placenta was retained and manual removal of the placenta under general anaesthesia was necessary. Acupuncture may help to facilitate placental separation but further controlled trials are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

  6. A Comprehensive Surgical Procedure in Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Kelekci, Sefa; Ekmekci, Emre; Aydogmus, Serpil; Gencdal, Servet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to present a combined surgical procedure in conservative treatment of placenta accreta based on surgical outcomes in our cohort of patients. The study was designed as a prospective cohort series study. The setting involved two education and research hospitals in Turkey. This study included 12 patients with placenta accreta who were prenatally diagnosed and managed. We offered the patients the choice of conservative or nonconservative treatment. We then offered 2 choices for patients who had preferred conservative treatment, leaving the placenta in situ as is the classical procedure, or our surgical procedure. One patient preferred nonconservative treatment, the others opted for our procedure. We evaluated demographic and obstetric characteristics of patients, sonographic and operative parameters of patients, and surgical outcomes. We operated on 11 patients using this surgical procedure that we have developed for placenta accreta cases. We found that there was no need for hysterectomy in any patient, and we preserved the uterus for all of these patients. No patient presented any septic complication or secondary vaginal bleeding. Our surgical procedure seems to be effective and useful in the conservative treatment of placenta accreta. PMID:25700315

  7. The placenta. Not just a conduit for maternal fuels.

    PubMed

    Hay, W W

    1991-12-01

    The placenta is a specialized organ of exchange that provides nutrients to and excretes waste products from the fetus. The exchange of nutrients between placenta and fetus involves three major mechanisms: 1) direct transfer of nutrients from the maternal to the fetal plasma, 2) placental consumption of nutrients, and 3) placental conversion of nutrients to alternate substrate forms. Although direct transfer has been considered the primary means by which placental-fetal exchange controls the supply of nutrients to the fetus and thereby fetal metabolism and growth, the considerable metabolic activity of the placenta provides a large and fundamentally important contribution to both the quality and quantity of nutrient substrates supplied to the fetus; e.g., placental O2 and glucose consumption rates approach or even exceed those of brain and tumor tissue. Other placental metabolic activities include glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, oxidation, protein synthesis, amino acid interconversion, triglyceride synthesis, and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. Thus, consideration of the metabolism of the placenta is essential for a more complete understanding of how the placenta regulates nutrient transfer to the fetus, fetal energy balance, and fetal growth.

  8. Smoking and placenta previa: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies found a positive association between placenta previa and smoking during pregnancy. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. The aim was to perform meta-analysis of the association between smoking during pregnancy and placenta previa. Major electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched until June 2015. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The possibility of publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 991 publications until October 2015 with 9,094,443 participants. Based on the random effect model, compared to nonsmoker women, the estimated OR and RR of placenta previa was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.54) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.35), respectively. There is sufficient documents based on the observational studies that smoking during pregnancy is significantly associated with an increased risk of placenta previa. Therefore, smoking during pregnancy can be considered as a predictor of placenta previa.

  9. The uterine leiomyoma and placenta previa: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Fereidooni, Bita

    2017-11-21

    Some epidemiological studies have reported that uterine leiomyoma may increase the risk of placenta previa. To date, the meta-analysis has not been carried out for assessing the relationship between uterine leiomyoma and placenta previa. This meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the association between uterine leiomyoma and the risk of placenta previa. A systematic search was conducted out in major databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to June 2017. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed by Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were showed using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. The literature search included 1218 articles until to June 2017 with 255,886 women. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, there was significant association between uterine leiomyoma and placenta previa in studies adjusted (2.21; 95%CI: 1.48, 2.94). We showed based on reports in observational studies that uterine leiomyoma is a risk factor for placenta previa in studies adjusted.

  10. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  11. [Clinical efficacy and safety of uterine artery chemoembolization in abnormal placental implantation complicated with postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-ting; Xu, Lin-feng; Sun, Hong-liang; Li, Hui-qing; Hu, Ren-mei; Tan, Qi-yin

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of uterime artery chemoembolization in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) caused by abnormal placental implantation. Between December 2006 and September 2009, there were 23 cases of abnormal placental implantation with PPH in our hospital, among which 9 presented with continuous small amount of vaginal bleeding and 14 with acute excessive bleeding. The average bleeding time was (8+/-6) d and the mean blood loss was (980+/-660) ml. Abnormal placental implantation was confirmed by color Doppler ultrasound (CD-US) in all cases, the internal iliac artery angiography was performed to identify the uterine artery and bilateral uterine artery chemoembolization (UACE) with methotrexate (MTX) and gelfoam particles to the distal end of uterine artery was conducted after. CD-US rechecked all patients within 48 h after UACE and those patients with blurred margins between placenta and uterus and abnormal blood flow (>1 cmx1 cm) received ultrasonic-guided per vagina MTX multipoint injections. All cases were followed up for 3-26 months (average 12 months) to observe vaginal bleeding, placenta tissue discharge, serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), uterine involution, menses, and side-effects or complications. (1) Curative effect: These 23 cases underwent 24 procedures of UACE successfully and vaginal bleeding ceased at an average of (3.5+/-1.3) min after UACE. Reduced blood flow in the placental implantation area was detected under CD-US after UACE. Among the 23 patients, wterine curettage was required in 16 cases due to retained placenta tissues with the mean blood loss of (40+/-28) ml during the operation, 2 underwent subtotal hysterectomy and confirmed to be placenta percreta by pathology examination, and placenta tissues were spontaneously discharged completely in 5 cases. Totally, 91% of the patients (21/23) reserved their uterus. (2) FOLLOW-UP: the serum hCG reduced to normal within 1-13 d after the placenta tissue were evacuated

  12. [Sequential preparation of microvlllous and basal membranes from human placenta].

    PubMed

    Long, Ning; Xing, Ai-yun; Yang, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Rong; Wu, Lin

    2010-03-01

    To improve the technology of isolating paired fractions of the maternal-facing membranes (MVM) and fetal-facing plasma membranes (BM) from a term placenta. The component of buffer was improved based on Illsley method. The time of Mg2+ -aggregated basal membranes was extended. MVM were obtained from the supernatant of low speed centrifugation while BM were further purified on a sucrose step gradient. Yield for MVM and BM prepared by the method were (0.55 +/- 10.10) mg/g and (0.54 +/- 0.02) mg/g wet weight of placenta. They were enriched 16.87-fold and 11.19-fold as determined by the membrane marker enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (MVM) and adenylate cyclase (BM). The modified Illsley method can easily produce both MVM and BM of satisfied quantity from human placenta. It could be applied as a cell molecular model of maternal-fetal exchange interface.

  13. Advanced MR Imaging of the Placenta: Exploring the in utero placenta-brain connection

    PubMed Central

    Andescavage, Nickie Niforatos; DuPlessis, Adre; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is a vital organ necessary for the healthy neurodevelopment of the fetus. Despite the known associations between placental dysfunction and neurologic impairment, there is a paucity of tools available to reliably assess in vivo placental health and function. Existing clinical tools for placental assessment remain insensitive in predicting and assessing placental well-being. Advanced MRI techniques hold significant promise for the dynamic, non-invasive, real-time assessment of placental health and identification of early placental-based disorders. In this review, we summarize the available clinical tools for placental assessment including ultrasound, Doppler, and conventional MRI. We then explore the emerging role of advanced placental MR imaging techniques for supporting the developing fetus, appraise the strengths and limitations of quantitative MRI in identifying early markers of placental dysfunction for improved pregnancy monitoring and fetal outcomes. PMID:25765905

  14. Type and location of placenta previa affect preterm delivery risk related to antepartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Kawabata, Ikuno; Hayashi, Masako; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether type and location of placenta previa affect risk of antepartum hemorrhage-related preterm delivery. We retrospectively studied 162 women with singleton pregnancies presenting placenta previa. Through observation using transvaginal ultrasound the women were categorized into complete or incomplete placenta previa, and then assigned to anterior and posterior groups. Complete placenta previa was defined as a placenta that completely covered the internal cervical os, with the placental margin >2 cm from the os. Incomplete placenta previa comprised marginal placenta previa whose margin adjacent to the internal os and partial placenta previa which covered the os but the margin situated within 2 cm of the os. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in complete and incomplete placenta previa were compared, and the differences between the anterior and the posterior groups were evaluated. Antepartum hemorrhage was more prevalent in women with complete placenta previa than in those with incomplete placenta previa (59.1% versus 17.6%), resulting in the higher incidence of preterm delivery in women with complete than in those with incomplete placenta previa [45.1% versus 8.8%; odds ratio (OR) 8.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-20.18; p < 0.001]. In complete placenta previa, incidence of antepartum hemorrhage did not significantly differ between the anterior and the posterior groups. However, gestational age at bleeding onset was lower in the anterior group than in the posterior group, and the incidence of preterm delivery was higher in the anterior group than in the posterior group (76.2% versus 32.0%; OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.12-21.84; p = 0.002). In incomplete placenta previa, gestational age at delivery did not significantly differ between the anterior and posterior groups. Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of preterm delivery related to antepartum hemorrhage in women with complete placenta previa, particularly when the placenta is

  15. Type and Location of Placenta Previa Affect Preterm Delivery Risk Related to Antepartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Kawabata, Ikuno; Hayashi, Masako; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether type and location of placenta previa affect risk of antepartum hemorrhage-related preterm delivery. Methods: We retrospectively studied 162 women with singleton pregnancies presenting placenta previa. Through observation using transvaginal ultrasound the women were categorized into complete or incomplete placenta previa, and then assigned to anterior and posterior groups. Complete placenta previa was defined as a placenta that completely covered the internal cervical os, with the placental margin >2 cm from the os. Incomplete placenta previa comprised marginal placenta previa whose margin adjacent to the internal os and partial placenta previa which covered the os but the margin situated within 2 cm of the os. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in complete and incomplete placenta previa were compared, and the differences between the anterior and the posterior groups were evaluated. Results: Antepartum hemorrhage was more prevalent in women with complete placenta previa than in those with incomplete placenta previa (59.1% versus 17.6%), resulting in the higher incidence of preterm delivery in women with complete than in those with incomplete placenta previa [45.1% versus 8.8%; odds ratio (OR) 8.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-20.18; p < 0.001]. In complete placenta previa, incidence of antepartum hemorrhage did not significantly differ between the anterior and the posterior groups. However, gestational age at bleeding onset was lower in the anterior group than in the posterior group, and the incidence of preterm delivery was higher in the anterior group than in the posterior group (76.2% versus 32.0%; OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.12-21.84; p = 0.002). In incomplete placenta previa, gestational age at delivery did not significantly differ between the anterior and posterior groups. Conclusion: Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of preterm delivery related to antepartum hemorrhage in women with complete placenta

  16. Scaling of the surface vasculature on the human placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, A. S.; Lee, J.; Schubert, D.; Croen, L. A.; Fallin, M. D.; Newschaffer, C. J.; Walker, C. K.; Salafia, C. M.; Morgan, S. P.; Vvedensky, D. D.

    2017-10-01

    The networks of veins and arteries on the chorionic plate of the human placenta are analyzed in terms of Voronoi cells derived from these networks. Two groups of placentas from the United States are studied: a population cohort with no prescreening, and a cohort from newborns with an elevated risk of developing autistic spectrum disorder. Scaled distributions of the Voronoi cell areas in the two cohorts collapse onto a single distribution, indicating common mechanisms for the formation of the complete vasculatures, but which have different levels of activity in the two cohorts.

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. [Application of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Cui, S H; Zhi, Y X; Zhang, K; Zhang, L D; Shen, L N; Gao, Y N

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the value of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2016, 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta were treated with temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta(the study group)before cesarean, and 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta did not receive balloon occlusion(the control group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume, the perioperative hemoglobin level, the hysterectomy rate and the related complications were compared retrospectively.Also, the hospitalization time, the blood coagulation parameters after operation, including activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer and reperfusion injury parameters including creatine phosphokinase(CK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and serum creatinine were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The blood loss[750 ml(400- 2 000 ml)vs 2 000 ml(1 500- 2 375 ml); Z =-3.214, P =0.001]and blood transfusion volume[200 ml(0-800 ml)vs 800 ml(0-1 200 ml); Z =- 2.173, P =0.030]in the study group were lower than in the control group. The hemoglobin difference between before and after operation in the study group was lower than the control group[(12.8±13.4)g/L vs(22.9±20.1)g/L; t =-2.041, P =0.047]. In the study group, there were still bleeding in 13 cases after releasing the balloon, 5 of them received uterine artery embolization, 5 cases received uterine artery ligation, and 3 cases received uterine packing. One case had venous thrombosis in the right lower limb. Two cases(8%,2/24)in the control group had hysterectomy, while none in the study group, there was no statistical significance( P = 0.489). Conclusions: Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively reduce blood loss and blood transfusion in the

  19. Factors Associated with Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Laura J.; Moorman, Patricia G.; Wordlaw-Stintson, Lashawn; Vidal, Adriana; Smith, Jennifer S.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the gaps in knowledge about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, transmission, and health consequences and factors associated with the knowledge gap is an essential first step for the development of interventions to improve adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Purpose: To examine the relationship…

  20. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we f...

  1. Pervasive polymorphic imprinted methylation in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Courtney W.; Peñaherrera, Maria S.; Saadeh, Heba; Andrews, Simon; McFadden, Deborah E.; Kelsey, Gavin; Robinson, Wendy P.

    2016-01-01

    The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development, and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are monoallelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilization. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting, and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs in the human placenta and investigated the dynamics of these imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extraembryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 134 human tissue samples, publicly available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. Forty-three known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploid conceptions in addition to female and male gametes. Seventy-two novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting, and this monoallelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation between placental samples. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation. PMID:26769960

  2. Can venous ProBNP levels predict placenta accreta?

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ebru; Erkenekli, Kudret; Uygur, Dilek; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-12-01

    Placenta previa (PP) is a potential life-threatening pregnancy complication. Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (ProBNP), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac form of CK (CK-MB) and Troponin I are circulatory biomarkers related to cardiac functions. We aimed to determine whether these biomarkers are related to PP and placenta accreta. In this case-control study, fifty-four pregnant women who attended our tertiary care center for perinatology with the diagnosis of PP totalis, and of them, 14 patients with placenta accreta were recruited as the study groups. Forty-six uncomplicated control patients who were matched for age, BMI were also included. Maternal venous ProBNP, CK, CK-MB and Troponin I levels were compared between the three groups. Obstetric history characteristics were comparable among groups, generally. CK and CK-MB levels were similar among three groups. Troponin I levels in the previa and accreta groups were significantly higher than the controls. ProBNP levels in the accreta group were significantly higher than other two groups. The multivariate regression model revealed that ProBNP could predict placental adhesion anomalies. Troponin I and ProBNP levels in PP cases were higher than controls and ProBNP could predict placenta accreta.

  3. Epidemiology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Garmi, Gali; Salim, Raed

    2012-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a severe pregnancy complication and is currently the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. It is becoming an increasingly common complication mainly due to the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Main risk factor for placenta accreta is a previous cesarean delivery particularly when accompanied with a coexisting placenta previa. Antenatal diagnosis seems to be a key factor in optimizing maternal outcome. Diagnosis can be achieved by ultrasound in the majority of cases. Women with placenta accreta are usually delivered by a cesarean section. In order to avoid an emergency cesarean and to minimize complications of prematurity it is acceptable to schedule cesarean at 34 to 35 weeks. A multidisciplinary team approach and delivery at a center with adequate resources, including those for massive transfusion are both essential to reduce neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The optimal management after delivery of the neonate is vague since randomized controlled trials and large cohort studies are lacking. Cesarean hysterectomy is probably the preferable treatment. In carefully selected cases, when fertility is desired, conservative management may be considered with caution. The current review discusses the epidemiology, predisposing factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and management options of this condition. PMID:22645616

  4. Active and passive transport of drugs in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Stanisław; Pałasz, Artur; Kamiński, Marcin

    2009-10-01

    The human placenta, characterized by the processes of passive transport and facilitated diffusion, contains numerous active transport proteins, usually located in the microvilli of the syncytiotrophoblast or in the endothelium of the capillaries of the villi. These proteins use either the energy from ATP hydrolysis or other mechanisms resulting, among others, from the formation of the maternofetal ion gradient, which facilitates the transfer of various endogenous substances or xenobiotics across the body membranes. The proteins either trigger the efflux of these substances from the fetal tissues via the placenta into the maternal bloodstream, or conversely they accumulate them in the fetal tissues. Both the placenta and the fetus are equipped with independent systems of enzymes of 1st and 2nd phase of substrate metabolism, such as CYP450, glucuronyltransferase or sulphatase. An active therapy with a wide range of drugs, often at high toxicity levels, either shortly before or during pregnancy, has naturally posed a question concerning the degree of impermeability of the placental barrier and how effectively it can be crossed, including any possible negative embryotoxic or teratogenic consequences. Such hazards seem to be quite real, as many drugs are substrates for ABC transporters. Also the placenta itself, including its structure, is subject to vast transformations during pregnancy which may be observed as the thinning of the barrier separating the maternal blood from the fetal one, from 20-30 microm in the first trimester of gestation down to 2-4 microm in the third trimester of gestation.

  5. [Adherence in specific immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lemberg, M-L; Joisten, M-J; Mösges, R

    2017-04-01

    Allergies are steadily gaining in importance in the Western world. For over one hundred years, immunology has been the only causal treatment. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) aims at the cure of allergy or at least freedom from allergy symptoms. In association with this, adherence poses a complex problem. Both treatment applications commonly used in Germany-sublingual and subcutaneous immunotherapy-show poor persistence on the part of the patients. In most cases, SIT is not carried out to the end of the recommended duration and instead is discontinued prematurely. Corresponding figures from 3‑year studies in the literature range from 41- 93% for uncompleted SLIT and from 40-77% for uncompleted SCIT. Patient adherence is subject to influencing factors of various dimensions that are interdependent in complex relationships. The physician-patient relationship is just as decisive a factor for treatment success as the patient's understanding of allergy, treatment, and the importance of adherence.

  6. Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries, endothelial and trophoblast cell activation, and acute atherosis in the basal plate of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Labarrere, Carlos A; DiCarlo, Hector L; Bammerlin, Elaine; Hardin, James W; Kim, Yeon M; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Haas, David M; Kassab, Ghassan S; Romero, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    were blinded to clinical diagnosis. Pairwise comparisons among placenta groups were performed with Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test using a Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance (.025). We found that 87% (94/108) of placentas having spiral arteries with failure of physiologic transformation (actin-positive and cytokeratin-negative) in the basal plate, and 0% (0/15) of placentas having only spiral arteries with complete physiologic transformation (cytokeratin-positive and actin-negative), had arterial endothelial and/or interstitial extravillous trophoblasts reactive with the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 activation marker (P < .001). A significant correlation (R 2  = 0.84) was found between expression of spiral artery endothelial and interstitial extravillous trophoblast intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P < .001) in activated placentas. Lesions of atherosis were found in 31.9% (30/94) of placentas with complete and/or partial failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries that were intercellular adhesion molecule-1-positive, in none of the 14 placentas with failure of physiologic transformation that were intercellular adhesion molecule-1-negative, and in none of the 15 placentas with complete spiral artery physiologic transformation without failure (P = .001). All placentas (30/30, 100%) with atherosis were identified in placentas having concomitant spiral artery endothelial and interstitial extravillous trophoblast activation. Failure of spiral artery physiologic transformation in the placental basal plate is associated with interstitial extravillous trophoblast and arterial endothelial activation along with increased frequency of spiral artery atherosis. These findings may be used to improve the characterization of different disorders of the placental bed such as in refining the existing tools for the early prediction of risk for preterm, preeclamptic, and other abnormal pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries, endothelial and trophoblast cell activation, and acute atherosis in the basal plate of the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Labarrere, Carlos A.; DiCarlo, Hector L.; Bammerlin, Elaine; Hardin, James W.; Kim, Yeon Mee; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Haas, David M.; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Romero, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    examining microscopic sections were blinded to clinical diagnosis. Pairwise comparisons among placenta groups were performed with the Fisher’s exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests using a Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance (.025). Results 87% (94/108) of placentas having spiral arteries with failure of physiologic transformation (actin-positive and cytokeratin-negative) in the basal plate, and 0% (0/15) of placentas having only spiral arteries with complete physiologic transformation (cytokeratin-positive and actin-negative), had arterial endothelial and/or interstitial extravillous trophoblasts reactive with the ICAM-1 activation marker (P < .001). A significant correlation (R2 = 0.84) was found between expression of spiral artery endothelial and interstitial extravillous trophoblast ICAM-1 (P < .001) in activated placentas. Lesions of atherosis were found in 31.9% (30/94) of placentas with complete and/or partial failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries that were ICAM-1-positive, in none of the 14 placentas with failure of physiologic transformation that were ICAM-1-negative, and in none of the 15 placentas with complete spiral artery physiologic transformation without failure (P = .001). All placentas (30/30, 100%) with atherosis were identified in placentas having concomitant spiral artery endothelial and interstitial extravillous trophoblast activation. Conclusion Failure of spiral artery physiologic transformation in the placental basal plate is associated with interstitial extravillous trophoblast and arterial endothelial activation along with increased frequency of spiral artery atherosis. These findings may be used to improve the characterization of different disorders of the placental bed such as in refining the existing tools for the early prediction of risk for preterm, preeclamptic, and other abnormal pregnancies. PMID:28034657

  8. Extravillous trophoblast invasion in placenta accreta is associated with differential local expression of angiogenic and growth factors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duzyj, C M; Buhimschi, I A; Laky, C A; Cozzini, G; Zhao, G; Wehrum, M; Buhimschi, C S

    2018-02-22

    Placenta accreta is clinically associated with maternal uterine scar. Our objective was to investigate the biochemical contribution of maternal scarring to hyperinvasive trophoblast. We hypothesised that trophoblast over-invasion in placenta accreta is associated with aberrant invasion-site signalling of growth and angiogenic factors known to be involved in wound healing and promotion of cell invasion through the epithelial to mesenchymal cellular programme. Cross-sectional series. Yale-New Haven Hospital. Women with histologically confirmed normal and abnormal placentation. Placental invasion site tissue sections were immunostained for endoglin and other angiogenic regulators, and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) proteins. Maternal serum endoglin, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mediators hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) and endostatin, were assessed using immunoassay. Differences in median H-score by immunostaining and in mean serum level by immunoassay. By immunostaining, placenta accreta samples demonstrated intervillous endoglin shedding and increased trophoblast expression of its cleavage protein matrix metalloproteinase-14. Absent decidual HIF1α and endostatin were observed in areas of VEGF upregulation. TGFβ1 was present in myocytes but not in collagen bundles into which accreta trophoblast invaded. Maternal serum endoglin decreased in praevia and accreta when corrected for gestational age. Angiogenic and growth factors at the placental invasion site are altered in accreta, both by decidual absence and within myometrial scar. We postulate this promotes the invasive phenotype of placenta accreta by activating hyperinvasive trophoblast and by dysregulating placental vascular remodelling. Yale Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences funds. Placenta accreta histology shows dysregulation of angiogenic and growth factors. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Creatine biosynthesis and transport by the term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; Della Gatta, Paul A; Bruce, Clinton R; Kowalski, Greg M; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Mockler, Joanne C; Murthi, Padma; Walker, David W; Snow, Rod J; Dickinson, Hayley

    2017-04-01

    Creatine is an amino acid derivative that is involved in preserving ATP homeostasis. Previous studies suggest an important role for the creatine kinase circuit for placental ATP turnover. Creatine is obtained from both the diet and endogenous synthesis, usually along the renal-hepatic axis. However, some tissues with a high-energy demand have an inherent capacity to synthesise creatine. In this study, we determined if the term human placenta has the enzymatic machinary to synthesise creatine. Eleven placentae were collected following elective term caesarean section. Samples from the 4 quadrants of each placenta were either fixed in formalin or frozen. qPCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), and the creatine transporter (SLC6A8). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was quantified by Western blot, and observations of cell localisation of AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 made with immunohistochemistry. Synthesis of guanidinoacetate (GAA; creatine precursor) and creatine in placental homogenates was determined via GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 mRNA and protein were detected in the human placenta. AGAT staining was identified in stromal and endothelial cells of the fetal capillaries. GAMT and SLC6A8 staining was localised to the syncytiotrophoblast of the fetal villi. Ex vivo, tissue homogenates produce both GAA (4.6 nmol mg protein -1 h -1 ) and creatine (52.8 nmol mg protein -1 h -1 ). The term human placenta has the capacity to synthesise creatine. These data present a new understanding of placental energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Histopathological changes in human placentas related to hypertensive disorders].

    PubMed

    Artico, Luciano Guimarães; Madi, José Mauro; Godoy, Alessandra Eifler Guerra; Coelho, Celso Piccoli; Rombaldi, Renato Luís; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    to determine the prevalence of histopathological changes, in human placentas, related to hypertensive syndromes. a transversal study that compares histopathological changes identified in 43 placentae from hypertensive pregnant women (HypPr), with the ones from 33 placentae from normotensive pregnant women (NorPr). The weight, volume and macroscopic and microscopic occurrence of infarctions, clots, hematomas, atherosis (partial obliteration, thickness of layers and presence of blood vessels hyalinization) and Tenney-Parker changes (absent, discreet and prominent), as well as the locating of infarctions and clots (central, peripheral or the association of both) have been analyzed. The chi2 and t Student tests have been used for the statistical analysis, as well as medians, standard deviations and ratios. It has been considered as significant, p<0.05. the macroscopic study of HypPr placentae have presented lower weight (461.1 versus 572.1 g) and volume (437.4 versus 542.0 cm(3)), higher infarction (51.2 versus 45.5%; p<0.05: OR=1.15) and clots (51.2 versus 15.1%; p<0.05; OR=5.4) ratios, as compared to the NorPr's. In the HypPr and NorPr, microscopic clots have occurred in 83.7 versus 45.5% (p<0.05; OR=4.3), respectively. Atherosis and Tenney-Parker changes have been statistically associated to the hypertensive syndromes (p<0.05). the obtained data allow us to associate lower placentary weight and volume, higher ratio of macro and microscopic infarction, clots, atherosis and Tenney-Parker changes to placentae of gestations occurring with hypertensive syndromes.

  11. Risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Zachary S; Manuck, Tracy A; Eller, Alexandra G; Simons, Marilee; Silver, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Patients with suspected placenta accreta have improved outcomes with scheduled delivery. Our objective was to identify risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with suspected placenta accreta. This was a cohort study of women with antenatally suspected placenta accreta. Women who delivered prior to a planned delivery date were compared with women who had a scheduled delivery. Data were analyzed using a Student t test, χ(2), logistic regression, and survival analyses. Variables included in the analyses were episodes of antenatal vaginal bleeding, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), uterine contractions, prior cesarean deliveries, interpregnancy interval, parity, and patient demographic factors. A value of P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy-seven women with antenatal suspicion for placenta accreta were identified. Thirty-eight (49.4%) had an unscheduled delivery. Demographics were similar between groups. Unscheduled patients delivered earlier (mean 32.3 vs 35.7 weeks, P < .001) and were significantly more likely to have had vaginal bleeding (86.8% vs 35.9%, P < .001) and uterine activity (47.4% vs 2.6%, P < .001). Each episode of antenatal vaginal bleeding was associated with an increased risk of unscheduled delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-7.8). Risk of earlier delivery was even greater when associated with PPROM (P < .001). Among women with suspected placenta accreta, those with antenatal vaginal bleeding were more likely to require unscheduled delivery. This risk increases further in the setting of PPROM and/or uterine contractions. These clinical factors should be considered when determining the optimal delivery gestational age for women with placental accreta. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Shear waves elastography of the placenta in pregnant baboon].

    PubMed

    Quarello, E; Lacoste, R; Mancini, J; Melot-Dusseau, S; Gorincour, G

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate tissue characteristics of the placenta by transabdominal ShearWave Elastography in pregnant baboon. For 9 months (03/2013-12/2013) two operators (EQ, GG) performed ultrasound of the placenta during pregnancy pregnant baboons station partner primatology project. The identification of the placenta was performed previously in 2D ultrasound. The elastography method was then activated. Three measurements were carried out by operator for each placenta. The intraclass correlation coefficients within and between observers were calculated for the objective assessment (elastography) of placental maturity. During the study period, 21 pregnant baboons were included and ultrasounds were performed between 1 and 3 times each. The measurements have been carried out by two operators in 100% of cases. The intra- and inter-observer ICC for single values are respectively 0.657 - 95% CI (0.548 to 0.752) and 0.458 - 95% CI (0.167 to 0.675). The intra- and inter-observer ICC for average values are respectively 0.852 - 95% CI (0.784 to 0.901) and 0.628 - 95% CI (0.286 to 0.806). The study by transabdominal ShearWave Elastography of placenta's pregnant baboons is possible. The intra- and inter-operator reproducibility of this method is good using the average of three measurements. The objective study via elastography ShearWave of the degree of placental maturity seems not yet be used in clinical practice. Studies of larger cohorts are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathology of twin placentas with special attention to monochorionic twin placentas.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, P G J; Hack, K E A; van Gemert, M J C

    2008-12-01

    The risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality in twins is 3-7 times higher than in singletons. In comparison to dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins are at increased risk for perinatal mortality and serious morbidity. In both type of twins growth discordance can occur. Discordant growth of dichorionic twins could be due to differences in placental mass or differences in placental parenchymal lesions, whereas birth weight discordancy in monochorionic twins is caused by placental vascular anastomoses. In this review the different types of complications (acardiac twins, acute and chronic twin-twin transfusion syndrome) due to different combinations of vascular anastomoses are discussed in relation to a computer model developed to gain more insight into the development of the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. The angioarchitecture of 395 monochorionic twin placentas was studied. Mortality was highest in the absence of an arterio-arterial anastomosis (42%) and lowest in the presence of an arterio-arterial anastomosis (15%). If mortality occurred, pregnancies with double mortality usually had an arterio-arterial anastomosis. If pregnancies were complicated by one death, a veno-venous anastomosis is more likely to be present. In conclusion, monochorionic twin pregnancies are a high risk pregnancy with a high chance of both mortality and morbidity; placental characteristics are a major contributor to adverse outcome in these pregnancies.

  14. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  15. Epidemiology of retained placenta: oxytocin as an independent risk factor.

    PubMed

    Endler, Margit; Grünewald, Charlotta; Saltvedt, Sissel

    2012-04-01

    To identify factors related to retained placenta in the context of contemporary obstetric practice. This was a case-control study comparing 408 cases of retained placenta and an equivalent number of control individuals. Epidemiological and delivery-related variables were registered in computerized prenatal and in-hospital medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used for estimation of risk ratios and statistical significance. Independent risk factors for retained placenta were: previous retained placenta (odds ratio [OR] 12.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.61-44.08); preterm delivery (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.60-6.70); oxytocin use for 195-415 minutes (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.20-3.34); oxytocin use more than 415 minutes (OR 6.55, 95% CI 3.42-12.54, number needed to harm 2.3); preeclampsia (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.20-6.78); two or more previous miscarriages (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.31-5.20); and one or more previous abortion (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09-2.28). Parity of two or more had a seemingly protective effect (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.70), as did smoking at the start of pregnancy (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.88). Retained placenta was significantly associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The OR related to blood loss exceeding 500 mL, 1,000 mL, and 2,000 mL and the need for blood transfusion was 33.07 (95% CI 20.57-53.16), 43.44 (95% CI 26.57-71.02), 111.24 (95% CI 27.26-454.00), and 37.48 (95% CI 13.63-103.03), respectively. Diabetes was numerically overrepresented in the case group, but the power of the study to detect a significant difference in risk outcome was insufficient. Identifying risk factors for retained placenta is important in the assessment of women after delivery. The increased risk associated with duration of oxytocin use is of interest, considering its widespread use. II.

  16. [Risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa: a retrospective study of 3 840 cases].

    PubMed

    Lyu, B; Chen, M; Liu, X X

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa through retrospective study of 3 840 placenta previa cases. The clinical data of 3 840 patients with placenta previa who delivered in West China Second University Hospital between Jan 2005 and June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship of certain factors and peripartum hysterectomy was analyzed, including maternal age, residence place, parity, prior curettage, prior cesarean section, twin or multiple pregnancy, antenatal vaginal bleeding, type of placenta previa, suspected placenta accreta, antenatal level of hemoglobin and gestational age at delivery. The prevalence of placenta previa was 4.84%(3 840/79 304)in West China Second University Hospital during the study period, and the incidence of preipartum hysterectomy in patients with placenta previa was 2.76%(106/3 840). One-factor analysis demonstrated that residence place, parity, times of prior curettage, prior cesarean section, prenatal vaginal bleeding, anterior placenta, type of placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and gestational age at delivery were potential risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy(P<0.01). Variables with P<0.1 in one-factor analysis were introduced to multi-factor logistic regression analysis, which suggested that one prior cesarean section(OR=12.9,95% CI:6.3-26.3), two or more prior cesarean sections(OR=14.4, 95%CI:3.9-53.2), anterior placenta(OR=4.8, 95%CI:2.1-10.7), complete placenta previa(OR=5.9, 95%CI: 1.8-42.5), placenta accreta(OR=11.2, 95%CI:6.8-18.6), antenatal hemoglobin<100 g/L(OR=1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-2.8)and delivery before 34 gestational weeks(OR=3.2, 95%CI: 1.6-6.3)were independent risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in patients with placenta previa(P<0.05). Prior cesarean section, anterior placenta, complete placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and delivery before 34 gestational weeks are high risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa

  17. Expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) tumor antigen in human abort placentas.

    PubMed

    Richter, D U; Jeschke, U; Bergemann, C; Makovitzky, J; Lüthen, F; Karsten, U; Briese, V

    2005-01-01

    The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF), or more precisely epitope, has been known as a pancarcinoma antigen. It consists of galactose-beta1-3-N-acetylgalactose. We have already described the expression of TF in the normal placenta. TF is expressed by the syncytium and by extravillous trophoblast cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TF in the abort placenta. Frozen samples of human abort placentas (12 placentas), obtained from the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and, for comparison, samples of normal placentas (17 placentas) from the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, were used. Expression of TF was investigated by immunohistochemical methods. For identification of TF-positive cells in abort placentas, immunofluorescence methods were used. Evaluation of simple and double immunofluorescence was performed on a laser scanning microscope. Furthermore, we isolated trophoblast cells from first and third trimester placentas and evaluated cytokeratin 7 and Muc1 expression by immunofluorescence methods. We observed expression of TF antigen in the syncytiotrophoblasts layer of the placenta in all three trimesters of pregnancy in normal and abort placentas evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. There was no expression of TF antigen in the decidua of abort placentas. Immunofluorescence double staining of TF antigen and cytokeratin 7 showed reduced expression of both antigens in the abort decidua and co-expression of both antigens in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of normal and abort placentas. TF expression in the syncytiotrophoblast was reduced in abort placentas. In the isolated trophoblast cells, no TF expression was found, however, Muc1 expression was visualized. Expression of TF antigen was reduced in the first and second trimester abort decidua compared to the normal decidua during the same time of pregnancy. TF antigen was restricted to the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells in the decidua. Abort placentas

  18. Assessment of Fetal Myocardial Performance Index in Women with Placenta Previa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Lijuan; Zhang, Lina; Li, Zhen; Han, Jijing; Wu, Qingqing

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether fetuses of placenta previa pregnancies have cardiac dysfunction by use of a modified myocardial performance index (Mod-MPI). Material/Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted including 178 fetuses at 28–40 weeks of gestation. Eighty-nine fetuses of mothers with placenta previa and without pregnancy complications were recruited (placenta previa group) and matched with 89 fetuses of mothers with normal pregnancies (control group). Fetal cardiac function parameters and perinatal outcomes as well as the Mod-MPI were compared between the 2 groups. Results The median Mod-MPI was significantly increased in fetuses of mothers with placenta previa compared with controls (0.47±0.05 vs. 0.45±0.05; P<0.01). Among fetuses of mothers with or without placenta previa, the Mod-MPI was significantly higher in the incomplete placenta previa group compared with the complete placenta previa group and control group (P<0.01). An increased Mod-MPI in placenta previa pregnancies was independently associated with fetal cord pH <7.2 (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.98–23.54; P=0.003). Conclusions There is impairment of fetal cardiac function in pregnancies with placenta previa. An increased MPI was independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes to some extent in the placenta previa pregnancies. PMID:29242496

  19. Assessment of Fetal Myocardial Performance Index in Women with Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Lijuan; Zhang, Lina; Li, Zhen; Han, Jijing; Wu, Qingqing

    2017-12-15

    BACKGROUND This study investigated whether fetuses of placenta previa pregnancies have cardiac dysfunction by use of a modified myocardial performance index (Mod-MPI). MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted including 178 fetuses at 28-40 weeks of gestation. Eighty-nine fetuses of mothers with placenta previa and without pregnancy complications were recruited (placenta previa group) and matched with 89 fetuses of mothers with normal pregnancies (control group). Fetal cardiac function parameters and perinatal outcomes as well as the Mod-MPI were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS The median Mod-MPI was significantly increased in fetuses of mothers with placenta previa compared with controls (0.47±0.05 vs. 0.45±0.05; P<0.01). Among fetuses of mothers with or without placenta previa, the Mod-MPI was significantly higher in the incomplete placenta previa group compared with the complete placenta previa group and control group (P<0.01). An increased Mod-MPI in placenta previa pregnancies was independently associated with fetal cord pH <7.2 (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-23.54; P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS There is impairment of fetal cardiac function in pregnancies with placenta previa. An increased MPI was independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes to some extent in the placenta previa pregnancies.

  20. Ethical considerations in adherence research.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nupur U; Moore, Blake A; Craver, Rebekah F; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient's adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient's rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding), informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception), and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research.

  1. The omniscient placenta: Metabolic and epigenetic regulation of fetal programming

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes. This review describes epigenetic alterations in the placenta in response to insults during pregnancy, the potential links of OGT as a nutrient sensor to placental epigenetics, and the implications of placental epigenetics in long-term neurodevelopmental programming. We describe the role of placental OGT in the sex-specific programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programming deficits by early prenatal stress as an example of how placental signaling can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. PMID:26368654

  2. Umbilical vein injection for management of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Juan Manuel; Weeks, Andrew; Carroli, Guillermo

    2011-05-11

    If a retained placenta is left untreated, there is a high risk of maternal death. However, manual removal of the placenta is an invasive procedure with serious complications of haemorrhage, infection or genital tract trauma. To assess the use of umbilical vein injection (UVI) of saline solution alone or with oxytocin in comparison either with expectant management or with an alternative solution or other uterotonic agent for retained placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2011). Randomized trials comparing UVI of saline or other fluids, with or without oxytocics, either with expectant management or with an alternative solution or other uterotonic agent, in the management of retained placenta. Two review authors assessed the methodological quality of the studies and extracted the data. We included 15 trials (1704 women). The trials were of variable quality. Compared with expectant management, UVI of saline solution alone did not show any significant difference in the incidence of manual removal of the placenta (risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.16). UVI of oxytocin solution compared with expectant management showed no reduction in the need for manual removal (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.03).Oxytocin solution compared with saline solution alone showed a reduction in manual removal of the placenta, but this was not statistically significant (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00). When only high-quality studies were assessed, there was no statistical difference (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.01). We detected no differences in any of the other outcomes.UVI of oxytocin solution compared with UVI of plasma expander showed no statistically significant difference in the outcomes assessed by the only one small trial included. Prostaglandin solution compared with saline solution alone was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence in manual removal of placenta (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.22 to 0

  3. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zheng, Zheng; Tian, Yan; Hu, Ying-Ying; Han, Su-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstetric hysterectomy (OH) as a lifesaving measure to manage uncontrolled uterine hemorrhage appears to be increasing recently. The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and changing trends of OH and to identify those at particular risk of OH to enhance the early involvement of multidisciplinary intensive care. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in patients who had OH in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from 2004 to 2014. Maternal characteristics, preoperative evaluation, operative reports, and prenatal outcomes were studied in detail. Results: There were 19 cases of OH among a total of 18,838 deliveries. Comparing the study periods between 2004–2010 and 2011–2014, OH increased from 0.8/1000 (10/12,890) to 1.5/1000 (9/5948). Indications for OH have changed significantly during this study period with uterine atony decreasing from 50.0% (5/10) to 11.1% (1/9) (P < 0.05), and placenta accreta as the indication for OH has increased significantly from 20.0% (2/10) to 77.8% (7/9) (P < 0.05). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to make an exact antepartum diagnosis of placenta accreta. A multidisciplinary management led to improved outcomes for patients with placenta accreta. Conclusion: As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen, there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta. An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography, and MRI, and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients’ safety and outcome. PMID:26265612

  4. Functional MRI of the placenta – From rodents to humans

    PubMed Central

    Avni, R.; Neeman, M.; Garbow, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta performs a wide range of physiological functions; insufficiencies in these functions may result in a variety of severe prenatal and postnatal syndromes with long-term negative impacts on human adult health. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of placental function, in both animal models and humans, have contributed significantly to our understanding of placental structure, blood flow, oxygenation status, and metabolic profile, and have provided important insights into pregnancy complications. PMID:25916594

  5. Branchial placenta in the viviparous teleost Ilyodon whitei (Goodeidae).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; De la Rosa-Cruz, Gabino; García-Alarcón, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Intraluminal gestation, as it occurs in viviparous goodeids, allows a wide diversity of embryo-maternal metabolic exchanges. The branchial placenta occurs in embryos developing in intraluminal gestation when ovarian folds enter through the operculum, into the branchial chamber. The maternal ovarian folds may extend to the embryonic pharyngeal cavity. A branchial placenta has been observed in few viviparous teleosts, and there are not previous histological analyses. This study analysis the histological structure in the goodeid Ilyodon whitei. The moterno ovarian folds extend through the embryonic operculum and reach near the gills, occupying part of the branchial chamber. These folds extend also into the pharyngeal cavity. In some regions, the epithelia of the ovarian folds and embryo were in apposition, developing a placental structure in which, maternal and embryonic capillaries lie in close proximity. The maternal epithelium has desquamated cells which may enter through the branchial chamber to the pharyngeal cavity and the alimentary tract. The complex processes that occur in the ovaries of viviparous teleosts, and its diverse adaptations for viviparity, as the presence of branchial placenta, are relevant in the study of the evolution of vertebrate viviparity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Convergence of placenta biology and genetic risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ursini, Gianluca; Punzi, Giovanna; Chen, Qiang; Marenco, Stefano; Robinson, Joshua F; Porcelli, Annamaria; Hamilton, Emily G; Mitjans, Marina; Maddalena, Giancarlo; Begemann, Martin; Seidel, Jan; Yanamori, Hidenaga; Jaffe, Andrew E; Berman, Karen F; Egan, Michael F; Straub, Richard E; Colantuoni, Carlo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Hashimoto, Ryota; Rujescu, Dan; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Bertolino, Alessandro; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2018-06-01

    Defining the environmental context in which genes enhance disease susceptibility can provide insight into the pathogenesis of complex disorders. We report that the intra-uterine environment modulates the association of schizophrenia with genomic risk (in this study, genome-wide association study-derived polygenic risk scores (PRSs)). In independent samples from the United States, Italy, and Germany, the liability of schizophrenia explained by PRS is more than five times greater in the presence of early-life complications (ELCs) compared with their absence. Patients with ELC histories have significantly higher PRS than patients without ELC histories, which is confirmed in additional samples from Germany and Japan. The gene set composed of schizophrenia loci that interact with ELCs is highly expressed in placenta, is differentially expressed in placentae from complicated in comparison with normal pregnancies, and is differentially upregulated in placentae from male compared with female offspring. Pathway analyses reveal that genes driving the PRS-ELC interaction are involved in cellular stress response; genes that do not drive such interaction implicate orthogonal biological processes (for example, synaptic function). We conclude that a subset of the most significant genetic variants associated with schizophrenia converge on a developmental trajectory sensitive to events that affect the placental response to stress, which may offer insights into sex biases and primary prevention.

  7. Sclerotherapy with 6% polidocanol solution in patients with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Malagón Reyes, Ricardo Mauricio; Castorena de Ávila, Rubén; Ángeles Vázquez, María de Jesús; Núñez Monteagudo, César Augusto; Mendieta Zerón, Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Placenta accreta is one of the main obstetrical complications worldwide. The aim of this study was to report the experience of managing placenta accreta with a 6% polidocanol solution sclerotherapy. We selected patients between 37 weeks of gestation and 38 weeks of gestation, diagnosed with placenta accreta, treated at the Maternal Perinatal Hospital "Monica Pretelini Sáenz", Toluca, Mexico, during the period from November 2013 to August 2014. The surgical technique has two steps: (1) fundic-arciform caesarean section followed by a 6% polidocanol sclerosing solution through a 6Fr neonatal feeding tube upon its reaching the placental bed; (2) total abdominal hysterectomy with internal hypogastric artery ligation. Data were collected from 11 patients with a mean age of 33.9 years (range, 26-42 years) and 2.8±0.6 days of hospitalization in the obstetrical intensive care unit. The majority of patients were classified as having pregnancies at an advanced age. All women were multigravidas. Bleeding volume exhibited a range between 2.5 L and 3 L without any case of neonatal death but one mother died because of coagulopathy. We conclude that the technique that we are reporting is feasible for implementation in obstetric hospitals, with technical and economic feasibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Placenta-derived exosomes: potential biomarkers of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Preenan; Moodley, Kogi; Moodley, Jagidesa; Mackraj, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality, due to ineffective treatment and diagnostic strategies, compounded by the lack of clarity on the etiology of the disorder. Although several clinical and biological markers of preeclampsia have been evaluated, they have proven to be ineffective in providing a definitive diagnosis during the various stages of the disorder. Exosomes have emerged as ideal biomarkers of pathological states, such as cancer, and have more recently gained interest in pregnancy-related complications, due to their role in cellular communication in normal and complicated pregnancies. This occurs as a result of the specific placenta-derived exosomal molecular cargo, which may be involved in normal pregnancy-associated immunological events, such as the maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance. This review provides perspectives on placenta-derived exosomes as possible biomarkers for the diagnosis/prognosis of preeclampsia. Using keywords, online databases were searched to identify relevant publications to review the potential use of placenta-derived exosomes as biomarkers of preeclampsia.

  9. Leaving the placenta in situ versus conservative and radical surgery in the treatment of placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kutuk, Mehmet S; Ak, Mehmet; Ozgun, Mahmut T

    2018-03-01

    To compare different treatment methods in the management of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. In a retrospective cohort study, medical records were retrieved for patients who underwent elective surgery at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more after a diagnosis of PAS disorder (creta, increta, or percreta) at a center in Turkey between May 2, 2010, and August 10, 2016. The final analysis included patients whose diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively and for whom complete data were available. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 included those who underwent hysterectomy without placental removal, group 2 included patients whose placenta was left in situ, and group 3 included those who underwent placental removal and conservative surgery. Among 79 included patients (33 creta, 18 increta, 28 percreta), 27 (34%) were in group 1, 15 (19%) in group 2, and 37 (47%) in group 3. Total blood loss and the amounts of blood products transfused were lowest in group 2; significant differences between groups were noted (all P ≤ 0.001). Surgical complication rates were similar between groups (4/27 [15%], 1/15 [7%], and 11/37 [30%], respectively; P=0.119). Overall uterine preservation rates were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3 (14/15 [93%] vs 33/37 [89%]; P>0.99). Leaving the placenta in situ could become the treatment of choice for PAS disorders. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. The inherited risk of retained placenta: a population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Endler, M; Cnattingius, S; Granfors, M; Wikström, A-K

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether retained placenta in the first generation is associated with an increased risk of retained placenta in the second generation. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. Using linked generational data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1973-2012, we identified 494 000 second-generation births with information on the birth of the mother (first-generation index birth). For 292 897 of these births there was information also on the birth of the father. Risk of retained placenta in the second generation was calculated as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) by unconditional logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) according to whether retained placenta occurred in a first generation birth or not. Retained placenta in the second generation. The risk of retained placenta in a second-generation birth was increased if retained placenta had occurred at the mother's own birth (aOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.52-1.82), at the birth of one of her siblings (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.43-1.76) or both (aOR 2.75, 95% CI 2.18-3.46). The risk was slightly increased if retained placenta had occurred at the birth of the father (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.41). For preterm births in both generations, the risk of retained placenta in the second generation was increased six-fold if retained placenta had occurred at the mother's birth (OR 6.55, 95% CI 2.68-16.02). There is an intergenerational recurrence of retained placenta on the maternal and most likely also on the paternal side. The recurrence risk seems strongest in preterm pregnancies. A population-based cohort study suggests that there is an intergenerational recurrence of retained placenta. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. MRI of placenta percreta: differentiation from other entities of placental adhesive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thiravit, Shanigarn; Lapatikarn, Sukanya; Muangsomboon, Kobkun; Suvannarerg, Voraparee; Thiravit, Phakphoom; Korpraphong, Pornpim

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively review the MRI findings of placenta percreta and identify those helpful for differentiation from non-placenta percreta. The MRI images of 21 patients with a preliminary diagnosis of placental adhesive disorder scanned between 2005 and 2014 were evaluated. Radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis evaluated six previously described MRI findings of placenta adhesive disorder. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI for the diagnosis of placenta percreta were also calculated. The study included 12 cases of placenta percreta and 9 cases of non-placenta percreta. Invasion of placental tissue outside the uterus was found only in placenta percreta (p = 0.045; sensitivity 41.7 %; specificity 100 %). All placenta percreta cases also had a moderate to marked degree of heterogeneous placental signal intensity (p = 0.063; sensitivity 100 %; specificity 33.3 %). The size of the dark bands on T2-weighted imaging, and the presence of disorganized intra-placental vessels, showed no statistically significant difference between placenta percreta and non-placenta percreta. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV, and accuracy of MRI for detection of placenta percreta were 91.7, 44, 80, 68, and 71.4 %, respectively. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of placenta percreta, with the most specific signs including the invasion of placental tissue outside the uterus on B-FFE sequences, and consideration of the degree of placental signal heterogeneity. The size of the T2 dark band alone, or bizarre disorganized intra-placental vessels, did not correlate with the severity of invasion.

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. [Some biochemical parameters in the placenta in discoordinated and powerless labors].

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, O G; Peretiatko, L P; Sharygin, S A; Kuz'menko, G N; Popova, I G

    2009-11-01

    A number of biochemical parameters (total nitrites and nitrates (NO(x)), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), nitrotyrosine, medium-weight molecules (MCM) in the placenta were determined in women with gestosis during discoordinated and powerless labor. Thirty placentas (10 placentas from parturients after discoordinated labor, 10 from those after powerless labor, 10 placentas as a control group) were examined. Changes in the parameters under study were found to result in the development of nitroxide and oxidant stresses and endotoxicosis. The biochemical parameters should be considered as placental criteria for the differential diagnosis of labor anomalies in gestosis, such as powerless and discoordinated labors.

  14. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at a subsequent delivery: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Alufi, Anat; Mizrachi, Yossi; Lurie, Samuel

    2017-05-01

    To test the generalizability of previously reported increased risk of reoccurrence of retained placenta in yet another setting. In this observational retrospective study we longitudinally followed women who had a vaginal delivery complicated by a partial or complete retained placenta at Edith Wolfson Medical Center between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012. The study group included parturient women who had a partial or complete retained placenta after a vaginal delivery (n = 90). The control group included parturient women who did not have a partial or complete retained placenta after a vaginal delivery from the same time period using the same inclusion criteria (n = 90). Retained partial or complete placenta at a previous delivery was found to be an independent risk factor for retained partial or complete placenta in a subsequent delivery (adjusted OR 9.8, 95%CI 1.2 to 80.6, p = 0.032) and for retained partial or complete placenta and/or postpartum hemorrhage in a subsequent delivery (adjusted OR 14.1, 95% CI 1.7 to 111.9, p = 0.012), after controlling for gestational age and induction of labor at previous delivery. Retained partial or complete placenta at an index delivery increases the risk of reoccurrence of retained partial or complete placenta in a subsequent delivery.

  15. Relationship between first trimester aneuploidy screening test serum analytes and placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Büke, Barış; Akkaya, Hatice; Demir, Sibel; Sağol, Sermet; Şimşek, Deniz; Başol, Güneş; Barutçuoğlu, Burcu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between first trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (fβhCG) MoM values and placenta accreta in women who had placenta previa. A total of 88 patients with placenta previa who had first trimester aneuploidy screening test results were enrolled in the study. Nineteen of these patients were also diagnosed with placenta accreta. As probable markers of excessive placental invasion, serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values were compared in two groups with and without placenta accreta. Patients with placenta accreta had higher statistically significant serum PAPP-A (1.20 versus 0.865, respectively, p = 0.045) and fβhCG MoM (1.42 versus 0.93, respectively, p = 0.042) values than patients without accreta. Higher first trimester serum PAPP-A and fβhCG MoM values seem to be associated with placenta accreta in women with placenta previa. Further studies are needed to use these promising additional tools for early detection of placenta accreta.

  16. Placenta accreta is an independent risk factor for late pre-term birth and perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Vinograd, Adi; Wainstock, Tamar; Mazor, Moshe; Beer-Weisel, Ruthy; Klaitman, Vered; Dukler, Doron; Hamou, Batel; Novack, Lena; Ben-Shalom Tirosh, Neta; Vinograd, Ofir; Erez, Offer

    2015-08-01

    This study is aimed to identify the risk factors for the development of placenta accreta (PA) and characterize its effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes. This population-based retrospective cohort study included all deliveries at our medical center during the study period. Those with placenta accreta (n = 551) comprised the study group, while the rest of the deliveries (n = 239 089) served as a comparison group. The prevalence of placenta accerta is 0.2%. Women with this complication had higher rates of ≥2 previous CS (p < 0.001), recurrent abortions (p = 0.03), and previous placenta accreta [p < 0.001]. The rates of placenta previa and peripartum hemorrhage necessitating blood transfusion were higher in women with placenta accreta than in the comparison group. PTB before 34 and 37 weeks of gestation was more common among women with placenta accreta (p < 0.01), as was the rate of perinatal mortality (p < 0.001). Placenta accreta was an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality (adj. OR 8.2; 95% CI 6.4-10.4, p < 0.001) and late PTB (adj. OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7, p = 0.002). Placenta accreta is an independent risk factor for late PTB and perinatal mortality.

  17. Placental histopathology lesions and pregnancy outcome in pregnancies complicated with symptomatic vs. non-symptomatic placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Eran; Miremberg, Hadas; Grinstein, Ehud; Schreiber, Letizia; Ginath, Shimon; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in bleeding in cases of placenta previa (PP) and the effect on pregnancy outcome is unclear. We aimed to compare pregnancy outcome and placental histopathology in pregnancies complicated with symptomatic (bleeding) vs. non-symptomatic PP, and to study the effects of the co-existence of histopathological retro-placental hemorrhage (RPH) in cases of symptomatic PP on neonatal and maternal outcomes. Labor and maternal characteristics, neonatal outcome and placental histopathology lesions of pregnancies with PP, delivered between 24 and 42weeks, during 2009-2015, were reviewed. Results were compared between PP who had elective cesarean delivery (CD) (previa group) and PP with bleeding necessitating emergent CD (symptomatic previa group). Placental lesions were classified to lesions consistent with maternal malperfusion or fetal thrombo-occlusive disease (vascular and villous changes), and inflammatory lesions. Compared to the previa group (n=63), the symptomatic previa group (n=74) was characterized by older patients (p<0.001), higher rate of smokers (p=0.005), thrombophilia (p=0.038), and preterm deliveries (p<0.001). Placentas within the symptomatic previa group were smaller, with higher rates of weight<10th% (p=0.02), RPH (p<0.001) and villous changes related to maternal malperfusion (p=0.023). As compared to symptomatic PP without RPH, co-existence of RPH was associated with higher rate of adverse neonatal outcome (p<0.001) and maternal blood transfusion (p=0.02). On multivariate regression analysis, composite adverse neonatal outcome was found to be dependent on coexisting RPH (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.2-11.7, p=0.03), and low gestational age (OR=3.1, 95%CI 1.6-4.9, p=0.02). Symptomatic placenta previa is associated with increased placental malperfusion lesions suggesting an association of maternal malperfusion with abnormal placental separation. The coexisting finding of RPH with symptomatic placenta previa can be seen as a marker for more

  18. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Bryan L.; Stewart, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design functionality. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this exploratory archival study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateralfull-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions and their occurrence rates. Full-lateral adherence was generally greater than Full-lateralfull-vertical, but the difference between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateralfull-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  19. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns linked to placental and umbilical cord abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Nasiell, Josefine; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Löf, Erika; Elofsson, Fanny; Hallberg, Boubou

    2016-03-01

    Birth asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) of the newborn remain serious complications. We present a study investigating if placental or umbilical cord abnormalities in newborns at term are associated with HIE. A prospective cohort study of the placenta and umbilical cord of infants treated with hypothermia (HT) due to hypoxic brain injury and follow-up at 12 months of age has been carried out. The study population included 41 infants treated for HT whose placentas were submitted for histopathological analysis. Main outcome measures were infant development at 12 months, classified as normal, cerebral palsy, or death. A healthy group of 100 infants without HIE and normal follow-up at 12 months of age were used as controls. A velamentous or marginal umbilical cord insertion and histological abruption was associated with the risk of severe HIE, OR = 5.63, p = 0.006, respectively, OR = 20.3, p = 0.01 (multiple-logistic regression). Velamentous or marginal umbilical cord insertion was found in 39% among HIE cases compared to 7% in controls. Placental and umbilical cord abnormalities have a profound association with HIE. A prompt examination of the placentas of newborns suffering from asphyxia can provide important information on the pathogenesis behind the incident and contribute to make a better early prognosis.

  20. Correlates of Pediatric CPAP Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephen M.M.; Jensen, Emily L.; Simon, Stacey L.; Friedman, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric condition characterized by recurrent partial or complete cessation of airflow during sleep, typically due to inadequate upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a therapeutic option that reduces morbidity. Despite efforts to promote use, CPAP adherence is poor in both pediatric and adult populations. We sought to determine whether demographics, insurance status, OSA severity, therapeutic pressure, or comorbid conditions were associated with pediatric CPAP adherence. Methods: A retrospective review of adherence download data was performed on all pediatric patients with initiation or adjustment of CPAP treatment over a one-year period with documented in-laboratory CPAP titration. Patients were grouped as CPAP adherent or non-adherent, where adherence was defined as > 70% nightly use and average usage ≥ 4 hours per night. Differences between the groups were analyzed by χ2 test. Results: Overall, nearly half of participants were CPAP adherent (49%, 69/140). Of the demographic data collected (age, ethnicity, sex, insurance status), only female sex was associated with better adherence (60.9% vs 39.5% of males adherent; odds ratio [OR] = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.20–4.85; p = 0.01). Severity of OSA (diagnostic apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and degree of hypoxemia), therapeutic pressure, and residual AHI did not impact CPAP adherence (p > 0.05). Patients with developmental delay (DD) were more likely to be adherent with CPAP than those without a DD diagnosis (OR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.27–5.13; p = 0.007). Female patients with trisomy 21 tended to be more adherent, but this did not reach significance or account for the overall increased adherence associated with female sex. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adherence to CPAP therapy is poor but suggests that female sex and developmental delay are associated with better adherence. These findings support efforts to understand the

  1. Shear-wave elastography - virtual touch tissue quantification of fetal placentas with a single umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Harun; Tolunay, Harun Egemen; Cim, Numan; Boza, Barış; Yavuz, Alpaslan; İlik, İbrahim; Sahin, Hanim Guler; Yildizhan, Recep

    2018-02-25

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the elasticities of fetal placentas with a single umbilical artery using the Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTTQ) technique. Pregnant women with fetuses with a single umbilical artery (SUA) and pregnant women with fetuses having three vessel cord (3VC) at 18-22 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the research. The placentas were evaluated and divided into three equal parts as the inner 1/3 of the placenta (fetal edge), the outer 1/3 of the placenta (maternal edge) and the central 1/3 of the placenta (central part). Shear-wave velocity (SWV) measurements were used in the elastographic evaluation of placentas by VTTQ. Forty pregnant women were included in the study (n = 20 SUA, n = 20 three vessel cord pregnant women). The placental Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (VTTQ) of the placenta regarding SWV measurement values of the fetal edge of the placenta in the fetuses with SUA and the control group were 0.876 and 0.957 m/sec, respectively. A significant statistical difference was found between the groups regarding the measurement of the stiffness of fetal placenta (p = 0.021). There was no significant difference between the measured stiffness values of the central or outer region of the placentas. In this study, we found lower SWV scores for the fetal edge of the placenta with SUA. This finding may reflect tissue elasticity level, and we hope that the use of the VTTQ technique may contribute to predicting the pregnancy-related morbidities of fetuses with SUA in the future.

  2. Characterization of choline transporters in the human placenta over gestation.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Heidi K; Trinder, Kinsey M; Galimanis, Carly E; Post, Annalisa; Phang, Tzu; Ross, Randal G; Winn, Virginia D

    2015-12-01

    The developing fetus relies on the maternal blood supply to provide the choline it requires for making membrane lipids, synthesizing acetylcholine, and performing important methylation reactions. It is vital, therefore, that the placenta is efficient at transporting choline from the maternal to the fetal circulation. Although choline transporters have been found in term placenta samples, little is known about what cell types express specific choline transporters and how expression of the transporters may change over gestation. The objective of this study was to characterize choline transporter expression levels and localization in the human placenta throughout placental development. We analyzed CTL1 and -2 expression over gestation in human placental biopsies from 6 to 40 weeks gestation (n = 6-10 per gestational window) by immunoblot analysis. To determine the cellular expression pattern of the choline transporters throughout gestation, immunofluorescence analysis was then performed. Both CTL1 and CTL2 were expressed in the chorionic villi from 6 weeks gestation to term. Labor did not alter expression levels of either transporter. CTL1 localized to the syncytial trophoblasts and the endothelium of the fetal vasculature within the chorionic villous structure. CTL2 localized mainly to the stroma early in gestation and by the second trimester co-localized with CTL1 at the fetal vasculature. The differential expression pattern of CTL1 and CTL2 suggests that CTL1 is the key transporter involved in choline transport from maternal circulation and both transporters are likely involved in stromal and endothelial cell choline transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transplacental transfer of 2-naphthol in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, Hisham; Osman, Nawal; Dhanasekaran, Subramanian; Elbiss, Hassan M; Bekdache, Gharid

    2015-01-01

    To determine the transfer of 2-naphthol (2-NPH) in fullterm human placental tissues. Six placentas were studied. The ex-vivo dual closed-loop human placental cotyledon perfusion model was used. 2-NPH was added to the perfusate in the maternal compartment. Samples were obtained from the maternal and fetal up to 360 min measuring. The mean fetal weight was 2880 ± 304.2 g. Mean perfused cotyledon weight was 26.3 (±5.5) g. All unperfused placental tissue samples contained NPH with a mean level of 7.98 (±1.73) μg\\g compared to a mean of 15.58 (±4.53) μg\\g after 360 min perfusion. A rapid drop in maternal 2-NPH concentration was observed; from 5.54 μg\\g in the first 15 min and 13.8 μg\\g in 360 min. The fetal side increased from 0.65 μg\\g in the initial 15 min to 1.5 μg\\g in 360 min. The transfer rate of NPH was much lower than that of antipyrine. 2-NPH has the ability to rapidly across the placenta from the maternal to the fetal compartment within 15 min. The placenta seems to play a role in limiting the passage of 2-NPH in the fetal compartment.

  4. Exocyst Complex Protein Expression in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, I.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Vandre, D.D.; Robinson, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Protein production and secretion are essential to syncytiotrophoblast function and are associated with cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Syncytiotrophoblast hormone secretion is a crucial determinant of maternal-fetal health, and can be misregulated in pathological pregnancies. Although, polarized secretion is a key component of placental function, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Objective While the octameric exocyst complex is classically regarded as a master regulator of secretion in various mammalian systems, its expression in the placenta remained unexplored. We hypothesized that the syncytiotrophoblast would express all exocyst complex components and effector proteins requisite for vesicle-mediated secretion more abundantly than cytotrophoblasts in tissue specimens. Methods A two-tiered immunobiological approach was utilized to characterize exocyst and ancillary proteins in normal, term human placentas. Exocyst protein expression and localization was documented in tissue homogenates via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling of placental sections. Results The eight exocyst proteins, EXOC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, were found in the human placenta. In addition, RAB11, an important exocyst complex modulator, was also expressed. Exocyst and Rab protein expression appeared to be regulated during trophoblast differentiation, as the syncytiotrophoblast expressed these proteins with little, if any, expression in cytotrophoblast cells. Additionally, exocyst proteins were localized at or near the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane, the major site of placental secretion Discussion/Conclusion Our findings highlight exocyst protein expression as novel indicators of trophoblast differentiation. The exocyst’s regulated localization within the syncytiotrophoblast in conjunction with its well known functions suggests a possible role in placental polarized secretion PMID:24856041

  5. Expressions of apoptosis-regulating factors in bovine retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Kamemori, Y; Wakamiya, K; Nishimura, R; Hosaka, Y; Ohtani, S; Okuda, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the retention of fetal membranes (RFM) and apoptosis of the cells in fetal membranes. The present study investigated mRNA and protein expressions of apoptosis-regulating factors: FAS, cellular FLICE-like inhibiting protein (cFLIP), BAX, BCL2, caspase-8 (CASP8), and CASP3 in fetal membranes. Placentomes were manually collected from the uterus immediately after parturition and classified into two groups (RFM; n = 8 and non-RFM; n = 8) according to whether placental membranes were expelled or not within 12 h after delivery. FAS mRNA expression in maternal placental tissue was less in RFM cows than in non-RFM cows (P < 0.05). cFLIP mRNA expression in maternal and fetal placental tissue was greater in RFM cows than in non-RFM cows (P < 0.05). CASP3 mRNA expression in maternal placental tissue was greater in RFM cows than in non-RFM cows (P < 0.05). However, the protein expressions of FAS, cFLIP and cleaved CASP3 were not significantly different between the two groups. mRNA and protein expressions of BAX, BCL2 and CASP8 were also not significantly different between the two groups. In the immunohistochemical study, single-stranded DNA, which appears specifically in the apoptotic cells, was mainly found in the maternal placenta of non-RFM cows. Together these results suggest that RFM occurs at least in part due to a dysfunctional apoptotic process caused by the inhibition of FAS expression in the maternal placenta, and the increase of cFLIP expression in the maternal and fetal placenta. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Choline Transporters in the Human Placenta over Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Heidi K.; Trinder, Kinsey M.; Galimanis, Carly E.; Post, Annalisa; Phang, Tzu; Ross, Randal G.; Winn, Virginia D.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The developing fetus relies on the maternal blood supply to provide the choline it requires for making membrane lipids, synthesizing acetylcholine, and performing important methylation reactions. It is vital, therefore, that the placenta is efficient at transporting choline from maternal to fetal circulation. Although choline transporters have been found in term placenta samples, little is known about what cell types express specific choline transporters and how expression of the transporters may change over gestation. The objective of this study was to characterize choline transporter expression levels and localization in the human placenta throughout placental development. METHODS We analyzed CTL1 and −2 expression over gestation in human placental biopsies from 6 to 40 weeks gestation (n=6–10 per gestational window) by immunoblot analysis. To determine the cellular expression pattern of the choline transporters throughout gestation, immunofluorescence analysis was then performed. RESULTS Both CTL1 and CTL2 were expressed in the chorionic villi from 6 weeks gestation to term. Labor did not alter expression levels of either transporter. CTL1 localized to the syncytial trophoblasts and the endothelium of the fetal vasculature within the chorionic villous structure. CTL2 localized mainly to the stroma early in gestation and by the second trimester co-localized with CTL1 at the fetal vasculature. DISCUSSION The differential expression pattern of CTL1 and CTL2 suggests that CTL1 is the key transporter involved in choline transport from maternal circulation and both transporters are likely involved in stromal and endothelial cell choline transport. PMID:26601765

  7. Correlates of Pediatric CPAP Adherence.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stephen M M; Jensen, Emily L; Simon, Stacey L; Friedman, Norman R

    2016-06-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric condition characterized by recurrent partial or complete cessation of airflow during sleep, typically due to inadequate upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a therapeutic option that reduces morbidity. Despite efforts to promote use, CPAP adherence is poor in both pediatric and adult populations. We sought to determine whether demographics, insurance status, OSA severity, therapeutic pressure, or comorbid conditions were associated with pediatric CPAP adherence. A retrospective review of adherence download data was performed on all pediatric patients with initiation or adjustment of CPAP treatment over a one-year period with documented in-laboratory CPAP titration. Patients were grouped as CPAP adherent or non-adherent, where adherence was defined as > 70% nightly use and average usage ≥ 4 hours per night. Differences between the groups were analyzed by χ(2) test. Overall, nearly half of participants were CPAP adherent (49%, 69/140). Of the demographic data collected (age, ethnicity, sex, insurance status), only female sex was associated with better adherence (60.9% vs 39.5% of males adherent; odds ratio [OR] = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.20-4.85; p = 0.01). Severity of OSA (diagnostic apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and degree of hypoxemia), therapeutic pressure, and residual AHI did not impact CPAP adherence (p > 0.05). Patients with developmental delay (DD) were more likely to be adherent with CPAP than those without a DD diagnosis (OR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.27-5.13; p = 0.007). Female patients with trisomy 21 tended to be more adherent, but this did not reach significance or account for the overall increased adherence associated with female sex. Our study demonstrates that adherence to CPAP therapy is poor but suggests that female sex and developmental delay are associated with better adherence. These findings support efforts to understand the pathophysiology of and to develop adherence

  8. Adherence as a language game.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein

    2017-04-01

    Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order.

  9. Examination of the placenta: medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kenneth Tou-En

    2014-10-01

    Formal examination of the placenta may provide valuable information to the clinicians, family, and court of law in cases of adverse pregnancy outcome when litigation is initiated. Placental examination contributes towards the identification of specific intrinsic or secondary placental lesions, and understanding the nature of the intrauterine environment. This article provides an update of important placental pathologies that may contribute towards neurologic injury of the newborn child, and describes the role of placental findings in the adjudication of cases of adverse neonatal outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation and Retained Placenta Increta.

    PubMed

    Roach, Michelle K; Thomassee, May S

    2015-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare and have been reported to occur after uterine trauma (eg, surgery, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy). A 33-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 3, presented 4 weeks post-cesarean delivery with episodic profuse vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left uterine arteriovenous malformation. After consideration of all treatment options, total laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations and placental ingrowth into the myometrium are increasingly reported after surgical uterine procedures. This case of a postpartum patient with both uterine arteriovenous malformation and retained placenta increta suggests a correlation between the two complications.

  11. Changes in mitochondrial respiration in the human placenta over gestation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Olivia J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Alvsaker, Anna; Moran, Stephanie; Hedges, Christopher; Chamley, Lawrence W; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-09-01

    Placental mitochondria are subjected to micro-environmental changes throughout gestation, in particular large variations in oxygen. How placental mitochondrial respiration adapts to changing oxygen concentrations remains unexplored. Additionally, placental tissue is often studied in culture; however, the effect of culture on placental mitochondria is unclear. Placental tissue was obtained from first trimester and term (laboured and non-laboured) pregnancies, and selectively permeabilized to access mitochondria. Respirometry was used to compare respiration states and substrate use in mitochondria. Additionally, explants of placental tissue were cultured for four, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h and respiration measured. Mitochondrial respiration decreased at 11 weeks compared to earlier gestations (p = 0.05-0.001), and mitochondrial content increased at 12-13 weeks compared to 7-10 weeks (p = 0.042). In term placentae, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) through mitochondrial complex IV (p < 0.001), the relative proportion of OXPHOS CI (p < 0.001), the total capacity of the respiratory system (p = 0.003), and mitochondrial content (p < 0.001) were higher compared to first trimester. Respiration was increased (p ≤ 0.006-0.001) in laboured compared to non-laboured placenta. After four hours of culture, respiration was depressed compared to fresh tissue from the same placenta and continued to decline with time in culture. Markers of apoptosis were increased, while markers of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased after four hours of culture. Respiration and mitochondrial content alter over gestation/with labour. Decreased respiration at 11 weeks and increased mitochondrial content at 12-13 weeks may relate to onset of maternal blood flow, and increased respiration as a result of labour may be an adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion. At term, mitochondria were more susceptible to changes in respiratory function

  12. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  13. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Another look at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Budorick, Nancy E; Figueroa, Reinaldo; Vizcarra, Michael; Shin, James

    2017-10-01

    To compare the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta, to examine the success of various sonographic and MRI features to correctly predict invasive placenta, and to define a specific role for MRI in placenta accreta. After Institutional Review Board approval, a blinded retrospective review was undertaken of US and MRI findings from 45 patients who had an obstetrical US and placental MRI between August 2006 and January 2012. Correlation with clinical history and pathologic findings was performed. US and MRI had similar sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for placenta accreta. The best predictors of invasion by US were loss of the myometrial mantle, increased intraplacental vascularity and loss of the bladder wall echogenicity. The best predictors of invasion by MRI were loss of retroplacental myometrial mantle, a heterogeneous placenta, and intraplacental hemorrhage. Body mass index (BMI) did not affect the ability to make a diagnosis by either US or MRI. MRI proved effective in better evaluation of a posterior placenta with suspicion of placenta accreta. There was modality disagreement in 11 of 45 cases and MRI was correct in 9 of these 11 cases, all true negative (TN) cases. MRI should be considered in any case with posterior placenta previa and suspicion of accreta, in any case with clinical suspicion for accreta and discordant US findings, and in any case in which percreta is suspected.

  15. Urologic considerations of placenta accreta: a contemporary tertiary care institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Woldu, Solomon L; Ordonez, Maria A; Devine, Patricia C; Wright, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of cesarean delivery has increased, we are experiencing a higher incidence of subsequent placenta accreta and the associated complications, including urologic complications. This is a retrospective review of all patients delivered from 2000 to 2011 with a histologically proven diagnosis of placenta accreta. Data were analyzed for baseline maternal characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative outcomes and complications. 83 patients were included in the analysis. The depth of placenta accreta invasion varied in the cohort, with 48, 25 and 27% being classified as placenta accreta, placenta increta and placenta percreta, respectively. 88% of patients had had a previous cesarean delivery, and 58% had more than one prior operative delivery. Cystotomy was encountered in 27% of patients and ureteral injury occurred in 4%. Degree of placenta accreta invasion, number of prior cesarean deliveries and intraoperative blood loss were associated with a higher likelihood of urologic injury. Urologic injuries are among the most frequently encountered intraoperative complications of placenta accreta. Surgeons involved in these cases need to be aware of this risk and maintain a high level of surveillance intraoperatively. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (133). Retained placenta from an intra-abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Win, T; Tang, P H; Lim, T Y

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old Indonesian woman presented with abdominal pain seven months after an intra-abdominal pregnancy. Ultrasonography revealed a cystic mass in the pelvis and magnetic resonance imaging showed an umbilical stump within it, indicating a retained placenta. This was removed surgically, and on histology, an infarcted placenta was confirmed.

  17. The role of the placenta in drug transport and fetal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Ornoy, Asher

    2018-04-01

    It was assumed for decades that the human placenta serves as a barrier, protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics circulating in the mother. The thalidomide disaster completely reversed this concept. The study of the human placenta is therefore critical to understanding the mechanisms by which xenobiotics reach the fetus and exert their effects. Areas covered: This review describes mechanisms by which drugs interact with the human placenta, and experimental methods to study these interactions in humans. We have selected three areas of current clinical interest, where the placenta exhibits critical role in drug transport: The ABC transporters, the placental handling of cancer therapeutic drugs and the interaction between the placenta and immunoglobulins. Expert commentary: The optimal model to predict drug transfer and transport from the mother to the fetus is the isolated human placental lobule perfused in vitro. Unlike subcellular preparations or tissue homogenates, data obtained from a perfused intact tissue, where structural integrity and cell-cell organization are maintained, more closely reflect the in vivo situation. Moreover, confounding metabolic and physiologic influences are minimized and the experimental conditions can be controlled. It is important to remember that due to significant differences in the function of the placenta in the first two months (histiotrophic nutrition) and later in pregnancy (hemotrophic nutrition) there might be differences in the transplacental transfer of drugs. While most of our knowledge comes from studies on term placentae, we are in need of studies on young placenta that functions during the period of organogenesis.

  18. More Than Clinical Waste? Placenta Rituals Among Australian Home-Birthing Women

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the “afterbirth.” In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a “special” and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant and planning home births in Australia or had recently had home births in Australia. Analysis of these interviews indicates that the discursive shift taking place in home-birth practices from the medicalized model translates into a richer understanding and appreciation of the placenta as a spiritual component of the childbirth experience. The practices discussed in this article include the burial of the placenta beneath a specifically chosen plant, consuming the placenta, and having a lotus birth, which refers to not cutting the umbilical cord after the birth of the child but allowing it to dry naturally and break of its own accord. By shifting focus away from the medicalized frames of reference in relation to the third stage of labor, the home-birthing women in this study have used the placenta in various rituals and ceremonies to spiritualize an aspect of birth that is usually overlooked. PMID:24453467

  19. More than clinical waste? Placenta rituals among Australian home-birthing women.

    PubMed

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the "afterbirth." In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a "special" and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant and planning home births in Australia or had recently had home births in Australia. Analysis of these interviews indicates that the discursive shift taking place in home-birth practices from the medicalized model translates into a richer understanding and appreciation of the placenta as a spiritual component of the childbirth experience. The practices discussed in this article include the burial of the placenta beneath a specifically chosen plant, consuming the placenta, and having a lotus birth, which refers to not cutting the umbilical cord after the birth of the child but allowing it to dry naturally and break of its own accord. By shifting focus away from the medicalized frames of reference in relation to the third stage of labor, the home-birthing women in this study have used the placenta in various rituals and ceremonies to spiritualize an aspect of birth that is usually overlooked.

  20. Expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 in human placenta at term

    PubMed Central

    Østby, Lene; Stuen, Ina; Sundby, Eirik

    2010-01-01

    The placenta contains a large variety of metabolizing enzymes, among them UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Several UGT2B isozymes have so far been detected in human placenta, but little is known on placental expression of UGT1A isozymes. The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LTG) is a UGT1A4-substrate, and its serum concentration falls by over 50% during pregnancy, leading to impaired seizure control. The placenta may be involved in this. Microsomes from term placentas of 4 LTG-users and 10 healthy control subjects were prepared. Western blot analysis detected UGT1A proteins in all placentas. The presence of UGT1A4 in placenta from LTG users was confirmed with UGT1A4 commercial standard and a specific UGT1A4 primary antibody. Since LTG is primarily metabolized by UGT1A4 and this isozyme is shown to be present in placenta at term, it may be hypothesized that the placenta is involved in the fall of LTG serum concentrations during pregnancy. PMID:21302032

  1. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  2. Clonogenic Assay: Adherent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T.; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2011-01-01

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 19561. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture1. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811)2. Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  3. Nitrofen increases total retinol levels in placenta during lung morphogenesis in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Kutasy, Balazs; Pes, Lara; Friedmacher, Florian; Paradisi, Francesca; Puri, Prem

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that pulmonary retinol level is decreased during lung morphogenesis in the nitrofen-induced PH in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Placenta has a major role in the retinol homeostasis in fetal life. Since there is no fetal retinol synthesis, maternal retinol has to cross the placenta. Placenta is the main fetal retinol store where retinol is stored in retinyl-ester formation. Trophoblasts have to produce its own retinol-binding protein (RBP) for retinol transport from placenta to fetus. Recently, we demonstrated that trophoblastic RBP expression is decreased in the nitrofen model of CDH. The aim of this study was to investigate the retinol transfer from mother to the placenta in nitrofen model of CDH. Pregnant rats were exposed to either olive oil or nitrofen on day 9 of gestation (D9). Fetal placenta harvested on D21 and divided into two groups: control (n = 11) and nitrofen with CDH (n = 11). Retinoid levels in placenta were measured using HPLC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate trophoblastic expression of main RSP genes. Total retinol levels in the placenta were significantly increased in CDH placenta compared to control placenta. The retinyl-ester levels were significantly increased in CDH placenta compared to control placenta. Markedly, decreased immunoreactivity of retinoid signaling pathway was observed in trophoblast cells in CDH compared to control placenta. Increased placental retinol levels show that retinol is transferred from mother to placenta and stored in the placenta in nitrofen model of CDH during lung morphogenesis. Nitrofen may disturb the mobilization of retinol from placenta to fetal circulation causing PH in CDH.

  4. Exposure to air pollutants during the early weeks of pregnancy, and placenta praevia and placenta accreta in the western part of Japan.

    PubMed

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Morokuma, Seiichi; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta praevia is an obstetric complication involving placental implantation in the lower uterine segment. Given the suggested aetiology of placenta praevia, adverse biological effects of air pollutants, such as plasma viscosity increment, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic inflammation, have the potential to induce low implantation. We explored the association between exposure to air pollutants during the pregnancy period up to implantation, and placenta praevia, in pregnant Japanese women. The outcome also included placenta accreta, which often exists in combination with placenta praevia. From the Japan Perinatal Registry Network database, we obtained data on 40,573 singleton pregnant women in western Japan (Kyushu-Okinawa Districts) between 2005 and 2010. We assigned pollutant concentrations (suspended particulate matter [SPM], ozone, nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and sulphur dioxide [SO2]), measured at the nearest monitoring station to the respective delivery hospital of each woman. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for several covariates. The odds ratios (ORs) of placenta praevia per 10 units increase were 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.23) for SPM over 0-4weeks of gestation, and 1.08 (1.00-1.16) for ozone. The association between exposure to NO2 and SO2, and praevia, was in the direction of increased risk. SPM exposure during 0-4weeks was associated with placenta accreta without praevia (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.07-1.66). We found no association with exposure to air pollutants during 5-12weeks and the second trimester. Exposure to air pollutants through to implantation was positively associated with placenta praevia and accreta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uterine artery embolization, not cesarean section, as an option for termination of pregnancy in placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingling; Awale, Reenu; Tang, Hui; Zeng, ZhiShan; Li, FuRong; Chen, Yue

    2015-04-01

    To summarize our experiences in the treatment of labor induction in placenta previa using uterine artery embolization. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of seven patients with placenta previa who underwent antepartum uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery. After antepartum embolization, five patients with placenta previa had successful vaginal deliveries and two cases of placenta previa with accreta underwent emergency hysterectomy. Some complications were reported in this experience. The follow-up study showed that most patients resumed their normal menstruation and some of them were able to conceive. For the management of placenta previa, uterine artery embolization is a minimally invasive technique that helps to avoid cesarean section. The impact on menstruation and fertility is yet to be seen. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cervical varix complicated by placenta previa: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mie; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yosuke; Endo, Masayuki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Uterine cervical varix is rare, and its clinical course is poorly understood. Therefore, we present a case report of cervical varix complicating placenta previa before describing our findings in the context of an electronic database search of relevant reports. In the case report, we describe the clinical course and imaging results of a 35-year-old woman who was diagnosed with cervical varix complicated by placenta previa. Investigation by magnetic resonance imaging, serial ultrasonography, and speculum confirmed the diagnosis, and a healthy baby was successfully delivered at 36 weeks of gestation by cesarean section. An electronic search identified nine previous cases of cervical varix complicated by placenta previa in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of cervical varices when managing placenta previa to avoid iatrogenic rupture or misdiagnosis of placenta accreta by magnetic resonance imaging. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Urinary tract injuries during cesarean section in patients with morbid placental adherence: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alanwar, Ahmed; Al-Sayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Elkotb, Ahmed M; Abdelshafy, Ahmed; Abdelhadi, Rasha; Abbas, Ahmed M; Abdelmenam, Hend S; Fares, Tamer; Nossair, Wael; Abdallah, Ameer A; Sabaa, Haitham; Nawara, Maii

    2017-12-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cases of lower urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with or without hysterectomy in cases with morbid placental adherence. This record based retrospective study was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital in Cairo, Egypt during the period between January 2014 and December 2016. It included all patients who had urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with or without hysterectomy in the cases with morbid placental adherence and they were collected from files of pregnant women who were admitted at hospital planned for termination of pregnancy. Patients were enrolled in four groups, Group 1: cases without urinary tract injuries. Group 2: cases with injuries to the bladder. Group 3: cases with injuries of the ureter. Group 4: cases with injuries to the bladder and ureter. This study gave us new information about the incidence of urinary tract injuries during cesarean section with morbid adherence placenta was 21.7% (Bladder 11.7%, Ureter 4.7%, and bladder with ureter 5.3%). There were various types of repair of urinary tract injury, as the following, bladder repair 10.8%, ureteric catheterization 0.9%, ureterovesical repair or reimplantation 1.5%, bladder repair and ureterovesical 1.2%, bladder repair and ureteric catheterization 2.3%, ureteric catheterization and ureterovesical 1.5 and 6.4% of cases needed urologic consultations. There is a real relation between urinary tract injury and obesity (55.3%). Bladder invasion was found in only 26.9% of all cases according to sonography findings. Most of the cases were delivered by cesarean section in 67.5%, and the remainders were delivered by cesarean hysterectomy 32.5%. About 96.5% of cases needed a blood transfusion. The morbid adherent placenta is still a challenge, which faces us as obstetricians, due to high morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary team is mandatory to avoid complications.

  8. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  9. Localisation of Lactate Transporters in Rat and Rabbit Placentae

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Charlap, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoforms 1 and 4, which mediate the plasmalemmal transport of l-lactic and pyruvic acids, has been identified in the placentae of rats and rabbits at different ages of gestation. Groups of three pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits were sacrificed on gestation days (GD) 11, 14, 18, or 20 and on GD 13, 18, or 28, respectively. Placentae were removed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of MCT1 and MCT4. In the rat, staining for MCT1 was associated with lakes and blood vessels containing enucleated red blood cells (maternal vessels) while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing nucleated red blood cells (embryofoetal vessels). In the rabbit, staining for MCT1 was associated with blood vessels containing nucleated red blood cells while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing enucleated red blood cells. Strength of staining for MCT1 decreased during gestation in both species, but that for MCT4 was stronger than that for MCT1 and was consistent between gestation days. The results imply an opposite polarity of MCT1 and MCT4 across the trophoblast between rat and rabbit. PMID:27843454

  10. Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Clark, Andrew G; Antczak, Douglas F

    2012-10-01

    In eutherian mammals, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation. X inactivation is random in embryonic and adult tissues, but imprinted X inactivation (paternal X silencing) has been identified in the extra-embryonic membranes of the mouse, rat, and cow. Few other species have been studied for this trait, and the data from studies of the human placenta have been discordant or inconclusive. Here, we quantify X inactivation using RNA sequencing of placental tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey (mule and hinny). In placental tissue from the equid hybrids and the horse parent, the allelic expression pattern was consistent with random X inactivation, and imprinted X inactivation can clearly be excluded. We characterized horse and donkey XIST gene and demonstrated that XIST allelic expression in female hybrid placental and fetal tissues is negatively correlated with the other X-linked genes chromosome-wide, which is consistent with the XIST-mediated mechanism of X inactivation discovered previously in mice. As the most structurally and morphologically diverse organ in mammals, the placenta also appears to show diverse mechanisms for dosage compensation that may result in differences in conceptus development across species.

  11. Interobserver variability of sonography for prediction of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Zachary S; Eller, Alexandra G; Kennedy, Anne M; Richards, Douglas S; Winter, Thomas C; Woodward, Paula J; Silver, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of sonography to predict accreta has been reported as higher than 90%. However, most studies are from single expert investigators. Our objective was to analyze interobserver variability of sonography for prediction of placenta accreta. Patients with previa with and without accreta were ascertained, and images with placental views were collected, deidentified, and placed in random sequence. Three radiologists and 3 maternal-fetal medicine specialists interpreted each study for the presence of accreta and specific findings reported to be associated with its diagnosis. Investigator-specific sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated. κ statistics were used to assess variability between individuals and types of investigators. A total of 229 sonographic studies from 55 patients with accreta and 56 control patients were examined. Accuracy ranged from 55.9% to 76.4%. Of imaging studies yielding diagnoses, sensitivity ranged from 53.4% to 74.4%, and specificity ranged from 70.8% to 94.8%. Overall interobserver agreement was moderate (mean κ ± SD = 0.47 ± 0.12). κ values between pairs of investigators ranged from 0.32 (fair agreement) to 0.73 (substantial agreement). Average individual agreement ranged from fair (κ = 0.35) to moderate (κ = 0.53). Blinded from clinical data, sonography has significant interobserver variability for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst ismore » destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.« less

  13. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  14. The placenta: the forgotten essential organ of iron transport

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Optimal iron nutrition in utero is essential for development of the fetus and helps establish birth iron stores adequate to sustain growth in early infancy. In species with hemochorial placentas, such as humans and rodents, iron in the maternal circulation is transferred to the fetus by directly contacting placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Early kinetic studies provided valuable data on the initial uptake of maternal transferrin, an iron-binding protein, by the placenta. However, the remaining steps of iron trafficking across syncytiotrophoblasts and through the fetal endothelium into the fetal blood remain poorly characterized. Over the last 20 years, identification of transmembrane iron transporters and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin has greatly expanded the knowledge of cellular iron transport and its regulation by systemic iron status. In addition, emerging human and animal data demonstrating comprised fetal iron stores in severe maternal iron deficiency challenge the classic dogma of exclusive fetal control over the transfer process and indicate that maternal and local signals may play a role in regulating this process. This review compiles current data on the kinetic, molecular, and regulatory aspects of placental iron transport and considers new questions and knowledge gaps raised by these advances. PMID:27261274

  15. Optimizing adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Seema; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Dhayarkar, Sampada

    2011-01-01

    HIV has now become a manageable chronic disease. However, the treatment outcomes may get hampered by suboptimal adherence to ART. Adherence optimization is a concrete reality in the wake of ‘universal access’ and it is imperative to learn lessons from various studies and programmes. This review examines current literature on ART scale up, treatment outcomes of the large scale programmes and the role of adherence therein. Social, behavioural, biological and programme related factors arise in the context of ART adherence optimization. While emphasis is laid on adherence, retention of patients under the care umbrella emerges as a major challenge. An in-depth understanding of patients’ health seeking behaviour and health care delivery system may be useful in improving adherence and retention of patients in care continuum and programme. A theoretical framework to address the barriers and facilitators has been articulated to identify problematic areas in order to intervene with specific strategies. Empirically tested objective adherence measurement tools and approaches to assess adherence in clinical/ programme settings are required. Strengthening of ART programmes would include appropriate policies for manpower and task sharing, integrating traditional health sector, innovations in counselling and community support. Implications for the use of theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, community involvement and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is suggested. PMID:22310817

  16. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  17. Myometrial contractility influences oxytocin receptor (OXTR) expression in term trophoblast cells obtained from the maternal surface of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Bilska, Anna; Mittal, Tarun Kumar; Stangret, Aleksandra; Wejman, Jaroslaw; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Pyzlak, Michal; Zamlynski, Jacek

    2015-09-16

    Oxytocin (OXT) acts through its specific receptor (OXTR) and increased density of OXTR and/or augmented sensitivity to OXT were postulated as prerequisites of normal onset of labor. Expression of OXTR in the placental term trophoblast cells has not yet been analyzed in the context of contractile activity of the uterus. Here we examine comparatively OXT contents in the placental tissue adjacent to the uterine wall and expressions of OXTR in this tissue and corresponding isolated placental trophoblast cells. Twenty eight placentae after normal labors at term (group I, N = 14) and after cesarean sections performed without uterine contractile activity (group II, N = 14) have been collected. Tissue excised from the maternal surface of examined placenta was used for OXT concentration measurement, cytotrophoblast cell cultures preparation and immunohistochemistry of OXTR. Concentration of OXT was estimated in the tissue homogenates by an enzyme immunoassay with colorimetric detection. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated using Kliman's method based on trypsin, DNase, and a 5-70% Percoll gradient centrifugation. The cultures were incubated for 5 days in normoxia. Both placental specimens and terminated cytotrophoblast cultures were fixed and embedded in paraffin before being immunostained for OXTR. Using light microscopy with computed morphometry for quantitative analysis, OXTR expressions were estimated in calibrated areas of the paraffin sections. There were not significant differences between the groups in respect to the mean OXT concentration. However, in both groups the median value of OXT concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the tissue obtained from the peripheral regions of the maternal surface of the placenta, compared to the samples from the central region of this surface. In placental tissue the mean expression of OXTR in group I was significantly (p < 0.05) increased by approximately 3.2-fold and 3.45-fold (the samples collected

  18. Effect of Primary Elective Cesarean Delivery on Placenta Accreta: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Lian; Zhao, Yang-Yu

    2018-03-20

    Cesarean section (CS) is an independent risk factor for placenta accreta. Some researchers think that the timing of primary cesarean delivery is associated with placenta accreta in subsequent pregnancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of placenta accreta following primary CS without labor, also called primary elective CS, in a pregnancy complicated with placenta previa. A retrospective, single-center, case-control study was conducted at Peking University Third Hospital. Relevant clinical data of singleton pregnancies between January 2010 and September 2017 were recorded. The case group included women with placenta accreta who had placenta previa and one previous CS. Control group included women with one previous CS that was complicated with placenta previa. Maternal age, body mass index, gestational age, fetal birth weight, gravity, parity, induced abortion, the rate of women received assisted reproductive technology, other uterine surgery, and primary elective CS were analyzed between the two groups. The rate of primary elective CS (90.1% vs. 69.9%, P < 0.001) was higher, and maternal age was younger (32.7 ± 4.7 years vs. 34.6 ± 4.0 years, P < 0.001) in case group, compared with control group. Case group also had higher gravity and induced abortions compared with the control group (both P < 0.05). Primary CS without labor was associated with significantly increased risk of placenta accreta in a subsequent pregnancy complicated with placenta previa (odds ratio: 3.32; 95% confidential interval: 1.68-6.58). Women with a primary elective CS without labor have a higher chance of developing an accreta in a subsequent pregnancy that is complicated with placenta previa.

  19. Contribution of placenta accreta to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K S

    2015-04-01

    To quantify the contribution of placenta accreta to the rate of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. All hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec) for the years 2009 and 2010 (N=570,637) were included in a retrospective cohort study using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Placenta accreta included placental adhesion to the uterine wall, musculature, and surrounding organs (accreta, increta, or percreta). Severe postpartum hemorrhage included postpartum hemorrhage with blood transfusion, hysterectomy, or other procedures to control bleeding (including uterine suturing and ligation or embolization of pelvic arteries). Rates, rate ratios, population-attributable fractions (ie, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage attributable to placenta accreta), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between placenta accreta and risk factors. The incidence of placenta accreta was 14.4 (95% CI 13.4-15.4) per 10,000 deliveries (819 cases among 570,637 deliveries), whereas the incidence of placenta accreta with postpartum hemorrhage was 7.2 (95% CI 6.5-8.0) per 10,000 deliveries. Postpartum hemorrhage among women with placenta accreta was predominantly third-stage hemorrhage (41% of all cases). Although placenta accreta was strongly associated with postpartum hemorrhage (rate ratio 8.3, 95% CI 7.7-8.9), its low frequency resulted in a small population-attributable fraction (1.0%, 95% CI 0.93-1.16). However, the strong association between placenta accreta and postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy (rate ratio 286, 95% CI 226-361) resulted in a population-attributable fraction of 29.0% (95% CI 24.3-34.3). Placenta accreta is too infrequent to account for the recent temporal increase in postpartum hemorrhage but contributes substantially to the proportion of postpartum hemorrhage with hysterectomy.

  20. Effect of Primary Elective Cesarean Delivery on Placenta Accreta: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Lian; Zhao, Yang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cesarean section (CS) is an independent risk factor for placenta accreta. Some researchers think that the timing of primary cesarean delivery is associated with placenta accreta in subsequent pregnancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of placenta accreta following primary CS without labor, also called primary elective CS, in a pregnancy complicated with placenta previa. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, case-control study was conducted at Peking University Third Hospital. Relevant clinical data of singleton pregnancies between January 2010 and September 2017 were recorded. The case group included women with placenta accreta who had placenta previa and one previous CS. Control group included women with one previous CS that was complicated with placenta previa. Maternal age, body mass index, gestational age, fetal birth weight, gravity, parity, induced abortion, the rate of women received assisted reproductive technology, other uterine surgery, and primary elective CS were analyzed between the two groups. Results: The rate of primary elective CS (90.1% vs. 69.9%, P < 0.001) was higher, and maternal age was younger (32.7 ± 4.7 years vs. 34.6 ± 4.0 years, P < 0.001) in case group, compared with control group. Case group also had higher gravity and induced abortions compared with the control group (both P < 0.05). Primary CS without labor was associated with significantly increased risk of placenta accreta in a subsequent pregnancy complicated with placenta previa (odds ratio: 3.32; 95% confidential interval: 1.68–6.58). Conclusion: Women with a primary elective CS without labor have a higher chance of developing an accreta in a subsequent pregnancy that is complicated with placenta previa. PMID:29521289

  1. Placenta previa and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age newborn.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, Sari; Kancherla, Vijaya; Kramer, Michael R; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate whether there is an association between placenta previa and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn and to quantify the contribution of individual risk factors for SGA that are associated with placenta previa stratified by maternal parity. A cross-sectional study using the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2000-2010. All singleton births (N=596,562) were included; major congenital anomalies were excluded. An association between SGA (less than 2 standard deviations below the mean) and placenta previa was modeled by parity-specific unadjusted and adjusted statistical models. Placenta previa complicated 625 of 249,476 singleton births among nulliparous women (2.50/1,000) and 915 of 347,086 singleton births among multiparous women (2.64/1,000). Among nulliparous women, the most common risk factor for placenta previa was in vitro fertilization; placenta previa was not associated with an increased prevalence of SGA controlling for maternal age, smoking, in vitro fertilization, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-1.17). Among multiparous women, placenta previa was associated with a twofold increased risk of SGA controlling for maternal age, parity, prior preterm birth, prior caesarean delivery, prior SGA newborn, prior preeclampsia, smoking, in vitro fertilization, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.50-2.89). Furthermore, only one-fourth of the association between SGA and placenta previa could be explained by controlling for risk factors clustering with placenta previa among multiparous women. Placenta previa is associated with impaired fetal growth in multiparous but not nulliparous women. II.

  2. Placenta Previa and the Risk of Delivering a Small-for-Gestational-Age Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Kramer, Michael R.; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is an association between placenta previa and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn and to quantify the contribution of individual risk factors for SGA that are associated with placenta previa, stratified by maternal parity. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2000–2010. All singleton births (N=596,562) were included; major congenital anomalies were excluded. An association between SGA (< 2 standard deviations below the mean) and placenta previa was modeled by parity-specific unadjusted and adjusted statistical models. Results Placenta previa complicated 625 of 249,476 singleton births among nulliparous women (2.50/1,000) and (915 of 347,086 singleton births among multiparous women (2.64/1,000). Among nulliparous women, the most common risk factor for placenta previa was in vitro fertilization (IVF); placenta previa was not associated with an increased prevalence of SGA, controlling for maternal age, smoking, IVF, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (aOR=0.81; 95% CI=0.57–1.17). Among multiparous women, placenta previa was associated with a two-fold increased risk of SGA, controlling for maternal age, parity, prior preterm birth, prior caesarean delivery, prior SGA newborn, prior preeclampsia, smoking, IVF, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (aOR=2.08; 95% CI=1.50–2.89). Further, only one fourth of the association between SGA and placenta previa could be explained by controlling for risk factors clustering with placenta previa among multiparous women. Conclusions Placenta previa is associated with impaired fetal growth in multiparous but not nulliparous women. PMID:25004348

  3. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Diane I.; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C.; Thirkill, Twanda L.; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Samollow, Paul B.; Ross, Pablo J.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Douglas, Gordon C.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  4. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  5. Placental location, postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta in women with a previous cesarean section delivery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Johanna; Eurenius, Karin; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Axelsson, Ove

    2017-08-01

    Women previously giving birth with cesarean section have an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and retained placenta. The objective of this study was to determine if anterior placental location increased the risk of PPH and retained placenta in such women. We performed a prospective cohort study on 400 women with cesarean section delivery in a previous pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed at gestational week 28-30, and placental location, myometrial thickness, and three-dimensional vascularization index (VI) were recorded. Data on maternal age, parity, BMI, smoking, gestational week at delivery, induction, delivery mode, oxytocin, preeclampsia, PPH, retained placenta, and birth weight were obtained for all women. Outcome measures were PPH (≥1,000 mL) and retained placenta. The overall incidence of PPH was 11.0% and of retained placenta 3.5%. Twenty-three women (11.8%) with anterior placenta had PPH compared to 12 (6.9%) with posterior or fundal locations. The odds ratio was 1.94, but it did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant risk increase for retained placenta in women with anterior placentae. Seven of eight women with placenta previa had PPH, and four had retained placenta. The overall risk of PPH and retained placenta was high for women with previous cesarean section. Anterior location of the placenta in such women tended to impose an increased risk for PPH but no risk increase of retained placenta. Placenta previa in women with previous cesarean section is associated with a high risk for PPH and retained placenta.

  6. Placental location, postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta in women with a previous cesarean section delivery: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Johanna; Eurenius, Karin; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Axelsson, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Objective Women previously giving birth with cesarean section have an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and retained placenta. The objective of this study was to determine if anterior placental location increased the risk of PPH and retained placenta in such women. Materials and methods We performed a prospective cohort study on 400 women with cesarean section delivery in a previous pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed at gestational week 28–30, and placental location, myometrial thickness, and three-dimensional vascularization index (VI) were recorded. Data on maternal age, parity, BMI, smoking, gestational week at delivery, induction, delivery mode, oxytocin, preeclampsia, PPH, retained placenta, and birth weight were obtained for all women. Outcome measures were PPH (≥1,000 mL) and retained placenta. Results The overall incidence of PPH was 11.0% and of retained placenta 3.5%. Twenty-three women (11.8%) with anterior placenta had PPH compared to 12 (6.9%) with posterior or fundal locations. The odds ratio was 1.94, but it did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant risk increase for retained placenta in women with anterior placentae. Seven of eight women with placenta previa had PPH, and four had retained placenta. Conclusions The overall risk of PPH and retained placenta was high for women with previous cesarean section. Anterior location of the placenta in such women tended to impose an increased risk for PPH but no risk increase of retained placenta. Placenta previa in women with previous cesarean section is associated with a high risk for PPH and retained placenta. PMID:28826360

  7. Clustering based on adherence data.

    PubMed

    Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Sylvia; Oja, Hannu; Walker, Sarah A; Ilmonen, Pauliina; Levin, Jonathan; Todd, Jim

    2011-03-08

    Adherence to a medical treatment means the extent to which a patient follows the instructions or recommendations by health professionals. There are direct and indirect ways to measure adherence which have been used for clinical management and research. Typically adherence measures are monitored over a long follow-up or treatment period, and some measurements may be missing due to death or other reasons. A natural question then is how to describe adherence behavior over the whole period in a simple way. In the literature, measurements over a period are usually combined just by using averages like percentages of compliant days or percentages of doses taken. In the paper we adapt an approach where patient adherence measures are seen as a stochastic process. Repeated measures are then analyzed as a Markov chain with finite number of states rather than as independent and identically distributed observations, and the transition probabilities between the states are assumed to fully describe the behavior of a patient. The patients can then be clustered or classified using their estimated transition probabilities. These natural clusters can be used to describe the adherence of the patients, to find predictors for adherence, and to predict the future events. The new approach is illustrated and shown to be useful with a simple analysis of a data set from the DART (Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa) trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

  8. Increased Levels of Cell-Free Human Placental Lactogen mRNA at 28-32 Gestational Weeks in Plasma of Pregnant Women With Placenta Previa and Invasive Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P < .01 and P < .05, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61.5% for the prediction of invasive placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. PMID:23744883

  9. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P < .01 and P < .05, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61.5% for the prediction of invasive placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  10. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of human placental lactogen and variant growth hormone genes in placentas.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rodriguez, H G; Guerra-Rodriguez, N E; Iturbe-Cantu, M A; Martinez-Torres, A; Barrera-Saldaña, H A

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies comparing the expression levels of human placental lactogen (hPL) genes have shown varying results, due to, perhaps, the fact that in all of them only one placenta was being analyzed. Here, the expression of hPL and growth hormone variant (hGH-V) genes in fifteen term placentas was comparatively analyzed at the RNA level, using reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The abundance of the combined RNA transcripts derived from these genes varied from one placenta to another. The authors found that hPL-4 transcripts were more abundant than those of hPL-3 in most samples (ratios from 1:1 to 6:1), transcripts from the putative hPL-1 pseudogene were more abundant at the unprocessed stage while those of the hGH-V gene were mostly processed. Again, the authors of this study observed wide variation from placenta to placenta in the abundance of both of these types of transcripts. The same was observed when a group of six placentas from abortuses and nine from pregnancies complicated by preclampsia, diabetes and hypertension was studied. The authors conclude that the disagreeing results reported in the literature which are not in agreement concerning the expression levels of hPL genes could be explained by normal variations of their expression levels among the different placentas analyzed.

  12. Maternal Bias and Escape from X Chromosome Imprinting in the Midgestation Mouse Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Elizabeth H; Smith, Cheryl L; Rodriguez, Jesse; Sidow, Arend; Baker, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the epigenetic landscape at the interface between mother and fetus, we provide a comprehensive analysis of parent-of-origin bias in the mouse placenta. Using F1 interspecies hybrids between mus musculus (C57BL/6J) and mus musculus castaneus, we sequenced RNA from 23 individual midgestation placentas, five late stage placentas, and two yolk sac samples and then used SNPs to determine whether transcripts were preferentially generated from the maternal or paternal allele. In the placenta, we find 103 genes that show significant and reproducible parent-of-origin bias, of which 78 are novel candidates. Most (96%) show a strong maternal bias which we demonstrate, via multiple mathematical models, pyrosequencing, and FISH, is not due to maternal decidual contamination. Analysis of the X chromosome also reveals paternal expression of Xist and several genes that escape inactivation, most significantly Alas2, Fhl1, and Slc38a5. Finally, sequencing individual placentas allowed us to reveal notable expression similarity between littermates. In all, we observe a striking preference for maternal transcription in the midgestation mouse placenta and a dynamic imprinting landscape in extraembryonic tissues, reflecting the complex nature of epigenetic pathways in the placenta. PMID:24594094

  13. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-01-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications. PMID:27053569

  14. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-04-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications.

  15. Intravenous nitroglycerin for controlled cord traction in the management of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Visalyaputra, Shusee; Prechapanich, Japarath; Suwanvichai, Sukanya; Yimyam, Suwimol; Permpolprasert, Ladda; Suksopee, Pattipa

    2011-02-01

    To determine the effect of 200 μg of intravenous nitroglycerin in the release of retained placenta by controlled cord traction. In this randomized controlled study, 40 women with a placenta retained for 30 minutes received intravenously 200 μg of nitroglycerin or a normal saline solution before umbilical cord traction was initiated. The rates of successful removal of the retained placenta in the study (n=20) and control (n=20) groups were compared, as were blood pressure, pulse rate, blood loss, and adverse effects. The placenta was released in only 15% and 20% of the participants in the study and control group, respectively. The remainder of the participants required general anesthesia and manual removal of the retained placenta regardless of group assignation. Blood pressure fell in significantly more women in the study group, but there were no differences in estimated blood loss or minor adverse effects. Intravenously administered nitroglycerin did not facilitate the release of retained placenta by umbilical cord traction. However, cord traction may be performed longer than 30 minutes to attempt releasing the placenta before operative manual removal is initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different layers of full term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chul-Won; Kim, Jin A; Heo, Jin-Chul; Han, Woo-Jung; Oh, Soo-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background The placenta is a very attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine due to readily availability, non-invasive acquisition, and avoidance of ethical issues. Isolating MSCs from parts of placenta tissue has obtained growing interest because they are assumed to exhibit different proliferation and differentiation potentials due to complex structures and functions of the placenta. The objective of this study was to isolate MSCs from different parts of the placenta and compare their characteristics. Methods Placenta was divided into amniotic epithelium (AE), amniotic membrane (AM), chorionic membrane (CM), chorionic villi (CV), chorionic trophoblast without villi (CT-V), decidua (DC), and whole placenta (Pla). Cells isolated from each layer were subjected to analyses for their morphology, proliferation ability, surface markers, and multi-lineage differentiation potential. MSCs were isolated from all placental layers and their characteristics were compared. Findings Surface antigen phenotype, morphology, and differentiation characteristics of cells from all layers indicated that they exhibited properties of MSCs. MSCs from different placental layers had different proliferation rates and differentiation potentials. MSCs from CM, CT-V, CV, and DC had better population doubling time and multi-lineage differentiation potentials compared to those from other layers. Conclusions Our results indicate that MSCs with different characteristics can be isolated from all layers of term placenta. These finding suggest that it is necessary to appropriately select MSCs from different placental layers for successful and consistent outcomes in clinical applications. PMID:28225815

  17. Ultrasound detection of placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Jamal, Ashraf; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh- Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Niroomanesh, Shirin; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Placenta accreta is considered a life-threatening condition and the main cause of maternal mortality. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta usually is made by clinical presentation, imaging studies like ultrasound and MRI in the second and third trimester. Objective: To determine accuracy of ultrasound findings for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In a longitudinal study 323 high risk patients for placenta accreta were assessed. The eligible women were examined by vaginal and abdominal ultrasound for gestational sac and placental localization and they were followed up until the end of pregnancy. The ultrasound findings were compared with histopathological examinations as a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ultrasound were estimated for the first trimester and compared with other 2 trimesters in the case of repeated ultrasound examination. Results: Ultrasound examinations in the first trimester revealed that 28 cases had the findings in favor of placenta accreta which ultimately was confirmed in 7 cases. The ultrasound sensitivity and specificity for detecting placenta accreta in the first trimester was 41% [95% CI: 16.2-62.7] and 88% [95% CI: 88.2-94.6] respectively. Conclusion: Ultrasound screening for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy could not achieve the high sensitivity as second and third trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25071851

  18. Conservative surgical management of placenta accreta: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Pliskow, Steven; Dai, Xiaorong; Kohner, Andrew; Kapnick, Jason

    2009-10-01

    Placenta accreta is often diagnosed at the time of delivery and is a cause of postpartum hemorrhage, morbidity and mortality. The standard treatment for placenta accreta is hysterectomy to avoid acute blood loss and shock. A conservative surgical approach to the treatment of placenta accreta will allow immediate cure while preserving the patient's future fertility. A 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta diagnosed at the time of vaginal delivery was successfully treated with resection of the placental implantation site. A 33-year-old woman and a 35-year-old woman with placenta accreta/increta diagnosed at the time of cesarean section were successfully treated with resection of the placental implantation site. One patient has since conceived and given birth. Placenta accreta and placenta increta can be safely and successfully treated, in some well-selected cases, by resection of the placental implantation site and uterine repair. This conservative surgical management provides immediate therapy, reduces blood loss and preserves fertility.

  19. Management of patients with placenta accreta in association with fever following vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liuying; Chen, Dunjin; Zhong, Mei; He, Yutian; Su, Chunhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and to manage patients with retained placenta left in situ accompanied by fever following vaginal delivery. Twenty-one patients with retained placenta in association with fever following vaginal delivery were enrolled and managed at the maternity department of our university hospital between 2012 and 2014. All patients had risk factors for development of placenta accreta: previous cesarean sections (4/21), previous curettage (15/21), or uterine malformations (7/21). Placenta accreta was diagnosed following vaginal delivery in all patients, and manual removal of the placenta was attempted in 20 of 21 patients. The placenta left in situ was partial in 19 patients and was complete in 2 patients. All patients were managed with a multidisciplinary approach. Mifepristone was administrated to 16 patients. Fourteen patients received uterine artery embolization. Eleven patients were treated with ultrasound-guided curettage within 24 hours following delivery. Seven patients needed delayed-hysterectomy due to development of complications. Intrauterine operations during labor are not recommended if placenta accreta occurs in the fundus and/or in the cornual region of the uterus. Antibiotic treatment, interventional therapy, and ultrasound-guided curettage within 24 hours following vaginal delivery are the recommended conservative management strategies. PMID:28272244

  20. Ultrasound detection of placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Jamal, Ashraf; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Niroomanesh, Shirin; Atoof, Fatemeh

    2014-06-01

    Placenta accreta is considered a life-threatening condition and the main cause of maternal mortality. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta usually is made by clinical presentation, imaging studies like ultrasound and MRI in the second and third trimester. To determine accuracy of ultrasound findings for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy. In a longitudinal study 323 high risk patients for placenta accreta were assessed. The eligible women were examined by vaginal and abdominal ultrasound for gestational sac and placental localization and they were followed up until the end of pregnancy. The ultrasound findings were compared with histopathological examinations as a gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ultrasound were estimated for the first trimester and compared with other 2 trimesters in the case of repeated ultrasound examination. Ultrasound examinations in the first trimester revealed that 28 cases had the findings in favor of placenta accreta which ultimately was confirmed in 7 cases. The ultrasound sensitivity and specificity for detecting placenta accreta in the first trimester was 41% [95% CI: 16.2-62.7] and 88% [95% CI: 88.2-94.6] respectively. Ultrasound screening for placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy could not achieve the high sensitivity as second and third trimester of pregnancy.

  1. Transfer of mercury and phenol derivatives across the placenta of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus).

    PubMed

    Nehring, Iga; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Staniszewska, Marta; Pawliczka, Iwona; Saniewska, Dominika

    2017-12-01

    The placenta is an intermediary organ between the female and the developing foetus. Some chemical substances, including the most harmful ones, exhibit the ability to accumulate in or penetrate through the placenta. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the placenta of the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus grypus) in the transfer of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) - (bisphenol A, 4-tert- octylphenol, 4- nonylphenol), as well as total and organic mercury. 30 placentas were collected from grey seals pupping under human care at the Hel Marine Station in the years 2007-2016. The assays were conducted using the technique of high-preformance liquid chromatography (phenol derivatives) and atomic absorption spectrometry (mercury and selenium). A measurable level of EDCs was indicated in the placentas of grey seals. It was established that the inorganic Hg form was accumulated in the placenta, and that its concentrations were an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the organic form, which penetrated to the foetus. Similar observations were made for phenol derivatives - bisphenol A, 4-tert- octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol. For this compound group the placenta was a barrier, but the properties of phenol derivatives suggest the possibility of their penetration through this organ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk Factors and Consequent Outcomes of Placenta Previa: Report From a Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Seify, Zahra; Haghighi, Ladan; Khoshnood Shariati, Maryam; Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh

    2016-11-01

     Because of an unknown factor, the frequency of complicated pregnancy with placenta previa has been raised during past decade. This study was designed to deepen our understanding of risk factors and outcomes of placenta previa in our country. This study investigated 694 cases of placenta previa comparing with 600 healthy pregnant women with not overlie placenta in two referral and tertiary Obstetrics and Gynecological Hospital in Iran on the basis of the clinical and para-clinical analysis, in order to find the probable risk factors for occurrence of placenta previa and its effect on maternal and neonatal complications. The most important risk factor for the occurrence of placenta previa was advanced maternal age (P<0.001) and history of stillbirth (OR=117.2, CI=58.3-236.0). In the other hand, the most substantial outcome of this disorder was a reduction of gestational age (P<0.001) and low birth weight neonatally (P<0.001). The conservative follow-up should be programmed for women with placenta previa based on the type of risk factors which can provide the best possible management to decrease the morbidity and mortality of their related complications.

  3. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Jeong, Eun-Hwan

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique.

  4. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. Methods We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. Results There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique. PMID:27004200

  5. Placenta previa: an outcome-based cohort study in a contemporary obstetric population.

    PubMed

    Lal, Ann K; Hibbard, Judith U

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study is to characterize the maternal and neonatal morbidities of women with placenta previa. This retrospective group study used the Consortium on Safe Labor electronic database, including 12 clinical centers, and 19 hospitals. Patients with placenta previa noted at the time of delivery were included. Maternal and neonatal variables were compared to a control group of women undergoing cesarean delivery with no previa. Logistic regression and general linear regression were used for the analysis, with p < 0.05 significance. There were 19,069 patients in the study: 452 in the placenta previa group and 18,617 in the control group. Neonates born to mothers with placenta previa had lower gestational ages and birth weights. In univariate analysis only, these neonates were at increased risk of lower 5 min Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admission, anemia, respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, and intraventricular hemorrhage. There was no association of placenta previa with small for gestational age infants, congenital anomalies or death. As previously shown, women with placenta previa have significantly more maternal morbidities. Increased maternal morbidity was noted; however, only those neonatal morbidities associated with preterm delivery occurred in the placenta previa group.

  6. Placenta previa and it's relation with maternal age, gravidity and cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Hossain, G A; Islam, S M; Mahmood, S; Chakraborty, R K; Akhter, N; Sultana, S

    2004-07-01

    The placenta provides the essential connection between the mother and the developing fetus. Placental position were routinely mentioned in an ultrasound report starting from early second trimester to the end of third trimester when asked for pregnancy evaluation. The aim of this study was to see the prevalence of lower segment placenta (placenta previa) and its relations with previous cesarean section delivery, parity and maternal age. The study conducted in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound (CNMU) Mymensingh in a period from January 2001 to December 2002. About 2536 pregnant women (those included in this study) underwent ultrasound examination during pregnancy at third trimester. The prevalence of lower segment placenta was 1.34%. The highest prevalence of placenta previa (2.58%) was seen in 3rd and higher gravida group. Also the highest prevalence were seen 30 yr. and above age group in compare to below 30 yr. age group. No increased prevalence of placenta previa were seen in previous cesarean section (C / S) delivery group (0.65%) in compare to normal delivery group (1.97%). From our study it was seen that development of lower segment placenta has relation with increased number of gravidity and maternal age but no increased prevalence were seen in subjects with previously done cesarean section

  7. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  8. Changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and association with hyperemesis gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the possible changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and to determine whether there is an association between hyperemesis gravidarum and placenta previa. Material and Methods A total of 131 singleton spontaneously conceived pregnancies that were complicated by placenta previa and delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were evaluated from birth charts. Ninety patients without placenta previa were selected amongst patients who delivered within the same period of time as the control group. Cases of low lying placenta (n=52) within the study group were assessed as a separate group. The rest of the cases was considered to be in a different group. Results Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) multiples of medians (MoMs) and nuchal translucency (NT) MoMs were significantly higher in the placenta previa group in comparison with the low lying placenta and control groups. Apgar scores at both the 1st and 5th minutes were significantly lower in the placenta previa group. Hyperemesis gravidarum was found to be significantly more frequent in the placenta previa group. Conclusion The prevalence of hyperemesis gravidarum in the first trimester is higher in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. Paying more attention to the development of placenta previa in the routine pregnancy follow-up of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum could be considered. PMID:25584028

  9. Changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and association with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2014-01-01

    To assess the possible changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and to determine whether there is an association between hyperemesis gravidarum and placenta previa. A total of 131 singleton spontaneously conceived pregnancies that were complicated by placenta previa and delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were evaluated from birth charts. Ninety patients without placenta previa were selected amongst patients who delivered within the same period of time as the control group. Cases of low lying placenta (n=52) within the study group were assessed as a separate group. The rest of the cases was considered to be in a different group. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) multiples of medians (MoMs) and nuchal translucency (NT) MoMs were significantly higher in the placenta previa group in comparison with the low lying placenta and control groups. Apgar scores at both the 1st and 5th minutes were significantly lower in the placenta previa group. Hyperemesis gravidarum was found to be significantly more frequent in the placenta previa group. The prevalence of hyperemesis gravidarum in the first trimester is higher in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. Paying more attention to the development of placenta previa in the routine pregnancy follow-up of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum could be considered.

  10. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  11. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Macroscopic and histological characteristics of retained placenta: A prospectively collected case-control study.

    PubMed

    Endler, Margit; Saltvedt, Sissel; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

    2016-05-01

    Retained placenta is a potentially fatal obstetric disorder due to postpartum hemorrhage, its pathophysiology is however unknown. We aimed to assess if retained placenta was associated with increased macroscopic and histological signs of placental maternal underperfusion, a pattern otherwise seen in preeclampsia and other disorders of defective placentation. This was a case-control study of retained (n = 49) and non-retained (n = 47) placentas, collected from full-term singleton and otherwise healthy pregnancies, carried out at a tertiary level obstetric department. Macroscopic and histological analysis was performed. Signs of maternal placental underperfusion and signs of placental inflammation, fetal vascular thrombo-occlusive disease and increased placental attachment were recorded in a primary and secondary analysis respectively. Variables were compared groupwise using unconditional logistic regression or comparison of median or mean values. Compared to non-retained placentas retained placentas had a significantly smaller surface area (p = 0.05), were more oblong in shape (OR 5.24 95% CI:1.34-20.21) and showed overall more signs of maternal underperfusion (OR 2.52 95% CI: 1.07-5.87). There was no significant difference in signs of placental inflammation, fetal vascular thrombo-occlusive disease or placenta accreta but basal plate myometrial fibers were more common among retained placentas. In regard to shape, surface area and histological signs of maternal placental underperfusion, retained placentas showed a histological pattern similar to that seen in preeclamptic placentas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered expression of p97/Valosin containing protein and impaired autophagy in preeclamptic human placenta.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Asker Zeki; Cayli, Sevil; Sahin, Cansu; Ocakli, Seda; Sanci, Tuba Ozdemir; Ilhan, Delibas Bahri

    2018-07-01

    Autophagy increases in placenta-related obstetrical diseases such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation but the regulation of autophagy by ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) proteins, p97/Valosin containing protein (VCP) and ubiquitin (Ub) have not been previuosly studied in preeclampsia. The objective of this study is to investigate the expression of UPP (p97/VCP and Ub), autophagosomal (p62 and LC3) and autolysosomal proteins (Lamp1 and Lamp2) in the normal and preeclamptic human placentas and to explore the regulatory mechanism of these proteins in autophagic pathway. Different portions of normal term placentas (n = 20) and preeclamptic placentas (n = 10) were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation and others were fixed-embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation experiments were done for the detection of interaction between p97/VCP and autophagic proteins. Compared with normal placentas, expression of p97/VCP was significantly reduced; however accumulation of ubiquitinlated proteins were significantly increased in preeclamptic placentas. The expression of autophagosomal proteins (LC3-II and p62) were significantly increased and no significant alterations of the expression of autolysosomal proteins were observed in preeclamptic placentas. Additionally, p97/VCP was found to colocalized and interact with autophagosomal and autolysosomal markers in normal and preeclamptic placentas. Autophagosome maturation diminished and autophagosomes had decreased localization with lysosomal markers in preeclamptic human placentas. Decreased expression of p97/VCP and increased expression of Ub in preeclampsia might be related to impaired autophagy and pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Therefore, our study highlights an important potential relationship between p97/VCP and autophagic proteins in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  16. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high

  17. Association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelei; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chen, Gong; Pei, Lijun; Xiao, Hailong; Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Jiaomei; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Duo

    2018-02-21

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss (ESPL) in Chinese women. Seventy women with ESPL and 29 healthy pregnant women who asked for legal induced abortion were included in the case and control groups, respectively. The gestational age of the subject foetuses in both the case and control groups ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. The total fatty acids composition in the decidual and villous tissues was detected by gas-liquid chromatography using a standard method. Metabonomics analysis of the decidual and villous tissues was conducted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS). The total C18:3n-3 in the decidual and villous tissues, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) in the decidual tissue, and total C18:2n-6 in the villous tissue were all significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. The ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 in villous tissue was significantly higher, but prostaglandin I 2 as well as hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, leukotriene B 5 and thromboxane B 3 in the villous tissue were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. In addition, the low content of lysophosphatide in the decidual and villous tissues and the low content of diacylglycerol in the villous tissue were also associated with the occurance of ESPL. In conclusion, the lack of essential fatty acids, high ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3, abnormal eicosanoids metabolism and low content of lysophosphatide and diacylglycerol in the placenta were all potential risk factors for ESPL in Chinese.

  18. Radiofrequency ablation of retained placenta accreta after conservative management: preliminary evaluation in the pregnant ewe and in normal human placenta in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morel, O; Monceau, E; Tran, N; Malartic, C; Morel, F; Barranger, E; Côté, J F; Gayat, E; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Cabrol, D; Tsatsaris, V

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate radiofrequency (RF) efficiency and safety for the ablation of retained placenta in humans, using a pregnant sheep model. Experimental study. Laboratory of Surgery School, Nancy, France. Three pregnant ewes/ten human placentas. Various RF procedures were tested in pregnant ewes on 50 placentomes (individual placental units). Reproducibility of the best procedure was then evaluated in a further 20 placentomes and on ten human term placentas in vitro after delivery. Placental tissues destruction, lesions' size, myometrial lesions. Low power (100 W) and low target temperatures (60 degrees C) lead to homogenous tissue destruction, without myometrial lesion. No significant difference was observed in terms of lesion size and procedure duration for in the placentomes of pregnant ewe in vivo and in human placentas in vitro. The diameter of the ablation could be correlated with the tines deployment. The placental tissue structure is very permissive to RF energy, which suggests that RF could be used for the ablation of retained placenta, providing optimal control of tissue destruction. These results call for further experimental evaluations.

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  20. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  1. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. A novel treatment for management of a trapped placenta using intracervical nitroglycerin tablets

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Blake Conley; Pasternak, Adam; Gray, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A 34-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman delivered a viable male infant and developed retained placenta due to entrapment. A nitroglycerin tablet was used to relax the lower uterine segment and cervix, which allowed the placenta to pass through the cervix for delivery. The nitroglycerin tablet was placed in the cervix and held in place by the delivering physician as it dissolved. Soon after administration, the intact placenta delivered. The patient did not experience the typical side effects of headache, asymptomatic decrease in blood pressure, hypotension, palpitations or dizziness that can be associated with administration of nitroglycerin. We suspect that this novel localised route of nitroglycerin administration may be an effective management strategy to treat trapped placenta while minimising side effects. However, the outcomes of this treatment would require further study. PMID:24014558

  3. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle.

    PubMed

    Benedictus, L; Koets, A P; Kuijpers, F H J; Joosten, I; van Eldik, P; Heuven, H C M

    2013-02-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test the hypothesis that a greater coefficient of relationship between dam and calf increases the risk of retained placenta in the dam. The average incidence of retained placenta in 43,661 calvings of Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle was 4.5%, ranging from 0% to 29.6% among half-sib groups. The average pedigree based relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire was 0.05 and ranged from 0 to 1.04. Using a sire-maternal grandsire model the heritability was estimated at 0.22 (SEM=0.07) which is comparable with estimates for other dual purpose breeds. The coefficient of relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire had an effect on retained placenta. The coefficient of relationship between the sire and the maternal grandsire was used as a proxy for the coefficient of relationship between dam and calf, which is correlated with the probability of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I compatibility between dam and calf. MHC class I compatibility is an important risk factor for retained placenta. Although the MHC class I haplotype is genetically determined, MHC class I compatibility is not heritable. This study shows that selection against retained placenta is possible and indicates that preventing the mating of related parents may play a role in the prevention of retained placenta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound-guided instrumental removal of the retained placenta after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Melissa G; Vargas, Juan E; Drey, Eleanor A

    2014-08-01

    The standard treatment for retained placenta is manual extraction, in which a hand is introduced inside the uterus to cleave a plane between the placenta and the uterine wall. For women without an epidural, the procedure is extremely uncomfortable and may require additional measures such as intravenous narcotics or regional anesthesia. Although ultrasound-guided instrumental removal of the placenta is standard practice as part of second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation and may be done at many institutions, especially after failed manual extraction, it has not yet been described in the literature as a technique following vaginal birth. Our experience with this technique is that it causes less discomfort to the patient than a traditional manual extraction, because the instrument entering the uterus is much narrower than a hand. With the patient in dorsal lithotomy, we locate the cervix and stabilize it either with fingers or a ring forceps on the anterior lip. We introduce Bierer ovum forceps into the uterus under direct ultrasound guidance. The Bierer forceps are preferred because of their long length, large head, and serrated teeth that allow for a firm, secure grip on the placenta. We grasp the placental tissue with the forceps and apply slow, gentle traction in short strokes, regrasping increasingly more distal areas of placenta as necessary to tease out the placenta. After 1-2 minutes, the placenta separates and can be pulled out of the uterus, usually intact. Our experience suggests that this technique is a well-tolerated option for women without an epidural who have a retained placenta. Further study is needed to quantify the amount of discomfort and anesthesia that can be avoided with this technique, as well as whether there is any change in the frequency of infectious complications or the necessity of postremoval curettage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Placenta previa and risk of major congenital malformations among singleton births in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Heinonen, Seppo

    2015-06-01

    Placenta previa has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but its association with congenital malformations is inconclusive. We examined the association between placenta previa and major congenital malformations among singleton births in Finland. We performed a retrospective population register-based study on all singletons born at or after 22+0 weeks of gestation in Finland during 2000 to 2010. We linked three national health registers: the Finnish Medical Birth Register, the Hospital Discharge Register, and the Register of Congenital Malformations, and examined several demographic and clinical characteristics among women with and without placenta previa, in association with major congenital malformations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of placenta previa was estimated as 2.65 per 1000 singleton births in Finland (95% confidence interval, 2.53-2.79). Overall, 6.2% of women with placenta previa delivered a singleton infant with a major congenital malformation, compared with 3.8% of unaffected women (p ≤ 0.001). Placenta previa was positively associated with almost 1.6-fold increased risk of major congenital malformations in the offspring, after controlling for maternal age, parity, fetal sex, smoking, socio-economic status, chorionic villus biopsy, In vitro fertilization, pre-existing diabetes, depression, preeclampsia, and prior caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.90). Using a large population-based study, we found that placenta previa was weakly, but significantly associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations in singleton births. Future studies should examine the association between placenta previa and individual types of congenital malformations, specifically in high-risk pregnancies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [The Application of Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion in Pernicious Placenta Previa].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Xing-Hui; You, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Rong; Xing, Ai-Yun; Zhang, Li; Ning, Gang; Zhao, Fu-Min; Li, Kai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical application value of internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in pernicious placenta previa. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients of pernicious placenta previa in a single center from Jan, 2010 to Jan, 2015. The patients were divided into two groups, internal iliac artery balloon occlusion group and the control group without endovascular intervention. Blood loss in operation, volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, operating time, hospital days after operation and postoperative morbidity were compared between the two groups. The balloon occlusion group had significantly less blood loss, the volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, hospital day after operation than the control group had. There was no statistical difference in operating time, intensive care units (ICU), hypotension, infection, hypoxemia, bladder injury, bowel obstruction, neonatal asphyxia between the two groups. The balloon occlusion group had significantly higher rate in coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalance. Among the patients whose uterus were preserved, the blood loss was not significantly difference between the two groups. Among the patients with the complication of placenta accreta, caesarean hysterectomy was less in balloon group, and blood loss between the two groups was not significantly different. Among the patients without placenta accrete, the blood loss was less in balloon group, and caesarean hysterectomy between the two groups was not significantly different. The risk of hysterectomy in balloon group was related to placenta accreta, uterine arteries engorgement, placental invasive serosa, taking placenta by hand, placental invasive bladder, barrel-shaped thickening of lower uterine segment, unable to remove placenta. Internal iliac artery balloon occlusion is an effective treatment for pernicious placenta previa.

  7. Asymptomatic "placental prolapse" with cervical funneling in a patient with complete placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Adekola, Henry; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Bronshtein, Elena; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-02-01

    We describe the transvaginal sonographic findings in a patient with complete placenta previa and increased risk of preterm birth owing to a prior history of mid-trimester pregnancy loss in whom we observed a short cervix and prolapse of the placenta and fetal membranes into the endocervical canal. We believe that this could lead to antepartum hemorrhage and mandate close observation when diagnosed. We introduced the term "placental prolapse" to describe our finding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Maternal Buprenorphine Dose, Placenta Buprenorphine and Metabolite Concentrations and Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Choo, Robin; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    Buprenorphine is approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence in non-pregnant patients in multiple countries, and is currently under investigation for pregnant women in the US and Europe. This research evaluates the disposition of buprenorphine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in 5 term placentas from a US cohort. Placenta and matched meconium concentrations were compared, and relationships between maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta concentrations, and neonatal outcomes following controlled administration during gestation were investigated. Buprenorphine and/or metabolites were detected in all placenta specimens and were uniformly distributed across this tissue (CV<27.5%, 4 locations), except for buprenorphine in 3 placentas. In 2 of these, buprenorphine was not detected in some locations and, in the 3rd placenta, was totally absent. Median (range) concentrations were buprenorphine 1.6ng/g (not detected to 3.2), norbuprenorphine 14.9ng/g (6.2 to 24.2), buprenorphine-glucuronide 3ng/g (1.3 to 5.0) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide 14.7ng/g (11.4 to 25.8). Placenta is a potential alternative matrix for detecting in utero buprenorphine exposure, but at lower concentrations (15–70 fold) than in meconium. Statistically significant correlations were observed for mean maternal daily dose from enrollment to delivery and placenta buprenorphine-glucuronide concentration, and for norbuprenorphine-glucuronide concentrations and time to neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) onset and duration, and for norbuprenorphine/norbuprenorphine-glucuronide ratio and maximum NAS score, and newborn length. Analysis of buprenorphine and metabolites in this alternative matrix, an abundant waste product available at the time of delivery, may be valuable for prediction of neonatal outcomes for clinicians treating newborns of buprenorphine-exposed women. PMID:20216119

  9. The Windmill technique avoids manual removal of the retained placenta-A new solution for an old problem.

    PubMed

    Hinkson, Larry; Suermann, Mia Amelie; Hinkson, Susan; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective is to assess the reduction in manual removal of placenta with the Windmill technique of placenta delivery in patients with retained placenta. The Windmill technique involves the application of continuous 360° umbilical cord traction and rotation in such a manner as to be perpendicular to the direction of the birth canal at the level of the introitus. This rotation through 360° is repeated slowly with movement akin to the motion of the blades of a windmill. We performed a 3-year retrospective case-control study at the Charité University Hospital in Berlin. Patients with a retained placenta more than 30min following failed traditional interventions were consented and offered the Windmill technique of placenta delivery. Study cases were compared to controls where an operative manual removal of placenta was performed. Patients with suspected placenta implantation problems, uterine atony, bleeding due to vaginal tract injury and coagulation disturbances were excluded. Over the study period 14 patients were recruited to the study arm and 17 patients were in the control group. With the Windmill technique for retained placenta, 86% (12/14, p<0.001) of patients avoided invasive operative manual removal of the placenta in theatre. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean blood loss (429ml vs 724ml, p=0.001) and mean postoperative fall in hemoglobin values (1.3g/dl vs 2.5g/dl, p=0.04). There was a reduction in the time to delivery of the placenta, antibiotic prophylaxis and use of general anesthesia. The Windmill technique for the delivery of the retained placenta is a simple, safe, effective and easy to teach technique that reduces invasive operative manual removal of the placenta, postpartum blood loss and delay in the placenta delivery. This innovative technique can also be a lifesaving intervention especially in areas with limited or no access to operative facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered gene expression in human placentas after IVF/ICSI.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Dumoulin, John C M; Busato, Florence; Ponger, Loïc; Eijssen, Lars M; Evers, Johannes L H; Tost, Jörg; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2014-12-01

    Is gene expression in placental tissue of IVF/ICSI patients altered when compared with a spontaneously conceived group, and are these alterations due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in the case of imprinted genes? An altered imprinted gene expression of H19 and Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (PHLDA2), which was not due to LOI, was observed in human placentas after IVF/ICSI and several biological pathways were significantly overrepresented and mostly up-regulated. Genomic imprinting plays an important role in placental biology and in placental adaptive responses triggered by external stimuli. Changes in placental development and function can have dramatic effects on the fetus and its ability to cope with the intrauterine environment. An increased frequency of placenta-related problems as well as an adverse perinatal outcome is seen in IVF/ICSI derived pregnancies, but the role of placental epigenetic deregulation is not clear yet. In this prospective cohort study, a total of 115 IVF/ICSI and 138 control couples were included during pregnancy. After applying several exclusion criteria (i.e. preterm birth or stillbirth, no placental samples, pregnancy complications or birth defects), respectively, 81 and 105 placentas from IVF/ICSI and control pregnancies remained for analysis. Saliva samples were collected from both parents. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of several growth-related imprinted genes [H19, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), PHLDA2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), mesoderm-specific transcript homolog (MEST) isoform α and β by quantitative PCR] after standardization against three housekeeping genes [Succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), YWHAZ and TATA-binding protein (TBP)]. A quantitative allele-specific expression analysis of the differentially expressed imprinted genes was performed to investigate LOI, independent of the mechanism of imprinting. Furthermore, a microarray analysis was carried out (n = 10 in

  11. Identification of a µ opiate receptor signaling mechanism in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Mantione, Kirk J; Angert, Robert M; Cadet, Patrick; Kream, Richard M; Stefano, George B

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies report that genes in the morphine biosynthetic pathway have been found in placental tissue. Prior researchers have shown that kappa opioid receptors are present in human placenta. We determined if a µ opiate receptor was present and which subtype was expressed in human placenta. We also sought to demonstrate a functional µ opiate receptor in human placenta. Polymerase chain reactions as well as DNA sequencing were performed to identify the µ opiate receptor subtypes present in human placenta. The functionality of the receptor was demonstrated by real time amperometric measurements of morphine induced NO release. The µ4 opiate receptor sequence was present as well as the µ1 opioid receptor transcript. The addition of morphine to placental tissue resulted in immediate nitric oxide release and this effect was blocked by naloxone. In the present study, an intact morphine signaling system has been demonstrated in human placenta. Morphine signaling in human placenta probably functions to regulate the immune, vascular, and endocrine functions of this organ via NO.

  12. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  13. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-04-28

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas.

  14. The incidence and risk factors for retained placenta after vaginal delivery - a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Ashwal, Eran; Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Peled, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for retained placenta immediately after vaginal delivery in a single, university-affiliated tertiary center. A case-control study. Women who delivered vaginally and diagnosed with suspected retained placenta were compared to control group of women with spontaneous vaginal delivery with spontaneous non-complicated placental separation between the years 2007 and 2012. Eligibility was limited to singleton fetuses in vertex presentation with no history of more than one cesarean section, stillbirth or major fetal anomaly. Overall, 33,925 women delivered vaginally, of them, 491 (1.4%) underwent revision of uterine cavity due to suspected retained placenta. Women with retained placenta were characterized by a higher rate of previous cesarean section (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23-2.36), previous abortions, lower parity (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.91), lower gestational age at delivery. Hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios and labor and delivery interventions as induction of labor (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59), neuro-axial analgesia (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.00) and vacuum delivery (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.48-2.41) were independently associated with uterine revision for retained placenta. Risk factors for manual revision due to retained placenta can be recognized. This data should be taken into consideration in the assessment of women immediately after delivery.

  15. No reduction of manual removal after misoprostol for retained placenta: a double-blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    van Stralen, Giel; Veenhof, Marieke; Holleboom, Cas; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2013-04-01

    To test the effect of 800 μg of misoprostol orally on the prevention of manual removal of retained placenta. Multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. One university and one non-university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. 99 women with retained placenta (longer than 60 min after childbirth) in the absence of postpartum hemorrhage. Eligible women were administered either 800 μg of misoprostol or placebo orally. Number of manual removals of retained placenta and amount of blood loss. Manual removal of retained placenta was performed in 50% of the women who received misoprostol and in 55% who received placebo (relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.34). No difference in the amount of blood loss (970 vs. 1120 mL; p = 0.34) was observed between the two groups. Administration of 800 μg of oral misoprostol, one hour after childbirth, does not seem to reduce the number of manual removals of retained placentas. The time elapsing results in the delivery of 50% of the retained placentas at the expense of an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. A Survey for Novel Imprinted Genes in the Mouse Placenta by mRNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Soloway, Paul D.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Many questions about the regulation, functional specialization, computational prediction, and evolution of genomic imprinting would be better addressed by having an exhaustive genome-wide catalog of genes that display parent-of-origin differential expression. As a first-pass scan for novel imprinted genes, we performed mRNA-seq experiments on embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5) mouse placenta cDNA samples from reciprocal cross F1 progeny of AKR and PWD mouse strains and quantified the allele-specific expression and the degree of parent-of-origin allelic imbalance. We confirmed the imprinting status of 23 known imprinted genes in the placenta and found that 12 genes reported previously to be imprinted in other tissues are also imprinted in mouse placenta. Through a well-replicated design using an orthogonal allelic-expression technology, we verified 5 novel imprinted genes that were not previously known to be imprinted in mouse (Pde10, Phf17, Phactr2, Zfp64, and Htra3). Our data suggest that most of the strongly imprinted genes have already been identified, at least in the placenta, and that evidence supports perhaps 100 additional weakly imprinted genes. Despite previous appearance that the placenta tends to display an excess of maternally expressed imprinted genes, with the addition of our validated set of placenta-imprinted genes, this maternal bias has disappeared. PMID:21705755

  17. The number of multinucleated trophoblastic giant cells in the basal decidua is decreased in retained placenta.

    PubMed

    van Beekhuizen, H J; Joosten, I; de Groot, A N J A; Lotgering, F K; van der Laak, J; Bulten, J

    2009-09-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is a major cause of obstetric haemorrhage. The aim of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms that cause some placentas to become retained, while most are not. 23 RPs clinically diagnosed as placenta adhesiva and 10 control placentas (CPs) were examined for differences in trophoblast fusion into multinucleated trophoblastic giant cells (MTGCs), defects in the basal decidua, and decidual attachment of myometrial fibres. The number of MTGCs in the basal decidua was significantly smaller in RPs (0.23 MTGC/standard length) than in CPs (1.11 MTGC/standard length) (p<0.001). Defects in the decidua were observed in 4% of the RPs and in 0% of the CPs. Myometrial fibres were attached to the decidua in 78% of the RPs and in 0% of the CPs (p<0.001). In placenta adhesiva compared with CPs, significantly less MTGCs were present in the basal decidua, the basal decidua was intact, and myometrial fibres were more frequently attached to the basal decidua. It is speculated that these findings may indicate that defective fusion of trophoblastic cells into MTGCs plays a causative role in placenta adhesiva.

  18. The association between maternal smoking and placenta abruption: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have determined that maternal smoking can increase the risk of placenta abruption. To date, only a meta-analysis has been performed for assessing the relationship between smoking and placenta abruption. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the risk of placenta abruption. A literature search was conducted in major databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to April 2016. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effects model. The literature search yielded 1167 publications until April 2016 with 4 309 610 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, there was a significant association between smoking and placenta abruption (1.80; 95% CI: 1.75, 1.85). Based on the results of cohort studies, smoking and placenta abruption had a significant association (relative risk ratio: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.51, 1.80). Based on reports in epidemiological studies, we showed that smoking is a risk factor for placenta abruption.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization in Pregnancy Termination with Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Pei, Renguang; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Heping; Huang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoxing; Yang, Xiaohua

    2017-03-01

    To appraise the efficacy and safety of prophylactic uterine artery embolization in pregnancy termination with placenta previa. A cohort of 54 consecutive patients with placenta previa underwent prophylactic uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery from February 2012 to March 2015. Vaginal delivery was attempted in all patients. Cesarean section or hysterectomy was introduced when vaginal delivery failed. Vaginal delivery succeeded in 50 patients (93.6%) and failed in 4 patients (6.4%), thereupon converted to cesarean delivery. No patients resorted to hysterectomy. Six patients (11.1%) underwent blood transfusion. None of clinical characteristics, including maternal age, gestational age, history of abortion, history of cesarean delivery, and volume of vaginal bleeding, was significantly associated with complete placenta previa (P > 0.05). However, patients with complete placenta previa had a significantly lower successful rate of vaginal delivery than did patients without complete placenta previa (81 vs 100%, P = 0.038). The rate of complications was 3.7%. No major complications were observed. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe technique to assist pregnancy termination with placenta previa, which may lower the risk of cesarean section, hysterectomy, and blood transfusion.

  20. Placenta previa. A 13 years experience at a tertiary care center in Western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S; Bahkali, Nedaa M; Al-Basri, Samera F; Al Hachim, Estabrq; Shoudary, Ibrahim H; Dause, Wesam R; Mira, Mohammed Y; Khojah, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    To review cases of placenta previa in the last 13 years in a tertiary teaching hospital to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity.  A retrospective analysis of all cases of placenta previa managed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2013.    The total number of deliveries was 55,862 deliveries, and 11,412 (20.3%) delivered by cesarean section (C/S). The charts of 230 cases diagnosed with placenta previa was reviewed, and different variables were collected and analyzed. Diagnoses were achieved in 94% of them using ultrasound. The prevalence rate of placenta previa was 4.1 per 1000 births. Cesarean section was carried out as an emergency procedure in 130 (56.5%) women and as elective in 100 (43.5%) women. Of them, 26 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (11.3%), all of which received blood transfusion >6 units and 22 patients had a hysterectomy for uncontrollable bleeding.   Placenta previa is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Every hospital must have a protocol, or algorithm for the management of placenta previa. Risk factors for maternal morbidity included complete previa, history of previous C/S, emergency C/S at a gestational age of less than 36 weeks, and estimated blood loss more than 2000 ml.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization in Pregnancy Termination with Placenta Previa

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Renguang, E-mail: mediprg@bjmu.edu.cn; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Heping

    PurposeTo appraise the efficacy and safety of prophylactic uterine artery embolization in pregnancy termination with placenta previa.MethodsA cohort of 54 consecutive patients with placenta previa underwent prophylactic uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery from February 2012 to March 2015. Vaginal delivery was attempted in all patients. Cesarean section or hysterectomy was introduced when vaginal delivery failed.ResultsVaginal delivery succeeded in 50 patients (93.6%) and failed in 4 patients (6.4%), thereupon converted to cesarean delivery. No patients resorted to hysterectomy. Six patients (11.1%) underwent blood transfusion. None of clinical characteristics, including maternal age, gestational age, history of abortion, history of cesarean delivery,more » and volume of vaginal bleeding, was significantly associated with complete placenta previa (P > 0.05). However, patients with complete placenta previa had a significantly lower successful rate of vaginal delivery than did patients without complete placenta previa (81 vs 100%, P = 0.038). The rate of complications was 3.7%. No major complications were observed.ConclusionUterine artery embolization is an effective and safe technique to assist pregnancy termination with placenta previa, which may lower the risk of cesarean section, hysterectomy, and blood transfusion.« less

  2. Genome-wide oxidative bisulfite sequencing identifies sex-specific methylation differences in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michelle D; Dopierala, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene function. Fetal sex is associated with the risk of several specific pregnancy complications related to placental function. However, the association between fetal sex and placental DNA methylation remains poorly understood. We carried out whole-genome oxidative bisulfite sequencing in the placentas of two healthy female and two healthy male pregnancies generating an average genome depth of coverage of 25x. Most highly ranked differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were located on the X chromosome but we identified a 225 kb sex-specific DMR in the body of the CUB and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1) gene on chromosome 8. The sex-specific differential methylation pattern observed in this region was validated in additional placentas using in-solution target capture. In a new RNA-seq data set from 64 female and 67 male placentas, CSMD1 mRNA was 1.8-fold higher in male than in female placentas (P value = 8.5 × 10−7, Mann-Whitney test). Exon-level quantification of CSMD1 mRNA from these 131 placentas suggested a likely placenta-specific CSMD1 isoform not detected in the 21 somatic tissues analyzed. We show that the gene body of an autosomal gene, CSMD1, is differentially methylated in a sex- and placental-specific manner, displaying sex-specific differences in placental transcript abundance. PMID:29376485

  3. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Leptin does not induce an inflammatory response in the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Appel, S; Turnwald, E-M; Alejandre-Alcazar, M A; Ankerne, J; Rother, E; Janoschek, R; Wohlfarth, M; Vohlen, C; Schnare, M; Meißner, U; Dötsch, J

    2014-06-01

    Leptin is described as a pro-inflammatory signal in fat tissue, which is released from adipocytes and in turn activates immune cells. Also, leptin levels are known to be increased in pregnancies complicated with enhanced inflammatory processes in the placenta. Hence, we assumed that increased leptin amounts might contribute to inducing an inflammatory response in the placenta. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were continuously infused with recombinant murine leptin s. c. from day g13 to g16, resulting in a 3-fold increase of maternal circulating serum leptin levels. Dissected placentas were examined for the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 using qPCR analysis. No changes were found except for TNF-alpha, which was slightly elevated upon leptin stimulation. However, TNF-alpha protein levels were not significantly higher in placentas from leptin treated mice. Also, leukocyte infiltration in the labyrinth section of placentas was not increased. In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time that elevated leptin levels alone do not induce an inflammatory response in the placenta. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  6. Improving adherence to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Bélisle, M; Roskies, E; Lévesque, J M

    1987-01-01

    Two studies tested the efficacy of Marlatt and Gordon's relapse-prevention approach in increasing attendance during an exercise program (short-term adherence) and continuation of exercise activities for 12 weeks following termination of the formal program (longer term adherence). Participants in both studies were registrants in 10-week exercise groups (jogging, aerobic dance, and pre-ski training) sponsored by the Université de Montréal Sports Centre. The intervention, designed to increase awareness of obstacles to exercise and to develop appropriate techniques for coping with them, was delivered by group leaders within the context of the regular program. Results of both studies indicate a small but consistent superiority of adherence in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. The low cost of this intervention, however, makes even small gains cost effective. Possible methods for strengthening the treatment effect are discussed.

  7. PPARγ Expression Is Diminished in Macrophages of Recurrent Miscarriage Placentas.

    PubMed

    Kolben, Theresa Maria; Rogatsch, Elisabeth; Vattai, Aurelia; Hester, Anna; Kuhn, Christina; Schmoeckel, Elisa; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; Kolben, Thomas

    2018-06-26

    PPARγ belongs to the group of nuclear receptors which is expressed in the trophoblast and together with other factors is responsible for the maintenance of pregnancy. Apart from that PPARγ is also a main factor for macrophage polarization. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined expression pattern and frequency of PPARγ under physiological circumstances and in spontaneous and recurrent miscarriages in the trophoblast and in maternal macrophages of the decidua. Human placental tissues of the first trimester (15 physiologic pregnancies, 15 spontaneous abortion and 16 recurrent miscarriage placentas) were analyzed for expression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Expression changes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR (RT-PCR) in trophoblast and in maternal macrophages of the decidua. Maternal macrophages were identified by double immunofluorescence using cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) as marker for macrophages and further characterized regarding their M1/M2 polarization status. The intermediate villous trophoblast revealed a significantly lower PPARγ expression in spontaneous and recurrent abortion. Maternal macrophages express PPARγ. Their number is significantly enhanced in the decidua of spontaneous miscarriages whereas in recurrent miscarriages maternal macrophages seem to express PPARγ only in very few cases. PPARγ is associated with an M2 polarization state that is common for decidual macrophages. The lack of PPARγ in recurrent miscarriage decidual macrophages seems to be associated with a specific inflammatory response against the fetus.

  8. Altered gene expression in human placenta after suspected preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Oros, D; Strunk, M; Breton, P; Paules, C; Benito, R; Moreno, E; Garcés, M; Godino, J; Schoorlemmer, J

    2017-07-01

    Suspected preterm labour occurs in around 9% of pregnancies. However, almost two-thirds of women admitted for threatened preterm labour ultimately deliver at term and are considered risk-free for fetal development. We examined placental and umbilical cord blood samples from preterm or term deliveries after threatened preterm labour as well as term deliveries without threatened preterm labour. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (IL6, IFNγ, and TNFα) and modulators of angiogenesis (FGF2, PGF, VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGFR1). A total of 132 deliveries were analysed. Preterm delivery and term delivery after suspected preterm labour groups showed similar increases in TNFα expression compared with the term delivery control group in umbilical cord blood samples. Placental samples from preterm and term deliveries after suspected preterm labour exhibited significantly increased expression of TNFα and IL6 and decreased expression of IFNγ. Suspected preterm labour was also associated with altered expression of angiogenic factors, although not all differences reached statistical significance. We found gene expression patterns indicative of inflammation in human placentas after suspected preterm labour regardless of whether the deliveries occurred preterm or at term. Similarly, a trend towards altered expression of angiogeneic factors was not limited to preterm birth. These findings suggest that the biological mechanisms underlying threatened preterm labour affect pregnancies independently of gestational age at birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanobacteria may be linked to calcification in placenta.

    PubMed

    Lu, He; Guo, Ya-nan; Liu, Sheng-nan; Zhang, De-chun

    2012-05-01

    Placental calcification is a common pathologic condition in obstetrics. To detect the bacteria infection mechanisms for calcification, an experiment was performed to isolate, culture, and identify the nanobacteria in placental calcification. Sixteen cases of placental calcification of pregnant women were collected for the purpose of the isolation of nanobacteria, cultivation, and identification of 16S rDNA sequence. Under transmission electron microscope, novel oval-shape nanobacteria-like particles (NLP) in extracellular matrix of calcified placenta tissues were found with 50-500 nm in diameter, and among hydroxyapatite crystals aggregation existed. After about 4 weeks of culturing and isolating NLP from these calcified tissues, all calcified placental tissue samples and one adjacent tissue of calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular depositions, which were firmly attached to the bottom of the culture tubes and visible to the naked eyes. In the control group they could not be seen. After PCR was amplified a 1407-bp fragment was obtained and submitted to GenBank after sequencing with accession number JN029830. The 16S rDNA sequence homology between the isolation strain and strain nanobacteria (X98418) was 92% in GenBank. For the first time isolated, cultured, and identified nanobacteria in placental calcification indicated that nanobacteria infection is related to placental calcification.

  10. ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity. PMID:21118087

  11. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Alyousif, Sarah M; Alshabanah, Najla; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Alharbi, Shemylan; Alhejaili, Fayze F; Alsayyari, Abdullah A; Qandil, Abeer Ma; Qandil, Amjad M

    2014-07-01

    Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD) at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8). The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012), being married (P = 0.012) increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024) decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence.

  12. Isolation and cellular properties of mesenchymal cells derived from the decidua of human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Daisuke; Shofuda, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Ban, Chiaki; Ueda, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2011-09-01

    The clinical promise of cell-based therapies is generally recognized, and has driven an intense search for good cell sources. In this study, we isolated plastic-adherent cells from human term decidua vera, called decidua-derived-mesenchymal cells (DMCs), and compared their properties with those of bone marrow-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). The DMCs strongly expressed the mesenchymal cell marker vimentin, but not cytokeratin 19 or HLA-G, and had a high proliferative potential. That is, they exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology for over 30 population doublings. Cells phenotypically identical to the DMCs were identified in the decidua vera, and genotyping confirmed that the DMCs were derived from the maternal components of the fetal adnexa. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression pattern of CD antigens on the DMCs was almost identical to that on BM-MSCs, but some DMCs expressed the CD45 antigen, and over 50% of them also expressed anti-fibroblast antigen. In vitro, the DMCs showed good differentiation into chondrocytes and moderate differentiation into adipocytes, but scant evidence of osteogenesis, compared with the BM-MSCs. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared with BM-MSCs, the DMCs expressed higher levels of TWIST2 and RUNX2 (which are associated with early mesenchymal development and/or proliferative capacity), several matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, 3, 10, and 12), and cytokines (BMP2 and TGFB2), and lower levels of MSX2, interleukin 26, and HGF. Although DMCs did not show the full multipotency of BM-MSCs, their higher proliferative ability indicates that their cultivation would require less maintenance. Furthermore, the use of DMCs avoids the ethical concerns associated with the use of embryonic tissues, because they are derived from the maternal portion of the placenta, which is otherwise discarded. Thus, the unique properties of DMCs give them several advantages for clinical use, making them an interesting and

  13. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Morasso, Maria I; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C

    2009-12-31

    EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  14. Chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes related to occurrence of retained placenta in dexamethasone induced parturition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Benedictus, L; Jorritsma, R; Knijn, H M; Vos, P L A M; Koets, A P

    2011-09-15

    Induction of parturition with glucocorticosteroids in cattle is used for research purposes, in diseased or injured pregnant cows, and as a management tool to time parturition. A negative side effect of induction of parturition with glucocorticosteroids is the high incidence of retained placenta that occurs after these calvings. Reaction of the maternal immune system against the 'foreign' foetal membranes contributes to the breakdown of the foetal-maternal attachment. Several studies indicate that failure of this immune assisted detachment increases the occurrence of retained placenta. We hypothesized that retained placenta occurring after induction of parturition with glucocorticosteroids is caused by failure of immune assisted detachment of the foetal membranes. The chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes was used as a parameter to see whether immune assisted detachment of the foetal membranes had occurred. Cotyledons were collected from spontaneously calving non-retained placenta cows and from dexamethasone induced non-retained placenta and retained placenta cows. The study showed that the chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes was lower (P < 0.001) in cotyledons obtained from retained placenta cows in which parturition was induced with dexamethasone compared to the chemotactic activity of cotyledons obtained from spontaneously calving non-retained placenta cows, whereas the chemotactic activity of cotyledons obtained from induced non-retained placenta cows was not lower (P = 0.10) than the chemotactic activity of cotyledons obtained from spontaneously calving non-retained placenta cows. We concluded that induction of parturition with dexamethasone causes a failure of immune assisted detachment of the foetal membranes and the accompanying release of chemotactic factors. As a result, the chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes is lower in induced retained placenta cows than in cotyledons from non

  15. [Clinical outcome and placenta characteristics of spontaneous twin anemia-polycythemia sequence].

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Li, L Y; Wei, Y; Zhao, Y Y; Yuan, P B

    2017-03-25

    Objective: To investigate the clinical outcome and placental characteristics of spontaneous twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (sTAPS). Methods: Twelve cases with sTAPS delivered in Peking University Third Hospital from May 2013 to August 2016. The data of ultrasound characteristics, gestational age at delivery, and 1 minute Apgar score were analyzed, retrospectively. Placental superficial vascular anastomoses, placental territory discordance and the ratio of umbilical cords insertion distance to the longest placental diameter were also analyzed. Results: (1) Only 1 case of sTAPS was diagnosed prenatally, the others were diagnosed postnatally because the fetal middle cerebral artery(MCA) doppler was not measured regularly. Five cases were complicated with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR). The median gestational age at delivery was 32.8 weeks (31-37 weeks) . The pregnancies were terminated because 3 cases were sIUGR type Ⅰ, 1 case was sIUGR type Ⅱ, 1 case was sIUGR type Ⅲ, 2 cases were fetal distress, 2 cases were severe pre-eclampsia, 2 cases were premature rupture of membrane, 1 case was fetal hydrops with abnormal doppler waveforms of ductus venouses. (2) When 5 sIUGR cases were excluded, there was no difference between the twins in birth weight [1 797 g (940-2 620 g) , 1 648 g (980-2 500 g) ; P=0.688]. The hemoglobin (Hb) level in all donor was significantly lower than recipient (P=0.000) and the inter-twin Hb difference was 147.6 g/L (84.0-216.0 g/L). While the reticulocyte percentage in donor was significantly higher than recipient (P=0.013) and reticulocyte percentage ratio was 3.60 (1.04-7.50). Five donor newborns had neonatal asphyxia, including 1 severe asphyxia, while no asphyxia happened in the recipient twins. (3) Arterio-arterial (A-A) anastomoses, veno-venous (V-V) anastomoses, arterio-venous (A-V) anastomoses were found in 3, 1 and 11 placentas, respectively. The total number of anastomoses was 2 (1-5) and the total diameter was

  16. Matsubara-Takahashi cervix-holding technique for massive postpartum hemorrhage in patients with placenta previa with or without placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironori; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2018-03-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of the Matsubara-Takahashi cervix-holding technique (MT-holding) for achieving hemostasis for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). The present retrospective observational study included data from deliveries that occurred between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan. Deliveries were included where patients experienced blood loss greater than 2500 mL and MT-holding was used. The success rates of the technique in patients with placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders and PPH were determined; subsequent pregnancy outcomes were also examined. There were 53 deliveries included in the study; 29 patients had placenta previa and 8 of these patients also had PAS disorders. MT-holding achieved hemostasis in 15 (71%) and 4 (50%) patients with placenta previa without and with PAS disorders, respectively; the placenta was removed in the latter. Overall, MT-holding achieved hemostasis in 40 (75%) deliveries. Of nine patients who became pregnant after this procedure, six went on to have full-term deliveries. MT-holding achieved hemostasis in 50% of patients with PAS disorders and had an overall success rate of 75% for PPH, comparable to other uterus-sparing procedures. MT-holding is suggested as a simple, effective, safe technique available to less-experienced obstetrician; these findings require confirmation in larger studies. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  19. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  20. Modulation of apelin and APJ receptor in normal and preeclampsia-complicated placentas.

    PubMed

    Cobellis, L; De Falco, M; Mastrogiacomo, A; Giraldi, D; Dattilo, D; Scaffa, C; Colacurci, N; De Luca, A

    2007-01-01

    Apelin is an endogenous ligand of the human orphan receptor APJ. This peptide is produced through processing from the C-terminal portion in the pre-pro-protein consisting of 77 amino acid residues and exists in multiple molecular forms. Although the main physiological functions of apelin have not yet been clarified, it is known that apelin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, blood flow and central control of body fluid homeostasis in different organs. Since human placenta is a tissue where vasculogenesis, blood pressure and flow are dramatically important to allow a normal embryonic and fetal growth and development, the aim of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical distribution of apelin and APJ in normal placentas throughout pregnancy and in preeclampsia-complicated placentas. Specifically, we observed that in normal placentas the expression levels of apelin decreased from the first to the third trimester of gestation in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cells and in the stroma of placental villi, in contrast with increased expression levels of APJ in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblast cells and in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of normal placenta samples. In contrast, in preeclampsia-complicated pregnancies, we observed a very strong increase of expression levels of both apelin and APJ receptor in all the placental compartments, cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and stroma with a particular increase in endothelial cells inside preeclamptic placental villi. Our data seem to indicate an important role of apelin and APJ in the regulation of fetal development through a correct regulation of human placenta formation during pregnancy. Moreover, the strong expression levels of apelin and APJ in preeclamptic placentas, suggest their possible involvement in the onset of this pathology.

  1. The regulation of oxytocin and oxytocin receptor in human placenta according to gestational age.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Chul; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kang, Seong Soo; Yang, Hoe-Saeng; Kim, Sun Suk; An, Beum-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a peptide hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation. OXT signaling is mediated by OXT receptor (OXTR), which shows species- and tissue-specific expressions and gene regulation. In the present study, we examined the synthesis of OXT and OXTR in human placenta tissue according to gestational age. A total of 48 placentas were divided into early preterm, late preterm and term groups depending on gestational age, and expression of OXT and OXTR was evaluated. First, OXT and OXTR mRNA and protein were detected in normal placenta tissue via Q-PCR, Dot-blot and Western blot assay. Both OXT and OXTR levels in normal placenta increased gradually in the late stage of pregnancy, suggesting that local OXT may play a critical role in the function of the placenta. To determine the regulatory mechanism of OXT, placental BeWo cells were administrated estrogen (E2) or progesterone (P 4 ), and expression of OXT and OXTR was tested. The mRNA and protein levels of OXT and OXTR were upregulated by E2 but blocked by co-treatment with P 4 In order to confirm the estrogen receptor (ESR)-mediated signaling, we administrated ESR antagonists together with E2 to BeWo cells. As a result, both OXT and OXTR were significantly altered by ESR1 antagonist (MPP) while moderately regulated by ESR2 antagonist (PHTPP). These results suggest that OXT and OXTR are controlled mainly by E2 in the placenta via ESR1 and thus may play physiological functions in the human placenta during the late stage of pregnancy. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Pharmacologic intervention for retained placenta: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Duffy, James M N; Mylan, Sophie; Showell, Marian; Wilson, Matthew J A; Khan, Khalid S

    2015-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of retained placenta (when the placenta remains undelivered after 30 minutes of active management of the third stage of labor). We searched: 1) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2) Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, 3) EMBASE, and 4) MEDLINE from inception to June 2014. Randomized controlled trials comparing a pharmacologic intervention(s) with a placebo for the treatment of retained placenta were included. Sixteen randomized controlled trials, including 1,683 participants, were included. Study characteristics and quality were recorded. The meta-analysis was based on random-effects methods for pooled data. There were no statistically significant differences in the requirement to perform manual removal of a placenta in patients treated with oxytocin (55% compared with 60%; relative risk [RR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.02; 10 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), prostaglandins (44% compared with 55%; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.58-1.15; four RCTs), nitroglycerin (85% compared with 80%; RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41; one RCT), or oxytocin and nitroglycerin (52% compared with 79%; RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.01-8.48; two RCTs) compared with placebo. There was limited reporting of secondary outcomes. As opposed to the use of oxytocin as part of the active management of the third stage of labor that has been shown to diminish bleeding in the third stage, once the diagnosis of retained placenta has been made, no pharmacologic treatment has been shown to be effective. When retained placenta is diagnosed, immediate manual removal of the placenta should be considered. PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, CRD42014010641.

  3. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ALTERS APOPTOTIC AND INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION OF TROPHOBASTS FROM HUMAN TERM PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    MAGEE, Thomas R.; ROSS, Michael G.; WEDEKIND, Lauren; DESAI, Mina; KJOS, Siri; BELKACEMI, Louiza

    2014-01-01

    AIM Increased placental growth secondary to reduced apoptosis may contribute to the development of macrosomia in GDM pregnancies. We hypothesize that reduced apoptosis in GDM placentas is caused by dysregulation of apoptosis related genes from death receptors or mitochondrial pathway or both to enhance placental growth in GDM pregnancies. METHODS Newborn and placental weights from women with no pregnancy complications (controls; N=5), or with GDM (N=5) were recorded. Placental villi from both groups were either fixed for TUNEL assay, or snap frozen for gene expression analysis by apoptosis PCR microarrays and qPCR. RESULTS Maternal, placental and newborn weights were significantly higher in the GDM group vs. Controls. Apoptotic index of placentas from the GDM group was markedly lower than the Controls. At a significant threshold of 1.5, seven genes (BCL10, BIRC6, BIRC7, CASP5, CASP8P2, CFLAR, and FAS) were down regulated, and 13 genes (BCL2, BCL2L1, BCL2L11, CASP4, DAPK1, IκBκE, MCL1, NFκBIZ, NOD1, PEA15, TNF, TNFRSF25, and XIAP) were unregulated in the GDM placentas. qPCR confirmed the consistency of the PCR microarray. Using Western blotting we found significantly decreased placental pro-apoptotic FAS receptor and FAS ligand (FASL), and increased mitochondrial anti-apoptotic BCL2 post GDM insult. Notably, caspase-3, which plays a central role in the execution-phase of apoptosis, and its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly down regulated in GDM placentas, as compared to non-diabetic Control placentas. CONCLUSION . Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk for having macrosomic newborns, and larger placentas with reduced apoptosis. Decreased apoptosis subsequent to alterations in apoptotic and inflammatory genes may promote elevated weight in the GDM placentas. PMID:24768206

  4. Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Souza, Renan Salvioni; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Melo Pompei, Luciano; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder whose etiology remains unclear. It is already known that circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is directly involved in pre-eclampsia development. However, the molecular mechanisms involved with sFlt-1 shedding are still unidentified. We identified, quantified glycosaminoglycans and determined the enzymatic activity of heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia, in order to possibly explain if these compounds could be related to cellular processes involved with preeclampsia. A total of 45 samples collected from placentas, 15 samples from placentas of preeclampsia women and 30 samples from non-affected women. Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis, whilst hyaluronic acid was quantified by an ELISA like assay. Heparanase activity was determined using biotynilated heparan sulfate as substrate. The results showed that dermatan sulfate (P=0.019), heparan sulfate levels (P=0.015) and heparanase activity (P=0.006) in preeclampsia were significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for hyaluronic acid expression in placentas (P=0.110). The present study is the first to demonstrate directly the increase of heparan sulfate in human placentas from patients with preeclampsia, suggesting that endogenous heparan sulfate could be involved in the release of sFlt-1 from placenta, increasing the level of circulating sFlt-1. Alterations of extracellular matrix components in placentas with preeclampsia raise the possibility that heparan sulfate released by heparanase is involved in mechanisms of preeclampsia development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma to predict placental invasion in patients with placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    El Behery, Manal M; Rasha L, Etewa; El Alfy, Yehya

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate whether measuring cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma improves the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and color Doppler in detecting placental invasion in patients at risk for placenta accreta. Thirty-five singleton pregnant women of more than 28 weeks of gestation and at risk for placenta accreta underwent ultrasound and color Doppler assessment. Cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma was measured using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on the findings at cesarean delivery and histological examination: women with placenta accreta (n=7) and women without placenta accreta (n=28). The median MoM (multiples of the median) value of cell-free placental mRNA was significantly higher in patients with placenta accreta than in those without placenta accreta (6.50 vs 2.60; P<0.001. Moreover, cell-free placental mRNA was significantly elevated in patients with placenta increta and percreta than in those with simple accreta. Six false-positive results were found on ultrasound, all from patients without placenta accreta and an insignificant rise in cell-free placental mRNA levels. Measuring cell-free placental mRNA in maternal plasma may increase the accuracy of ultrasound and color Doppler in prenatal prediction of placental invasion in patients with suspected placenta accreta. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased expression of high mobility group box protein 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Han; Qiao, Ping; Lu, Yi; Li, Ying; Tang, Yuping; Huang, Yiying; Bao, Yirong; Ying, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Placenta previa is often associated with preterm delivery, reduced birth weight, a higher frequency of placental accreta and postpartum haemorrhage, and increased likelihood of blood transfusion. The present study aimed to examine the expression of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) in the placenta of women with or without placenta previa. The study group consisted of placental tissues obtained from women with or without placenta previa. The expression levels of HMGB1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were evaluated in the placental tissues using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of HMGB1 and VEGF were significantly increased in the placenta previa group compared with in the normal group. In addition, the placenta previa group exhibited increased HMGB1 and VEGF staining in vascular endothelial cells and trophoblasts. There were no significant differences in the expression of HMGB1 or VEGF between groups with or without placenta accreta or postpartum haemorrhage. The present study hypothesised that the increased expression of HMGB1 in the placenta may be associated with the pathogenesis of placenta previa by regulating the expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF.

  7. Effect of placenta previa on neonatal respiratory disorders and amniotic lamellar body counts at 36-38weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Tomomi; Sumigama, Seiji; Mano, Yukio; Hua, Li; Hayakawa, Hiromi; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancies with placenta previa are significantly associated with preterm delivery and cesarean section. Therefore particular attention should be paid to the incidence of neonatal respiratory disorders in pregnancies with placenta previa. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between placenta previa and neonatal respiratory disorders, including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), and to evaluate the impact of placenta previa on the amniotic lamellar body count (LBC) values. We analyzed the data from 186 registered elective cesarean cases without fetal or maternal complications at 36-38weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid samples were analyzed immediately without centrifugation, and the LBC was measured using a platelet channel on the Sysmex XE-2100. RDS was present in four neonates (2.2%) and TTN in 12 neonates (6.5%). The rate of TTN was significantly higher and the LBC values were significantly lower in the placenta previa group than in the control group (P=0.002 and P=0.024). The adjusted odds ratio for neonatal TTN was 7.20 (95% confidence interval: 6.58-7.88) among females with placenta previa. In placenta previa, warning bleeding was a significant factor protecting against neonatal respiratory disorders (P=0.046). Placenta previa in itself is a risk factor for neonatal TTN. When an elective cesarean section is performed in cases with uncomplicated placenta previa, special care should be taken to monitor for neonatal TTN even at 36-38weeks of gestation. © 2013.

  8. Downregulation of miR-29a/b/c in placenta accreta inhibits apoptosis of implantation site intermediate trophoblast cells by targeting MCL1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yongzhong; Bian, Yuehong; Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xietong; Zuo, Changting; Meng, Jinlai; Li, Hongyan; Zhao, Shigang; Ning, Yunnan; Cao, Yongzhi; Huang, Tao; Yan, Junhao; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Placenta accreta is defined as abnormal adhesion of placental villi to the uterine myometrium. Although this condition has become more common as a result of the increasing rate of cesarean sections, the underlying causative mechanism(s) remain elusive. Because microRNA-29a/b/c (miR-29a/b/c) have been shown to play important roles in placental development, this study evaluated the roles of these microRNAs in placenta accreta. Expression of miR-29a/b/c and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1) were quantified in patient tissues and HTR8/SVneo trophoblast cells using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to analyze expression of the MCL1 protein in HTR8/SVneo trophoblast cells with altered expression of miR-29a/b/c. To determine their role in apoptosis, miR-29a/b/c were overexpressed in HTR-8/SVneo cells, and levels of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Luciferase activity assays were used to determine whether MCL1 is a target gene of miR-29a/b/c. Expression of miR-29a/b/c was significantly lower in creta sites compared to noncreta sites (p = 0.018, 0.041, and 0.022, respectively), but expression of MCL1 was upregulated in creta sites (p = 0.039). MCL1 expression was significantly downregulated in HTR-8/SVneo cells overexpressing miR-29a/b/c (p = 0.002, 0.008, and 0.013, respectively). Luciferase activity assays revealed that miR-29a/b/c directly target the 3' untranslated region of MCL1 in 293T cells. Over-expression of miR-29a/b/c induced apoptosis in the HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line. Moreover, histopathological evaluation revealed that the number of implantation site intermediate trophoblast (ISIT) cells was increased in creta sites and that these cells were positive for MCL1. Our results demonstrate that in placenta accreta, miR-29a/b/c inhibits apoptosis of ISIT cells by targeting MCL1. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of placenta accreta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Patient adherence and effective communication.

    PubMed

    Bukstein, Don A

    2016-12-01

    Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroid medication is a critical problem for asthma because it contributes to morbidity and mortality through poor asthma control, frequent asthma exacerbations, acute care visits, and oral corticosteroid use. To discuss evidence-based, time-efficient strategies that can be adopted by most practitioners to try to increase patient adherence. Asthma management guidelines and other key publications are used to enhance discussion. Establishing patient-centered, collaborative care that permits effective patient-practitioner communication can improve adherence, thus leading to improved asthma outcomes. One critical strategy is shared decision making, in which the patient and the practitioner share relevant information, discuss risks vs benefits of various treatment options, express treatment preferences, deliberate the options, and agree on treatment. Asthma self-management education, which emphasizes self-efficacy, is also essential. The education necessary to provide those skills depends in part on consideration of the patient's health literacy. Practitioners also have at their disposal a variety of tips and techniques to improve communication and gather information not only at the patient-practitioner level but also at the practitioner-practitioner level, such as within a group practice or within a health care system. To improve patient adherence, clinicians need to consider a variety of factors and implement strategies that directly target underlying issues. Strategies may include customizing and simplifying learning and intervention regimens, identifying barriers to adherence and addressing them, ensuring patient support structures are in place, and improving self-efficacy and health literacy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Underlying mechanisms of retained placenta: Evidence from a population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Shirley; Wainstock, Tamar; Dukler, Doron; Leron, Elad; Erez, Offer

    2017-09-01

    To determine risk factors for retained placenta, and to identify supporting epidemiologic evidence for the three previously-proposed mechanisms: (i) invasive placentation, (ii) placental hypo-perfusion, and (iii) inadequate uterine contractility. A retrospective population-based cohort study. Israeli population in the southern district. Data were analyzed from a tertiary hospital database, between 1989 and 2014, using univariate tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) multivariable models. Prevalence of retained placenta. The study population included 205,522 vaginal deliveries of which 4.8% (n=9870) were complicated with retained placenta. Previous intra-uterine procedures and placenta-related pregnancy complications were found to be significant risk factors for retained placenta (history of cesarean section aOR=8.82, 95%CI 8.35-9.31; history of curettage aOR=12.80, 95%CI 10.57-15.50; pre-eclampsia aOR=1.25, 95%CI 1.14-1.38; delivery of a small for gestational age neonate aOR=1.08, 95%CI 1.01-1.16; stillbirth aOR=2.34, 95%CI 1.98-2.77). During labour, the risk for retained placenta was increased in presence of arrest of dilatation (aOR=2.03, 95%CI 1.08-3.82) or arrest of descent (aOR=1.55, 95%CI 1.22-1.96). Infections of the uterine cavity during labour were also found to be strongly associated with increased risk of retained placenta (endometritis aOR=2.21, 95%CI 1.64-2.97; chorioamnionitis aOR=3.35, 95% CI 2.78-4.04). Supporting epidemiologic evidence were found for all three underlying mechanisms. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that intrauterine infection and inflammation may also be a possible pathology associated with retained placenta. Risk factors for retained placenta support previously proposed mechanisms in a large cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperglycosylated hCG and Placenta Accreta Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Einerson, Brett D; Straubhar, Alli; Soisson, Sean; Szczotka, Kathryn; Dodson, Mark K; Silver, Robert M; Soisson, Andrew P

    2018-02-28

     We aimed to evaluate the relationship between hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-H) and placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.  This was a case-control study of PAS and controls. hCG-H was measured in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in women with pathologically confirmed cases of PAS and in gestational age-matched controls without PAS. We compared serum hCG-H levels in cases and controls, calculated summary statistics for diagnostic accuracy, and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to define an optimal cut-point for diagnosis of PAS using hCG-H.  Thirty case samples and 30 control samples were evaluated for hCG-H. Mean hCG-H was lower in the case compared with control group (7.8 ± 5.9 μg/L vs. 11.8 ± 8.8 μg/L, p  = 0.03). At an optimal cut-point for hCG-H of ≤7.6 μg/L, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios, negative likelihood ratios, and area under the ROC curve were 66.7%, 69.7%, 2.20%, 0.48%, and 0.68%, respectively.  Hyperglycosylated hCG levels in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy were lower in patients with PAS than in controls, but hCG-H showed only modest capability as a diagnostic test for PAS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  13. The association between uterine leiomyoma and placenta abruption: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira

    2017-11-01

    Some epidemiological studies have found that uterine leiomyoma can increase the risk of placenta abruption. To date, the meta-analysis has not been performed for assessing the relationship between uterine leiomyoma and placenta abruption. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between uterine leiomyoma and the risk of placenta abruption. A literature search was conducted out in major databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to October 2016. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed by Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were showed using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. The literature search included 953 articles until October 2016 with 232,024 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, there was significant association between uterine leiomyoma and placenta abruption (2.63; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.88). We showed based on reports in observational studies that uterine leiomyoma is a risk factor for placenta abruption.

  14. Breech presentation and the cornual-fundal location of the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sekulić, Slobodan; Ilinčić, Marko; Radeka, Gordana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Simić, Svetlana; Podgorac, Jelena; Keković, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association of cornual-fundal location of the placenta and breech presentation at term delivery. Methods This study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Novi Sad, in 2011. The inclusion criteria were delivery at ≥37 weeks of gestation, singleton gestation, and cornual-fundal location of the placenta determined by ultrasonography at ≥37 weeks of gestation when 3/4 or more of the placenta was in the cornual-fundal region. Results Out of 2750 ultrasound examinations performed, 143 showed cornual-fundal location of the placenta (frequency 5.2%). Eighty six cases had cephalic presentation (60.14%) and 57 (39.86%) had breech presentation. Of the remaining cases with non- cornual-fundal location, 2585 had cephalic presentation and 22 (0.84%) had breech presentation. The difference in the frequency of breech presentation between the cornual-fundal and non-cornual-fundal groups was significant (χ2 = 77.78, P < 0.001). Conclusion Cornual-fundal location of the placenta may be an important clue in resolving the etiology of a number of cases of breech presentation at term delivery. PMID:23630148

  15. Expression of NADPH Oxidase Isoform 1 (Nox1) in Human Placenta: Involvement in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cui, X.-L.; Brockman, D.; Campos, B.; Myatt, L.

    2010-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress in the placenta has been associated with preeclampsia (PE), a clinical syndrome involving placental pathology. The enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species in the human placenta are as yet unidentified. We hypothesized that NADPH oxidase is a main source of reactive oxygen species in the placenta and its expression may change in PE. Employing RTPCR, we have amplified a novel NADPH oxidase isoform Nox1 from human choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. Using polyclonal anti-peptide antiserum recognizing unique Nox1 peptide sequences, we identified by immunohistochemistry and cell fractionation that Nox1 protein localizes in the BeWo cell membrane structures. Immunohistochemistry of normal placental tissues showed that Nox1 was localized in syncytiotrophoblasts, in villous vascular endothelium, and in some stromal cells. At the immunohistochemical level Nox1 expression was significantly increased in syncytiotrophoblast and endothelial cells in placentas from patients with preeclampsia as compared to gestational age-matched controls. Western blot analysis of whole placental homogenate confirmed this increase. Our data suggests that increased Nox1 expression is associated with the increased oxidative stress found in these placentas. PMID:15993942

  16. The effects of sequential use of oxytocin and sublingual nitroglycerin in the cases of retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Maryam; Hasankhani, Samira; Sheikhansari, Narges; Bahasadri, Shohreh; Homam, Homa

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of adding sublingual nitroglycerin to oxytocin, for delivery of retained placenta after vaginal delivery. The study was performed as a placebo controlled clinical trial on women who did not finish delivering placenta after 30 min of active management of the third stage of labor. In case group, 1 mg nitroglycerin and in the control group, placebo was prescribed sublingually. In total, 80 women finished the study. The number of manual removal of placenta did not show significant difference between the two groups [25 women (62.5%) in the case and 30 women (75%) in the control group, p = 0.335]. There was no significant difference between the two groups according to duration of the third stage of labor, hemoglobin index, decline in HB index >30% and maternal vital signs after treatment. There was no significant difference between the two groups according to adverse effects [eight women (20%) in the case group and four (10%) in the control group (p = 0.348)]. The sequential use of oxytocin and sublingual nitroglycerin could not lead to delivery of more placentas and did not reduce the necessity of manual removal of placenta in comparison with placebo.

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics for manual removal of retained placenta in vaginal birth.

    PubMed

    Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee

    2014-10-20

    Retained placenta is a potentially life-threatening condition because of its association with postpartum hemorrhage. Manual removal of placenta increases the likelihood of bacterial contamination in the uterine cavity. To compare the effectiveness and side-effects of routine antibiotic use for manual removal of placenta in vaginal birth in women who received antibiotic prophylaxis and those who did not and to identify the appropriate regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis for this procedure. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014). All randomized controlled trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis and placebo or non antibiotic use to prevent endometritis after manual removal of placenta in vaginal birth. There are no included trials. In future updates, if we identify eligible trials, two review authors will independently assess trial quality and extract data No studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. There are no randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent endometritis after manual removal of placenta in vaginal birth.

  18. Full-Thickness Skin Wound Healing Using Human Placenta-Derived Extracellular Matrix Containing Bioactive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Dong; Yoon, Hyun Soo

    2013-01-01

    The human placenta, a complex organ, which facilitates exchange between the fetus and the mother, contains abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components and well-preserved endogenous growth factors. In this study, we designed a new dermal substitute from human placentas for full-thickness wound healing. Highly porous, decellularized ECM sheets were fabricated from human placentas via homogenization, centrifugation, chemical and enzymatic treatments, molding, and freeze-drying. The physical structure and biological composition of human placenta-derived ECM sheets dramatically supported the regeneration of full-thickness wound in vivo. At the early stage, the ECM sheet efficiently absorbed wound exudates and tightly attached to the wound surface. Four weeks after implantation, the wound was completely closed, epidermic cells were well arranged and the bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis was restored. Moreover, hair follicles and microvessels were newly formed in the ECM sheet-implanted wounds. Overall, the ECM sheet produced a dermal substitute with similar cellular organization to that of normal skin. These results suggest that human placenta-derived ECM sheets provide a microenvironment favorable to the growth and differentiation of cells, and positive modulate the healing of full-thickness wounds. PMID:22891853

  19. Retrospective analysis of obstetric and anesthetic management of patients with placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Riveros-Perez, Efrain; Wood, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    To assess the management and maternal outcomes of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with PAS disorders (placenta creta, increta, or percreta) who were treated at a US tertiary care center between February 1, 2011, and January 31, 2016. Obstetric management, anesthetic management, and maternal outcomes were analyzed. A total of 43 cases were identified; placenta previa was diagnosed among 33 (77%). Median age was 33 years (range 23-42). Median blood loss was 1500 mL (interquartile range 1000-2500); blood loss was greatest among the 10 patients with placenta percreta (3250 mL, interquartile range 2200-6000). Transfusion of blood products was necessary among 14 (33%) patients, with no difference in frequency according to the degree of placental invasion (P=0.107). Surgical complications occurred among 10 (23%) patients. Overall, 30 (70%) patients received combined spinal-epidural plus general anesthesia, 4 (9%) received only general anesthesia, and 9 (21%) underwent surgery with combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. One patient experienced difficult airway and another experience