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Sample records for abnormally elevated serum

  1. Abnormally elevated serum hCG in a patient with end-stage renal disease seeking abortion: to be expected or a cause for concern? A case report.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin W; Zerden, Matthew L; Morse, Jessica E

    2015-07-01

    A patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis was referred to our abortion clinic with a concern for molar pregnancy. By 12 weeks, her human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was over 500,000. A review of the literature demonstrates that elevated hCG should be expected in this population and should not alter care.

  2. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  3. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  4. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  5. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  6. Tracheobronchial cytologic changes and abnormal serum heme pigments in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Friedman-Mor, Z; Chalon, J; Turndorf, H; Orkin, L R

    1977-11-01

    Significantly elevated numbers of iron laden histiocytes have been shown to appear in the tracheobronchial secretions of subjects in hemorrhagic shock and in patients undergoing open heart-surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (3,4). Abnormal heme pigments have also been demonstrated in the serum of dogs bled to hemorrhagic shock (6) and have been felt to be toxic. Because the ingestion of abnormal heme pigments by histiocytes may be part of a defense mechanism, we have attempted to correlate the percentage of iron laden histiocytes found in the tracheobronchial secretions of patients in hemorrhagic shock (Prussian blue method) with the presence of degradation of products of hemoglobin found in their serum by scanning spectrophotometry. There were, generally speaking, few iron laden histiocytes when hemoglobin degradation was advanced, and always numerous iron laden histiocytes when abnormal heme pigments were absent or spectrophotometric findings revealed minor degrees of degradation. Our findings probably reflect the process in the reticuloendothelial systems which eliminates toxic products accumulating in the circulation in low-flow states.

  7. The Significance of Serum CA-125 Elevation in Chinese Patients with Primary Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, De-lei; Xu, Hao; Lv, Wei-fu; Hua, Rong; Du, Hongtao; Zhang, Qing-qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the serum level of CA-125 and its corresponding clinical significance in Chinese patients with primary BCS. Methods. Serum CA-125 was measured in 243 patients with primary BCS receiving interventional treatment in the participating hospitals and in 120 healthy volunteers. The correlation between serum CA-125 levels and ascites volume, liver function, and prognosis was analyzed. Results. Serum CA-125 was significantly elevated in BCS patients compared to healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Higher levels of CA-125 were found in BCS patients with abnormal hepatic function and low serum albumin levels and in patients with high volume of ascites compared to patients without these abnormalities. Serum CA-125 levels significantly correlated with ascites volume, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and Rotterdam BCS scores. The follow-up study indicated that the survival rate and asymptomatic survival rate after interventional treatment were lower in BCS patients with serum CA-125 > 175 U/mL (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Serum CA-125 was significantly higher in patients with primary BCS and had a positive correlation with the volume of ascites, severity of liver damage, and poor prognosis. Thus the serum CA-125 levels may be used to estimate the severity and prognosis of BCS in Chinese patients. PMID:26451141

  8. Prevalence of Elevated Serum Homocysteine and Serum Lipoprotein ‘a’ in Women

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Mona A; Dhat, Vaishali V; More, Umesh M; Shinde, Sarita A; Phalak, Pradnya; Deshmukh, Anita D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies indicate that the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women is no less than that in men and menopausal women are equally vulnerable as men. Studies of recent risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia and elevation in lipoprotein (a) reveal controversial role of the same. This study hence is an attempt to study the prevalence of these factors in women and their correlation with lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Two hundred women were enrolled in the study- 100 premenopausal women (21-45y) and 100 menopausal (50-55y). All the subjects were screened for homocysteine by ELISA and lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile by automation. Results: Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 52% and 62% in premenopausal and menopausal women respectively. A significant positive correlation was seen for total cholesterol and triacylglycerol with serum Homocysteine in premenopausal women while pronounced positive correlation for serum cholesterol with serum Homocysteine in menopausal women. The prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a) was 42% and 45% in premenopausal and menopausal women respectively. There was no correlation between lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile in both groups. Conclusion: The findings of the study conclude that premenopausal and menopausal women constitute a subpopulation where recent risk factors like hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated lipoprotein(a) could be assessed along with lipid profile as screening tests to identify the risk of CAD. This would help in proper counselling of the concerned women and minimize the risk. PMID:25478337

  9. Mushroom toxicosis in dogs in general practice causing gastroenteritis, ptyalism and elevated serum lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Barton, L

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom toxicosis is rarely diagnosed in dogs and is poorly reported in the veterinary literature. This report suggests that mushroom toxicosis is a potentially under-diagnosed condition in first opinion practice in the UK. Nine dogs with clinical signs consistent with mushroom toxicosis were identified from the records of an out-of-hours emergency service between August 2010 and January 2011. Four dogs were later excluded because of clinical inconsistencies. Clinical signs included acute profuse ptyalism (5/5), diarrhoea (5/5), vomiting (4/5), hypovolaemia (4/5), stuporous (3/5) or obtunded mentation (1/5), miosis (2/5) and hypothermia (2/5). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4/4 dogs; canine-specific pancreatic lipase was elevated in the remaining dog. Four dogs recovered with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and supportive care; the remaining dog was euthanased due to severe clinical signs and financial constraints. Mushroom toxicosis is an important differential diagnosis for acute gastroenteritis and one possible cause of some cases of "Seasonal Canine Illness". Affected dogs may demonstrate elevated pancreatic enzymes and mushroom toxicosis should be considered in cases of elevated lipase or abnormal semi-quantitative canine-specific pancreatic lipase activities.

  10. Abnormal ovarian cycles as diagnosed by ultrasound and serum estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Polan, M L; Totora, M; Caldwell, B V; DeCherney, A H; Haseltine, F P; Kase, N

    1982-03-01

    A significant portion of human infertility is presumably due to defective ovulation, including patients who fail to conceive despite medical induction of ovulation, those who fail despite repeated timely donor inseminations, and those with "infertility of unknown etiology". All point out the inadequacy of standard criteria for normal ovulation. This investigation correlates preovulatory serum estradiol and gonadotropin concentrations with dominant follicle growth measured ultrasonographically and serum progesterone levels. The data indicate a 35% incidence of cycles with significantly abnormal serum estradiol levels, decreased dominant follicle size, and abnormal progesterone levels despite biphasic basal body temperature curves and normal cycle length. If these cycles represent inadequate or abnormal ovulation, they can be distinguished from adequate cycles prior to follicle rupture and may benefit the treatment of human infertility.

  11. [Abnormal Serum Total Protein Measurement by Lipoprotein-X in an Infant with Biliary Atresia].

    PubMed

    Futatsugi, Akiko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kubota, Noriko; Nishijima, Fumie; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Ishimine, Nau; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Atsushi; Hidaka, Hiroya

    2015-11-01

    Lipoprotein-X (LP-X) in cholestatic jaundice causes abnormal reaction in assays for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but the effects on other test items are unknown. Here, we report an infant with biliary atresia showing abnormal reaction in total serum protein assay using the biuret method, and lipoprotein-X (LP-X) was then detected. In this 11-month-old female infant, jaundice was observed at 2 months old, and a diagnosis of biliary atresia was made. On biochemical tests at 12 months old, the total serum protein concentrations detected by the biuret method were very high, and the response curve and linearity of dilution were abnormal. LP-X was detected by agar electrophoresis. In addition and recovery experiments with normal serum fractionation of the patient's LP-X-rich lipoprotein fraction prepared by ultracentrifugation, normal γ-globulin fractionation showed an abnormal reaction by the biuret method. In infants with biliary atresia, we showed that the total serum protein assay by the biuret method was influenced by LP-X-rich lipoprotein, which may be caused by abnormal reaction of LP-X and γ-globulin. [Case Report].

  12. Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome (PAPA syndrome) associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels.

    PubMed

    Edrees, Amr F; Kaplan, David L; Abdou, Nabih I

    2002-10-01

    Pyogenic aseptic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and cystic acne (PAPA) syndrome is an unusual triad that was recently mapped to a chromosome 15q mutation. We describe a patient from this kindred in whom hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha serum levels were detected. The patient responded well to intravenous gammaglobulin and intra-articular corticosteroid therapy. Immune abnormalities can be found in PAPA syndrome and could be the consequence of the chromosomal abnormalities affecting candidate genes on this chromosome with subsequent abnormalities in cytokine or chemokine secretion. Rheumatologists should be alert for this syndrome. Correction of the immune abnormalities may be effective in controlling the disease manifestations.

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning with elevated muscle enzymes and abnormal spinal MRI.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Sarangzai, Amanullah; Siddiqi, Ather; Nizami, Qamaruddin

    2008-03-01

    We report three cases of ciguatera fish poisoning. One patient died secondary to respiratory failure. Two patients showed elevated muscle enzymes and one patients had an abnormal cervical spinal MRI. MRI findings have not been previously described. MRI findings explain the mechanism of the L'hermitte phenomenon (a common complaint) among these patients. Respiratory failure is rare in ciguatera fish poisoning. Our findings suggest this could be related to respiratory muscles involvement.

  14. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are normal in Fanconi anemia: Can it be a lack of postnatal inhibition of AFP gene resulting in the elevation?

    PubMed

    Aslan, Deniz; Karabacak, Recep Onur; Aslan, Oner Deniz

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as a screening test for prenatal diagnosis of Fanconi anemia (FA). Serial measurements in maternal serum were recorded. Parents, both heterozygous for FA, had declined prenatal molecular testing. The infant was born with no somatic abnormalities, and FA was confirmed by postnatal molecular analysis. Maternal serum AFP levels during each trimester of pregnancy were normal indicating that these levels cannot be used as a screening test in prenatal diagnosis. Three-year follow-up after birth showed constantly elevated serum levels in the patient from the start, suggesting a lack of postnatal inhibition on AFP gene.

  15. Risk factors associated with elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Wu-Chang; Wang, Feng-Ming; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Tsai-Hun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum pancreatic enzymes are frequently observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The complex hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological alterations in uremia were speculated to cause excessive release of pancreatic enzymes beyond decreased renal clearance. However, hemodynamic factors are seldom explored in this aspect. We performed the study to evaluate the association between intradialytic hemodynamic change and elevated serum pancreatic amylase (SPA). Eighty-three prevalent HD patients without any clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis underwent pre-HD and post-HD blood sampling for serum pancreatic enzyme levels. Demographic, biochemical, and hematological data were collected from patient record review. Hemodialysis information including intradialytic blood pressure changes and ultrafiltration (UF) amount were collected and averaged for 1 month before the blood sampling day. Patients with elevated SPA during the HD session had greater mean systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure reduction, greater UF volume, greater pre-HD blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, higher serum phosphorus, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Using multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of elevated SPA were determined to be mean arterial pressure reduction during HD, mean UF amount, pre-HD serum total CO2, and LVEF. Greater blood pressure reduction during HD, greater UF volume, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower LVEF were significantly associated with elevated SPA during HD. This suggests that hemodynamic factors contribute to elevated serum pancreatic enzymes in HD patients.

  16. HFE Genotyping in Patients with Elevated Serum Iron Indices and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Andreia Silva; de Araújo, Thiago Ferreira; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS) > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF) > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n = 16) were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH) group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n = 92). Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population. PMID:25654085

  17. Hyaluronan is not elevated in urine or serum in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Leslie B; Harten, Ingrid A; Calabro, Anthony; Sugumaran, Geetha; Csoka, Antonei B; Brown, W Ted; Hascall, Vincent; Toole, Bryan P

    2003-07-01

    Elevations in urinary hyaluronan have been used as the principal laboratory indicator for diagnosis of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS). Previous reports have provided evidence suggesting that children with HGPS have altered hyaluronan metabolism as indicated by a mean 17-fold increase in urinary hyaluronan over normal values. In addition, adults with Werner's syndrome have elevated urinary hyaluronan and even more prominent elevations in serum hyaluronan over age-matched controls. It is not known whether serum hyaluronan is elevated or whether serum hyaluronan levels correlate with urinary hyaluronan levels in children with HGPS. In a large cohort of 19 HGPS patients, we sought to confirm elevations in urinary hyaluronan concentration, to establish whether serum hyaluronan is elevated, to measure the size of urinary hyaluronan, and to determine whether serum or urine hyaluronidase levels are altered. We have analyzed urinary and serum hyaluronan levels in patients with HGPS and control patients (1) by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like method in which sample hyaluronan in solution and hyaluronan in solid phase compete for a solution of biotinylated hyaluronan-binding protein, and (2) by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. The size of urinary hyaluronan was measured by using Sepharose CL-6B size exclusion chromatography. Serum and urinary hyaluronidases were evaluated quantitatively, by using ELISA, and qualitatively, by using a gel detection method. HGPS patients did not show a significant elevation in either urinary or serum hyaluronan. We detected no difference in the size of urinary hyaluronan between HGPS children and age-matched controls. Serum and urinary hyaluronidase levels were not significantly different in normal and HGPS patients. These studies indicate that neither serum nor urinary hyaluronan concentration is a reliable diagnostic or prognostic marker for HGPS and underscore a difference between adult

  18. Maternal and cord serum vitamin E levels in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is an association between reduced vitamin E levels and an abnormal pregnancy. Levels were measured by HPLC in maternal and, where possible, in paired umbilical cord serum from normal and abnormal pregnancies at delivery and in serial serum samples from healthy women during gestation. Abnormal pregnancies were compared with normals. In normal pregnancies, mean vitamin E levels rose from 12.9 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy to 22.5 +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml at term (p < 0.05, n = 11). In pregnancies with fetal complications or maternal risks, levels were lower than in normals at corresponding gestational age (p < 0.005 in smokers, n = 20 at > or = 30 weeks & p < 0.01 in hypertensives, n = 4 at 16-23 weeks). Mean maternal and paired cord serum levels in normal pregnancies at delivery > or = 37 weeks were 21.3 +/- 0.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml respectively (p < 0.001, n = 56). Maternal levels in women with a low birthweight infant and in smokers (> 10 cig/day) were significantly lower (p < 0.05, n = 13 & p < 0.0005, n = 12); levels in women with a malformed infant (n = 6) were also reduced, but just barely below the level of significance (p = 0.06). Cord serum levels in complicated pregnancies, however, were unchanged. The results show lower maternal levels of vitamin E in abnormal pregnancies, suggesting a changed vitamin E metabolism.

  19. Serum Lipoprotein Abnormalities in Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease: Comparisons with a Control Population

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, B.; Chait, A.; Oakley, C. M. O.; Wootton, I. D. P.; Krikler, D. M.; Onitiri, A.; Sigurdsson, G.; February, A.

    1974-01-01

    The frequency and nature of abnormalities of serum lipoproteins have been studied, using quantitative techniques, in 143 patients with ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.). Rigorous selection criteria were used. The findings were related to the distribution of lipoprotein concentrations in a carefully screened control population. Hyperlipoproteinaemia occurred in 55% of patients and in 11 out of 15 patients aged less than 40 years. Raised triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in very low density lipoprotein were the most frequent abnormalities followed by raised cholesterol content of low density lipoprotein. In young patients high density lipoprotein levels were subnormal. Hyperlipoproteinaemia of W.H.O. types IIa, IIb, III, IV, and V all seemed to be over-represented in I.H.D. I.H.D. patients with type IIa, IIb, and IV abnormalities were all significantly younger than I.H.D. patients with normal lipoprotein levels. PMID:4370367

  20. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  1. TMEM199 Deficiency Is a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis Characterized by Elevated Aminotransferases, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Cholesterol and Abnormal Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jos C; Timal, Sharita; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Michelakakis, Helen; Vicogne, Dorothée; Ashikov, Angel; Moraitou, Marina; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; van den Boogert, Marjolein A W; Porta, Francesco; Calvo, Pier Luigi; Mavrikou, Mersyni; Cenacchi, Giovanna; van den Bogaart, Geert; Salomon, Jody; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Rodenburg, Richard J; Drenth, Joost P H; Huynen, Martijn A; Wevers, Ron A; Morava, Eva; Foulquier, François; Veltman, Joris A; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2016-02-04

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) form a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases with aberrant protein glycosylation as a hallmark. A subgroup of CDGs can be attributed to disturbed Golgi homeostasis. However, identification of pathogenic variants is seriously complicated by the large number of proteins involved. As part of a strategy to identify human homologs of yeast proteins that are known to be involved in Golgi homeostasis, we identified uncharacterized transmembrane protein 199 (TMEM199, previously called C17orf32) as a human homolog of yeast V-ATPase assembly factor Vph2p (also known as Vma12p). Subsequently, we analyzed raw exome-sequencing data from families affected by genetically unsolved CDGs and identified four individuals with different mutations in TMEM199. The adolescent individuals presented with a mild phenotype of hepatic steatosis, elevated aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as low serum ceruloplasmin. Affected individuals showed abnormal N- and mucin-type O-glycosylation, and mass spectrometry indicated reduced incorporation of galactose and sialic acid, as seen in other Golgi homeostasis defects. Metabolic labeling of sialic acids in fibroblasts confirmed deficient Golgi glycosylation, which was restored by lentiviral transduction with wild-type TMEM199. V5-tagged TMEM199 localized with ERGIC and COPI markers in HeLa cells, and electron microscopy of a liver biopsy showed dilated organelles suggestive of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In conclusion, we have identified TMEM199 as a protein involved in Golgi homeostasis and show that TMEM199 deficiency results in a hepatic phenotype with abnormal glycosylation.

  2. Macro creatine kinase type 1: a cause of spuriously elevated serum creatine kinase associated with leukoencephalopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-07-01

    Macro creatine kinase type 1 is a complex formed by the creatine kinase isoenzyme BB and monoclonal IgG and occurs in about 1% of patients studied. First identified as a cause of spurious elevation of the total serum creatine kinase in patients suspected of myocardial infarction, the test has been largely replaced by the measurement of troponin levels. We present a child with delayed milestones and persistently elevated total serum creatine kinase measurements (∼ 1000-4000 IU) normal electromyogram and brisk myotatic reflexes. Creatine kinase isoenzymes and brain imaging showed the presence of macro creatine kinase type 1 and extensive signal abnormality of the cerebral white matter. Macro creatine kinase type 1 has been associated with several conditions though it has not been described in association with leukoencephalopathy or in patients this young. Macro creatine kinase type 1 can be a cause of elevated total creatine kinase in patients without primary muscle disease. The significance of the relationship of the macro creatine kinase to the leukoencephalopathy in this patient is unknown.

  3. Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

  4. Abnormal serum lipid profile in Brazilian police officers with post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Marmar, Charles R; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Metzler, Thomas; Nóbrega, Augusta; Peres, Mhara C; Coutinho, Evandro S; Volchan, Eliane; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background To measure the serum lipid composition of a sample of Brazilian police officers with and without PTSD regularly exposed to potentially traumatic situations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 118 active duty male police officers. Serum concentrations for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were enzymatically determined. Body mass index (BMI) was obtained for each participant. Results Officers with PTSD exhibited significantly higher serum total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides levels than those without PTSD. Total cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-C, remained associated with PTSD diagnosis after controlling for confounding influences (i.e. socio-demographics, BMI, and tobacco, alcohol and medication use). Limitations The sample size was small. A nutritional interview was employed instead of established scales to assess alimentary habits, tobacco or alcohol consumption. A self-report screening tool was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD. Conclusions The association between PTSD and abnormal serum lipid profile and a tendency to exhibit higher BMI suggests that individuals with PTSD may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, a condition that by itself could account for many of the most serious PTSD-related physical health problems. PMID:17888517

  5. Elevated serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Fujimoto, Manabu; Echigo, Takeshi; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Shimada, Yuka; Hasegawa, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2008-03-01

    Elevated serum levels of B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and/or a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are shown in autoimmune diseases. We determined serum levels of BAFF and APRIL, and clinical association in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Serum levels of BAFF and APRIL from 35 patients with AD, 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 25 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 25 normal healthy subjects were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, were significantly elevated in patients with AD than in healthy controls or patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Patients with severe AD exhibited significantly increased APRIL levels compared to patients with moderate AD and mild AD, and serum APRIL levels were significantly decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment. In addition, increased APRIL levels were significantly associated with serum immunoglobulin E levels and blood eosinophil numbers. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of APRIL are associated with disease severity and activity in AD, and APRIL may have an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  6. Liver disease--a prominent cause of serum IgE elevation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Epps, E; Husby, G; Williams, R C; Strickland, R G

    1976-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations were elevated in thirty-seven out of sixty-seven patients (55%) with acute or chronic liver disease of widely differing aetiology. The mean IgE concentrations in these patients showed an eight-fold increase above that observed in control subjects. Increased IgE levels in patients with liver disease occurred in the absence of eosinophilia, clinical evidence of atopy or other known causes of IgE elevation. No IgE-containing plasma cells were detected in the liver biopsies from thirty-two of the sixty-seven patients tested. Peripheral blood T cells were significantly decreased from normal in the patients with liver disease, but no correlation emerged between serum IgE levels and absolute peripheral blood T-cell numbers. These findings emphasize the importance of liver disease as a significant cause of serum IgE elevation. PMID:1084811

  7. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  8. Elevated Serum Titanium Level as a Marker for Failure in a Titanium Modular Fluted Tapered Stem.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Ian P; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-07-01

    Serum ion concentrations of cobalt and chromium are commonly used to monitor for the development of local metal reactions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties, as well as dual-modular constructs. Although rarely used in clinical practice, elevated serum titanium levels have the ability to indicate a failure with contemporary revision constructs, such as with titanium modular fluted tapered (TMFT) stems. The authors report the case of a 64-year-old man with a TMFT stem after revision total hip arthroplasty for a dual-modular neck construct who had set screw disengagement with subsequent proximal body loosening. The patient's serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal, but he had a markedly elevated serum titanium level, indicating failure of the titanium modular junction. Implant failures at modular junctions in femoral components are well described. Although several different failure mechanisms have been defined, to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported failure of this particular TMFT stem. In addition, this is the first report describing the use of serum titanium levels in identifying a novel failure mechanism. With the popularity of this stem, surgeons should be aware that an elevated serum titanium level may aid in the diagnosis of this unique complication. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e768-e770.].

  9. Abnormal serum IgG subclass pattern in children with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Annerén, G; Magnusson, C G; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S L

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to infections is a well known feature of Down's syndrome. The possible relation between this predisposition and the serum concentrations of the IgG subclasses was studied in 38 children with Down's syndrome aged 1-12 years. An age matched group of 50 healthy children served as controls. The serum concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly raised among children with Down's syndrome in all three age groups studied (that is 1-2.5, 4-8, and 9-12 years). The serum concentrations of IgG2 were normal in the first two groups but significantly reduced in the third age group. In contrast, the concentrations of IgG4 among children with Down's syndrome were significantly reduced in all three age groups. Moreover, among the children with Down's syndrome aged 4-12 years 68% (15/22) had IgG4 concentrations below 2 SDs of the geometrical mean of the controls. The results may partially explain the proneness of children with Down's syndrome to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Although the underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown, IgG subclass determination seems relevant in the clinical evaluation of children with Down's syndrome. PMID:1534650

  10. Possible role of elevated serum testosterone in pathogenesis of renal stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kapil; Gill, Gurpreet Singh; Mahajan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urolithiasis or renal stone formation occurs with three times higher frequency in males and decreases with age in parallel with the serum testosterone levels, suggesting a role played by male sex hormones. Androgens appear a promotion action and estrogens an inhibitory action on kidney stone formation in several animal models suggesting a study to be carried out to deduce the role played by serum testosterone in the formation of renal stones. Aim: The aim of this study is to define the involvement of serum total testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis in males by comparing the results with healthy males with no present or past history of urolithiasis as controls. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was undertaken with 108 participants: 78 males diagnosed with urolithiasis and 30 age-matched healthy males. Results: The difference between mean age and body mass index of patients and controls were found to be nonsignificant. The total serum testosterone levels, serum dihydrotestosterone levels, were found to be higher in patients when compared to controls, and the difference was found to be significant. The levels of free testosterone and serum estradiol were also found to be higher in urolithiatic patients. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that elevated levels of serum testosterone and serum dihydrotestosterone might be involved in increased incidences of stone formation. The higher levels of estradiol do not seem to be a protective factor in males with urolithiasis with higher serum testosterone levels. PMID:27857889

  11. Relationship between serum sodium level and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sora; Kim, Ji Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-related multisystemic vasculitis that occurs in children, especially ensuing from a coronary artery abnormality. Sodium level is known to be related to vascular injury, which could affect the progress of KD. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum sodium levels that could predict the occurrence of cardiac and coronary artery events in KD. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 104 patients with KD from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients with serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L at the time of initial diagnosis were assigned to the hyponatremia group. Laboratory findings and echocardiographic data were analyzed for various aspects. Results Among the 104 patients with KD, 91 were included in the study, of whom 48 (52.7%) had hyponatremia. The degree of fever, white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, percentage of lymphocytes, total bilirubin level, brain natriuretic peptide level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level were higher in the patients with hyponatremia. They also demonstrated a trend of larger coronary artery diameters based on Z scores. Conclusion The severity of vascular inflammation in acute KD with hyponatremia might worsen the prognosis of coronary vasculature. Although no statistically significant correlation was found between the initial serum sodium levels and coronary arteriopathy in the patients with KD in this study, a long-term follow-up study with a larger number of enrolled patients should be designed in the future to elucidate the relationship between serum sodium level and coronary arteriopathy in patients with KD. PMID:28289432

  12. Proteomics of Peripheral Leukocytes in Patients with Elevated Serum Levels of PSA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    3 INTRODUCTION: This research has the long-term goal of developing a test that will discriminate between prostate cancer ( PrCA ) and benign...observed to have an elevated serum level of PSA, in order to distinguish among CP, BPH and PrCA . To achieve these objectives, we proposed to employ mass

  13. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed Central

    McRae, S

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses. PMID:8705908

  14. Soluble TRAIL Concentration in Serum Is Elevated in People with Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qunye; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a multi-functional cytokine, which is involved in the pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that TRAIL stimulated lipid uptake and foam cell formation in macrophages in vitro. Several clinical studies have suggested that the serum concentration of TRAIL may be increased in humans with elevated blood cholesterol; however, the current data appear to be inconclusive in this regard. In the present study, we examined the relationships between the serum TRAIL concentration and cholesterol levels in 352 generally healthy subjects undergoing the routine annual health check. We showed that there were significant correlations between TRAIL concentration and levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols. The level of TRAIL was significantly elevated in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, although this relationship might be also associated with changes of other metabolic factors. Moreover, we showed that the level of blood cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects in the upper quartile of serum TRAIL. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the serum TRAIL concentration is elevated in people with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26633016

  15. Elevated serum interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa is associated with TAFRO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Noriko; Gion, Yuka; Kondo, Eisei; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Masunari, Taro; Moro, Hiroshi; Nikkuni, Koji; Takai, Kazue; Hagihara, Masao; Hashimoto, Yuko; Yokota, Kenji; Okamoto, Masataka; Nakao, Shinji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2017-02-13

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. It is characterized by inflammatory symptoms, and interleukin (IL)-6 contributes to the disease pathogenesis. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) often drives hypercytokinemia in MCD, although the etiology of HHV-8-negative MCD is idiopathic (iMCD). A distinct subtype of iMCD that shares a constellation of clinical features including thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O) has been reported as TAFRO-iMCD, however the differences in cytokine profiles between TAFRO-iMCD and iMCD have not been established. We retrospectively compared levels of serum interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, interleukin (IL)-10, and other cytokines between 11 cases of TAFRO-iMCD, 6 cases of plasma cell type iMCD, and 21 healthy controls. During flare-ups, patients with TAFRO-iMCD had significantly higher serum IP-10 and tended to have lower PDGF-AA levels than the other 2 groups. In addition, serum IL-10, IL-23, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were elevated in both TAFRO-iMCD and iMCD. Elevated serum IP-10 is associated with inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases. There was a strong correlation between high serum IP-10 and the presence of TAFRO-iMCD, suggesting that IP-10 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TAFRO-iMCD.

  16. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; Methods: A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; Results: A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443–2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221–3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063–2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146–2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Conclusions: Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults. PMID:27563918

  17. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Ho, Wen-Chao; Caffrey, James L.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  18. [Serum/tissue interleukin-6 concentrations and constitutional abnormalities in 4 patients with cardiac myxoma].

    PubMed

    Saji, T; Matsuo, N; Shiono, N; Yokomuro, H; Watanabe, Y; Takanashi, Y; Komatsu, H

    1993-09-01

    Immunological features and the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 4 patients with cardiac myxoma were studied. The patients' age ranged from 11 years old to 57 years old; all 4 patients were female. Case 1, an 11-year-old female patient with myxoma located in the right ventricle, was considered to be a familial case. Her mother had myxomas in the right and left atrium, and had undergone removal of both tumors 3 years before. Peripheral blood examination revealed various inflammatory parameters in all of these patients. White blood cell (WBC) count was over 8,000/cmm in 3 of the 4 patients, positive CRP was found in 2 patients, IgG was higher than 1,500 mg/dl in 3 patients, positive anti-nuclear antibody was seen in 1 patient, and positive rheumatoid factor was identified in 1 patient. The OKT 4/8 ratio of lymphocyte subpopulation was 4.65 in one patient. The lymphocyte mitogenic response to PHA was increased in 2 patients. Serum IL-6 increased in 3 of 4 patients, and returned to normal within 3 to 4 weeks after operation. The IL-6 concentration in the homogenized sample remarkably increased in all 4 patients. Tumors larger than 4 cm contained higher tissue IL-6 concentrations than those smaller than 2 cm. The cultured myxoma cells produced abundant IL-6 in the culture medium supernatant. We conclude that inflammatory signs and immunological abnormalities are common in patients with large cardiac myxoma, and, in addition, serum IL-6 levels may increase in such patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Elevation of serum apelin-13 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun-Hui; Li, Xia; Li, Rong; Xu, Lin; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Song-Fang; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare apelin-13, a ligand of G-protein-coupled receptor which has been shown to be involved in retinal angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serum levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without retinopathy, and to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of apelin-13 and diabetes retinopathy. METHODS Sixty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled. Of the 69 patients, 16 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group), 23 had non-PDR (NPDR group) and 30 had no retinopathy (T2DM group). Subjects' information, including demographics, medical history, and use of medications were recorded. Their serum samples were collected for measuring the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum lipid and glycosylated hemoglobin. Apelin-13 and VEGF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the differences among these groups. Chi-square test was used to assess categorical variables. Correlations between variables were investigated by Spearman rho correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed through SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, CRP, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) have no significantly difference in the three groups. Serum level of apelin-13 was significantly elevated in PDR group as compared with T2DM group (P=0.041). Differences of VEGF serum concentration in the three groups were statistically significant (P=0.007, P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). Spearman rho correlation test showed that serum apelin-13 was positively correlated with BMI, serum triglycerides, VEGF, but not with age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, CRP, HbA1c and total-cholesterol. Stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI also significantly associated with serum apelin-13 (P=0.002), while VEGF and serum triglycerides were irrelevant. CONCLUSION This study elucidated a positive

  20. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  1. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  2. Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Cao, Ju; Lai, Xiaofei

    2016-12-28

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. In all, 78 SLE patients and 53 healthy controls were enrolled in the research. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure the concentrations of serological IL-34. Then serum IL-34 levels between the SLE group and healthy controls were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the serum IL-34 levels and disease activity indexes and other established serum markers were assessed. Furthermore, the serum IL-34 levels of 20 active SLE patients were reevaluated when diseases were in the remission stage from corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Their levels were remarkably associated with accumulation of the clinical features of SLE. Additionally, IL-34 titers were positively correlated with the SLE disease activity indexes, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) titers and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and inversely with complement3 (C3) levels. Moreover, serum IL-34 levels were significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment-naive SLE patients and we saw a significant decrease after effective treatment.

  3. Abnormal serum transaminases following therapeutic doses of acetaminophen in the absence of known risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kwan, D; Bartle, W R; Walker, S E

    1995-09-01

    J.M., a healthy, 25-year-old male, volunteered for a study involving warfarin and acetaminophen. Acetaminophen 1 g four times a day was started for 21 days. Liver function tests taken at regular intervals for the first 12 days were unremarkable. On day 18, however, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 527 IU/liter and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 166 IU/liter. Acetaminophen was discontinued and serum transaminase levels returned to baseline levels two weeks later (AST = 26, ALT = 20). Analysis of J.M.'s urine samples over the first 18 days showed excretion patterns of glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione derived cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates were similar to the other subjects in the study. Acetaminophen causes hepatotoxicity in overdose or malnourished or alcoholic patients, none of which applied to our subject. Differences in metabolic activation and capacity for glutathione synthesis can predispose individuals given therapeutic doses of acetaminophen to adverse effects. Failure to detoxify a highly reactive metabolite, formed by P-450 metabolism, via glutathione conjugation is responsible for the development of acute hepatic necrosis. Accumulation of the toxic metabolite due to depleted glutathione stores may have occurred with prolonged high dosing in our subject and been responsible for his abnormal rise in liver enzymes.

  4. Elevated serum erythropoietin in a patient with polycythaemia vera presenting with Budd-Chiari syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Catherine; Levy, Yair; Tong, Alex W

    2014-01-01

    Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a clonal disorder of bone marrow stem cells characterised by erythrocytosis. Diagnosis of PV requires exclusion of secondary causes of polycythaemia. It has been held that an elevated erythropoietin (Epo) level strongly indicates secondary erythrocytosis and excludes PV diagnosis, to the extent that the reduced serum Epo level is currently listed as a minor criterion in the WHO classification scheme for PV. However, patients with PV who co-present with Budd-Chiari syndrome have been documented with elevated serum Epo levels. For these patients, identification of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F point mutation along with the transient nature of the Epo elevation provides certainty of PV diagnosis, as illustrated by the proband. In this case report, the patient's positive response to cytoreductive therapy (hydroxyurea 500 mg daily) and phlebotomy (750 mL over three phlebotomies) further supports validity of PV diagnosis with elevated Epo. The patient remains on rivaroxaban (Xarelto) for treatment of her portal vein thrombosis. PMID:25452296

  5. Spuriously Elevated Serum IGF-1 in Adult Individuals with Delayed Puberty: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Imran, Syed Ali; Pelkey, Michael; Clarke, David B; Clayton, Dale; Trainer, Peter; Ezzat, Shereen

    2010-01-01

    Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a sensitive marker of growth hormone (GH) activity. The levels of IGF-1 vary widely, peaking during puberty and declining with advancing age. During adolescence, serum IGF-1 levels tend to correlate better with pubertal stage rather than chronological age. Here we discuss two cases of delayed puberty, both in their 20s, who presented with high serum IGF-1 but no clinical or biochemical evidence of hypersomatotropism as confirmed by appropriate GH response to an oral glucose challenge. Both individuals achieved full pubertal status with testosterone replacement therapy and their serum IGF-1 levels settled into normal age-specific range. We suggest that in chronologically adult individuals with delayed puberty, serum IGF-1 should not be interpreted on the basis of age-specific normal values but rather on their pubertal status. Furthermore, in the absence of another cause of elevated IGF-1, the expectation is that IGF-1 levels will decline towards age-normative ranges following androgen replacement therapy.

  6. Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise.

  7. Elevated serum interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa is associated with TAFRO syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Noriko; Gion, Yuka; Kondo, Eisei; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Masunari, Taro; Moro, Hiroshi; Nikkuni, Koji; Takai, Kazue; Hagihara, Masao; Hashimoto, Yuko; Yokota, Kenji; Okamoto, Masataka; Nakao, Shinji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2017-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. It is characterized by inflammatory symptoms, and interleukin (IL)-6 contributes to the disease pathogenesis. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) often drives hypercytokinemia in MCD, although the etiology of HHV-8-negative MCD is idiopathic (iMCD). A distinct subtype of iMCD that shares a constellation of clinical features including thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O) has been reported as TAFRO-iMCD, however the differences in cytokine profiles between TAFRO-iMCD and iMCD have not been established. We retrospectively compared levels of serum interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, interleukin (IL)-10, and other cytokines between 11 cases of TAFRO-iMCD, 6 cases of plasma cell type iMCD, and 21 healthy controls. During flare-ups, patients with TAFRO-iMCD had significantly higher serum IP-10 and tended to have lower PDGF-AA levels than the other 2 groups. In addition, serum IL-10, IL-23, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A were elevated in both TAFRO-iMCD and iMCD. Elevated serum IP-10 is associated with inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases. There was a strong correlation between high serum IP-10 and the presence of TAFRO-iMCD, suggesting that IP-10 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TAFRO-iMCD. PMID:28205564

  8. Serum levels of genomic DNA of α1(I) collagen are elevated in scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Soichiro; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Shimbara, Miki; Nakamura, Kayo; Kudo, Hideo; Inoue, Kuniko; Nakayama, Wakana; Kajihara, Ikko; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-03-31

    Recent studies have indicated that various nucleic acids are present in human sera, and attracted attention for their potential as novel disease markers in many human diseases. In this study, we tried to evaluate the possibility that DNA and RNA of collagens exist in human sera, and determined whether their serum levels can be useful biomarkers in scleroderma patients. The RNA or DNA of collagens were purified from sera, and detected by polymerase chain reaction or quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among approximately 18 360 bases of full-length α1(I) collagen DNA, various regions were detected by polymerase chain reaction in human sera. However, α2(I) collagen DNA, α1(I) collagen RNA or α2(I) collagen RNA were not detectable. α1(I) Collagen DNA in sera was quantitative using our method. The levels of serum α1(I) collagen DNA were significantly increased in scleroderma patients compared with healthy control subjects or systemic lupus erythematosus patients. According to the receiver-operator curve analysis, serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels were shown to be effective as a diagnostic marker of scleroderma. Furthermore, when we determined the association of serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels with clinical/laboratory features in scleroderma patients, those with elevated α1(I) collagen DNA levels showed significantly higher prevalence of pitting scars/ulcers. In summary, elevation of serum α1(I) collagen DNA levels in scleroderma patients may be useful as the diagnostic marker, reflecting the presence of vasculopathy.

  9. Association of respiratory complications and elevated serum immunoglobulins with drinking water arsenic toxicity in human.

    PubMed

    Islam, Laila N; Nabi, A H M Nurun; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Zahid, M Shamim H

    2007-10-01

    We assessed the relationship between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water with respiratory complications and humoral immune response by measuring serum immunoglobulin profiles in the affected subjects (arsenicosis patients) living in the arsenic endemic rural villages of Bangladesh. The duration of exposure was determined through detailed history of the patients (n=125) and the levels of arsenic in the drinking water and urine samples were determined. The mean duration of exposure in the patients was 7.4+/-5.3 y, and the levels of arsenic in the drinking water and urine samples were 216+/-211 and 223+/-302 micro g/L, respectively, compared to 11+/-20 and 29+/-19 microg/L, respectively, in the unexposed subjects. There was high prevalence of respiratory complications like breathing problems including chest sound, asthma, bronchitis and cough associated with drinking water arsenic toxicity. Arsenicosis patients had significantly elevated levels of IgG (P<0.001) and IgE (P<0.001) while the levels of IgA were also significantly higher (P<0.005) but IgM were similar to that of the control subjects. Analysis of the clinical symptoms based on skin manifestations showed the levels of both IgG and IgE were significantly elevated during the initial stages while IgE were further elevated with the duration of arsenic exposure. Arsenicosis patients with respiratory complications had mean serum IgE levels of 706+/-211 IU/mL compared to 542+/-241 IU/mL in patients without apparent involvement with the respiratory system (P<0.01). The eosinophil counts in the patients did not differ significantly from the unexposed subjects indicating that elevated levels of serum IgE might not be due to allergic diseases, rather it could be due to direct effects of arsenic. We found significant linear relationships between the levels of serum IgE and inorganic phosphorus (P<0.05), and serum IgA levels with urinary excretion of arsenic (P<0.001). These observations suggested that

  10. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  11. Elevation of serum thymidine kinase 1 in a bacterial infection: canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Sharif, H; Hagman, R; Wang, L; Eriksson, S

    2013-01-01

    Pyometra is a bacterial infection of the uterus that is common in dogs and is potentially life-threatening if delayed in diagnosis and/or treatment. Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in DNA precursor synthesis, and it is also present in serum from patients with malignant diseases. TK1 has been used as a cell proliferation biomarker for many years in human medicine and recently in dogs. However, little is known regarding serum TK1 levels in individuals with bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of serum TK1 in dogs with pyometra and compare it with hematologic and biochemical parameters, e.g., acute phase proteins and inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein and Prostaglandin F(2α). Serum and plasma TK1 activity of 40 healthy female dogs and 54 dogs with pyometra were analyzed using an optimized [(3)H]-thymidine phosphorylation assay. TK1 activities in serum or plasma were significantly higher in dogs with pyometra as compared with healthy female dogs (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 7.3 pmol/min/mL in the pyometra group and 1.07 ± 0.34 pmol/min/mL in healthy control group). However, there was no difference in TK1 activity between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) positive (n = 38) and SIRS negative (n = 16) pyometra cases. Furthermore, the plasma TK1 activity decreased in six and increased in one pyometra patients (n = 10), 24 h after ovariohysterectomy. No significant correlations (P > 0.05) were found between TK1 activity and hematological or other biochemical parameters. In conclusion, the TK1 activity was significantly elevated in dogs with pyometra. Further studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism and role of serum TK1 activity in bacterial infections and its possible diagnostic or prognostic value.

  12. [Elevated serum lithium concentration due to switch from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidekazu; Tomita, Takashi; Doki, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with elevated serum lithium concentration caused by switching from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition. A 73-year-old female inpatient was treated with lithium carbonate 600 mg/d for manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Her serum lithium level was maintained at 0.57-0.79 mEq/L. She was administered total parenteral nutrition owing to difficulty in oral intake. Her diet contained 4.8-5.8 g/d of sodium chloride. After this, parenteral with enteral nutrition was initiated. The total sodium chloride intake decreased from 6.3 to 3.0-4.0 g/d following this change. On day 15 after initiation of parenteral with enteral nutrition, her serum lithium level increased to 1.17 mEq/L, which is closer to the upper therapeutic range limit. Therefore enteral nutrition was stopped immediately, and an electrolyte solution was administered instead of enteral nutrition. An antibiotic agent was also simultaneously administered because of infection. The total amount of sodium chloride administered was increased to 7.0 g/d during this treatment. Four days after treatment, the serum lithium level returned to 0.57 mEq/L. This case suggests that administration of appropriate sodium chloride nutrition is important during treatment with lithium carbonate, because disposition of lithium ion is paralleled to that of sodium.

  13. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  14. Transplantation of Deceased Donor Livers With Elevated Levels of Serum Transaminases at Shiraz Transplant Center

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar, Nasir; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsayeefar, Ali Reza; Gholami, Siavash; Kasraianfard, Amir; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The current organ shortage has prompted the use of marginal organs. We conducted this retrospective study to present our experience with transplanting deceased donor livers with elevated levels of serum transaminases and to explain whether elevated levels of serum transaminases in donors affect allograft function and survival of the recipients. Methods Data of deceased donor livers and patients, who underwent liver transplantation from March 2013 to March 2015 at Shiraz center for organ transplantation, was reviewed. Liver donors with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of more than 500 IU/l and their related recipients were considered as the case group (n = 24) and the others were considered as the control group (n = 834). Results In the case group, the medians of levels of serum AST and ALT of donors were 834 ± 425 IU/L (range: 250 - 2285) and 507 ± 367 IU/L (range: 100 - 1600), respectively. Recipients were followed for a median of 13.6 ± 9 months (range: 7 - 28.4). Post-transplant complications were acute rejection (n = 5), infection (n = 3), portal vein thrombosis (n = 3), bile duct stricture (n = 1), and hepatic artery stenosis (n = 1). The one-year survival rate of the patients was 91.7%. Demographics, post-transplant complications and one-year survival rates were not significantly different between the two study groups. Conclusions Transplanting deceased donor livers with markedly elevated liver enzymes may be an acceptable choice for expanding the donor pool. PMID:27882068

  15. Persistently elevated abnormal B-cell subpopulations and anti-core antibodies in patients co-infected with HIV/HCV who relapse.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anita; Funk, Emily; Burbelo, Peter; Barrett, Lisa; Meissner, Eric G; Santich, Brian; Shaffer, Ashton; Johl, Jessica; Sidharthan, Sreetha; Moir, Susan; Kottilil, Shyam; Fauci, Anthony S

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) treatment for patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HCV is associated with modest rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and an increased rate of relapse when compared to HCV monoinfected patients. As patients who attain SVR and patients who relapse are clinically indistinguishable during treatment, where both groups have fully suppressed HCV viral load, it has not been possible to identify in advance those who will relapse. Biomarkers that may distinguish patients with differential treatment response may be clinically useful and provide insight into mechanisms of relapse. In this retrospective study, serum and PBMCs were obtained from 41 HIV/HCV co-infected patients and 17 healthy volunteers. Changes in antibody titers to various regions of the HCV proteome during treatment for HCV were determined using a novel luciferase immunoprecipitation assay. Changes in B-cell subtypes in patients with differential treatment response as well as healthy volunteers were compared. This study demonstrates that elevated anti-HCV core antibody titers persisted during HCV treatment in patients who relapsed when compared to those who attained SVR. Furthermore, characterization of B cells in patients who relapsed demonstrated an abnormal B-cell phenotype distribution characterized by elevated frequencies of exhausted B cells among relapsers at baseline, which persisted despite suppression of HCV viremia at 24 weeks, along with increased frequencies of plasmablasts. These data suggest that anti-HCV specific B cells may be responding to ongoing subclinical HCV replication in patients who will relapse.

  16. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  17. Detection of elevated levels of 2-5A synthetase in serum from children with various infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, H; Mitani, I; Koike, M; Kodama, T; Sokawa, J; Sawai, H; Ishibashi, K; Itoh, M; Watanabe, S; Sokawa, Y

    1986-01-01

    By a sensitive radioimmunoassay method, (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase was detected in serum from patients with viral, bacterial, or mycoplasmal infections at elevated levels compared with enzyme levels in serum from healthy individuals and patients suffering from noninfectious diseases. PMID:3760142

  18. Early effects of fluoro-edenite: correlation between IL-18 serum levels and pleural and parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Matera, Serena; Massimino, Nicoletta; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Musumeci, Andrea; Migliore, Marcello; Fenga, Concettina; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-12-01

    Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs. The mean IL-18 level was 203.13 ± 90.43 pg/ml. Pearson correlation showed a significant association (p < 0.0001) between IL-18 and PPs and parenchymal abnormality scores. Data suggest a potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  19. Distribution of serum immunoglobulin G4 levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 levels.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Inagaki, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytes, and lymphocyte infiltration into multiple organs. IgG4 thyroiditis is a subset of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who exhibited histopathological features of IgG4-RD; its source of serum IgG4 is suggested to be the thyroid gland. Although a relationship between IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis has been reported, the meaning of serum IgG4 in HT is uncertain. In this report, we prospectively evaluated serum IgG4 levels and clinical features of patients with HT. A total of 149 patients with HT were prospectively recruited into this study. According to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, patients were divided into two groups: elevated IgG4 (>135 mg/dL) and non-elevated IgG4 (≤135 mg/dL). Median serum IgG4 levels of HT patients were 32.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 20.0-65.0), with a unimodal non-normal distribution. Six patients (4.0%) had elevated serum IgG4 levels above 135 mg/dL. The elevated IgG4 group was older and exhibited enlarged hypoechoic areas in the thyroid gland, as revealed by ultrasonography, relative to the non-elevated IgG4 group. Levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement doses and titers of anti-thyroid antibodies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two out of six HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels had extra-thyroid organ involvement as seen in IgG4-RD. In conclusion, HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels shared clinical features with both IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis. Longer follow-up periods and histopathological assessments are needed to further understand the meaning of elevated serum IgG4 levels in HT.

  20. Kynurenic acid, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, is elevated in serum of Zucker fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, G; Cornicelli, J; van der Hart, M; Roeser, J; Summergrad, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem and the molecular mechanisms of obesity are not fully understood. Dysregulation of the tryptophan (Trp) – kynurenine (Kyn) metabolic pathway (TKP) have been suggested as a mechanism of obesity and described in obese humans and in animal models of obesity. However, to the best of our knowledge, TKP metabolism has not been studied in leptin-receptor-deficient Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) (fa/fa), the best-known and most widely used rat model of obesity. We were interested to determine if there are any deviations of TKP in ZFR. Concentrations of major TKP metabolites were evaluated (HPLC- MS method) in serum of ZFR (fa/fa) and age-matched lean rats (FA/-). Concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) were 50% higher in ZFR than in lean rats (p<0.004, Mann-Whitney two-tailed test). Anthranilic acid (AA) concentrations, while elevated by 33%, did not reach statistical significance (p<0.04, one-tailed test). Elevated KYNA serum concentrations might contribute to development of obesity via KYNA-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Present results warrant further studies of KYNA and AA in ZFR and other animal models of obesity. PMID:27738521

  1. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  2. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Levels Are Related to Cognitive Deterioration in an Elderly Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazushi; Koide, Daisuke; Fujii, Kurumi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Shoji; Iwata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Aims The association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and cognitive function is controversial since UA can be a risk factor for cerebral ischemia as well as acting as a neuroprotective antioxidant. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 228 elderly participants and examined neuropsychological test results, clinical data as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients Overall, 64 participants were diagnosed with cognitive deterioration. To control for the effect of sex differences, 2 independent sets of single-variable and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with quartiles divided into non-sex-specific and sex-specific cutoff values for UA. Results In non-sex-specific quartiles, the participants in the highest quartiles of UA levels were found to be at a significantly higher risk of cognitive deterioration than those in the lowest quartiles. In sex-specific quartiles, the highest quartile showed an increased risk of cognitive deterioration, and a greater than fourfold increase in the risk in the highest quartiles was confirmed using multivariate regression models. However, no significant association was observed between serum UA levels and the presence of white matter lesions. Conclusions Elevated serum UA levels were independently associated with cognitive deterioration. UA might have unknown adverse effects on cognitive function, other than causing vascular pathology. PMID:28203247

  3. Elevated house dust and serum concentrations of PBDEs in California: unintended consequences of furniture flammability standards?

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Rudel, Ruthann A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A; Brody, Julia Green

    2008-11-01

    Studies show higher house dust and body burden levels of PBDE flame retardants in North America than Europe; but little is known about exposure variation within North America, where California's furniture flammability standard affects PBDE use. We compared dust samples from 49 homes in two California communities with 120 Massachusetts homes and with other published studies. Dust concentrations [median (range) ng/g] in California homes of BDE-47, -99, and -100 were 2700 (112-107,000), 3800 (102-170,000), and 684 (serum PBDE levels were also higher in California compared to other North American regions by analyzing the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the only data set available with serum from a representative sample of the U.S. population (n=2040). California residence was significantly associated with nearly 2-fold higher sigma PBDE serum levels [least square geometric mean (LSGM) ng/g lipid, 73.0 vs 38.5 (p = 0.002)]. Elevated PBDE exposures in California may result from the state's furniture flammability standards; our results suggest the need for further research in a larger representative sample.

  4. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men.

  5. Increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently elevated serum total bile acid: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoliang; Shang, Xiaoyun; Wan, Xing; Xiang, Xiaomei; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong; Wu, Yuzhang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between long-term changes of serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients, we did a retrospective cohort study of 2262 chronic hepatitis B patients with regular antiviral treatment using data from the Hepatitis Biobank at Southwest Hospital Program from 2004 to 2014. Patients in the study were classified into 3 groups according to persistence of elevated serum total bile acid during follow-up: none-low, medium, and high persistence of elevated serum total bile acid. The association between persistence of elevated serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier analysis including information about patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. There were 62 hepatocellular carcinoma cases during a total follow-up of 14756.5 person-years in the retrospective study. Compared to patients with none-low persistence of elevated total bile acid, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.37 (1.16–4.84), and 2.57 (1.28–5.16) for patients with medium, and high persistence of elevated total bile acid. Our findings identified persistence of elevated serum total bile acid as an independent risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:27905528

  6. A role for maternal serum screening in detecting chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Kliewer, M A; Hertzberg, B S; Ruiz, C; Stamper, T H; Rosnes, J; Lucas, A; Wright, L N; Chescheir, N C; Farmer, L; Jordan, S; Kay, H H

    1999-05-01

    A prospective multicentre study was performed to identify patients with fetal choroid plexus cysts and examine the association between choroid plexus cysts and chromosome abnormalities in the context of variables such as maternal age, serum triple-screen results, race, other prenatally-identified fetal anomalies and cyst characteristics. A total of 18 437 scans were performed in 5 centres and 257 fetuses were identified with choroid plexus cysts. Outcome was available on 250 patients, and of these, chromosomal abnormalities were detected in a total of 13 (5.2 per cent) fetuses. 26 patients in the group had additional ultrasound abnormalities, and 8 of these had fetal chromosome abnormalities. Among the 224 patients with isolated choroid plexus cysts, 5 (2.2 per cent) were found to have chromosomal abnormalities. All cases with identified chromosomal abnormalities were associated with an additional risk factor, such as other ultrasound findings, advanced maternal age or abnormal maternal serum triple-screen results.

  7. Elevated Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D Levels Are Negatively Correlated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, E.; Kratzsch, J.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Hickel, R.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, HE; Heinrich, J

    2015-01-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

  8. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters.

  9. Abnormalities of serum potassium concentration in dialysis-associated hyperglycemia and their correction with insulin: review of published reports.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S; Elisaf, Moses S; Raj, Dominic S C; Siamopoulos, Kostas C; Rohrscheib, Mark; Murata, Glen H

    2011-06-01

    The main difference between dialysis-associated hyperglycemia (DH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) occurring in patients with preserved renal function is the absence of osmotic diuresis in DH, which eliminates the need for large fluid and solute (including potassium) replacement. We analyzed published reports of serum potassium (K(+)) abnormalities and their treatment in DH. Hyperkalemia was often present at presentation of DH with higher frequency and severity than in hyperglycemic syndromes in patients with preserved renal function. The frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were higher in DH episodes with DKA than those with NKH in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For DKA, the frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were similar in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For NKH, hyperkalemia was more severe and frequent in hemodialysis than in peritoneal dialysis. Insulin infusion corrected the hyperkalemia of DH in most cases. Additional measures for the management of hyperkalemia or modest potassium infusions for hypokalemia were needed in a few DH episodes. The predictors of the decrease in serum K(+) during treatment of DH with insulin included the starting serum K(+) level, the decreases in serum values of glucose concentration and tonicity, and the increase in serum total carbon dioxide level. DH represents a risk factor for hyperkalemia. Insulin infusion is the only treatment for hyperkalemia usually required.

  10. Does an elevated serum vitamin B(12) level mask actual vitamin B(12) deficiency in myeloproliferative disorders?

    PubMed

    Gauchan, Dron; Joshi, Nitin; Gill, Amandeep Singh; Patel, Vishal; Debari, Vincent A; Guron, Gunwant; Maroules, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Elevation of the methylmalonic acid level is a sensitive marker of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Our cross-sectional observational study of 33 patients with myeloproliferative disorders found that 9 patients, 27.27% had occult deficiency despite having normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels. Early detection of vitamin B(12) deficiency by using the methylmalonic acid measurement may prevent significant neurologic and hematologic complications in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. In patients with myeloproliferative disorders, normal to high serum vitamin B(12) concentrations have often been reported. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether normal or elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels in myeloproliferative disorders might actually mask the true underlying vitamin B(12) deficiency in some patients. Thirty-three patients (12 men, 21 women; mean age, 70.55 years [range, 37-90 years]) with polycythemia vera (n = 13), essential thrombocythemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) (n = 3) were accrued over a period of 1 year, from March 2009 to February 2010. From all of the subjects, serum vitamin B(12) level, methylmalonic acid level, a basic complete blood cell count panel, and liver and renal function tests were obtained. Normal to elevated serum vitamin B(12) levels were recorded in all the patients. However, elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels were found in 9 (27.27%) patients, with a prevalence of 2 patients with polycythemia vera, 23% in polycythemia vera, 4 patients with essential thrombocythemia, 33.3% in essential thrombocythemia, 1 patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 20% in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and 2 patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis, 66.7% in IMF. Our data suggest that 27.27% of the total enrolled patients had occult vitamin B(12) deficiency despite normal to elevated vitamin B(12) levels on regular serum vitamin B(12) testing.

  11. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  12. Irreversible brain creatine deficiency with elevated serum and urine creatine: a creatine transporter defect?

    PubMed

    Cecil, K M; Salomons, G S; Ball, W S; Wong, B; Chuck, G; Verhoeven, N M; Jakobs, C; DeGrauw, T J

    2001-03-01

    Recent reports highlight the utility of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques to recognize creatine deficiency syndromes affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Reported cases demonstrate partial reversibility of neurologic symptoms upon restoration of CNS creatine levels with the administration of oral creatine. We describe a patient with a brain creatine deficiency syndrome detected by proton MRS that differs from published reports. Metabolic screening revealed elevated creatine in the serum and urine, with normal levels of guanidino acetic acid. Unlike the case with other reported creatine deficiency syndromes, treatment with oral creatine monohydrate demonstrated no observable increase in brain creatine with proton MRS and no improvement in clinical symptoms. In this study, we report a novel brain creatine deficiency syndrome most likely representing a creatine transporter defect.

  13. Prolonged elevation of serum neuron-specific enolase in children after clinical diagnosis of brain death.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mogami, Yukiko; Toribe, Yausihisa; Yamada, Keitaro; Yanagihara, Keiko; Hirata, Ikuko; Mano, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the time course of neuronal cell death after the clinical criteria for brain death are met, the authors reviewed serial changes of serum neuron-specific enolase levels in 3 children (age range, 3-15 years) clinically diagnosed as brain dead due to cardiopulmonary arrest. All patients survived for more than 2 months after brain death. Children with brain death had higher peak neuron-specific enolase values (1069-2849 ng/mL) than did 3 control children (256-1800 ng/mL) who did not become brain dead but had poor neurological outcome (1 death, 2 vegetative state) after cardiopulmonary arrest. A major finding is that children with brain death showed persistent elevation of neuron-specific enolase at 4 weeks (>400 ng/mL) and 8 weeks (>50 ng/mL) after cardiopulmonary arrest, in comparison with 2 surviving patients without brain death (<50 ng/mL at 4 weeks). This prolonged elevation of neuron-specific enolase suggests that total brain necrosis might not be present at the time of clinical diagnosis of brain death.

  14. Abnormalities in cadmium fluoride kinetics in serum, bile, and urine after single intravenous administration of toxic doses to rats.

    PubMed

    Dote, Tomotaro; Adachi, Kazuya; Yamadori, Emi; Imanishi, Masafumi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tanida, Eri; Kono, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium fluoride (CdF2, CdF for short) is the most lethal and hepatotoxic of all Cd-containing compounds. The toxic effects of CdF appear to depend on its detoxification and elimination. This study was designed to determine the early dynamics of the absorption, systemic distribution, and metabolism of CdF. The kinetics of cadmium and fluoride were investigated in the blood, bile, and urine of rats as a model of accidental occupational exposure to CdF. The serum concentration-time profiles measured after intravenous CdF (1.34, 2.67 or 4.01 mg/ per kg body weight) administration were analyzed by compartmental modeling using the WinNonlin program. Bile and urine were collected for 300 min after the administration. The kinetic profiles indicate that the clearance of Cd was diminished in the 2.67 and 4.01 mg/kg groups, leading to a persistently high serum Cd level. The mean total biliary excretions of Cd in the 2.67 and 4.01 mg/kg groups were significantly higher than that in the 1.34 mg/kg group. The abnormal kinetics of Cd was attributable to severe hepatic injury that diminished the capacity for Cd accumulation. The elimination of serum F was delayed in the 4.01 mg/kg group. The mean urinary F excretion amount was not significantly higher in the 4.01 mg/kg group than in the 2.67 mg/kg group. The abnormal kinetics of F was attributable to nephrotoxicity that diminished its elimination from the kidney.

  15. Elevated serum complement C3 levels are associated with prehypertension in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xue; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Li, Chunlei; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Ma, Xinyu; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Song, Kun; Wang, GuoLin; Huang, Guowei; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Prehypertension is a public health epidemic associated with various adverse outcomes, but can be reversed by timely intervention. However, little attention has been paid to prehypertension. Complement C3 is a central hub of complement-related immune system. We examined the association between C3 and prehypertension in an adult population for the first time, aiming to investigate whether pro-inflammatory immune response is involved in the prehypertensive state. About 7820 Tianjin residents without hypertension were categorized into sex-specific quintiles based on their serum concentration of complement C3. Adjusted logistic regression models were used separately by gender to assess the association between C3 quintiles and the prevalence of prehypertension. After multiple adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prehypertension across increasing quintiles of C3 were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.84, 1.25), 1.15 (0.94, 1.42), 1.25 (1.01, 1.54), and 1.71 (1.35, 2.17) (p for trend < 0.0001) among men and were 1.00 (reference), 1.17 (0.92, 1.49), 1.13 (0.88, 1.44), 1.15 (0.89, 1.48), and 1.40 (1.07, 1.84) (p for trend = 0.03) among women. The findings suggested that elevated serum C3 levels are associated with prehypertension. Reducing inflammation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for prehypertension and hypertension that is worthy of further studies and discussion.

  16. Elevated serum titers of proinflammatory cytokines and CNS autoantibodies in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K C; Hull, T C L; Delaney, G A; Potter, P J; Sequeira, K A J; Campbell, K; Popovich, P G

    2002-06-01

    This study characterized the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, autoantibodies specific for GM1 ganglioside (anti-GM1), IgG and IgM, and myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG), in the sera of infection-free, chronic (>12 months), traumatically injured SCI patients (n = 24). Healthy able-bodied subjects (n = 26) served as controls. The proinflammatory cytokines and anti-GM1 antibodies were of particular interest as they have been implicated in an autoimmune "channelopathy" component to central and peripheral conduction deficits in various chronic neuroinflammatory diseases. Antibody and cytokine titers were established using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The mean anti-GM(1) (IgM) titer value for the SCI group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than controls. The SCI group also demonstrated significantly higher titers (p < 0.05) of IL-2 and TNF alpha than controls. No differences were found between the SCI group and control group mean levels of IL-4 or IL-10. Overall, the serum of 57% of SCI patients contained increased levels of autoantibodies or proinflammatory cytokines relative to control values. These results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that chronic immunological activation in the periphery occurs in a subpopulation of chronic SCI patients. It remains to be established whether elevated serum titers of proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies against GM1 are beneficial to the patients or whether they are surrogate markers of a channelopathy that compounds the neurological impairment associated with traumatic axonopathy or myelinopathy.

  17. Elevated Serum PCT in Septic Shock With Endotoxemia Is Associated With a Higher Mortality Rate.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Dominika; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of endotoxemia on the procalcitonin (PCT) serum levels and mortality rates of adult patients with septic shock diagnosed on the day of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).A retrospective observational study was performed over a 2-year period. Levels of PCT were compared for septic shock patients with and without endotoxemia on admission to the ICU. Endotoxemia was identified with an Endotoxin Activity Assay.One hundred fifty-seven patients with septic shock were enrolled into the study. Group 1 consisted of patients with elevated endotoxin activity (EA) (n = 95, EA = 0.57 endotoxin activity unit [EAU] [0.46-0.67]) and Group 2 consisted of patients with low EA (n = 62, EA = 0.27 EAU [0.17-0.36]). Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and SOFA score were similar in both groups (APACHE II = 23 [16-29] and 19 [16-25]; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] = 10 [7-13] and 11 [8-12] in Groups 1 and 2, respectively) (nonsignificant). The PCT level was 6 times higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (19.6 ng/mL vs. 3.1 ng/mL, P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between EA and serum PCT (P < 0.001, R = 0.5). The presence of endotoxemia on admission to the ICU was associated with an increased mortality rate: 52% in the group of patients with endotoxemia and 25% in the group without endotoxemia. EA in survivors was 0.39 EAU (0.26-0.57) and 0.53 EAU (0.4-0.61) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.004). The median PCT level in survivors was 6.7 ng/mL (2.3-28.0), compared with 16.7 ng/mL (5.3-31.0) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.04).This observational study revealed that endotoxemia in patients with septic shock on admission to the ICU was frequently found and was associated with an elevated PCT level and a high mortality rate. Endotoxemia was a common occurrence in patients with septic shock, regardless of the infecting microorganism.

  18. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Bennett, D; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Farrar, B; McCormick, J B

    1989-10-01

    Electrocardiograms from 32 patients with acute Lassa fever were abnormal in over 70% of cases. The changes noted included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, ST-segment elevation, generalized low-voltage complexes, and changes reflecting electrolyte disturbance. None of the abnormalities correlated with clinical severity of infection, serum transaminase levels, or eventual outcome. ECG changes are common in Lassa fever, but usually unassociated with clinical manifestations of myocarditis.

  19. A comparison of currently used serum lipase and amylase procedures in the serial detection of enzyme elevations in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, J A; Kitt, D; Wingate, B

    1983-10-14

    Twenty-eight patients having acute pancreatitis were followed during convalescence with serum amylase and lipase determinations. Starch and p-nitrophenyl-oligosaccharide substrates were used for amylase. Dimercaptotributyrate and triolein were employed for lipase. The extreme sensitivity of the lipase procedure using the tributyrate detected a persistent elevation of lipase when other parameters of measurement had returned to normal.

  20. Intratubular trophoblasts in the contralateral testis caused elevation of serum human chorionic gonadotropin following complete remission of stage II testicular tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Satoshi; Kawai, Koji; Onozawa, Mizuki; Ando, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Jun; Nagata, Chigusa; Noguchi, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Kazumitsu; Uchida, Katsunori; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old male who had a history of metastatic right testicular tumor successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery. Twenty-one months after the initial treatment, the serum human chorionic gonadotropin started to increase gradually, but whole body imaging including the left testis revealed no abnormal finding except testicular microlithiasis. A biopsy of the left testis revealed intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type. After the human chorionic gonadotropin level reached 6.6 mIU/ml, he underwent left high orchiectomy. Histology demonstrated a small malignant germ cell tumor as well as intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type, both of which were negative for human chorionic gonadotropin staining. Besides these lesions, there were tiny foci of human chorionic gonadotropin-immunoreactive intratubular trophoblasts. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin normalized immediately after the orchiectomy, and he had no sign of recurrence at 6 months. The present case will provide new insight into the diagnosis of testicular tumor recurrence with isolated elevation of a serum tumor marker.

  1. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  2. Significant elevations of serum lipase not caused by pancreatitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Ahmer M; Lam, Vincent W T; Pleass, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many authors advocate lipase as the preferred serological test for the diagnosis of pancreatitis and a cut-off level of three or more times the upper limit of normal (ULN) is often quoted. The literature contains no systematic review that explores alternative causes of a lipase level over three times as high as the ULN. Such a review was therefore the objective of this study. Methods The EMBASE and MEDLINE databases (1985 to August 2013) were searched for all eligible articles. Predetermined data were extracted and independently analysed by two reviewers. Results In total, data from 58 studies were included in the final analysis. The following causes other than pancreatitis of lipase levels exceeding three times the ULN were found: reduced clearance of lipase caused by renal impairment or macrolipase formation; other hepatobiliary, gastroduodenal, intestinal and neoplastic causes; critical illness, including neurosurgical pathology; alternative pancreatic diagnoses, such as non-pathological pancreatic hyperenzymaemia, and miscellaneous causes such as diabetes, drugs and infections. Conclusions A series of differential diagnoses for significant serum lipase elevations (i.e. exceeding three times the ULN) has been provided by this study. Clinicians should utilize this knowledge in the interpretation and management of patients who have lipase levels over three times as high as the ULN, remaining vigilant for an alternative diagnosis to pancreatitis. The medical officer should be aware of the possibility of incorrect diagnosis in the asymptomatic patient. PMID:24888393

  3. Maternal Early Pregnancy Serum Metabolomics Profile and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding as Predictors of Placental Abruption: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Sumner, Susan J.; McRitchie, Susan; Carlson, James E.; Ananth, Cande V.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Qiu, Chunfang; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Placental abruption, an ischemic placental disorder, complicates about 1 in 100 pregnancies, and is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolomics holds promise for improving the phenotyping, prediction and understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of complex clinical disorders including abruption. We sought to evaluate maternal early pregnancy pre-diagnostic serum metabolic profiles and abnormal vaginal bleeding as predictors of abruption later in pregnancy. Methods Maternal serum was collected in early pregnancy (mean 16 weeks, range 15 to 22 weeks) from 51 abruption cases and 51 controls. Quantitative targeted metabolic profiles of serum were acquired using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) and the Absolute IDQ® p180 kit. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history were abstracted from medical records. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the extent to which metabolites aid in the prediction of abruption. We evaluated the predictive performance of the set of selected metabolites using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the curve (AUC). Results Early pregnancy vaginal bleeding, dodecanoylcarnitine/dodecenoylcarnitine (C12 / C12:1), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 38:1 (PC ae C38:1) strongly predict abruption risk. The AUC for these metabolites alone was 0.68, for early pregnancy vaginal bleeding alone was 0.65, and combined the AUC improved to 0.75 with the addition of quantitative metabolite data (P = 0.003). Conclusion Metabolomic profiles of early pregnancy maternal serum samples in addition to the clinical symptom, vaginal bleeding, may serve as important markers for the prediction of abruption. Larger studies are necessary to corroborate and validate these findings in other cohorts. PMID:27300725

  4. Elevated serum levels in human pregnancy of a molecule immunochemically similar to eosinophil granule major basic protein

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have shown that serum levels of a molecule immunochemically similar to eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) are elevated in pregnant women throughout gestation. MBP levels increase during gestation and plateau at approximately 7,500 ng/ml by the 20th wk (greater than 10-fold above normal). Levels return to normal after delivery, with a T1/2 of 13.7 d. The MBP in pregnancy serum is remarkably similar to the eosinophil granule MBP in that: (a) pregnancy MBP fully inhibits the binding of radiolabeled MBP standard in a double antibody radioimmunoassay; (b) this inhibition reaction is specific for human MBP because pregnancy serum produces no inhibition of the binding of radiolabeled guinea pig MBP in the guinea pig MBP radioimmunoassay; (c) in a two-site immunoradiometric assay for MBP, slopes of dose- response curves for pregnancy serum, purified MBP, and serum from a patient with hypereosinophilic syndrome are identical, and maximal binding is comparable; (d) reduction and alkylation of pregnancy sera increases measured MBP 100-fold, as previously shown for eosinophil granule MBP in serum; and (e) the MBP in pregnancy serum demonstrates the same pattern of heat lability as has been previously reported for MBP. Four observations have raised the possibility that the eosinophil is not the source of the MBP in pregnancy serum: (a) no correlation between serum MBP level and peripheral blood eosinophil count exists in pregnant women, in contrast to previous studies of patients with eosinophilia; (b) levels of three other eosinophil-associated proteins are normal or low in pregnancy sera, whereas the serum levels of these proteins are elevated in patients with eosinophilia; (c) the slopes of dose-response curves for pregnancy sera and MBP standards differ in the double antibody radioimmunoassay; and (d) the molecule in pregnancy serum elutes from Sephadex G-50 columns at the void volume, while eosinophil granule MBP and the MBP in serum of patients with

  5. Abnormally elevated VTG concentrations in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Mersey estuary (UK)--a continuing problem.

    PubMed

    Kleinkauf, Anne; Scott, Alexander P; Stewart, Christie; Simpson, Michael G; Leah, Richard T

    2004-07-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) plasma concentrations were measured in flounder (Platicthys flesus L.) caught in two neighbouring UK estuaries between autumn 1997 and summer 2000. As found in previous studies, male and immature female flounder that were caught in the Mersey, but not in the Dee, had abnormally elevated concentrations of VTG in their plasma-evidence of the presence of natural and synthetic estrogens and/or xenoestrogens in the Mersey. The present study reveals a marked seasonal cycle in VTG concentrations in males. In late spring and summer, male flounder in the Mersey have relatively low concentrations of VTG (microg mL(-1) range). However, in mid-winter, mean concentrations were as high as 5 mg mL(-1). There is also evidence that there was a lessening in the degree of estrogenic endocrine disruption between 1996-1997 (the period of the initial studies on the Mersey) and 1998-2000 (the period covered by the present study). Only 0.5% of the fish contained ovotestes (intersex condition).

  6. Evaluation by quantitative 99m-technetium MIBI SPECT and echocardiography of myocardial perfusion and wall motion abnormalities in patients with dobutamine-induced ST-segment elevation.

    PubMed

    Elhendy, A; Geleijnse, M L; Roelandt, J R; van Domburg, R T; Cornel, J H; TenCate, F J; Postma-Tjoa, J; Reijs, A E; el-Said, G M; Fioretti, P M

    1995-09-01

    ST-segment elevation during exercise testing has been attributed to myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormalities (WMA). However, the functional significance of ST-segment elevation during dobutamine stress testing (DST) has not been evaluated in patients referred for diagnostic evaluation of myocardial ischemia. DST (up to 40 micrograms/kg/min) with simultaneous echocardiography and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 229 consecutive patients with suspected myocardial ischemia who were unable to perform an adequate exercise test; 127 (55%) had a previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI). ST elevation was defined as > or = 1 mm new or additional J point elevations with a horizontal or upsloping ST segment lasting 80 ms. Reversible perfusion defects on SPECT and new or worsening WMA during stress on echocardiography were considered diagnostic of ischemia. ST elevation occurred in 40 patients (17%) during the test; 34 of them (85%) had previous AMI. All patients with ST-segment elevation had abnormal scintigrams (fixed or reversible defects, or both) and abnormal wall motion (fixed or transient defect, or both) at peak stress. In patients who had ST elevation and no previous AMI (n = 6), ischemia was detected in all by echocardiography and in 5 (83%) by SPECT. In patients with previous AMI, the prevalence of ischemia was not different with or without ST elevation (53% vs 43% by echocardiography and 53% vs 48% by SPECT, respectively). Baseline regional wall motion score in the infarct zone was higher in patients with ST elevation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Elevation of serum immunoglobulin free light chains during the pre-clinical period of rheumatoid arthritis: impact on mortality

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaoli; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela; Larson, Dirk R.; Therneau, Terry M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Kyle, Robert A.; Katzmann, Jerry; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Davis, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) represent biomarkers of B-cell activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are associated with all-cause mortality in the general population. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships of serum FLCs to pre-clinical disease, RA characteristics, and mortality in RA compared to non-RA subjects. Methods A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, was performed by cross-linking a large cohort in the general population having available serum FLC measurements with established RA incidence and prevalence cohorts. Serum κ, λ, and total FLCs and their trends relative to RA incidence were compared between RA and non-RA subjects. Regression models were used to determine the associations between FLCs, disease characteristics and mortality, testing for differential effects of FLCs on mortality in RA. Results Among 16,609 subjects, 270 fulfilled the criteria for RA at the time of FLC measurement. Mean total FLCs were significantly higher in RA compared to non-RA subjects (4.2 vs. 3.3 mg/dL; p<0.001). FLCs became elevated 3 – 5 years before the clinical onset of RA and remained elevated during follow-up. Polyclonal FLCs were found to predict higher mortality in persons with RA, though elevation to the highest decile had a relatively lower impact on mortality in RA compared to non-RA subjects. Conclusions Elevation of serum FLCs precedes the development of RA and may be useful in monitoring B-cell activity and disease progression. FLCs are confirmed predictors of mortality, though the highest elevations of FLCs have a lower impact on mortality in RA than the general population. PMID:25593227

  8. Prognostic value of serum tumor abnormal protein in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    LAN, FENG; ZHU, MING; QI, QIUFENG; ZHANG, YAPING; LIU, YONGPING

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of protein occurs in nearly all types of cancers and has been confirmed to be associated with tumor progression, metastasis and the survival rate of patients. The present study aimed to explore the prognostic value of tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in gastric cancer patients. TAP was detected in the blood of 42 gastric cancer patients and 56 healthy volunteers by using the TAP testing kit. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of TAP. In total, 64.3% of gastric cancer patients were positive for TAP, and TAP was significantly correlated with poor prognosis [progression-free survival (PFS), 4.2 vs. 12.6 months; P=0.043]. TAP [hazard ratio (HR), 64.487; P<0.01), differentiation (HR, 17.279; P<0.01) and TNM stage (HR, 45.480; P<0.01) were found to be independent predictive factors for PFS. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that TAP is associated with a reduced PFS in gastric cancer patients. The results of the present study therefore indicated that the TAP test has significant prognostic value for gastric cancer patients. PMID:27330802

  9. Ursolic Acid-Induced Elevation of Serum Irisin Augments Muscle Strength During Resistance Training in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Seok; Seo, Dae Yun; Chung, Yong Min; Oh, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Jung Jun; Arturo, Figueroa; Jeong, Seung-Hun; Kim, Nari

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a type of pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid purified from natural plants, can promote skeletal muscle development. We measured the effect of resistance training (RT) with/without UA on skeletal muscle development and related factors in men. Sixteen healthy male participants (age, 29.37±5.14 years; body mass index=27.13±2.16 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to RT (n=7) or RT with UA (RT+UA, n=9) groups. Both groups completed 8 weeks of intervention consisting of 5 sets of 26 exercises, with 10~15 repetitions at 60~80% of 1 repetition maximum and a 60~90-s rest interval between sets, performed 6 times/week. UA or placebo was orally ingested as 1 capsule 3 times/day for 8 weeks. The following factors were measured pre-and post-intervention: body composition, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), irisin, and skeletal muscle strength. Body fat percentage was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in the RT+UA group, despite body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, glucose, and insulin levels remaining unchanged. IGF-1 and irisin were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group (p<0.05). Maximal right and left extension (p<0.01), right flexion (p<0.05), and left flexion (p<0.001) were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group. These findings suggest that UA-induced elevation of serum irisin may be useful as an agent for the enhancement of skeletal muscle strength during RT. PMID:25352765

  10. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation.

    PubMed

    Odajima, Takeshi; Takanashi, Minoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05-2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55-1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57-1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76-2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45-1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence.

  11. Retinal detachment in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome: Color vision abnormality as the first and predominant manifestation.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Hiroyuki; Makino, Shinji; Takahashi, Hironori; Sorita, Mari; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2015-11-01

    Serous retinal detachment is sometimes caused by hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and its associated conditions, in which the predominant eye symptoms are blurred vision, distorted vision, and reduced visual acuity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a puerperal woman with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in whom color vision abnormality was the first and predominant manifestation of serous retinal detachment. At 32 weeks of gestation, the 34-year-old Japanese woman underwent cesarean section due to HELLP syndrome. She complained of color vision abnormality on day 1 post-partum and ophthalmological examination revealed serous retinal detachment of both eyes. The visual acuity was preserved. With supportive therapy, her color vision abnormality gradually ameliorated and retinal detachment completely resolved on day 34 post-partum without any sequelae. Obstetricians should be aware that color vision abnormality can be the first and predominant symptom of HELLP-related serous retinal detachment.

  12. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  13. Elevated serum MDA and depleted non-enzymatic antioxidants, macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Manjurul Islam; Hasan, Maimuna; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Sarwar, Md Shahid; Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Uddin, S M Naim; Rahaman, Md Zahedur; Banik, Sujan; Hussain, Md Saddam; Yokota, Kazushige; Hasnat, Abul

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of mood and mental disorders. However, over the past few years, increased levels of serum malondialdehyde and altered levels of various non-enzymatic antioxidants and essential minerals involved in abnormal functional activity have been identified as major contributing factors to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the serum lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C), macro-minerals (calcium, potassium and sodium) and trace elements (zinc, iron and selenium) in patients with bipolar disorder and to explore their role in disease progression. This is a prospective case-control study that evaluated 55 patients with bipolar disorder and 55 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. Serum MDA levels were determined by UV spectrophotometry as a marker of lipid peroxidation. RP-HPLC was employed to investigate the serum vitamin A and E concentrations, whereas UV spectrophotometry was used to quantify levels of vitamin C. Serum macro-minerals and trace elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t-tests and Pearson's correlation test. We found significantly higher concentrations of MDA (p<0.05) and significantly lower concentrations of antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C) (p<0.05) in the patient group compared with control group. Regarding trace elements and macro-minerals, lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron, selenium, sodium and potassium were found in the patient group compared with control subjects (p<0.05). Our study suggests that high serum MDA concentrations and low serum concentrations of antioxidants, macro-minerals and trace elements are strongly associated with bipolar disorder.

  14. Meta-analysis of the relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and susceptibility to serum ferritin level elevation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yan; Su, Junfeng; Yao, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and their susceptibility to serum ferritin level elevation. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Springer, Medline, and OVID databases for any-language original research articles relating to serum ferritin levels in ALS patients published between June 2005 and June 2015. The search term used with ‘amyotrophic lateral sclerosis’, ‘ferritins’, ‘ferritin’, ‘iron’, ‘iron stores, ‘iron status, ‘iron intake’, and ‘iron consumption’. The meta-analysis software RevMan 5.0 was used for the heterogeneity test, and to test for the overall effect. Results: Six case-control studies met our inclusion criteria including data from a total of 1813 participants. The mean difference of serum ferritin levels comparing ALS to healthy controls was 69.05 (95% confidence interval: 52.56-85.54; p<0.00001); heterogeneity: p=0.03; I2=50%. The findings indicate homology in the sensitivity analysis. Funnel plot assessment indicated publication bias. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ALS is positively associated with susceptibility to the elevation of serum ferritin levels; however, further evidence is required to support this. PMID:27094521

  15. Elevated Serum Levels of Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Are Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Aiguo; Li, Na; Si, Hongzong

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that is elevated in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes. A growing body of research has shown that RBP4 is associated with several types of cancer. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between serum RBP4 levels and breast cancer risk. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association between serum RBP4 levels and the risk of breast cancer. Methods From August 2012 to December 2013, four-hundred subjects including 200 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer and 200 matched healthy women were consecutively enrolled from Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College. Blood samples were collected from healthy controls and breast cancer patients before commencement of treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate the serum RBP4 levels in separated serum samples. Meanwhile, the characteristics of breast cancer cases and controls were collected from medical records and pathological data. Results The serum levels of RBP4 were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than that in the healthy control group (33.77±9.92 vs. 28.77±6.47μg/ml, P < 0.05). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of serum RBP4 level, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) is 2.16(1.01–4.61) and 2.07 (1.07–4.00) for women in the second and highest RBP4 tertile, respectively. For breast cancer patients, patients with PR or ER negative displayed significantly higher serum RBP4 levels than those with PR or ER positive. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggested serum RBP4 levels could be associated with the risk of breast cancer. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm these observed results. PMID:28002423

  16. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  17. Elevated serum apolipoprotein E is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinmei; Song, Junli; Feng, Pinning; Wang, Yanhong; Long, Weiqing; Liu, Min; Li, Laisheng

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a factor involved in Alzheimer's disease, which recently attracted great attention as an important protein related to tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, serum ApoE levels and its diagnosis and prognosis value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are still unknown. In 196 NSCLC patients and 203 healthy controls, serum ApoE was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. The associations of serum ApoE levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of NSCLC patients were analyzed. Serum ApoE levels were obviously elevated in NSCLC patients compared with healthy controls (41.6 ± 11.63 vs. 33.8 ± 6.24 mg/L) and were associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis status, and distant metastasis status (all P < 0.0001). For NSCLC diagnosis, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 at a specificity of 0.90 and sensitivity of 0.47. For lymph node metastasis predicting, the area under the ROC curve was 0.68 at a specificity of 0.56 and sensitivity of 0.73. From ROC/area under curve (AUC) analysis, we used 41.25 mg/L as the serum ApoE cut-off value, to divide NSCLC patients into two groups, the median survival was 11.0 weeks (95 % CI = 8.7 to 13.3) for patients in high serum ApoE group and 20.0 weeks (95 % CI = 15.0 to 25.0) in low serum ApoE group. Serum ApoE levels elevated in NSCLC patients, which also associated with TNM stages, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis, suggest that serum ApoE may act as a useful clinical serological biomarkers for evaluating the progress of NSCLC.

  18. Elevated Levels of SOX10 in Serum from Vitiligo and Melanoma Patients, Analyzed by Proximity Ligation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.; Vuu, Jimmy; Ullenhag, Gustav; Kämpe, Olle; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Hedstrand, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of malignant melanoma currently relies on clinical inspection of the skin surface and on the histopathological status of the excised tumor. The serum marker S100B is used for prognostic estimates at later stages of the disease, but analyses are marred by false positives and inadequate sensitivity in predicting relapsing disorder. Objectives To investigate SOX10 as a potential biomarker for melanoma and vitiligo. Methods In this study we have applied proximity ligation assay (PLA) to detect the transcription factor SOX10 as a possible serum marker for melanoma. We studied a cohort of 110 melanoma patients. We further investigated a second cohort of 85 patients with vitiligo, which is a disease that also affects melanocytes. Results The specificity of the SOX10 assay in serum was high, with only 1% of healthy blood donors being positive. In contrast, elevated serum SOX10 was found with high frequency among vitiligo and melanoma patients. In patients with metastases, lack of SOX10 detection was associated with treatment benefit. In two responding patients, a change from SOX10 positivity to undetectable levels was seen before the response was evident clinically. Conclusions We show for the first time that SOX10 represents a promising new serum melanoma marker for detection of early stage disease, complementing the established S100B marker. Our findings imply that SOX10 can be used to monitor responses to treatment and to assess if the treatment is of benefit at stages earlier than what is possible radiologically. PMID:27110718

  19. Elevated Preoperative Serum Hs-CRP Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients Who Underwent Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Ying, Jie; Kuang, Su-Juan; Jin, Hao-Sheng; Yin, Zi; Chang, Liang; Yang, Hui; Ou, Ying-Liang; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Chuan-Sheng; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of preoperative highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) in serum on the prognostic outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 624 consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were incorporated. Serum levels of Hs-CRP were tested at preoperation via a collection of venous blood samples. Survival analyses adopted the univariate and multivariate analyses.In our study, among the 624 screened HCC patients, 516 patients were eventually incorporated and completed follow-up. Positive correlations were found regarding preoperative serum Hs-CRP level and tumor size, Child-Pugh class, or tumor stage (all P < 0.0001). Patients with recurrence outcomes and nonsurvivors had increased Hs-CRP levels at preoperation (both P < 0.0001). When compared to the Hs-CRP-normal group, the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates were evidently decreased in the Hs-CRP-elevated group. Further, preoperative serum Hs-CRP level might be having possible prediction effect regarding survival and recurrence of HCC patients after hepatic section in the multivariate analysis.Preoperative increased serum Hs-CRP level was an independent prognostic indicator in patients with HCC following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.

  20. Impact of serum high-mobility group box 1 protein elevation on oxygenation impairment after thoracic aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Takashi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Sugano, Yasuo; Yamada, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Yozu, Ryohei; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late mediator of inflammatory responses that can cause acute lung injury. We examined the significance of serum HMGB1 elevation in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and lung oxygenation impairment (LOI) after thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) repair. Serial measurements of the serum HMGB1 level and SIRS score for 7 days after surgery were determined in 20 patients with TAA who underwent surgical repair. Arterial oxygen tension was measured serially for at least 4 days after surgery, and LOI was defined as the lowest PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio ≤ 200 mmHg. The serum HMGB1 level was markedly increased after surgery, peaking on day 2, and remained significantly elevated on day 7. Peak HMGB1 level positively correlated with SIRS duration and the cumulative SIRS score during postoperative days 1-7 (P = 0.0013 and P = 0.0004, respectively). Peak HMGB1 level and cumulative SIRS score were higher in patients with LOI than in those without (P = 0.01 and P = 0.044, respectively). Peak HMGB1 level was negatively correlated with the lowest PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (P = 0.0077) and positively correlated with postoperative length of hospitalization (P = 0.042). A greater serum HMGB1 elevation after TAA repair was associated with more severe SIRS and a higher incidence of LOI. HMGB1 might play a key role in the pathogenesis of SIRS and LOI after surgical TAA repair.

  1. Elevated serum levels of T3 without metabolic effect in nutritionally deficient rats, attributable to reduced cellular uptake of T3

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; DiStefano, J.J.

    1981-08-01

    Rats receiving a nutritionally deficient diet displayed markedly elevated serum free T3 levels but showed no increase in oxygen consumption. This was associated with greatly reduced ratios of hepatic cellular and nuclear /sub 125/I-T3 to serum /sub 125/I-T3. Kinetic data supported the conclusion that cellular uptake of T3 was decreased in the nutritionally deficient rats. The lack of metabolic effect, despite the elevated serum T3 levels, is attributable to reduced availability of serum T3 to tissue nuclear receptor sites.

  2. Recurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ileum diagnosed by elevation of serum SCC: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mino, Kazuhiro; Kamii, Naoki; Kawanishi, Norio; Okada, Tadao; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the intestine is extremely rare. This report describes a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the small intestine. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital because of a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. She underwent laparotomy owing to the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a pelvic mass after conservative treatment. The affected ileum was resected, and histopathological examination revealed proliferation of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma at the submucosal area with no adenocarcinoma component. At the 4th month after the operation, the level of serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was elevated. At 6 months after the operation, the serum SCC value was further elevated, and enhanced CT revealed two new pelvic tumors with enhancement at the mesentery and free space. A second laparotomy was performed 8 months after the operation. Histopathological examination showed differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as in the first operation. The level of serum SCC decreased at the 28th postoperative day. Chemotherapy including carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed as an adjuvant regimen. The patient has experienced no recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma for 55 months.

  3. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats.

  4. Consumption of sericin reduces serum lipids, ameliorates glucose tolerance and elevates serum adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Kakehi, Shoko; Xu, Yonghui; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

  5. Elevated Galectin-3 Levels in the Serum of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexin; Zhang, Shuping; Lin, Faliang; Chu, Wenzheng; Yue, Shouwei

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is characterized by a conserved sequence within the carbohydrate recognition domain. The effect of Gal-3 in AD is presently unknown. In this study, we found significantly increased Gal-3 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control participants (P=.017). There was no significant difference between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (P=.143) or between patients with AD and MCI (P=.688). The degree of cognitive impairment, as measured by the Mini-Mental Status Examination score, was found to have a significant correlation with the Gal-3 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. These data suggest that Gal-3 potentially plays a role in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The Gal-3 found in serum could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  6. Cognitive dysfunction correlates with elevated serum S100B concentration in drug-free acutely relapsed patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Tian, Li; Chen, Nan; Xiu, Meihong; Wang, Zhiren; Yang, Guigang; Wang, Chuanyue; Yang, Fude; Tan, Yunlong

    2017-01-01

    S100B, a biomarker of glial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the association of serum S100B levels with cognitive deficits using MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in schizophrenia, by excluding the impact of antipsychotics. Sixty-two unmedicated patients with schizophrenia during their acute phases were divided into a drug-naïve group (n=34) and a drug-free group (n=28). S100B serum concentrations were measured and MCCB was administered to all of the patients. Forty healthy controls donated their blood samples for S100B assessment. The results indicated that serum S100B was significantly elevated in the drug-naive/free acute-stage schizophrenic patients when compared to the healthy controls. In the drug-free group, the serum S100B level was an independent contributor to the global cognitive dysfunctions, particularly for the speed of processing, attention/vigilance, visual learning and reasoning/problem solving subscores. Nevertheless, no significant associations between S100B and MCCB composite score or any cognitive domain subscore were observed in the drug-naïve group. These findings support the hypothesis that glial dysfunction and associated marker protein S100B may contribute to the pathophysiologic development of neurocognitive deficits in the relapsed individuals with schizophrenia.

  7. Elevated serum lactoferrin and neopterin are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Du, Gang; Wei, Chengshou; Gu, Song; Tang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that lactoferrin (LF) and neopterin (NT) are correlated with infection. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum levels of LF and NT are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Material and methods A total of 268 patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury who underwent spinal surgery were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of LF, NT, and C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to white blood cell count (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. Results In total, 22 of 268 patients (8.2%) developed postoperative infectious complications. The levels of serum LF, NT, and CRP were significantly higher in the infected patients than in the non-infected patients. No significant differences were observed in postoperative WBC count and ESR between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that LF (OR: 1.004 (1.002–1.007)), NT (OR: 1.137 (1.054–1.227)), and CRP (OR: 1.023 (1.002–1.044)) were significantly associated with the presence of postoperative infectious complications. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for LF, NT, and CRP was 0.709, 0.779, and 0.629, respectively. Conclusions Elevated serum concentrations of LF and NT are associated with early infection after surgery. Compared to CRP, elevated levels of LF and NT are better indicators for predicting postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. PMID:24273571

  8. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  9. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-11-01

    The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  10. The relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels with severity of obstructive sleep apnea and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, N Colak; Cakal, E; Sahin, M; Ozkaya, E Cakir; Firat, H; Delibasi, T

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D₃ (25-OH-D) deficiency are two separate disorders associating with obesity, inflammation, and impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the vitamin D status of OSA patients regarding to potential links between lower vitamin D levels and abnormal glucose metabolism, which is one of the main adverse outcomes of OSA. Study group is composed of 190 non-diabetic subjects who were suspected of having OSA. Subjects undergone polysomnography and were grouped due to apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) as controls (AHI < 5, n = 47), mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 46), moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 47), and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 50). Serum 25-OH-D, HbA₁c, insulin levels were measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Serum 25-OH-D level (ng/ml) of OSA patients were lower than control subjects (17.4 ± 6.9 vs. 19.9 ± 7.8), and decrement was parallel to severity of OSA; as 18.2 ± 6.4 (5 ≤ AHI < 15), 17.5 ± 7.4 (15 ≤ AHI < 30), and 16.3 ± 6.9 (AHI > 30), respectively (P = 0.097, r = -0.13). However, severe female OSA patients had significantly lower 25-OH-D levels (11.55 ng/ml), while control males had the highest mean value (21.7 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). Frequency of insulin resistance (IR) was 48%, prediabetes 41%, diabetes 16% in OSA patients. Mean 25-OH-D level of insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.7, n = 77, AHI = 35.5) was lower than non-insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR < 2.7, n = 113, AHI = 19.8) as 16.18 ± 7.81 versus 19.2 ± 6.6, respectively (P = 0.004). 25-OH-D level of 91 non-diabetic subjects (n = 91, AHI = 19.7) was 19.5 ± 7.4, prediabetics (n = 75, AHI = 28.7) was 17.45 ± 6.9, and diabetics (n = 24, AHI = 46.3) was 13.8 ± 5.3 (P = 0.02). We showed that subjects with more severe OSA indices (AHI ≥ 15) tended to present lower vitamin D levels correlated to increased prevalence of IR, prediabetes, and diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role and/or worsen

  11. Elevated levels of the serum endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and metabolic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Fu, Yun-feng; Fu, Si-hai; Zhou, Hong-hao

    2003-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the relationship between elevated levels of the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and metabolic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Serum levels of ADMA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at 8 weeks after diabetes was induced. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was tested in aortic rings from nondiabetic age-matched control, untreated diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats to evaluate endothelial function. Serum concentrations of glucose, glycosylated serum protein, and malondialdehyde were examined to estimate metabolic control. Serum levels of ADMA increased dramatically in untreated diabetic rats compared with control rats. This elevation in ADMA levels was accompanied by impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in aortic rings. Long-term insulin treatment not only prevented the elevation of serum ADMA levels, but also improved the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, glycosylated serum protein, and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in parallel with the elevation of ADMA in untreated diabetic rats compared with control rats. These parameters were normalized after diabetic rats received insulin treatment for 8 weeks. These results provide the first evidence that an elevation in the concentration of ADMA in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes is closely related to metabolic control of the disease.

  12. Elevated Serum Levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ling-Zhi; Tong, Qiang; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation and complement activation initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated serum MBL levels in type 2 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with persistent normoalbuminuria. Method Serum MBL levels were determined in 242 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 242 type 2 diabetes with persistent normoalbuminuria matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, as well as in 100 healthy control subjects. The prediction value of MBL was compared with HbA1c, Hs-CRP and with other known predictors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results The serum MBL levels were significantly higher in diabetes with DN as compared to with persistent normoalbuminuria (P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common factors showed that serum MBL levels≥2950ug/L was an independent indictor of DN (OR=7.55; 95%CI: 3.44–19.04). Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cutoff value of serum MBL levels as an indicator for diagnosis of DN was projected to be 2950ug/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 77.2 % and a specificity of 80.8%, with the area under the curve at 0.809 (95%CI, 0.769—0.848). Conclusion Our findings suggested that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DN in type 2 diabetes, and that determination of MBL status might be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing nephropathy complications. PMID:25803807

  13. Elevated Pretherapy Serum IL17 in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Correlate to Increased Risk of Early Recurrence after Curative Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Rong, Weiqi; Wang, Liming; Wang, Ying; Zang, Mengya; Wu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yawei; Qu, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually presented in inflamed fibrotic/cirrhotic liver with extensive lymphocyte infiltration. We examined the associations between the HCC early recurrence and alterations in serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Methods A cohort of 105 HCC patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection were included. Pre-therapy, we quantified their serum concentrations of Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, Treg-related, and other cytokines that have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in human cancers. IL17-producing T-cells were generated in vitro from HCC patients and co-cultured with HCC cell lines separated by a 0.4 µM transwell. Results All the 105 cases of HCC patients had liver cirrhosis. The patients who suffered from HCC early recurrence had higher pre-therapy serum levels of IL17 and lower levels of IL10 than those who did not suffer from recurrence after curative hepatectomy. After adjustment for general tumor clinicopathological factors, elevated serum levels of IL17 (≥0.9 pg/ml) was found to be an independent risk factor for HCC early recurrence with a hazard ratio of 2.46 (95%CI 1.34–4.51). Patients with bigger tumors (>5 cm in diameter) and elevated serum levels of IL17 had the highest risk of early recurrence as compared to those with only one of these factors (P = 0.009) or without any (P<0.001). These factors showed similar effects on the HCC patient overall survival. Intrahepatic infiltrated T-cells in HCC patients were identified as the major IL17-producing cells. Proliferation of HCC cells, QGY-7703, was augmented QGY-7703, was augmented in the presence of IL17-producing T-cells. This effect diminished after neutralizing antibody against human IL17A or TNFα was included. Conclusion Both tumors and IL17 from liver infiltrated T-cells contributed to HCC early recurrence and progression after curative resection. Pre-therapy serum IL17 levels may serve as an additional indicator for

  14. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  15. Delayed and prolonged elevated serum paracetamol level after an overdose - possible causes and implications.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Shailesh; Verghese, Santosh; Bersten, Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old man who ingested about 50 g of standard-preparation paracetamol plus other medications. The serum paracetamol level remained low in the first 24 hours. It peaked 54 hours after ingestion and remained high for 5 days. An N-acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion was started at admission, but was ceased 36 hours later as the clinical and laboratory signs were reassuring. On Day 3, the patient's liver function deteriorated and a rising serum paracetamol level was noted; hence, an NAC infusion was reinitiated. Despite this, the patient developed fulminant hepatic failure. This case underlines the importance of monitoring paracetamol levels and liver function for at least 72 hours after a suspected large overdose of paracetamol before discontinuing NAC infusion.

  16. CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Hiroyuki . E-mail: ogino@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sugie, Chikao; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Mimura, Mikio

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and {beta}-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further.

  17. Elevation of serum urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and liver stiffness in postoperative biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Udomsinprasert, Wanvisa; Honsawek, Sittisak; Jirathanathornnukul, Napaphat; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate serum urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and liver stiffness in biliary atresia (BA) and examine the correlation of circulating uPAR, liver stiffness, and clinical outcomes in postoperative BA children. METHODS Eighty-five postKasai BA children and 24 control subjects were registered. Circulating uPAR was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay. Liver stiffness was analyzed using transient elastography. RESULTS BA children had significantly greater circulating uPAR and liver stiffness scores than control subjects (P < 0.001). Circulating uPAR and liver stiffness were substantially higher in jaundiced BA children than non-jaundiced BA children (P < 0.001). In addition, circulating uPAR was positively associated with serum aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.507, P < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.364, P < 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.559, P < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.325, P < 0.001), and liver stiffness scores (r = 0.508, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Circulating uPAR and liver stiffness values were greater in BA children than healthy controls. The increased circulating uPAR was associated with liver dysfunction in BA. As a consequence, serum uPAR and liver stiffness may be used as noninvasive biomarkers indicating the progression of liver fibrosis in postKasai BA. PMID:27957246

  18. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family.

  19. Elevated serum levels of two anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in a lung cancer patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Okauchi, Shinichiro; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kagohashi, Katsunori; Kawaguchi, Mio; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with arthralgia and lung fibrosis was referred to Mito Kyodo General Hospital (Mito, Japan) for a mass, which was incidentally observed on a chest radiograph. The chest computed tomography scan demonstrated fibrotic lesions in the lower lobes of the lung and a nodule in the left upper lobe. The serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA were 60.3 and 7.5 U/ml, respectively. A transbronchial biopsy obtained from the nodule in the left upper lobe of the lung revealed a lung adenocarcinoma and the patient underwent standard upper lobectomy of the left lung. Subsequent to the resection, the serum levels of PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA returned to 10.0 and <1.0 U/ml, respectively. Notably, titers of antinuclear antibodies were also decreased during the postoperative course. Although elevated serum ANCA levels are rarely seen in lung cancer, they may be associated with the occurrence of lung cancer in certain patients, as observed in the present case. PMID:27699023

  20. Association of Elevated Serum Uric Acid with the Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Oxidative Stress in Abdominal Obesity Subjects.

    PubMed

    Pingmuangkaew, Patcharin; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai; Tangvarasittichai, Surapon

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with the cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Serum uric acid (SUA) is often elevated in subjects with the AO. We aimed to investigate the association of elevated SUA with the components of MetS, oxidative stress and TG/HDL-C ratio in AO subjects. This cross-sectional study used data from a Health Survey for Prevention of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in residents of two districts in Phitsanulok province, including 443 subjects. Anthropometric, blood pressure (BP) and biochemical variables were measured. We categorized the participants to two-group as 248 AO subjects (median age = 58, interquartile range 50.0-65.0 years) and 195 non-AO subjects (median age = 53, interquartile range 47.0-62.0 years). Waist circumference was significantly correlated with SystBP, DiastBP, Glu and SUA (P < 0.05) and SUA was significantly correlated with Glu, TG, HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratio (P < 0.05). By using multiple logistic regression, we found the association of elevated SUA with abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced HDL-C, elevated TG/HDL-C ratio, MetS and increased oxidative stress after adjusting for their covariates. Our study demonstrated that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, elevated SUA concentrations associated with oxidative stress, MetS, insulin resistance, and components of MetS. Then, SUA may be a marker of increased oxidative stress, insulin resistance and MetS, implying an increased risk of vascular disease and T2DM.

  1. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  2. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  3. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma.

  4. Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections.

    PubMed

    Areekul, S; Churdchu, K; Cheeramakara, C; Wilairatana, P; Charoenlarp, P

    1995-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with a history of fever, chills and vomiting for three days. The parasite count was 207 ring-forms of P. falciparum per 1000 red cells. He developed hemoglobinuria and excreted hemoglobin in the urine 0.20-0.30 g/dl for 14 days during admission. Many blood transfusions were administered for correcting anemia. Although the malarial parasites disappeared one week after anti-malarial therapy, however, the fever and hemoglobinuria persisted. The Weil-Felix reaction OXK was positive with a titre of 1:40 on admission and increased to 1:160 on the second week. Chloramphenical and prednisolone were given for treatment of typhus fever and all symptoms subsided. Serum TCII levels were found to be increased and persisted high during the hemoglobinuria. The clearance of TCII was lower and increased relatively slowly to the normal level on day 30. On the other hand, TCII excretion in the urine was found to be increased during hemoglobinuria. These findings indicate that the catabolism and clearance of TCII in this patients is impaired with increased TCII excretion in the urine in parallel to the hemoglobinuria. Serum TCII level is, therefore, increased and persistently high in a patient with malaria and typhus fever infections with hemoglobinuria.

  5. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition.

  6. Falsely elevated serum creatinine levels secondary to the presence of 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R T; Marshall, L H; Lefkowitz, L B; Stratton, C W

    1985-08-01

    The Kodak Ektachem (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) is a new clinical chemistry analyzer that uses an enzymatic method to measure creatinine. The authors report the case of a patient with falsely elevated creatinine levels that were caused by the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. A review of the literature confirmed that this can occur, but well documented reports are not found. In order to determine the magnitude of this interference, the authors plotted creatinine levels versus 5-FC concentration. Significant interference is seen with therapeutic levels of 5-FC. Both clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this phenomenon.

  7. Elevated Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in Humans with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vivek K.; Beaver, Kristin M.; Fisher, ffolliott M.; Singhal, Garima; Dushay, Jody R.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Flier, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The metabolic regulator Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is highly expressed in the acinar pancreas, but its role in pancreatic function is obscure. It appears to play a protective role in acute experimental pancreatitis in mice. The aim of this study was to define an association between FGF21 and the course and resolution of acute pancreatitis in humans. Methods and Principal Findings Twenty five subjects with acute pancreatitis admitted from May to September 2012 to the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) were analyzed. Serial serum samples were collected throughout hospitalization and analyzed for FGF21 levels by ELISA. Twenty healthy subjects sampled three times over a four week period were used as controls. We found that, in patients with pancreatitis, serum FGF21 rises significantly and peaks four to six days after the maximum lipase level, before slowly declining. Maximum FGF21 levels were significantly greater than baseline levels for acute pancreatitis subjects (1733 vs. 638 pg/mL, P = 0.003). This maximum value was significantly greater than the highest value observed for our control subjects (1733 vs. 322 pg/mL, P = 0.0002). The ratio of active to total FGF21 did not change during the course of the disease (42.5% vs. 44.4%, P = 0.58). Fold increases in FGF21 were significantly greater in acute pancreatitis subjects than the fold difference seen in healthy subjects (4.7 vs. 2.0, P = 0.01). Higher fold changes were also seen in severe compared to mild pancreatitis (18.2 vs. 4.4, P = 0.01). The timing of maximum FGF21 levels correlated with day of successful return to oral intake (R2 = 0.21, P = 0.04). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that serum FGF21 rises significantly in humans with acute pancreatitis. The pancreas may be contributing to increased FGF21 levels following injury and FGF21 may play a role in the recovery process. PMID:27832059

  8. The effect of finasteride on the prostate gland in men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, R. J.; Skinner, E. C.; Salem, C. E.; Mertes, S. J.; Stanczyk, F. Z.; Henderson, B. E.; Pike, M. C.; Ross, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a disease associated with androgens. It has been hypothesized that reducing the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate by the use of the drug finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, will reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. We investigated the chemopreventive potential of finasteride by evaluating its effect on the prostate gland of men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Fifty-two men with elevated PSA and prostate sextant biopsies negative for cancer were randomized to receive finasteride 5 mg day(-1) (27 patients) or no medication (25 patients) for 12 months and were rebiopsied at 12 months. The biopsies were evaluated for the presence of cancer, the proportion of glandular and hyperplastic tissue, and the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Epithelial proliferation was assessed in the prestudy and 12-month biopsies by immunohistochemistry using antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Serum blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of study. In the control group, serum levels of PSA and T were unchanged throughout the 12 months. In the finasteride group, PSA decreased 48% (P < 0.001), DHT decreased 67% (P < 0.001) and T increased 21% (P < 0.001). Histological evaluation of prestudy and 12-month biopsy specimens revealed that the finasteride group had a 30% reduction in the percentage of hyperplastic epithelial tissue (P = 0.002), although this decrease was not statistically significantly different between the finasteride and control groups (P = 0.11). In patients with PIN on prestudy biopsy, no change occurred in the PIN lesions with finasteride treatment. Finasteride also had no effect on the proliferation index of prostatic epithelial cells. Of the 27 patients treated with finasteride, eight (30%) had adenocarcinoma of the prostate detected on the 12-month biopsy, compared with one (4%) of the control patients

  9. Preliminary validation of an exercise program suitable for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism: inhibitory effects of Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise on plasma glucose elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sachina; Kagawa, Kyoko; Hori, Naohi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There is insufficient evidence related to exercise programs that are safe and efficacious for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise is an exercise program with validated safety and efficacy in improving physical function in the elderly. In this study, we investigated this program’s inhibitory effects on plasma glucose elevation when it was adapted to a pregnancy model. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve 18- to 19-year-old females without a history of pregnancy were randomly assorted into two groups: an intervention group, for which six subjects were outfitted with mock-pregnancy suits and asked to perform Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise, and a control group who did not perform exercise. The intervention group had a mean Borg Scale score of 11.1 ± 0.9 during the exercise. [Results] No significant intragroup differences were observed in fasting, baseline, or post-intervention/observation plasma glucose levels. On the other hand, the intergroup change in plasma glucose levels after intervention/observation was significant when comparing the intervention and control groups: −1.66 ± 7.0 and 9.42 ± 6.57 mg/dl, respectively. [Conclusion] Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise appears to effectively inhibit plasma glucose elevation at intensity and movement levels that can be safely applied to pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:28174463

  10. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  11. Elevated Serum Hepcidin Levels during an Intensified Training Period in Well-Trained Female Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Sumi, Daichi; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters. Three-day food diaries were also assessed. Body weight and lean body mass did not differ significantly between LOW and INT, while body fat and body fat percentage were significantly lower in INT (p < 0.05). Blood hemoglobin, serum ferritin, total protein, and iron levels, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation did not differ significantly between the two periods. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). Carbohydrate and iron intakes from the daily diet were significantly higher during INT than LOW (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an elevated hepcidin level was observed during an intensified training period in long-distance runners, despite an apparently adequate daily intake of iron. PMID:28335426

  12. Excessive collagen turnover products are released during colorectal cancer progression and elevated in serum from metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kehlet, S. N.; Sanz-Pamplona, R.; Brix, S.; Leeming, D. J.; Karsdal, M. A.; Moreno, V.

    2016-01-01

    During cancer progression, the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix becomes imbalanced with an excessive collagen remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, small protein fragments of degraded collagens are released into the circulation. We have investigated the potential of protein fragments of collagen type I, III and IV as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Specific fragments of degraded type I, III and IV collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M) and type III collagen formation (Pro-C3) were assessed in serum from colorectal cancer patients, subjects with adenomas and matched healthy controls using well-characterized and validated ELISAs. Serum levels of the biomarkers were significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to subjects with adenomas (C1M, Pro-C3, C3M) and controls (C1M, Pro-C3). When patients were stratified according to their tumour stage, all four biomarkers were able to differentiate stage IV metastatic patients from all other stages. Combination of all markers with age and gender in a logistic regression model discriminated between metastatic and non-metastatic patients with an AUROC of 0.80. The data suggest that the levels of these collagen remodeling biomarkers may be a measure of tumour activity and invasiveness and may provide new clinical tools for monitoring of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer. PMID:27465284

  13. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: A delicate sentinel elevated in drug-free acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shujuan; Tan, Yunlong; Yao, Shangwu; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Jing

    2016-12-30

    Increased levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) have been reported in schizophrenia, but to date, no study is designed to examine serum hsCRP in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia, an extreme state that requires immediate diagnosis and medical treatment. Serum hsCRP levels were assessed in 32 clinically acutely agitated patients and 42 healthy control subjects matched for demographic properties. Further, serum hsCRP levels in acutely agitated patients were compared with control subjects and with the levels after the patients were treated with anti-psychiatric medications. Meanwhile, the influence of clinical subtypes, family history, and gender, as well as the levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts were also considered. In results, serum hsCRP levels were significantly higher in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. The elevation of serum hsCRP in patients was not affected by gender, family history (P>0.05), and clinical classification of schizophrenia (P>0.05). However, the elevation of hsCRP was suppressed by the medical treatment for schizophrenia with acute agitation (P<0.05). In addition, WBC counts, another inflammation-related indicator, were also increased significantly in acutely agitated patients compared with healthy subjects, consistent with the elevation of serum hsCRP. In conclusion, hsCRP is an important indicator of immune alterations in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and has potential to be developed into a sensitive marker for the acute agitation in schizophrenia.

  14. Elevated serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may associate with the development of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328

  15. Pretreatment elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase as a significant prognostic factor in malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yi; Lin, Lanying; Wei, Shushan; Zhang, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a hypoxia-regulator plays a vital role in alternative metabolic pathways of cancer cells. Numerous studies have assessed the prognostic value of elevated pretreatment LDH in malignant mesothelioma (MM). However, the results have been largely inconsistent. Hence, the aim of current study was to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment LDH levels in patients with MM by performing a meta-analysis of relevant studies. Methods: A literature search for English language studies, which investigated the association of LDH levels with overall survival (OS) in malignant mesothelioma, was performed in the electronic databases, PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran Q and I2 statistics. Sensitivity analysis, meta-regression model, and subgroup analysis were performed to trace the source of heterogeneity, if applicable. Results: A total of 9 studies with a combined study population of 1977 patients came within the purview of this meta analysis. Pooled HR for OS in patients with high LDH level was 1.68 (95% CI = 1.36–2.00). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the included studies (I2 = 54.1%, P = 0.026). Sensitivity analysis after sequential exclusion of 1 study at a time, and meta-regression with inclusion of 6 confounding factors failed to identify the source of heterogeneity. However, in the subgroup analysis, it was found that the publication of Nojiri et al was the origin of heterogeneity. When omitted the publication of Nojiri et al, the pooled HR of the rest 8 studies was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.45–2.20, I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.723). Egger test and funnel plots excluded the possibility of publication bias affecting the results of the current meta-analysis. Conclusion: A negative association was observed between high LDH levels and poor overall survival in the

  16. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL−1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L−1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children

  17. Are neuropsychological impairments in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) related to white matter abnormalities or elevated phenylalanine levels?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Wood, Stephen J; Francis, Dorothy E; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Vicki; Boneh, Avihu

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance our understanding of neuropsychological functioning in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) and assess the relative impact of white matter abnormalities (WMA) and neurotransmitter deficiencies on cognitive functions in this population. The study consisted of 33 children with early-treated PKU and 34 healthy control children aged between 7 to 18 years. All children had a neuropsychological evaluation that included measures of general intelligence, attention, processing speed, memory and learning, executive function, and academic achievement. Children in the PKU group also had a magnetic resonance (MR) brain scan. When compared with the control group, the PKU group exhibited global cognitive impairment including lower IQ, attention problems, slow information processing, reduced learning capacity, mild executive impairments, and educational difficulties. Children in the PKU group with extensive WMA (n = 14) displayed significant impairments across all cognitive domains. Metabolic control correlated weakly to moderately with attention, executive, and memory/learning factors. Within the PKU group, regressions revealed that executive function and attention factors were independently related to severity of WM pathology and age, while the memory and learning factor was independently related to metabolic control and age. It is concluded that children with early-treated PKU exhibit a global pattern of impairment, with a particular deficit in processing speed. WM pathology extending into frontal and subcortical regions correlates with the greatest deficits and a profile of impairment consistent with diffuse WM damage. Our findings also offer some support for dopamine depletion in the prefrontal cortex, however adverse consequences as a result of norepinephrine and serotonin deficiencies should not be discounted.

  18. Serum Levels of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 2 in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis With Duration More Than 2 Years: Correlation With Cardiac and Pulmonary Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Amira; Elsawaf, Amani; Ramadan, Shahira; Shaker, Olfat; Amin, Mona; Taha, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measured the serum concentration of TIMP-2 in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and explored its possible correlation with cardiac and pulmonary lesions. We studied 42 patients with SSc, with duration equal to or more than 2 years. CT chest, ECG, echocardiography, and serum TIMP-2 concentration measurement using ELISA technique were performed in all patients and in 25 normal controls. The mean serum levels of TIMP-2 in patients was higher than in controls (P = .005). The mean CT score of dSSc patients with elevated TIMP-2 levels was significantly higher than dSSc patients with normal levels (P = .013). Four patients out of five with elevated TIMP-2 levels showed diastolic dysfunction (80%), compared to 2 out of 15 lSSc patients with normal levels (13.3%), with P = .014. Our research, though involving a small group of patients, points to the probable role of TIMP-2 in the development of pulmonary lesions in dSSc patients and cardiac lesions in lSSc patients with duration equal to or more than 2 years. PMID:17392585

  19. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  20. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  1. 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in Patients with Iodine- and 18F-FDG-Negative Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma and Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin.

    PubMed

    Binse, Ina; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Ruhlmann, Marcus; Ezziddin, Samer; Görges, Rainer; Sabet, Amir; Beiderwellen, Karsten; Bockisch, Andreas; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in detecting recurrence or metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients with elevated serum thyroglobulin and both negative radioiodine imaging and negative (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

  2. Dietary fiber suppresses elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum of rats with renal dysfunction induced by dietary adenine.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, Takashi; Koguchi, Hiromi; Nakajima, Hisao; Takano, Saburo; Yamamoto, Yuji; Innami, Satoshi; Maekawa, Akio; Tadokoro, Tadahiro

    2004-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of several kinds of dietary fiber (DF) with different physical properties on the elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum of rats induced by dietary adenine. DF decreased an uptake of 14C-labeled adenine in the rat jejunum in vitro, but the reduction varied with the physical property of DF. Male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed a diet with or without a 0.4% adenine and a 5% DF (cellulose, chitin, chitosan, or xanthan gum) for 20 days. Feeding of adenine in the fiber-free group elevated the concentrations of uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen in serum, but decreased the excretions of these compounds into urine and increased the amounts of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) in kidney and urine. The test DF was found to suppress the elevation of uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum induced by dietary adenine, and to mitigate the decreased excretions of these compounds into urine and the increased retention of 2,8-DHA in kidney and urine. This phenomenon was remarkable in the xanthan gum group. These results suggest that DF suppresses the elevation of uric acid and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum by attenuating the absorption of dietary adenine.

  3. Abnormal serum thyroid hormones concentration with healthy functional gland: a review on the metabolic role of thyroid hormones transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Azad, Reza Mansourian

    2011-03-01

    Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  4. Transient elevation of serum bilirubin (a heme oxygenase-1 metabolite) level in hemorrhagic stroke: bilirubin is a marker of oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Dohi, K; Mochizuki, Y; Satoh, K; Jimbo, H; Hayashi, M; Toyoda, I; Ikeda, Y; Abe, T; Aruga, T

    2003-01-01

    Bilirubin (Bil) is the end product of heme catabolism. The production of Bil reflects heme oxygenase-1 expression in response to oxidative stress in various diseases. To assess the role of Bil as a marker of oxidative stress in cases of brain damage, we measured serum Bil concentrations in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Serum levels of total Bil were measured in 20 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with symptomatic vasospasms and in 23 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage; concentrations were measured every day for 14 consecutive days. Serum Bil levels were significantly elevated in the early phases in both groups. Moreover, transient elevation was observed on the day prior to the observation of clinical manifestations of symptomatic vasospasm after SAH. Bil, known to be a powerful antioxidant, was induced after hemorrhagic stroke, reflecting the intensity of oxidative stress. Plasma Bil concentrations might serve as a useful marker of oxidative stress in hemorrhagic stroke patients.

  5. Elevated extrahepatic expression and secretion of mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) into colostrum.

    PubMed

    McDonald, T L; Larson, M A; Mack, D R; Weber, A

    2001-12-01

    Mammary-associated serum amyloid A 3 (M-SAA3) was secreted at highly elevated levels in bovine, equine and ovine colostrum and found at lower levels in milk 4 days postparturition. N-terminal sequencing of the mature M-SAA3 protein from all the three species revealed a conserved four amino acid motif (TFLK) within the first eight residues. This motif has not been reported to be present in any of the hepatically-produced acute phase SAA (A-SAA) isoforms. Cloning of the bovine M-Saa3 cDNA from mammary gland epithelial cells revealed an open reading frame that encoded a precursor protein of 131 amino acids which included an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The predicted 113 residue mature M-SAA3 protein had a theoretical molecular mass of 12,826Da that corresponded with the observed 12.8kDa molecular mass obtained for M-SAA3 in immunoblot analysis. The high abundance of this extrahepatically produced SAA3 isoform in the colostrum of healthy animals suggests that M-SAA3 may play an important functional role associated with newborn adaptation to extrauterine life and possibly mammary tissue remodeling.

  6. Markedly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels are a clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, G R; Al-Abdely, H; Flanders, C D; Geimer, J; Patterson, T F

    1997-05-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is a common late manifestation of AIDS, but the diagnosis may be unsuspected in some patients because the clinical presentation of histoplasmosis may mimic other opportunistic infections. High serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have been associated with disseminated histoplasmosis. We therefore evaluated whether markedly increased LDH levels were useful for making a diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis by comparing admission LDH levels for 15 patients with culture-proven disseminated histoplasmosis with those for 30 patients with advanced AIDS who were admitted to the hospital for evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates and fever. The mean admission LDH level in patients with disseminated histoplasmosis was 1,356 IU/L (range, 145-5,410 IU) whereas it was 332 (range, 77-832 IU) in the patients with other pulmonary processes. Admission LDH levels were >600 IU in 11 (73%) of the 15 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis vs. 3 (10%) of controls (P < .001). We conclude that markedly elevated admission LDH levels may be a clinical clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

  7. Serum IgD elevation is an early marker of B cell activation during infection with the human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuma, H; Zolla-Pazner, S; Litwin, S; el-Sadr, W; Sharpe, S; Zehr, B; Weiss, S; Saxinger, W C; Marmor, M

    1987-01-01

    Serum IgD levels in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were studied as a means of monitoring the character and timing of B cell activation in individuals with this infection. Significantly increased levels of IgD were characteristic of homosexual men who were HIV seropositive but asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The hyper IgD globulinaemia became progressively more pronounced in patients with increasingly severe infection and reached its most marked level in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC). In ARC patients, IgD levels were increased 8.8-fold above normal which was disproportionately greater than the 2.4-fold increase in IgG, the 1.8-fold increase in IgA and the 1.6-fold increase in IgM. IgD levels declined in AIDS patients (although remained elevated compared to controls). The data suggest that an unusual type of B cell activation is responsible for the unique pattern of hypergammaglobulinaemia seen in this disease and that the B cell activation occurs early in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, often before development of symptoms, and continues throughout the course of infection. PMID:3498566

  8. Serum IgD elevation is an early marker of B cell activation during infection with the human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Mizuma, H; Zolla-Pazner, S; Litwin, S; el-Sadr, W; Sharpe, S; Zehr, B; Weiss, S; Saxinger, W C; Marmor, M

    1987-04-01

    Serum IgD levels in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were studied as a means of monitoring the character and timing of B cell activation in individuals with this infection. Significantly increased levels of IgD were characteristic of homosexual men who were HIV seropositive but asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The hyper IgD globulinaemia became progressively more pronounced in patients with increasingly severe infection and reached its most marked level in patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC). In ARC patients, IgD levels were increased 8.8-fold above normal which was disproportionately greater than the 2.4-fold increase in IgG, the 1.8-fold increase in IgA and the 1.6-fold increase in IgM. IgD levels declined in AIDS patients (although remained elevated compared to controls). The data suggest that an unusual type of B cell activation is responsible for the unique pattern of hypergammaglobulinaemia seen in this disease and that the B cell activation occurs early in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, often before development of symptoms, and continues throughout the course of infection.

  9. Concomitantly elevated serum matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9 can predict survival of synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ching-Tai; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2013-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) over either the head and neck (HNSCC) or the esophagus (ESCC). Synchronous SCC with both HNSCC and ESCC predispose to worse survival. This study tested if serum MMP levels correlate with clinical features and predict survival for HNSCC, ESCC, and synchronous SCC. One hundred and thirty patients with SCCs in upper aero-digestive tract (70 ESCC, 20 HNSCC, and 40 synchronous SCC) and 74 healthy controls were assessed for serum MMP-3, -7, and -9 titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The titers were validated to their correlations to clinical features and survival rates of the different SCC groups. Patients with SCCs had significantly higher serum MMP-3, -7, and -9 titers than the controls (P < 0.001) but there was no difference among the three SCC groups. Based on the optimal MMP cut-off values by ROC curve, elevated MMP-3 and MMP-9, but not MMP-7, correlated with distant metastasis and poor survival (P < 0.05). Concomitantly elevated MMP-3 (>14 ng/mL) and MMP-9 (>329.3 ng/mL) independently correlated with poor two-year survival (P = 0.002, by log rank test). Cox regression confirmed that such concomitant elevation was superior to the tumor stage of either ESCC or HNSCC in predicting survival for synchronous SCC. Serum MMPs are elevated in SCC of the upper aero-digestive tract. Especially for synchronous SCC, concomitantly elevated MMP-3 and MMP-9 levels serve as better biomarkers to predict prognosis than TNM staging of ESCC or HNSCC.

  10. Increased circulating Th17 cells and elevated serum levels of TGF-beta and IL-21 are correlated with human non-segmental vitiligo development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Shi, Yu-Ling; Li, Kai; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Gao, Tian-Wen; Huggins, Richard H; Lim, Henry W; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Although non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) results from the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, the detailed immune mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been identified to be implicated in human autoimmune diseases. In this study, the frequencies of peripheral blood Th17 cells and serum levels of IL-17A and Th17 cell-related cytokines were examined in 45 patients with active NSV compared to 45 race-, gender-, and age-matched healthy controls. Our results showed increased circulating Th17 cell frequencies and elevated serum IL-17A, TGF-β1, and IL-21 levels in patients with NSV. Meanwhile, the increased Th17 cell frequencies are positively correlated with serum TGF-β1 level, and the body surface area of lesions is positively correlated with elevated TGF-β1 and IL-21 levels and Th17 cell frequencies. Furthermore, positive correlation was identified between Th17 and Th1 cell frequencies in patients with NSV. These results further indicate the potential involvement of Th17 cells and the collaborative contribution of Th17 and Th1 in NSV development, and suggest that the elevated serum TGF-β1 and IL-21 levels could contribute to enhanced Th17 cell differentiation in NSV.

  11. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-12-17

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development.

  12. Elevated Serum Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Are Associated with Progressive Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cutrullis, Romina A.; Petray, Patricia B.; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Sánchez, Rubén; Postan, Miriam; González, Mariela N.; Martín, Valentina; Corral, Ricardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease occur in around 30% of the individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and are characterized by heart inflammation and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not completely understood yet, partially because disease evolution depends on complex host-parasite interactions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that promotes numerous pathophysiological processes. In the current study, we investigated the link between MIF and CCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated MIF overexpression in the hearts from chronically T. cruzi-infected mice, particularly those showing intense inflammatory infiltration. We also found that MIF exogenously added to parasite-infected murine macrophage cultures is capable of enhancing the production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species, both with pathogenic roles in CCC. Thus, the integrated action of MIF and other cytokines and chemokines may account for leukocyte influx to the infected myocardium, accompanied by enhanced local production of multiple inflammatory mediators. We further examined by ELISA the level of MIF in the sera from chronic indeterminate and cardiomyopathic chagasic patients, and healthy subjects. CCC patients displayed significantly higher MIF concentrations than those recorded in asymptomatic T. cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals. Interestingly, increased MIF levels were associated with severe progressive Chagas heart disease, in correlation with elevated serum concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and also with several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular dysfunction, one of the hallmarks of CCC. Our present findings represent the first evidence that enhanced MIF production is associated with progressive cardiac impairment in chronic human infection with T. cruzi, strengthening the relationship between inflammatory response and parasite

  13. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Bradley R.; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S.; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E.; Nadeau, Kristen J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with 31phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m−2·min−1 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean−1·min−1, P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  14. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  15. Association of ferroportin Q248H polymorphism with elevated levels of serum ferritin in African-Americans in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Charles A.; Barton, James C.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Acton, Ronald T.; Speechley, Mark R.; Snively, Beverly M.; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Press, Richard D.; Adams, Paul C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.; McLaren, Christine E.; Reboussin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The ferroportin (FPN1) Q248H polymorphism has been associated with increased serum ferritin (SF) levels in sub-Saharan Africans and in African Americans (AA). AA participants of the HEIRS Study who did not have HFE C282Y or H63D who had elevated initial screening SF (≥300 μg/L in men and ≥200 μg/L in women) (defined as cases) were frequency-matched to AA participants with normal SF (defined as controls) to investigate the association of the Q248H with elevated SF. 10.4% of cases and 6.7% of controls were Q248H heterozygotes (P = 0.257). Q248H homozygosity was observed in 0.5% of the cases and none of the controls. The frequency of Q248H was higher among men with elevated SF than among control men (P = 0.047); corresponding differences were not observed among women. This appeared to be unrelated to self-reports of a previous diagnosis of liver disease. Men with elevated SF were three times more likely than women with elevated SF to have Q248H (P = 0.012). There were no significant differences in Q248H frequencies in men and women control participants. We conclude that the frequency of the FPN1 Q248H polymorphism is greater in AA men with elevated SF than in those with normal SF. PMID:17276706

  16. Hereditary fructose intolerance mimicking a biochemical phenotype of mucolipidosis: A review of the literature of secondary causes of lysosomal enzyme activity elevation in serum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos R; Devaney, Joseph M; Hofherr, Sean E; Pollard, Laura M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    We describe a patient with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and elevation of multiple plasma lysosomal enzyme activities mimicking mucolipidosis II or III, in whom a diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) was ultimately obtained. She presented before introduction of solid foods, given her consumption of a fructose-containing infant formula. We present the most extensive panel of lysosomal enzyme activities reported to date in a patient with HFI, and propose that multiple enzyme elevations in plasma, especially when in conjunction with a normal plasma α-mannosidase activity, should elicit a differential diagnosis of HFI. We also performed a review of the literature on the different etiologies of elevated lysosomal enzyme activities in serum or plasma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Elevated Serum Levels of NSE and S-100β Correlate with Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction in Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Jia, JianJun; Wang, ZhenFu; Zhang, ShanChun

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the clinical value of serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and human soluble protein-100β (S-100β) in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients. Material/Methods A literature search of electronic databases identified relevant case-control studies that examined the correlations between NSE and S-100β serum levels, and ACI. The retrieved studies were screened based on our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and high-quality studies were subsequently selected for meta-analysis. STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 13 case-control studies, containing 911 ACI patients and 686 healthy controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group in Asian population. In Caucasian population, the serum levels of NSE in case group was significantly higher than the control group, but no significant differences in serum levels of S-100β were observed between ACI patients and the control group. Conclusions Based on our results, we conclude that serum levels of NSE and S-100β strongly correlate with ACI in Asian population, and may be important clinical markers for diagnosis and treatment of ACI. PMID:26124190

  18. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL.

  19. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  20. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M.; Walters, Ryan W.; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 ± 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  1. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  2. Pretreatment with human serum butyrylcholinesterase alone prevents cardiac abnormalities, seizures, and death in Göttingen minipigs exposed to sarin vapor.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashima; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Hastings, Nicholas B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2011-12-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a prophylactic countermeasure against organophosphorus nerve agents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Hu BChE against whole-body inhalation exposure to a lethal dose of sarin (GB) vapor. Male Göttingen minipigs were subjected to: air exposure, GB vapor exposure, or pretreatment with Hu BChE followed by GB vapor exposure. Hu BChE was administered by i.m. injection 24 h prior to exposure to 4.1 mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 60 min. Electrocardiograms (ECG), electroencephalograms (EEG), and pupil size were recorded throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB present. Untreated animals exposed to GB vapor exhibited cardiac abnormalities and generalized seizures, ultimately succumbing to respiratory failure. Pretreatment with 3.0 or 6.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE delayed blood gas and acid-base disturbances and the onset of cardiac and neural toxic signs, but failed to increase survivability. Pretreatment with 7.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE, however, completely prevented toxic signs, with blood chemistry and ECG and EEG parameters indistinguishable from control during and after GB exposure. GB bound in plasma was 200-fold higher than plasma from pigs that did not receive Hu BChE, suggesting that Hu BChE scavenged GB in blood and prevented it from reaching other tissues. Thus, prophylaxis with Hu BChE alone not only increased survivability, but also prevented cardiac abnormalities and neural toxicity in minipigs exposed to a lethal dose of GB vapor.

  3. Elevated serum microRNA-122/222 levels are potential diagnostic biomarkers in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C but not hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek M K; Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G; Ghaleb, Maggy H

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Because of their size, specificity, and relative stability in plasma, miRNAs can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor liver injury, such as that caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and liver cancer. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression patterns from the serum of Egyptian patients with HCV and liver cancer compared with matched healthy controls. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of circulating miRNA-122 and miRNA-222 in serum from patients with hepatitis C virus (n = 40) and liver cancer (n = 60) to matched healthy controls (n = 30). MiRNA SNORD68 was the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-122 and miR-222 were significantly elevated in HCV patients, but not in liver cancer patients, compared with controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-122 and miR-222 have a high diagnostic potential in discriminating patients with HCV from controls. Serum miR-222 was significantly higher in HCV patients compared to liver cancer patients. Our results indicate that serum miR-122 and miR-222 are elevated in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV, and these miRNAs have a strong potential to serve as novel biomarkers for liver injury but not specifically for liver cancer.

  4. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Vascular endothelial dysfunction associated with elevated serum homocysteine levels in rat adjuvant arthritis: effect of vitamin E administration.

    PubMed

    Can, Cenk; Cinar, Mehtap G; Koşay, Sezen; Evinç, Akgün

    2002-06-14

    We aimed to study the alterations in serum homocysteine levels and endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxant responses in adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat and to determine the effects of vitamin E administration on these changes. Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant into the paw. 26 days after the induction of arthritis, serum homocysteine levels and relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodiumnitroprusside in thoracic aortas were evaluated. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine were decreased in aortas from arthritic rats, whereas the responses to sodiumnitroprusside were not significantly different when compared to the aortas from control rats. A significant increase was observed in serum homocysteine levels of the arthritic rats in comparison to those of controls. Vitamin E administration (100 mg/kg/day, i.m. for 26 days) to arthritic rats resulted in a significant increase in endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine and a significant decrease in serum homocysteine levels with respect to the non-treated arthritic rats. However, in healthy rats, vitamin E treatment significantly decreased the acetylcholine-induced relaxant responses. We conclude that adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat is associated with increased serum homocysteine levels and this is accompanied by a reduction in endothelium-dependent vascular responses in the thoracic aortas. Vitamin E treatment leads to normalization of the increased serum homocysteine levels and improves the endothelium-dependent relaxant responses in this experimental model.

  6. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Although they are the most common virilizing tumor of the ovary, about 60% are endocrine-inactive tumors. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors, as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker. PMID:25926909

  7. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  8. Elevation of serum levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in uremic patients and the toxicity of the amino acid.

    PubMed

    Gejyo, F; Kinoshita, Y; Ikenaka, T

    1977-12-01

    A reliable method for the determination of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in serum was developed utilizing an automated amino acid analyzer. The serum concentrations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid were determined in 20 normal subjects and in 71 uremic patients. The mean serum level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid was markedly increased in the uremic patients to 0.856 +/- 0.910 (mean +/- SD) mg/100 ml as compared with a normal value of 0.026 +/- 0.027 mg/100 ml. The distribution of serum beta-aminoisobutyric acid level in uremic patients was wide-spread, and there was no correlation between the serum levels of the amino acid and those of urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid. The toxicity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid on mice with acute renal failure induced by uranyl acetate was investigated and compared with that of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid. All mice given more than 4 g/kg body wt of beta-aminoisobutyric acid showed twitching and cramps, and some of them died. However, the control mice given an equivalent dose of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid or gamma-amino-n-butyric acid showed no change. These results suggest that beta-aminoisobutyric acid might be a factor influencing the development and progression of uremic toxemia.

  9. A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Trial of S-Adenosylmethionine in Reducing Serum α-Fetoprotein in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis and Elevated AFP.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy R; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2015-09-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC whereas administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 g/d, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. One hundred ten subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential.

  10. Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Methods Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.125–2 g/kg) or SFO (0.3–5 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6–120 hours postdosing. Results Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (Emax) =45.77 U/L and affinity (KD) =1.25 g/kg at 48–96 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (Emax =2.30 nmol/mg protein and KD =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (Emax =1.42 nmol/mg protein and KD =2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%–60% (Emax =11.01, KD =0.68 g/kg) and 8%–32% (Emax =9.88, KD =4.47 g/kg) at 12–120 hours and 24–120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%–158% and 35%–85%, respectively, at 12–96 hours and 6–48 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of Emax and KD for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 μmol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of Emax =5.50/4.60 mmol/L and KD =0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index

  11. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  12. Elevation of serum soluble E- and P-selectin in patients with hypertension is reversed by benidipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Hironobu; Midorikawa, Sanae; Yatabe, Junichi; Yatabe, Midori Sasaki; Katoh, Tetsuo; Baba, Tsuneharu; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2005-11-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Selectins, cell-surface adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte rolling and attachment to the vascular endothelium, play a role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether or not serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules are elevated in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and examined whether antihypertensive therapy lowers such levels. Twenty-one patients who had untreated mild to moderate EH without diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or obesity were recruited at a clinic for hypertensive patients. Blood pressure was measured, and the serum levels of soluble E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular-cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before and after 12, 24, and 53 weeks of antihypertensive treatment with benidipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, given at a dose of 6 mg/day for 53 weeks. As a control, 21 age- and sex-matched patients without hypertension were studied. Serum E- and P-selectin levels were significantly higher in the subjects with EH than in the controls (p < 0.01). There were no differences in serum levels of soluble L-selectin, VCAM-1, or ICAM-1 levels between the patients with EH and the controls. Treatment with benidipine decreased the elevated blood pressure over a 53-week study period (mean blood pressure: 119.8 +/- 6.5 mmHg at baseline, 101.0 +/- 5.9 mmHg at 12 weeks, 98.6 +/- 7.3 mmHg at 24 weeks, and 93.9 +/- 5.5 mmHg at 53 weeks). Serum levels of soluble E- and P-selectin decreased after the initiation of benidipine treatment and correlated with diastolic blood pressure. Serum levels of soluble L-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 did not change significantly during the period of benidipine treatment. Benidipine treatment reduced the content of P-selectin in the platelets from patients with EH, as determined by Western blot

  13. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes.

    PubMed

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  14. Serum procollagen type III is associated with elevated right-sided filling pressures in stable outpatients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Biolo, Andréia; Rohde, Luis E; Goldraich, Livia A; Mascarenhas, Marcello; Palombini, Dora V; Clausell, Nadine

    2009-09-01

    Elevated filling pressures are associated with heart failure deterioration, but mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. We sought to investigate whether or not elevated filling pressures are associated with increased collagen turnover, evaluated by procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP) levels, in stable systolic heart failure. Eighty patients with heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 26 +/- 7%) were included. Patients underwent simultaneous echocardiogram with evaluation of haemodynamic parameters and blood sampling for PIIINP measurement. Mean PIIINP level was 6.11 +/- 2.62 microg l(-1). PIIINP was positively associated with estimated right atrial pressure (RAP) (r = 0.36; p = 0.001). Mean PIIINP values were 5.04 +/- 2.42 microg l(-1) in patients with estimated RAP < or = 5 mmHg, and 7.59 +/- 2.54 microg l(-1) in those with RAP > 15 mmHg (p < 0.01). In conclusion, elevated right-side filling pressures are associated with evidence of active extracellular matrix turnover, as indicated by elevated PIIINP levels, in stable systolic heart failure. Activation of extracellular matrix turnover may be implicated in the accelerated progression of heart failure syndromes seen in patients with persistent congestion.

  15. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated serum pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) levels in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Arijeet K; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jornayvaz, Francois; Dziura, James; Li, Fangyong; Crawford, Susan E; Chu, Xin; Still, Christopher D; Gerhard, Glenn S; Chung, Chuhan; Samuel, Varman

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing diabetes. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been identified by experimental and clinical studies as both a causative and counter-regulatory factor in the metabolic syndrome. We set out to determine whether serum PEDF levels correlated with the degree of insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients. Sera from 53 patients who were evaluated prior to gastric bypass surgery were analyzed for PEDF levels using a commercial ELISA. None of the patients were on diabetes medications prior to enrollment. Baseline data included BMI, serum glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) scores. Patients were stratified based on HOMA score and glucose levels into three groups: insulin sensitive (IS): HOMA <2 and glucose <126; insulin resistant (IR): HOMA >2 and glucose ≤126; and diabetes mellitus (DM): HOMA >2 and glucose >126. Pre- and post-gastric bypass sera from 12 patients were obtained for serial assessment of metabolic parameters and PEDF levels. PEDF secretion was assessed in primary human hepatocytes, HCC cells, and cultured adipocytes in the absence and presence of high glucose media. No significant differences in age, gender, and BMI were found among the three groups. PEDF levels were similar between IR patients and the other groups, but were significantly higher in DM compared to IS patients (p = 0.01). Serum PEDF in individual patients declined significantly after gastric bypass (p = 0.006). High glucose media led to significantly higher PEDF release by human hepatocytes in vitro (p = 0.016). These data demonstrate that serum PEDF concentrations better relate to insulin resistance than to adiposity and suggest that PEDF expression is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance.

  16. Unique Molecular Patterns Uncovered in Kawasaki Disease Patients with Elevated Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels: Implications for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Deng, Xiaohong; Huang, Min; Ren, Miao; Jiang, Xiyuan; Kanegaye, John T.; Ha, Kee-Soo; Lee, JungHwa; Li, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xuejun; Yu, Yunxian; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Burns, Jane C.; Whitin, John C.; Shin, Andrew Y.; Sylvester, Karl G.; McElhinney, Doff B.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) occurs in 10–20% of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). The risk of resistance is about two-fold higher in patients with elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. We sought to understand the biological mechanisms underlying IVIG resistance in patients with elevated GGT levels. Method We explored the association between elevated GGT levels and IVIG-resistance with a cohort of 686 KD patients (Cohort I). Gene expression data from 130 children with acute KD (Cohort II) were analyzed using the R square statistic and false discovery analysis to identify genes that were differentially represented in patients with elevated GGT levels with regard to IVIG responsiveness. Two additional KD cohorts (Cohort III and IV) were used to test the hypothesis that sialylation and GGT may be involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis. Results Thirty-six genes were identified that significantly explained the variations of both GGT levels and IVIG responsiveness in KD patients. After Bonferroni correction, significant associations with IVIG resistance persisted for 12 out of 36 genes among patients with elevated GGT levels and none among patients with normal GGT levels. With the discovery of ST6GALNAC3, a sialyltransferase, as the most differentially expressed gene, we hypothesized that sialylation and GGT are involved in IVIG resistance through neutrophil apoptosis. We then confirmed that in Cohort III and IV there was significantly less reduction in neutrophil count in IVIG non-responders. Conclusions Gene expression analyses combining molecular and clinical datasets support the hypotheses that: (1) neutrophil apoptosis induced by IVIG may be a mechanism of action of IVIG in KD; (2) changes in sialylation and GGT level in KD patients may contribute synergistically to IVIG resistance through blocking IVIG-induced neutrophil apoptosis. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanism of

  17. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-10-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise.

  18. Elevated serum neurotensin and CRH levels in children with autistic spectrum disorders and tail-chasing Bull Terriers with a phenotype similar to autism.

    PubMed

    Tsilioni, I; Dodman, N; Petra, A I; Taliou, A; Francis, K; Moon-Fanelli, A; Shuster, L; Theoharides, T C

    2014-10-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by defects in communication and social interactions, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Symptoms typically worsen with anxiety and stress. ASD occur in early childhood, often present with regression and have a prevalence of 1 out of 68 children. The lack of distinct pathogenesis or any objective biomarkers or reliable animal models hampers our understanding and treatment of ASD. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have proinflammatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell (MC)-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. CRH also induced NT receptor gene and protein expression in MCs, which have been implicated in ASD. Here we report that serum of ASD children (4-10 years old) has significantly higher NT and CRH levels as compared with normotypic controls. Moreover, there is a statistically significant correlation between the number of children with gastrointestinal symptoms and high serum NT levels. In Bull Terriers that exhibit a behavioral phenotype similar to the clinical presentation of ASD, NT and CRH levels are also significantly elevated, as compared with unaffected dogs of the same breed. Further investigation of serum NT and CRH, as well as characterization of this putative canine breed could provide useful insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

  19. Association Between High Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and MMP-9 (-1562C>T) Polymorphism in Patients With ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Setianto, Budi Y.; Mubarika, Sofia; Irawan, Bambang; Astuti, Indwiani

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is excessively expressed in frail region of atherosclerotic plaque and released in circulation following plaque rupture. High MMP-9 level associated with severity of occluded thrombus and subsequent myocardial infarction. MMP-9 (-1562C>T) polymorphism associated with acute myocardial infarction, however conflicting data present regarding impact of MMP-9 (-1562C>T) polymorphism on circulating MMP-9 level in acute myocardial infarction with ST-elevation (STEMI), clinical entity represents totally occluded coronary thrombus. Methods We enrolled consecutively subjects with acute coronary syndrome treated in intensive coronary care unit. Acute coronary syndrome diagnosis were classified into STEMI and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). Seventy consecutive subjects were enrolled for this study, 31 subjects with STEMI and 39 subjects with NSTEACS. Results On admission serum MMP-9 level, measured with sandwich enzyme immunoassay, were higher in STEMI as compared with NSTEACS (1,574.2 ± 604.1 ng/mL vs. 1,104.4 ± 591.5 ng/mL, P < 0.01). Proportion of subjects with MMP-9 (-1562C>T) polymorphism, analyzed with PCR-RFLP, were higher in STEMI as compared with NSTEACS (66.7% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.15). T allele frequency was almost twice in STEMI as compared to in NSTEACS. Almost all (83%) subjects with MMP-9 (-1562C>T) polymorphism had high serum MMP-9 level (> 1,334.5 ng/mL) during STEMI, whereas in NSTEACS all subjects had low level. Conclusion MMP-9 (-1562C>T) polymorphism associated with high serum MMP-9 level in patients with STEMI.

  20. Significant immunohistochemical expression of human chorionic gonadotropin in high-grade osteosarcoma is rare, but may be associated with clinically elevated serum levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anna F; Pawel, Bruce R; Sullivan, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Survival rates have plateaued at 70% for osteosarcoma. Proteins ectopically produced by malignant tumors may provide insight into new therapeutic targets. Osteosarcomas secreting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been suggested to have a worse prognosis. We examined the frequency of expression of β-subunit of hCG (β-hCG) in pretreatment osteosarcoma biopsies, and asked if it was associated with various clinical prognostic parameters, and the development of metastases. We subjected 51 pretreatment biopsies of high-grade osteosarcoma, from 51 patients, to β-hCG immunohistochemistry. In 19 of these patients, postchemotherapy metastatic biopsies also were examined for β-hCG expression. Clinical information (patient age, sex, survival status, and serum hCG in females only), and tumor characteristics (site, size, and presence of metastases) were recorded. The β-hCG positive and negative biopsies were separated and compared. Of 49 interpretable pretreatment biopsies, 28 (57%) showed positive cytoplasmic β-hCG expression: 27 with sparse positivity (1% of tumor cells) and 1 with frequent positivity (10% of tumor cells). The patient with frequent β-hCG positivity in her pretreatment biopsy had elevated serum hCG (88.2 mIU/mL) at diagnosis, decreasing to undetectable following chemotherapy and definitive resection. There was no difference in clinical parameters or rate of metastasis between β-hCG positive versus negative groups. Expression of β-hCG may be seen in high-grade osteosarcoma, but frequent β-hCG immunohistochemical expression by tumor cells, associated with clinically elevated serum β-hCG, is rare. Recognition that some nongerm cell tumors may produce β-hCG can prevent confusion with malignancies containing neoplastic syncytiotrophoblast cells, including germ cell and trophoblastic tumors.

  1. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  2. Increased frequency of peripheral blood follicular helper T cells and elevated serum IL-21 levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yuxing; Qi, Changlin; Liu, Yijun; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Ding; Jiang, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    An aberrant immune response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the role of peripheral blood follicular helper T (TFH) cells in the pathogenesis of OA has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of TFH cells and serum interleukin-21 (IL-21) in the pathogenesis of OA. Frequency of peripheral blood inducible costimulator (ICOS)+, programmed death 1 (PD-1)+, and IL-21+ CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in 40 patients with OA and 13 healthy controls (HCs) were examined by flow cytometry. The disease state in individual patients was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Concentrations of serum IL-21, interferon-γ (INF-γ), IL-4, IL-17A, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured. The percentages of CXCR5+CD4+ cells, PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+, ICOS+CXCR5+CD4+ and IL-21+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in OA patients were significantly higher than those in the HCs. Furthermore, serum IL-21, IL-17A and IFN-γ levels in OA patients were significantly higher than those in HCs. Expression of IL-21+TFH cells in OA patients demonstrated a positive correlation with OA disease activity, CRP levels and WOMAC. TFH cells and IL-21 appear to serve an important role in the progression of OA. IL-21+TFH cells may prove to be a marker of OA disease activity. PMID:28112376

  3. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  4. Identification and clinical significance of an elevated level of serum aminoacylase-1 autoantibody in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaomin; Hong, Yu; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Zhang, Bei; Chen, Suhong; Liu, Qiqi; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Xiaoming; Ou, Xiaojuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is prevalent worldwide and can develop into liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. Early discrimination of liver cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a panel of cellular proteins that can be recognized by autoantibodies in patient serum for hepatitis B virus (HBV)‑related liver cirrhosis. Twenty‑two candidate autoantigens screened using a serum proteomics assay in our previous study were assessed retrospectively in 443 participants, comprising 89 patients with HBV‑related liver cirrhosis, 89 patients with CHB, and 265 healthy controls. The levels of autoantibodies against the candidate autoantigens were measured by protein microarrays containing the candidate antigen proteins. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the diagnostic accuracy. The present study determined that seven of the 22 candidate autoantibodies differed significantly in serum level between HBV‑related liver cirrhosis and CHB (P<0.0001), with area under curve (AUC) values >0.7. The seven autoantibodies recognized aminoacylase‑1 (ACY1), histidine triad nucleotide‑binding protein 1, insulin‑like growth factor 2 mRNA‑binding protein 2, heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, peroxiredoxin 3, apoptosis‑inducing factor and regucalcin. Among these, the ACY1 autoantibody had the highest value for discriminating HBV‑related liver cirrhosis from CHB, with an AUC value of 0.872 (95% confidence interval: 0.810‑0.934, P<0.0001), sensitivity of 77.3% and specificity of 85.0%. In conclusion, with the elevated level in the disease progression of CHB, ACY1 autoantibody may be a valuable serum biomarker for discriminating HBV‑related liver cirrhosis from CHB.

  5. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  6. SERUM SOLUBLE B7x IS ELEVATED IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS AND IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCED STAGE

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R. Houston; Zang, Xingxing; Lohse, Christine M.; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Slovin, Susan F.; Reuter, Victor E.; Cheville, John C.; Blute, Michael L.; Russo, Paul; Kwon, Eugene D.; Allison, James P.

    2008-01-01

    B7x is the newest member of the B7-CD28 family and is thought to dampen immune responses via negative costimulation. Tumor expression of B7x was recently described in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and was associated with poor outcome. We developed an assay to detect serum soluble B7x (sB7x) and investigated 101 patients with clear cell RCC who underwent nephrectomy between 2003 and 2007. For controls, we obtained serum from 101 sex-matched blood donors within the same age range. Following an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for sB7x, detectable levels (>0.1ng/ml) of sB7x were observed in 53 RCC patients compared with 18 controls (pserum marker for potential diagnostic and prognostic purposes. PMID:18676826

  7. A systems biology approach to understanding elevated serum alanine transaminase levels in a clinical trial with ximelagatran.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ulf; Lindberg, Johan; Wang, Shunghuang; Balasubramanian, Raji; Marcusson-Ståhl, Maritha; Hannula, Mira; Zeng, Chenhui; Juhasz, Peter J; Kolmert, Johan; Bäckström, Jonas; Nord, Lars; Nilsson, Kerstin; Martin, Steve; Glinghammar, Björn; Cederbrant, Karin; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina

    2009-12-01

    Ximelagatran was developed for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic conditions. However, in long-term clinical trials with ximelagatran, the liver injury marker, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased in some patients. Analysis of plasma samples from 134 patients was carried out using proteomic and metabolomic platforms, with the aim of finding predictive biomarkers to explain the ALT elevation. Analytes that were changed after ximelagatran treatment included 3-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvic acid, CSF1R, Gc-globulin, L-glutamine, protein S and alanine, etc. Two of these analytes (pyruvic acid and CSF1R) were studied further in human cell cultures in vitro with ximelagatran. A systems biology approach applied in this study proved to be successful in generating new hypotheses for an unknown mechanism of toxicity.

  8. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein: a rare cause for unexplained alpha-fetoprotein elevations in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rood, Kara; Stiller, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Markedly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels were found in a 26 year old healthy, nulliparous Polish woman during pregnancy. No fetal abnormalities were identified on targeted ultrasound and amniocentesis revealed normal amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) values. Maternal ultrasound screening for liver and ovarian germ cell malignancies were also negative. The mother delivered a live, healthy female at term and a repeat maternal serum AFP postpartum remained markedly elevated, suggestive of hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein.

  9. miR-181b promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-β1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-β1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  10. Association of decreased variation of R-R interval and elevated serum C-reactive protein level in a general population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kon, Hisashi; Nagano, Masahide; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Satoh, Kenyu; Segawa, Toshie; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2006-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that an increased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level is a strong independent predictor of increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has also been reported to predict cardiovascular events such as sudden death and myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the possible correlation between variation of the R-R interval as one of the markers of HRV and serum hsCRP levels in a general population in Japan. Resting, supine, 2-minute, beat-to-beat heart rate data were collected in 823 randomly selected participants enrolled in our cohort study. The coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (CVrr) was obtained as a parameter of HRV. To determine which factors predict the presence of low CVrr (below the 5 percentile) in this group, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis using cardiovascular risk factors and an elevated hsCRP level as independent variables. The lowest CVrr group showed significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to those of other quartiles (P < 0.01). After adjustment for confounding factors such as age, heart rate, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension by multivariate logistic analysis, an elevated hsCRP level (OR = 3.11, 95%CI; 1.27-7.60: P < 0.02) was a significant independent predictor of low CVrr. The results of the present study indicate that an increased serum hsCRP level is significantly associated with reduced CVrr in this general population. It is conceivable that the parasympathetic nerve withdrawal and inflammation could interact with each other, resulting in the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  11. Elevated serum procollagen type III peptide in splanchnic and peripheral circulation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease submitted to surgery

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Matilde; Cioffi, Ugo; Contessini-Avesani, Ettore; Oreggia, Barbara; Paliotti, Roberta; Pierini, Alberto; Bolla, Gianni; Oggiano, Elide; Ferrero, Stefano; Magrini, Fabio; Ciulla, Michele M

    2004-01-01

    Background In the hypothesis that the increased collagen metabolism in the intestinal wall of patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is reflected in the systemic circulation, we aimed the study to evaluate serum level of procollagen III peptide (PIIIP) in peripheral and splanchnic circulation by a commercial radioimmunoassay of patients with different histories of disease. Methods Twenty-seven patients, 17 with Crohn and 10 with ulcerative colitis submitted to surgery were studied. Blood samples were obtained before surgery from a peripheral vein and during surgery from the mesenteric vein draining the affected intestinal segment. Fifteen healthy age and sex matched subjects were studied to determine normal range for peripheral PIIIP. Results In IBD patients peripheral PIIIP level was significantly higher if compared with controls (5.0 ± 1.9 vs 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/l; p = 0.0001); splanchnic PIIIP level was 5.5 ± 2.6 μg/l showing a positive gradient between splanchnic and peripheral concentrations of PIIIP. No significant differences between groups nor correlations with patients' age and duration of disease were found. Conclusions We provide evidence that the increased local collagen metabolism in active IBD is reflected also in the systemic circulation irrespective of the history of the disease, suggesting that PIIIP should be considered more appropiately as a marker of the activity phases of IBD. PMID:15527511

  12. Elevated serum 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 level attenuates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction in kl/kl mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yujing; Zhou, Gengyin; Gui, Ting; Shimokado, Aiko; Nakanishi, Masako; Oikawa, Kosuke; Sato, Fuyuki; Muragaki, Yasuteru

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Klotho provides reno-protection against unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (RTF). Because the existing studies are mainly performed using heterozygous Klotho mutant (HT) mice, we focused on the effect of UUO on homozygous Klotho mutant (kl/kl) mice. UUO kidneys from HT mice showed a significantly higher level of RTF and TGF-β/Smad3 signaling than wild-type (WT) mice, whereas both were greatly suppressed in kl/kl mice. Primary proximal tubular epithelial culture cells isolated from kl/kl mice showed no suppression in TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) compared to those from HT mice. In the renal epithelial cell line NRK52E, a large amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi), FGF23, or calcitriol was added to the medium to mimic the in vivo homeostasis of kl/kl mice. Neither Pi nor FGF23 antagonized TGF-β1-induced EMT. In contrast, calcitriol ameliorated TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose dependent manner. A vitamin D3-deficient diet normalized the serum 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 level in kl/kl mice and enhanced UUO-induced RTF and TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. In conclusion, the alleviation of UUO-induced RTF in kl/kl mice was due to the TGF-β1 signaling suppression caused by an elevated serum 1, 25(OH)2 vitamin D3. PMID:25297969

  13. Osteopontin and Integrin αvβ3 Expression during the Implantation Window in IVF Patients with Elevated Serum Progesterone and Oestradiol Level

    PubMed Central

    He, Z.; Ma, Y.; Li, L.; Liu, J.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, N.; Bai, Y.; Ma, R.; Li, R.; Wu, Z.; Qiao, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore whether endometrial receptivity is determined by osteopontin (OPN) and integrin αvβ3 expression in women with elevated serum progesterone (P) and/or oestradiol (E2) who are undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods: According to serum hormone levels on the day of HCG administration, 33 infertile women were divided into 3 groups: the high E2, high P, and high E2 and P groups. The control group included 11 fertile, healthy women. Endometrial biopsy was performed on ovulation day + 7 to + 8 for all study participants, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPN and integrin αvβ3 were analyzed. Result: No statistically significant differences regarding OPN and integrin αvβ3 expression were found between infertile patients in the high P, high E2, high E2 and P and control groups. There was no significant correlation between OPN and integrin αvβ3 staining intensity during the implantation window biopsy in any of the groups studied. Conclusion: Endometrial OPN and integrant αvβ3 expression/co-expression is not impaired during the window of implantation in patients with high P, high E2, or high E2 and P levels. The clinical value of assessing endometrial receptivity with OPN and integrin αvβ3 seems to be uncertain. PMID:27365542

  14. Suppressive effect of viscous dietary fiber on elevations of uric acid in serum and urine induced by dietary RNA in rats is associated with strength of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hisao; Koguchi, Hiromi; Wada, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Innami, Satoshi; Maekawa, Akio; Tadokoro, Tadahiro

    2003-10-01

    This study was performed to clarify how dietary fiber (DF) with different viscosities would be associated with dietary RNA metabolism. Male Wistar strain rats, four weeks old, were fed diets containing a 3% (w/w) yeast RNA and a 5% (w/w) viscous DF for five days. Viscosity of DF samples used, in order of strength, were xanthan gum (XG) > guar gum (GG) > locust bean gum (LBG) > karaya gum (KG) > pectin (PE) = arabic gum (AG) > CM-cellulose (CMC) = inulin (IN). The serum uric acid concentration in the viscous DF groups significantly decreased as compared with that in the cellulose (CL) group. The urinary excretions of uric acid and allantoin in the respective groups given AG, GG, IN, KG, PE, and XG were significantly suppressed as compared with those in the CL group. The fecal RNA excretion was markedly increased in the IN, KG, PE, and XG groups in comparison to the CL group. The DF with high viscosity significantly suppressed RNA digestion by RNase A and decreased uptakes of 14C-labeled adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) in rat jejunum. The results reveal that the suppressive effect of DF on elevation of serum uric acid concentration induced by dietary RNA in rats is associated with the strength of DF viscosity. The mechanism by which this is accomplished is suggested to be attributed to the inhibitions of digestion for dietary RNA and/or absorption of the hydrolyzed compounds.

  15. Dietary fiber suppresses elevations of uric acid and allantoin in serum and urine induced by dietary RNA and increases its excretion to feces in rats.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hisao; Wada, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Innami, Satoshi; Maekawa, Akio; Tadokor, Tadahiro

    2002-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the effects of several kinds of dietary fibers (DF) with different physical properties on dietary RNA metabolism. Male Wistar strain rats, 4 wk old, were fed diets with or without a 3% yeast RNA and a 5% DF (cellulose, chitin, chitosan, inulin, and xanthan gum) for 20 d (Experiment 1) or 5 d (Experiment 2). Feeding DF tested lowered the serum uric acid and allantoin concentrations and the urinary excretions of their compounds and increased the amount of RNA excreted into the feces compared with fiber-free. The water-holding capacity and nucleotide adsorption of chitin and chitosan in acidic solutions were higher than those of cellulose. The digestion rate of RNA by RNase A in vitro was found to be lower in the DF tested than in fiber-free. The decrease was remarkable in chitosan and xanthan gum. The uptakes of 14C-labeled adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) in the rat jejunum were markedly decreased in regard to chitosan and xanthan gum in comparison with the fiber-free. These phenomena suggest that DF with high viscosity is more strongly associated with the suppression of RNA digestion by RNase A and the depression of the uptake of purine compounds to jejunum. The present results reveal that the elevation of serum uric acid concentration induced by dietary RNA can be suppressed by DF in rats.

  16. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  17. Elevated serum MFG-E8 level is possibly associated with the presence of high-intensity cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Chikako; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2017-03-07

    Human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), also known as lactadherin, is a secreted glycoprotein that plays essential roles in the clearance of apoptotic cells and angiogenesis. It has been reported that serum MFG-E8 levels are higher in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with in healthy controls; however, a previous study reported no correlation between serum MFG-E8 levels and SLE disease activity. The objective of this study was to assess serum MFG-E8 levels and their clinical associations in patients with SLE. Serum MFG-E8 levels in 49 Japanese patients with SLE, eight with cutaneous LE, and 28 healthy controls were examined. Serum MFG-E8 levels in SLE patients were significantly higher than those in cutaneous LE patients and healthy individuals. In addition, serum MFG-E8 levels were positively correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index score, which reflects the disease activity of SLE. Notably, the frequency of the presence of high-intensity cerebral lesions on MRI in the SLE patients with elevated serum MFG-E8 levels was significantly higher than that in SLE patients with normal serum MFG-E8 levels. These findings suggest that elevated serum MFG-E8 levels may be associated with cerebrovascular diseases or neuropsychiatric SLE in patients with SLE, and that the measurement of serum MFG-E8 levels in SLE patients is useful for risk stratification of cerebrovascular disease or cerebrovascular disease-related neuropsychiatric SLE.

  18. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-02

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders.

  19. Elevated serum milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 levels in type 2 diabetic patients are suppressed by overweight or obese status.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Ran, Wenzhuo; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Shi; Li, Yihang; Luo, Deng; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured. The participants were subdivided into 66 newly diagnosed T2D individuals, 44 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects and 58 healthy controls. Their characteristics were further classified as lean or nonlean for investigation. MFG-E8 levels were significantly higher in T2D subjects than in healthy controls (P = 0.028). Decreased levels of MFG-E8 were found in overweight or obese individuals, compared to those in lean subjects, in both the T2D and IGT groups (P < 0.001). Interestingly, MFG-E8 levels showed a negative correlation with body mass index (BMI) and TNF-α levels in the total population and the T2D subgroup. Further, BMI and TNF-α concentrations were found to be independent predictors of MFG-E8 levels in all subjects. MFG-E8 levels are elevated in T2D but suppressed by increased adipose tissues, thereby allowing inflammatory factors to rise to high levels. MFG-E8 may serve as a potential biomarker for obesity and T2D in the clinical setting. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):63-71, 2017.

  20. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  1. Safety of daily teriparatide treatment: a post hoc analysis of a Phase III study to investigate the possible association of teriparatide treatment with calcium homeostasis in patients with serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Mika; Sowa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), a representative marker of bone anabolic action, is strongly related to bone mineral density during teriparatide therapy. This post hoc study analyzed data from a Phase III study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00433160) to determine if there was an association between serum PINP elevation and serum calcium concentration or calcium metabolism-related disorders. Research design and methods Japanese subjects with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture were randomized 2:1 to teriparatide 20 μg/day (n=137) or placebo (n=70) for a 12-month double-blind treatment period, followed by 12 months of open-label teriparatide treatment of all subjects. Main outcome measures Serum PINP levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment. Serum calcium levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months of treatment. Results Serum PINP increased from baseline to 1 month of treatment and then remained high through 24 months. Twenty-eight of 195 subjects experienced PINP elevations >200 μg/L during teriparatide treatment. Serum calcium concentration in both the teriparatide and placebo groups remained within the normal range. There was no clinically relevant difference in serum calcium concentration between subjects with PINP >200 μg/L and subjects with PINP ≤200 μg/L. Two subjects experienced hypercalcemia and recovered without altering teriparatide treatment. Adverse events possibly related to calcium metabolism disorders included periarthritis calcarea (one subject) and chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate (two subjects), but neither was accompanied with a significant increase in PINP or serum calcium concentration. Conclusion Although the moderate size of this study prevented statistical analysis of any potential association between calcium metabolism-related disorders and elevated PINP, this analysis suggests that there was no association

  2. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  3. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  4. What toxicity may result from the xenobiotic responsible for the finding on this plain film? Answer: reduced iron, found in heating pads and instant hand warmers, may result in elevated serum iron concentrations and subsequent iron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Lintner, Christian P

    2011-12-01

    Disposable heating pads are commonly used products, with reduced iron as their active ingredient. Reduced iron is not expected to cause significant toxicity when ingested orally. We report a case of accidental heating pad ingestion seen on abdominal plain films that resulted in significantly elevated serum iron concentrations.

  5. Determination of urinary and serum beta-glucuronidase and alkaline phosphatase in various renal disease and kidney rejection transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Refaie, M O; Abo-Zaid, H; Gomma, N A; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2000-05-01

    Beta-glucuronidase (beta-Glu) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in serum and urine in 50 subjects classified into five equal groups. Group I was control healthy subjects, while groups II, III, IV, and V were patients with nephritic syndrome, pyelonephritis, kidney rejection, and end-stage renal disease, respectively. Urinary beta-Glu was significantly elevated in all four groups; while serum enzyme showed no change. On the other hand, serum ALP showed a significant elevation in all abnormal groups. Accordingly, urinary beta-Glu and serum ALP could be used as diagnostic markers for various renal diseases.

  6. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2015-11-13

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention.

  7. Elevated serum levels of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2 binding protein predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Kazumi; Tateyama, Masakuni; Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Nagaoka, Shinya; Saeki, Akira; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu; Bekki, Shigemune; Kugiyama, Yuki; Miyazoe, Yuri; Kuno, Atsushi; Korenaga, Masaaki; Togayachi, Akira; Ocho, Makoto; Mizokami, Masashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2-binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) was recently shown to be a liver fibrosis glycobiomarker with a unique fibrosis-related glycoalteration. We evaluated the ability of WFA+-M2BP to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who were infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 707 patients who had been admitted to our hospital with chronic HCV infection without other potential risk factors were evaluated to determine the ability of WFA+-M2BP to predict the development of HCC; factors evaluated included age, sex, viral load, genotypes, fibrosis stage, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), WFA+-M2BP, and the response to interferon (IFN) therapy. Serum WFA+-M2BP levels were significantly increased according to the progression of liver fibrosis stage (P < 0.001). In each distinctive stage of fibrosis (F0-F1, F2, F3, and F4), the risk of development of HCC was increased according to the elevation of WFA+-M2BP. Multivariate analysis identified age >57 years, F4, AFP >20 ng/mL, WFA+-M2BP ≥4, and WFA+-M2BP 1-4 as well as the response to IFN (no therapy vs. sustained virological response) as independent risk factors for the development of HCC. The time-dependent areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the WFA+-M2BP assay predicted the development of HCC with higher diagnostic accuracy than AFP. Conclusion: WFA+-M2BP can be applied as a useful surrogate marker for the risk of HCC development, in addition to liver biopsy. (Hepatology 2014;60:1563–1570) PMID:25042054

  8. Liver Abnormalities in Cardiac Diseases and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Alicia M.; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by the inability of systemic perfusion to meet the body's metabolic demands and is usually caused by cardiac pump dysfunction and may occasionally present with symptoms of a noncardiac disorder such as hepatic dysfunction. The primary pathophysiology involved in hepatic dysfunction from HF is either passive congestion from increased filling pressures or low cardiac output and the consequences of impaired perfusion. Passive hepatic congestion due to increased central venous pressure may cause elevations of liver enzymes and both direct and indirect serum bilirubin. Impaired perfusion from decreased cardiac output may be associated with acute hepatocellular necrosis with marked elevations in serum aminotransferases. Cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis (“shock liver”) may ensue following an episode of profound hypotension in patients with acute HF. We discuss pathophysiology and identification of liver abnormalities that are commonly seen in patients with HF. PMID:22942628

  9. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  11. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  12. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-11-25

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication.

  13. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  14. [Serum protein binding of fentanyl. The effect of postoperative acute phase reaction with elevated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and methodologic problems in determination by equilibrium dialysis].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, G; Taeger, K; Peter, K

    1996-04-01

    Numerous basic drugs are extensively bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Fentanyl, with a pKa value of 8.43, is also a basic drug. Protein binding studies have yielded contradictory results concerning binding of fentanyl to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. In this study we investigated time courses of serum protein concentrations and serum protein binding of fentanyl during postoperative acute phase reaction, assuming that an increase of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein is accompanied by an increase of serum protein binding, if fentanyl is extensively bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Fentanyl protein binding measurements using equilibrium dialysis can be affected by volume shifts and pH changes. Therefore, volume shifts from buffer to serum and the influence of various phosphate buffers on increasing pH due to loss of CO2 were also evaluated. METHODS. Thirteen patients with no history of renal or hepatic disease undergoing an operation with a significant acute phase reaction were studied. Preoperatively and on the first 3 postoperative days serum concentrations of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, albumin, total protein and apolipoprotein A and B were determined by rocket immunoeolectrophoresis, biuret method and laser nephelometry, respectively. Corresponding serum protein binding of fentanyl was measured by adding 40 ng of fentanyl to 1 ml serum followed by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C for 4 h. A 0.167 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.27), which gave a final pH of 7.40, was used. Volume shifts from buffer to serum were measured. Fentanyl concentration in serum before dialysis (FS) was determined by gas chromatography, and fentanyl concentration in buffer after dialysis (FB) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum protein binding (SPB) was calculated by the formula: SPB = (FS - FB - FB*c)/(FS - FB) where c is a correction factor. Ten randomly selected patient sera were dialyzed against four phosphate buffers of different pH values and molarities, and the serum pH at the end of

  15. Metabolism of radio-iodinated IgG in patients with abnormal serum IgG levels. I. Hypergamma-globulinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. V.; Fudenberg, H. H.

    1971-01-01

    Metabolic turnover studies were performed with radio-iodinated IgG in twelve patients with a serum IgG level greater than 1600 mg/100 ml (six with monoclonal gammopathy and six with a polyclonal increase in IgG associated with liver disease). The six patients with an IgG monoclonal protein comprised four multiple myeloma, one benign monoclonal gammopathy and one biclonal gammopathy presenting as Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. The six patients with liver disease comprised two patients with cirrhosis, two with infective hepatitis and two with chronic active hepatitis. The injected IgG was either autologous normal IgG (five cases), autologous monoclonal IgG (five cases), homologous normal IgG (one case) or therapeutic intravenous HGG (two cases). The plasma volume was increased in six patients; the plasma IgG pool in nine; and the total body IgG pool in seven. The plasma T½ was normal in one patient with monoclonal and one patient with polyclonal gammopathy but shortened in the other ten studies with mean values of 11·3 and 11·0 days in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy respectively. The fractional turnover rate was normal in two studies in polyclonal gammopathy and increased in the other ten with mean values of 13·6% per day in both groups of patients. The IgG synthesis rate was significantly increased in all studies except for a reduced synthesis of normal IgG in one patient with multiple myeloma. The mean synthesis rates in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy were respectively 6·7 and 4·1 times the mean synthesis rate in normal controls. The pattern of increased synthesis and increased catabolism in such patients confirms published reports in some diseases and demonstrates a similar pattern in chronic active hepatitis. The findings are consistent with the `concentration-catabolism' effect. PMID:5003444

  16. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a

  17. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis). Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044). In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032). However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract. Conclusion Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors. PMID:27861567

  18. Low levels of serum ionized magnesium are found in patients early after stroke which result in rapid elevation in cytosolic free calcium and spasm in cerebral vascular muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Altura, B T; Memon, Z I; Zhang, A; Cheng, T P; Silverman, R; Cracco, R Q; Altura, B M

    1997-07-11

    Ninety-eight patients admitted to the emergency rooms of three urban hospitals with a diagnosis of either ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke exhibited early and significant deficits in serum ionized Mg2+ (IMg2+), but not total Mg, as measured with a unique Mg2+-sensitive ion-selective electrode. Twenty-five percent of these stroke patients exhibited >65% reductions in the mean serum IMg2+ found in normal healthy human volunteers or patients admitted for minor bruises, cuts or deep lacerations. The stroke patients also demonstrated significant elevation in the serum ionized Ca2+ (ICa2+)/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and cerebrovasospasm. Exposure of primary cultured canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells to the low concentrations of IMg2+ found in the stroke patients, e.g. 0.30-0.48 mM, resulted in rapid and marked elevations in cytosolic free calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) as measured with the fluorescent probe, fura-2, and digital image analysis. Coincident with the rise in [Ca2+]i, many of the cerebral vascular cells went into spasm. Reintroduction of normal extracellular Mg2+ ion concentrations failed to either lower the [Ca2+]i overload or reverse the rounding-up of the cerebral vascular cells. These results suggest that changes in Mg2+ metabolism play important roles in stroke syndromes and in the etiology of cerebrovasospasm associated with cerebral hemorrhage.

  19. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  20. SERUM CYTOKERATIN 18 AND CYTOKINE ELEVATIONS SUGGEST A HIGH PREVALENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL LIVER DISEASE IN HIGHLY EXPOSED ELASTOMER/POLYMER WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Matt; Falkner, Keith Cameron; Henry, Latasha; Costello, Brittany; Gregory, Bonnie; McClain, Craig J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a novel serologic biomarker for occupational liver disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of CK18 elevation in elastomer/polymer workers exposed to acrylonitrile, 1,3 butadiene, and styrene. Methods 82 chemical workers were evaluated. CK18 was determined by ELISA and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by multi-analyte chemiluminescent detection. Results 39% (32 of 82) had elevated CK18 levels which were not explained by alcohol or obesity, except in potentially 4 cases. The pattern of CK18 elevation was consistent with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) in the majority of cases (78%). TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and PAI-1 were increased in these workers compared to those with normal CK18 levels. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease and TASH in elastomer/polymer workers with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21915069

  1. Elevated Serum and Synovial Fluid Levels of Interleukin-34 in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Possible Association with Disease Progression via Interleukin-17 Production

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Xia, Liping; Lu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    To measure the levels of interleukin-34 (IL-34) in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate the effect of recombination human (rh) IL-34 on IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA patients, the serum and SF levels of IL-34, and the production of IL-17 by rhIL-34-treated PBMC of RA patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also tested the change of IL-34 level after tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α blockade therapy in 30 RA patients. In contrast to almost no detectable IL-34 in osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy serum, IL-34 could be detected in 93 out of the 125 RA cases (74.4%). Sera IL-34 levels were significantly higher in RA patients compared with the controls and correlated with disease activity. IL-34 levels were higher in SF samples than in sera in 11 RA patients. The level of serum IL-34 decreased after anti-TNF treatment. In the presence of rhIL-34, stimulation of PBMC from RA patients resulted in increased production of IL-17. These findings suggest that IL-34 may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:23421370

  2. Serum miR-451a Levels Are Significantly Elevated in Women With Endometriosis and Recapitulated in Baboons (Papio anubis) With Experimentally-Induced Disease.

    PubMed

    Nothnick, Warren B; Falcone, Tommaso; Joshi, Niraj; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Graham, Amanda

    2016-12-05

    We have previously demonstrated that human microRNA-451a (miR-451a) endometriotic lesion expression is significantly higher compared to that of the corresponding eutopic endometrium. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between lesion and serum content of miR-451a and to determine the utility of serum miR-451a in distinguishing between women with and without visible signs of endometriosis. Eighty-one participants were enrolled in this study, 41 with confirmed endometriosis and 40 without visible signs of endometriosis at laparoscopy (n = 20) or symptoms of endometriosis (pain, infertility n = 20). Experimental endometriosis was also induced in 8 baboons. Blood, endometriotic lesions, and eutopic endometrial samples were collected from women undergoing laparoscopy for surgical removal of endometriosis. Blood was also collected from control participants with no signs and symptoms associated with the disease as well as from baboons prior to, and then 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15 months postinduction of endometriosis. MicroRNA-451a was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in all samples. In humans, serum miR-451a levels positively correlated with endometriotic lesion miR-451a content, and sera levels were significantly higher in these participants compared to controls. The area under the curve (AUC) for miR-451a was 0.8599. In baboons, serum miR-451a reached statistically significant peak levels at 6 months postinduction of endometriosis. We conclude from this study that sera miR-451a levels positively correlated with endometriotic lesion content and are significantly greater compared to sera levels in women without visible signs or symptoms of endometriosis. MicroRNA-451a may serve as a serum diagnostic marker for endometriosis.

  3. Sexual function improvement in association with serum leptin level elevation in patients with premature ejaculation following sertraline treatment: a preliminary observation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun-Long; Wang, Bao-Long; Yang, Lin; Li, Li-Ming; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Chang-Hai

    2013-11-01

    The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of sertraline hydrochloride on serum levels of leptin and sexual function in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 124 patients with a history of PE at least 6 months, aged 20-50 years, were treated with sertraline hydrochloride. One hundred and four age-matched normal males without a history of PE were included control subjects and were untreated. Before and after the 8 week experiment, sexual performance parameters including the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and the Chinese premature ejaculation index (CIPE) were collected from both PE patients and control subjects through a questionnaire survey and analyzed. Serum levels of leptin were measured. Correlations of serum leptin with Body Mass Index (BMI) were analyzed. Before sertraline treatment, serum levels of leptin were significantly higher (32.9 vs 8.8 μg/L, p<0.001) but IELT and CIPE score were significantly lower (54 vs 590, p <0.001; 8.7 vs 22.3, p <0.0001) in PE patients than control subjects. After 8 weeks of treatment with sertraline, serum levels of leptinl in PE patients were decreased markedly to 8.0 μg/L, which was not significantly different from the levels in control subjects (p >0.05); and IELT and CIPE score in PE patients were increased to the values similar to those in control subjects. The sensitivity and specificity values were 87.5% and 96.3% for leptin as a diagnosis target. These observations suggest sertraline as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor may offer an effective option for treating premature ejaculation.

  4. Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Barba-Moreno, Laura; Altamura, Sandro; Butragueño, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Alteheld, Birgit; Stehle, Peter; Zapico, Augusto G; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Gassmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Iron deficiency among endurance athletes is of major concern for coaches, physicians, and nutritionists. Recently, it has been observed that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, was upregulated after exercise and was found to be related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation. In this study performed on noniron deficient and well-trained runners, we observed that hepcidin concentrations remain elevated in response to inflammatory and iron signals despite a 28-days supplementation period with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (400 IU/day).

  5. The Relationship between Serum Bilirubin and Elevated Fibrotic Indices among HBV Carriers: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Du, Min; Zhang, Shanshan; Xiao, Lin; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Peiyi; Tang, Yuhan; Wei, Sheng; Xing, Mingyou; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study probed the association between bilirubin and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and progression. A cross-sectional analysis of 28,500 middle aged and elderly Chinese participants was performed to analyze the differences of bilirubin in terms of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive or negative and the correlation between bilirubin and severity of hepatic fibrosis estimated by non-invasive indices. Bilirubin was significantly higher in the HBsAg (+) group than the HBsAg (−) group. Higher bilirubin levels were consistently associated with elevated liver fibrosis indices among HBsAg carriers. Compared with quartile 1 of total bilirubin (TBil), the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for elevated fibrosis indices of quartile 4 were 2.24 (95% CIs, 1.57–3.21) estimated by fibrosis 4 score (FIB-4) and 2.22 (95% CIs, 1.60–3.08) estimated by aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI). In addition, direct bilirubin (DBil) had a stronger association with elevated liver fibrosis indices than did indirect bilirubin (IBil). Furthermore, the relationship between DBil and elevated fibrosis indices was more robust among participants who were female, overweight or had central fat distribution. These findings suggested that bilirubin levels, especially DBil, were independently associated with an increased risk of increased fibrosis indices. PMID:27941693

  6. Elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor predict a poor prognosis of platinum-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Jialan; Hu, Yong; Xu, Xiaoyue; Ni, Jie; Yan, Dali; Liu, Siwen; He, Jieyu; Xue, Jing; Wu, Jianzhong; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-01-01

    Aim This study was designed to investigate the predictive and prognostic values of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients’ peripheral blood samples were collected prior to chemotherapy and after 1 week of the third cycle of combination chemotherapy. Serum VEGF levels were evaluated through Luminex multiplex technique. Between September 2011 and August 2015, a total of 135 consecutive advanced or recurrent histologically verified NSCLC patients were enrolled in the study. Moreover, all the patients received platinum-based combination chemotherapy as a first-line treatment. Results No significant associations were found between pretreatment serum VEGF levels and clinical characteristics, such as sex (P=0.0975), age (P=0.2522), stage (P=0.1407), lymph node metastasis (P=0.6409), tumor location (P=0.3520), differentiated degree (P=0.5608), pathological (histological) type (P=0.4885), and response to treatment (P=0.9859). The VEGF load per platelet (VEGFPLT) levels were not correlated with sex, age, primary tumor site, and pathological type in NSCLC patients (all P>0.05). The median survival time of progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.407 and 5.29 months in the low and high groups, respectively, when using 280 pg/mL VEGF level as the cutoff point (P=0.024). Conclusion In conclusion, the serum VEGF levels were found to be a poor prognostic biomarker for the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in terms of PFS, but it was not shown to be a suitable predictive marker for clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:28176920

  7. Elevated serum CXCL16 is an independent predictor of poor survival in ovarian cancer and may reflect pro-metastatic ADAM protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Gooden, M J M; Wiersma, V R; Boerma, A; Leffers, N; Boezen, H M; ten Hoor, K A; Hollema, H; Walenkamp, A M E; Daemen, T; Nijman, H W; Bremer, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: In certain cancers, expression of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 associate with lymphocyte infiltration, possibly aiding anti-tumour immune response. In other cancers, CXCL16 and CXCR6 associate with pro-metastatic activity. In the current study, we aimed to characterise the role of CXCL16, sCXCL16, and CXCR6 in ovarian cancer (OC). Methods: CXCL16/CXCR6 expression was analysed on tissue microarray containing 306 OC patient samples. Pre-treatment serum sCXCL16 was determined in 118 patients using ELISA. In vitro, (primary) OC cells were treated with an ADAM-10/ADAM-17 inhibitor (TAPI-2) and an ADAM-10-specific inhibitor (GI254023x), whereupon CXCL16 levels were evaluated on the cell membrane (immunofluorescent analysis, western blots) and in culture supernatants (ELISA). In addition, cell migration was assessed using scratch assays. Results: sCXCL16 independently predicted for poor survival (hazard ratio=2.28, 95% confidence interval=1.29–4.02, P=0.005), whereas neither CXCL16 nor CXCR6 expression correlated with survival. Further, CXCL16/CXCR6 expression and serum sCXCL16 levels did not associate with lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro inhibition of both ADAM-17 and ADAM-10, but especially the latter, decreased CXCL16 membrane shedding and strongly reduced cell migration of A2780 and cultured primary OC-derived malignant cells. Conclusions: High serum sCXCL16 is a prognostic marker for poor survival of OC patients, possibly reflecting ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 pro-metastatic activity. Therefore, serum sCXCL16 levels may be a pseudomarker that identifies patients with highly metastatic tumours. PMID:24518602

  8. Elevated Concentrations of SERPINE2/Protease Nexin-1 and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in the Serum of Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stępień, Tomasz; Brożyna, Mateusz; Kuzdak, Krzysztof; Komorowski, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. SERPINE2 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) are proteins with anticoagulant properties which could promote solid tumor growth. However, their role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer has not been determined. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to assess serum SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations in a group of 36 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and a group of 19 subjects with multinodular nontoxic goiter (MNG). The control group (CG) consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected one day before surgery. Serum SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations were measured using specific ELISA methods. Results. Significantly higher concentrations of SERPINE2 and SLPI were found in patients with PTC as compared with MNG and controls. Positive correlation was found between SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations in PTC patients. The levels of SERPINE2 and SLPI did not differ significantly between MNG and healthy controls. Conclusions. Our results indicate that SERPINE2 and SLPI play a significant role in the development of papillary thyroid cancer and imply that the evaluation of serum concentrations of both anticoagulant molecules may be considered as additional marker for the differentiation of malignancies during the preoperative diagnosis of patients with thyroid gland tumors. PMID:28255192

  9. Insufficient filling of vacuum tubes as a cause of microhemolysis and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Use of a data-mining technique in evaluation of questionable laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    Tamechika, Yoshie; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Experienced physicians noted unexpectedly elevated concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in some patient samples, but quality control specimens showed no bias. To evaluate this problem, we used a "latent reference individual extraction method", designed to obtain reference intervals from a laboratory database by excluding individuals who have abnormal results for basic analytes other than the analyte in question, in this case lactate dehydrogenase. The reference interval derived for the suspected year was 264-530 U/L, while that of the previous year was 248-495 U/L. The only change we found was the introduction of an order entry system, which requests precise sampling volumes rather than complete filling of vacuum tubes. The effect of vacuum persistence was tested using ten freshly drawn blood samples. Compared with complete filling, 1/5 filling resulted in average elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartic aminotransferase, and potassium levels of 8.0%, 3.8%, and 3.4%, respectively (all p<0.01). Microhemolysis was confirmed using a urine stick method. The length of time before centrifugation determined the degree of hemolysis, while vacuum during centrifugation did not affect it. Microhemolysis is the probable cause of the suspected pseudo-elevation noted by the physicians. Data-mining methodology represents a valuable tool for monitoring long-term bias in laboratory results.

  10. Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1≤77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

  11. Highly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase is associated with central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Results of a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Jin; Hong, Jun Sik; Chang, Myung Hee; Kim, Jeong-A; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Won Sik; Do, Young Rok; Kang, Hye Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Yong; Won, Jong-Ho; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kong, Jee Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Sunah; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jun, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yang Soo; Yun, Hwan Jung; Lee, Soon Il; Kim, Min Kyoung; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-11-01

    Central nervous system involvement remains a challenging issue in the treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We conducted a prospective cohort study with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone to identify incidence and risk factors for central nervous system involvement. Among 595 patients, 279 patients received pre-treatment central nervous system evaluation, and 14 patients had central nervous system involvement at diagnosis (2.3% out of entire patients and 5.0% out of the 279 patients). For those patients, median follow-up duration was 38.2 months and some of them achieved long-term survival. Out of 581 patients who did not have central nervous system involvement at diagnosis, 26 patients underwent secondary central nervous system relapse with a median follow-up of 35 months, and the median time to central nervous system involvement was 10.4 months (range: 3.4-29.2). Serum lactate dehydrogenase > ×3 upper limit of normal range, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2, and involvement of sinonasal tract or testis, were independent risk factors for central nervous system relapse in multivariate analysis. Our study suggests that enhanced stratification of serum lactate dehydrogenase according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-International Prognostic Index may contribute to better prediction for central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01202448.

  12. Treatment with buckwheat bran extract prevents the elevation of serum triglyceride levels and fatty liver in KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Toshio; Sasaga, Sayaka; Yamasaka, Yukiko; Nii, Yoshitaka; Edazawa, Kazuhiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shuto, Emi; Okahisa, Naoki; Iwata, Shinya; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Buckwheat powder or protein has been shown to decrease the total serum cholesterol level in non-diabetic mice or rats. However, the lipid-lowering effect of buckwheat bran extract (BBE) in diabetic mice has not been fully elucidated. KK-A(y) mice that received six-week treatment with BBE showed decreased body weight and liver weight compared to those of control (vehicle) mice. However, there was no significant difference in food intake. BBE treatments prevented liver triglyceride accumulation and decreased the serum level of triglycerides. In addition, mRNA expression levels lipogenic enzyme genes, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coenzyme a oxidase and stearyl-coenzyme a desaturase 1, but not those of β-oxidized enzyme genes, were decreased in BBE-treated mice. Level of transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c, transcripts of lipogenic genes, were also decreased in BBE-treated mice. These results suggest that chronic treatment with BBE derivatives could have beneficial effects on hypertriglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Pelvic pain, free fluid in pelvis, and human chorionic gonadotropin serum elevation: recurrence of malignant ovarian germ-cell tumor or early pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Barczyński, B; Rogala, E; Nowicka, A; Nurzyńska-Flak, J; Kotarski, J

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of metastatic germ-cell tumor of the ovary does not exclude the possibility of pregnancy in the future. Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) serves as pregnancy test, and has also been proven to be a useful marker for ovarian germ-cell tumors. This paper is a case report of a 19-year-old patient who was admitted to a district hospital in emergency due to pelvic pain, amenorrhoea, and free fluid in the pelvis. Laboratory tests demonstrated slight increase in beta-hCG serum concentration and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) showed no evidence of gestational sac in the uterus. At the age of 14, the patient was diagnosed with malignant germ-cell tumor of the left ovary in FIGO Stage IV and was treated with four courses of chemotherapy according to TGM-95 protocol with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin, followed by conservative surgery and adjuvant two courses of cytostatics. The initial diagnosis was recurrence of ovarian malignancy and the patient was referred to an oncology center. Wait-and-see approach and repeated ultrasound examination confirmed a normal intrauterine pregnancy which concluded with the delivery of a healthy newborn through cesarean section.

  14. Hochu-ekki-to suppresses development of dermatitis and elevation of serum IgE level in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Mizuno, N; Kutsuna, H; Teramae, H; Ueoku, S; Onoyama, J; Yamanaka, K; Fujita, N; Ishii, M

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese herbal medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Chinese name: Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-tang) is composed of ten species of medical plants and is used for many therapeutic purposes such as recovery from weakness, dysfunction of the digestive system and fatigue. In certain groups of patients with intractable atopic dermatitis this prescription has shown clinical effectiveness. We examined the ability of Hochu-ekki-to to inhibit dermatitis and IgE production in atopic NC/Nga mice. Oral administration of Hochu-ekki-to suppressed spontaneous dermatitis and serum IgE levels in NC/Nga mice. This finding provides evidence that Hochu-ekki-to may have immunological effects in atopic dermatitis.

  15. Serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyoshi, Yukimi; Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Fukushima, Satoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microvascular damage is one of the primary pathologic components of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serological abnormalities of angiogenic and angiostatic factors in SSc have previously been described. Like these factors, the plasma levels of leptin were significantly elevated in patients with SSc in comparison to normal controls. However, leptin receptor has not been examined in patients with SSc. The current study used sandwich ELISA to evaluate the serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with SSc. Serum samples were obtained from 36 patients with SSc. Samples were also obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with scleroderma spectrum disorder (SSD) who did not fulfill the criteria for SSc but who had the potential to develop SSc. Mean serum leptin receptor levels were significantly higher in patients with SSD than in patients with SSc (255.7 ng/mL vs. 184.6 ng/mL, p < 0.05 according to a Mann-Whitney test). There were no statistically significant differences between healthy control subjects and patients with SSc. Clinical parameters were evaluated, and the frequency of esophageal reflux was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum leptin receptor levels than in those with reduced levels (6.3% vs. 35.3%, p < 0.05). In summary, these results suggest that the serum levels of leptin receptor are a clinically useful marker of SSD, and measurement of serum leptin receptor over time in patients with SSD may lead to early detection of SSc. PMID:25343103

  16. Highly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase is associated with central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Results of a multicenter prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jin; Hong, Jun Sik; Chang, Myung Hee; Kim, Jeong-A; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Won Sik; Do, Young Rok; Kang, Hye Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Yong; Won, Jong-Ho; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kong, Jee Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Sunah; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jun, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yang Soo; Yun, Hwan Jung; Il Lee, Soon; Kim, Min Kyoung; Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement remains a challenging issue in the treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We conducted a prospective cohort study with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone to identify incidence and risk factors for central nervous system involvement. Among 595 patients, 279 patients received pre-treatment central nervous system evaluation, and 14 patients had central nervous system involvement at diagnosis (2.3% out of entire patients and 5.0% out of the 279 patients). For those patients, median follow-up duration was 38.2 months and some of them achieved long-term survival. Out of 581 patients who did not have central nervous system involvement at diagnosis, 26 patients underwent secondary central nervous system relapse with a median follow-up of 35 months, and the median time to central nervous system involvement was 10.4 months (range: 3.4–29.2). Serum lactate dehydrogenase > ×3 upper limit of normal range, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2, and involvement of sinonasal tract or testis, were independent risk factors for central nervous system relapse in multivariate analysis. Our study suggests that enhanced stratification of serum lactate dehydrogenase according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-International Prognostic Index may contribute to better prediction for central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01202448. PMID:27713132

  17. Glucose metabolic abnormality is associated with defective mineral homeostasis in skeletal disorder mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zou, JiangHuan; Xiong, XiWen; Lai, BeiBei; Sun, Min; Tu, Xin; Gao, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Bone was reported as a crucial organ for regulating glucose homeostasis. In this study, we found that Phex mutant mice (PUG), a model of human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), displayed metabolic abnormality in addition to abnormal phosphate homeostasis, skeletal deformity and growth retardation. Glucose tolerance was elevated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in PUG, though circulating insulin level decreased. Interestingly, bone mineral density defects and glucose metabolic abnormality were both rescued by adding phosphorus- and calcium-enriched supplements in daily diet. Serum insulin level, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity showed no differences between PUG and wild-type mice with rescued osteocalcin (OCN) following treatment. Our study suggested that OCN is a potential mediator between mineral homeostasis and glucose metabolism. This investigation brings a new perspective on glucose metabolism regulation through skeleton triggered mineral homeostasis and provides new clues in clinical therapeutics of potential metabolic disorders in XLH patients.

  18. Serum Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Elevated Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shu-ichi; Tanaka, Suguru; Maeda, Daichi; Morita, Hideaki; Fujisaka, Tomohiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Takahide; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a biomarker of subclinical levels of inflammation, is significantly correlated with cardiovascular events. Purpose We investigated the association between suPAR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) among cardiac inpatients. Methods and Results In total, 242 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 9.8 years; 70 women) admitted to the cardiology department were enrolled in the study. suPAR was significantly correlated with LVEF (R = -0.24, P<0.001), LVMI (R = 0.16, P = 0.014) and BNP (R = 0.46, P<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the highest suPAR tertile (> 3236 pg/mL) was associated with low LVEF (< 50%) and elevated BNP (> 300 pg/mL) with an odds ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–12.1) and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.32–21.8), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log(eGFR)), C-reactive protein, and diuretic use. The association between suPAR and LVMI was not statistically significant. In multivariate receiver operating characteristic analysis, addition of log(suPAR) to the combination of age, sex, log(eGFR) and CRP incrementally improved the prediction of low LVEF (area under the curve [AUC], 0.827 to 0.852, P = 0.046) and BNP ≥ 300 pg/mL (AUC, 0.869 to 0.906; P = 0.029). Conclusions suPAR was associated with low LVEF and elevated BNP, but not with left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of CRP, renal function, and diuretic use among cardiac inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis. PMID:28135310

  19. Elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during T lymphocyte-directed gene therapy for ADA deficiency: implication of Tc2-like cells after gene transduction procedure.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Ariga, T; Ohtsu, M; Yamada, M; Tame, A; Furuta, H; Kobayashi, I; Okano, M; Yanagihara, Y; Sakiyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We have successfully carried out T-cell-directed gene therapy for a boy with severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) and unexpectedly found an elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during the course. More than 90% of transduced cells cultured for 7-11 days before infusion into the patient were positive for CD8 and expressed Th2-type cytokine genes such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, CD4(+) T-depleted PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from the patient synthesized IgE in vitro by stimulation with IL-4. Collectively, these results suggested that Tc2-like cells in the transduced cells have distinct immunological functions to help IgE synthesis and activate eosinophils.

  20. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 15–20% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)—α, Interferon (IFN) -γ, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-β, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 2010–2013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-β) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent

  1. Effect of age on aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) and comparison of screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated serum aldosterone concentration for primary aldosteronism screening in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoshu; Zhang, Shaoling; Yan, Li; Wu, Muchao; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hua

    2012-08-01

    The serum aldosterone concentration (SAC)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) is considered a useful screening test in the differential diagnosis of essential hypertension (EH) and primary aldosteronism (PA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on ARR and compare the screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC for PA screening in different age groups. Thirty-nine patients with PA, 274 patients with EH, and 153 healthy volunteers were recruited. Blood was sampled for SAC and PRA measuring under keeping upright posture for 1 h. Levels of SAC, PRA, and ARR were compared at different ages range for the respective three groups of subjects. The screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC was compared in different age groups and PA patients served as the same positive subjects. In the EH group, logarithmically transformed ARR (Log-ARR) increased with advancing age and reached its peak in the ≥ 60 years group; in the normotensives group, Log-ARR reached its peak in the 40-49 years group and slightly declined with advancing age. In the PA group, Log-ARR was not age dependent. Screening accuracy increased when combined index of ARR and SAC was used in the ≥ 40 years group but not in the <40 years group. Although the number of EH patients with elevated ARR increased with advancing age, but the screening accuracy and cutoff values of ARR were not affected by age. Using the combined index of ARR and SAC increased the screening accuracy for the patients older than 40 years, but not necessary for the patients younger than 40 years.

  2. Correlation between serum lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarama; Sarkar, Chandan; Biswas, Subhash Chandra; Karim, R

    2008-07-01

    Abnormal lipid profile is often found in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. To assess the impact of abnormal lipid profile on atherosclerosis in young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women, carotid intima-media thickness as judged by B-mode ultrasonography were done in 30 young (18-35 yrs) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women and in similarly age-matched 30 apparently healthy controls. Compared to controls, young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women had significantly elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C levels and carotid intima-media thickness. HDL-C level did not differ significantly between two groups of women. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women carotid intima-media thickness was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C and negatively correlated with serum HDL-C. Our study suggests that even young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women are prone to atherosclerosis from early age.

  3. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  4. Elevation of branched-chain amino acid levels in diabetes and NAFL and changes with antidiabetic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Motoh; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Fujita, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Kazuko; Kaito, Masahiko; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and obesity are associated with elevated branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels, but the mechanism and significance of this has not been elucidated. Eighty-four subjects were enrolled including 43 with DM. Serum BCAA levels were positively correlated with waist-hip ratio and ALT. Serum BCAA levels in subjects with DM were higher than non-DM and those in subjects with NAFL were also higher than non-NAFL. Treatment with pioglitazone and alogliptin (19 of 43 DM subjects) improved serum haemoglobin A1c and decreased BCAA levels. The decrease in BCAAs with improved glucose metabolism suggests that abnormal glucose metabolism is also a factor in elevated BCAA levels.

  5. Effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Itoga, Yoshie; Yasuhara, Masato

    2006-12-03

    To clarify the mechanism of fluoroquinolone-induced abnormalities in blood glucose, the effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration was investigated in rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of levofloxacin and their arterial blood was sampled periodically. The serum glucose concentration decreased after an injection of 100 mg/kg of levofloxacin, while it increased at levofloxacin 300 mg/kg. The serum immunoreactive insulin concentration increased as the dose of levofloxacin increased. The serum epinephrine concentration was rapidly elevated by levofloxacin at 300 mg/kg. The serum histamine concentration increased after injections of levofloxacin, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Diphenhydramine (1 mg/kg) antagonized the hyperglycemia induced by 300 mg/kg of levofloxacin. In an in vitro study, the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla in the presence of levofloxacin was determined. Levofloxacin (300 microg/ml) did not affect epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla. Levofloxacin can induce hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in rats. Levofloxacin can promote histamine release, leading to an increased serum epinephrine concentration and hyperglycemia.

  6. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  7. Serum thyroglobulin in the management of patients with thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Barsano, C.P.; Skosey, C.; DeGroot, L.J.; Refetoff, S.

    1982-04-01

    We have reviewed our experience with the management of patients with thyroid cancer to assess the potential benefits of employing the serum thyroglobulin assay in patient management programs and to determine the optimal conditions for this application. Serum thyroglobulin levels were found to be more reliable when obtained from hypothyroid patients. Levels of thyroglobulin greater than 10 ng/mL appeared to be abnormally elevated in both thyroidectomized patients prior to radioactive iodine therapy (group 1) and in thyroidectomized patients after radioactive iodine therapy (group 2). Elevated thyroglobulin levels were found to be useful indicators of the presence of metastatic disease, whereas normal thyroglobulin levels were reliable indicators of the absence of metastases. In group 1 patients, elevated thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the presence of important total body scan uptake. In group 2 patients, normal thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the absence of total body scan uptake. The serum thyroglobulin assay can substantially reduce the need for repetitive total body scanning in the follow-up of group 2 patients with thyroid cancer.

  8. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP--defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit--during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization.

  9. Elevated BP after AKI

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Raymond K.; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D.; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP—defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit—during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  11. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  12. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  13. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  15. CCDC115 Deficiency Causes a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis with Abnormal Protein Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jos C.; Cirak, Sebahattin; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Reunert, Janine; Rust, Stephan; Pérez, Belén; Vicogne, Dorothée; Krawitz, Peter; Wada, Yoshinao; Ashikov, Angel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Medrano, Celia; Arnoldy, Andrea; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; Quelhas, Dulce; Diogo, Luisa; Rymen, Daisy; Jaeken, Jaak; Guffon, Nathalie; Cheillan, David; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Maeda, Yusuke; Kaiser, Olaf; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; van den Boogert, Marjolein A.W.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Sokal, Etienne; Salomon, Jody; van den Bogaart, Geert; Drenth, Joost P.H.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Veltman, Joris A.; Wevers, Ron A.; Morava, Eva; Matthijs, Gert; Foulquier, François; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lefeber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal

  16. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  17. Thyroid abnormalities associated with treatment of malignant lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, K.; Shimaoka, K.; Friedman, M.

    1981-06-01

    The effects on the thyroid of radiation therapy to the neck and/or chemotherapy were investigated in 54 Hodgkin's and 72 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. These patients had received radiation therapy with doses ranging from 2000 to 4000 rad (median 3600 rad) to the cervical or mantle fields and/or multiple-agent chemotherapy following usual staging procedures. Palpable abnormalities of the thyroid were found in 15 patients. The patients with irradiation to the neck had a higher incidence of hypothyroidism than those patients treated with chemotherapy alone (31/74 vs. 8/52, P less than 0.001 for TSH and 10/74 vs. 1/52, P less than 0.025 for T4). A higher frequency of elevated serum TSH levels and antithyroid antibodies were also observed in patients receiving radiation therapy alone to the neck than in those receiving both radiation therapy and chemotherapy (19/33 vs. 12/41, P less than 0.025 for TSH and 16/33 vs. 7/41, p less than 0.01 for antibodies), suggesting that chemotherapy agents may reduce the thyroid dysfunction induced by irradiation. There was no difference in prevalence of elevated TSH levels following irradiation to the neck between patients in whom lymphangiogram was or was not performed (21/51 vs. 10/23).

  18. Use of serum ultrafiltrate in the serum dilution test.

    PubMed

    Leggett, J E; Wolz, S A; Craig, W A

    1989-10-01

    Although pooled human serum diluent is advocated in the serum dilution test, its use may compensate for protein binding defects in patients and yield nonrepresentative titers. To test this hypothesis, comparison was made of serum ultrafiltrate (molecular weight cutoff less than or equal to 30,000) serially diluted into either pooled serum ultrafiltrate or Mueller-Hinton broth with patient serum samples diluted into pooled human serum in 111 assays from 55 patients and 6 volunteers. Of 111 bactericidal titers in ultrafiltrate and/or Mueller-Hinton broth, 101 were within a single twofold dilution of titers in pooled human serum. Nine of 10 discordant titers involved highly bound drugs and were usually higher in ultrafiltrate than in pooled human serum. In seven additional volunteers with renal failure, titers in ultrafiltrate and in each volunteer's serum were higher than those diluted in pooled human serum (P = .002). Recommended methods using pooled serum diluent may not accurately predict actual bactericidal titers in patients with abnormal protein binding.

  19. The role of interleukin-6 in cases of cardiac myxoma. Clinical features, immunologic abnormalities, and a possible role in recurrence.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, C E; Rosado, M F; Bernal, L

    2001-01-01

    We performed this prospective study to evaluate the correlation of interleukin-6 serum levels with preoperative constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities, and the possible role played by this cytokine in tumor recurrence. Eight patients with atrial myxoma were evaluated at our institution from July 1993 to November 1998. We measured their interleukin-6 serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method preoperatively and 1 and 6 months after surgery. Two of the cases involved recurrent tumor, 1 patient had undergone his 1st surgery at a different institution and died during the 2nd procedure, so his data were incomplete. Preoperatively the whole group of patients had elevated interleukin-6 serum levels. Although patients with a 1st occurrence of tumor demonstrated a positive correlation between interleukin-6 serum level and tumor size, the 2 patients with recurrent tumors appeared to have higher interleukin-6 levels regardless of tumor size. Once the tumor was surgically removed, interleukin-6 levels returned to normal values, and this was associated with regression of clinical manifestations and immunologic features. According to our study, the overproduction of interleukin-6 by cardiac myxomas is responsible for the constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities observed in patients with such tumors and might also play a role as a marker of recurrence. This study also suggests that recurrent cardiac myxomas form a subgroup of cardiac myxomas with a highly intrinsic aggressiveness, as implied by their greater interleukin-6 production despite their smaller size. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  20. The Role of Interleukin-6 in Cases of Cardiac Myxoma: Clinical Features, Immunologic Abnormalities, and a Possible Role in Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Cesar Emilio; Rosado, Manuel Francisco; Bernal, Leon

    2001-01-01

    We performed this prospective study to evaluate the correlation of interleukin-6 serum levels with preoperative constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities, and the possible role played by this cytokine in tumor recurrence. Eight patients with atrial myxoma were evaluated at our institution from July 1993 to November 1998. We measured their interleukin-6 serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method preoperatively and 1 and 6 months after surgery. Two of the cases involved recurrent tumor; 1 patient had undergone his 1st surgery at a different institution and died during the 2nd procedure, so his data were incomplete. Preoperatively, the whole group of patients had elevated interleukin-6 serum levels. Although patients with a 1st occurrence of tumor demonstrated a positive correlation between interleukin-6 serum level and tumor size, the 2 patients with recurrent tumors appeared to have higher interleukin-6 levels regardless of tumor size. Once the tumor was surgically removed, interleukin-6 levels returned to normal values, and this was associated with regression of clinical manifestations and immunologic features. According to our study, the overproduction of interleukin-6 by cardiac myxomas is responsible for the constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities observed in patients with such tumors and might also play a role as a marker of recurrence. This study also suggests that recurrent cardiac myxomas form a subgroup of cardiac myxomas with a highly intrinsic aggressiveness, as implied by their greater interleukin-6 production despite their smaller size. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:11330738

  1. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  2. The prognostic utility and the association of serum light chains (free and total) and absolute lymphocyte count in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianfei; Zhang, Ningning; Yao, Jiarui; Feng, Yun; Li, Dan; Liu, Peng; Yang, Jianliang; Zhou, Shengyu; Qin, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Gui, Lin; He, Xiaohui; Shi, Yuankai

    2014-11-01

    In this study, serum free and total light chains (sFLC/sTLC) were measured in 108 serum samples of therapy-naïve patients with DLBCL. Clinicopathologic data and survival outcomes were analyzed according to the results of sFLC/sTLC measurements. Moreover, the association of sFLC/sTLC with absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was evaluated. Elevated sFLC and abnormal κ/λ ratio was present in 42.6% (51/108) and 4.6% (5/108) of patients, respectively. sTLC was successfully measured in 107 serum samples, abnormal sTLC and abnormal κ/λ ratio was found in 28.0% (30/107) and 26.2% (28/107) of patients, respectively. Patients with elevated sFLC more frequently displayed adverse clinical characteristics, including age (P=0.001), B symptoms (P=0.022), low ALC (P=0.024) and hyperglobulinemia (P=0.012). Patients with elevated sFLC had an inferior overall survival (OS) (P=0.012) and tended to have shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.061) compared to patients with normal sFLC. Abnormal sTLC or abnormal sTLC ratio showed no significant association with clinical outcomes, with exception of abnormal concurrent κ and λ. Only association of sFLC and ALC with survival remained significant after adjusting for the International Prognostic Index (IPI). The measurement of sFLC and ALC at diagnosis might be useful for the prognostic stratification of patients and sTLC measurement was of little prognostic utility in DLBCL.

  3. Catechin averts experimental diabetes mellitus-induced vascular endothelial structural and functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), an initial event that could lead to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Previous studies showed that catechin, a key component of green tea, possesses vascular beneficial effects. We investigated the effect of catechin hydrate in diabetes mellitus-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities (VEA). Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p., once) administration to rats produced diabetes mellitus, which subsequently induced VEA in 8 weeks by markedly attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aortic ring preparation, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations and impairing aortic endothelial integrity. These abnormalities in diabetic rats were accompanied with elevated aortic superoxide anion generation and serum lipid peroxidation in addition to hyperglycemia. Catechin hydrate treatment (50 mg/kg/day p.o., 3 weeks) markedly prevented diabetes mellitus-induced VEA and vascular oxidative stress. Intriguingly, in vitro incubation of L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or Wortmannin (100 nM), a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), markedly prevented catechin hydrate-induced improvement in acetylcholine-provoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in the diabetic rat aorta. Moreover, catechin hydrate treatment considerably reduced the elevated level of serum glucose in diabetic rats. In conclusion, catechin hydrate treatment prevents diabetes mellitus-induced VED through the activation of endothelial PI3K signal and subsequent activation of eNOS and generation of nitric oxide. In addition, reduction in high glucose, vascular oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation might additionally contribute to catechin hydrate-associated prevention of diabetic VEA.

  4. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  6. Association of Abnormal Liver Function Parameters with HIV Serostatus and CD4 Count in Antiretroviral-Naive Rwandan Women.

    PubMed

    Dusingize, Jean Claude; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Ndacyayisenga, Victorien; Gakindi, Léonard; Mulvihill, Michael; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV(-)) Rwandan women. In 2005, 710 HIV(+) ART-naive and 226 HIV(-) women enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment. Liver enzymes were measured with abnormality defined as either AST or ALT ≥1.25 times the upper limit of normal. Low serum albumin level was defined as <3.5 g/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of elevated AST/ALT and low serum albumin. HIV(-) women had the lowest prevalence (6.6%) of abnormal AST/ALT, with the highest prevalence (16.4%) in HIV(+) women with CD4 <200 cells/μl (p=0.01). The odds of having serum albumin <3.5 g/dl was 5.7-fold higher in HIV(+) than HIV(-) women (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 3.32-9.71). The risk of low albumin decreased from low to high CD4 count, with OR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.14 and OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43 in HIV(+) women with a CD4 count <200 and 200-350 cells/μl, respectively vs. HIV(+) with CD4 >350 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for all comparisons). Our findings suggest that HIV-associated liver damage may occur in ART-naive patients. Although liver abnormality prevalences in this cohort of HIV-infected Rwandan women are less than reported in developed countries, caution is needed for risk assessment measures to monitor and screen HIV-infected patients pre- and post-ART initiation in African clinical settings to curtail potential risks associated with HIV infection.

  7. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  8. Associations between serum hepcidin, ferritin and Hb concentrations and type 2 diabetes risks in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Zhou, Daizhan; An, Peng; Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Mu, Mingdao; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Hui; He, Lin; Liu, Yun; Wang, Fudi

    2013-12-01

    Systemic Fe overload can contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, few studies have systematically evaluated the associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks for the development of T2D. In this regard, whether hepcidin concentrations are associated with T2D remains controversial. We measured serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations in a case-control study of 1259 Han Chinese participants to evaluate the possible associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks of T2D. Individuals with diabetes (n 555) and control participants (n 704) were recruited and serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations were quantified. Additionally, selected biochemical and anthropometric variables were determined. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations with T2D. A linear regression analysis was used to test for associations between serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations and a number of clinical, demographic and diabetes-associated variables. We found that serum hepcidin concentrations correlated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations. No differences in hepcidin concentrations were found between the group with diabetes and the control group. Hepcidin concentrations were not significantly correlated with T2D risk factors. We also found that serum ferritin concentrations were elevated in individuals with diabetes and were positively correlated with both Hb concentrations and T2D risk factors. The present findings suggest that serum ferritin concentrations correlate with T2D risk factors, while serum hepcidin concentrations are positively associated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations, but do not correlate with T2D.

  9. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  10. Prevalence and clinical consequences of elevated Ca x P product in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Block, G A

    2000-10-01

    Control of serum phosphorus (P) levels is a central goal of managing patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Hyperphosphatemia develops invariably with kidney failure, and inadequate control of serum P leads to an elevated calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product. Further contributing to an elevated Ca x P product is the fact that hemodialysis patients are generally in a net positive calcium balance-dietary intake of calcium, ingestion of calcium-based phosphate binders, calcium absorption from dialysate, and abnormalities in bone buffering and turnover all contribute to the calcium burden in hemodialysis patients. In addition, treatment with calcitriol to manage secondary hyperparathyroidism increases intestinal absorption of both calcium and P. These abnormalities in divalent ion metabolism can result in a number of harmful conditions in CRF patients, including vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease, calciphylaxis, and death. We are now beginning to realize that our current therapeutic approaches to CRF management may not only be ineffective in controlling P and Ca x P product, but may actually contribute to serious calcific and cardiovascular hazards in these patients. Elevated P and Ca x P product are both significant predictors of cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. These effects are observed at P and Ca x P product levels that were considered safe until recently. Based on current national studies, we now recommend that serum P levels and Ca x P product of patients with CRF be maintained between 3.0-5.0 mg/dl and less than 55 mg2/dl2, respectively. Achieving these more rigorous treatment goals will require a shift in our therapeutic management strategies to incorporate aggressive use of calcium-free phosphate binders and, when necessary, use of less calcemic vitamin D analogs.

  11. Association of serum uric acid with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M I; Islam, M J; Ullah, M A; Khan, R K; Munira, S; Haque, M A; Mamun, M A; Islam, M T; Khan, M H

    2013-04-01

    The present study has examined the association between ischemic stroke and hyperuricemia in Bangladeshi population. This age and sex matched case control study was carried out in the Department of Neurology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of January 2007 to December 2008. A total of 120 subjects were included in this study, among them 60 were cases and another 60 were controls. Data were collected purposively. Multiple logistic regressions were done to identify the risk factors for ischemic stroke. In this study 68.3% were male and 31.7% were female in both the groups. Male and female ratio of stroke patients was 2.16:1. Mean±SD of serum uric acid level of case and control group was 4.94±1.76 and 3.72±1.09 respectively. Among the case group 76.7% had normal and 23.3% had abnormal serum uric acid level. On the other hand, 93.3% respondents of control group had normal and 6.7% had abnormal serum uric acid (SUA) level. Significant differences was found between case and control group in term of SUA level (p<0.05). Since SUA level is a quantitative numerical variable, an increase in 1mg/dl has a 47.0% (95% CI 1.0% to 2.16%) increase in odds ratio (OR) of having ischemic stroke. This 47.0% is obtained by taking OR for uric acid-1. Elevated serum uric acid level is not significant for ischemic stroke among the Bangladeshi population.

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Elevation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A. S.; Marshall, G.A.; Carver, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Elevation changes, as well as horizontal displacements of the Earth's surface, are an expected consequence of dip-slip displacement on earthquake faults. the rock surrounding and overlying the fault is forced to stretch and bend to accommodate fault slip. Slip in the case of the April 25 mainshock is thought to have occurred on a gently inclined plane dipping to the northeast at a small angle (see article on preliminary seismological results in this issue).The associated fault-plane solution implies that rock overlying the fault plane (the hanging-wall block west and south of the epicenter) rose and shifted to the northeast. The map on the next page shows the location of the epicenter and approximate extent of uplift and subsidence derived from estimates of the geometry, location. and slip on the buried fault plane. 

  14. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Wan-Fen; Hsu, Ling-I; Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Sun, Chien-Wen; Chen, Wei J.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  15. Functional abnormalities of sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats with acute liver rejection.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Y; Nakamura, S; Muro, H; Baba, S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) function in acute liver rejection with respect to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Orthotopic rat liver transplantation was performed in Lewis rats grafted with DA livers and in Lewis rats grafted with Lewis livers as rejectors and controls, respectively. Animals were killed at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after the operation. Fc receptors (FcRs) were histochemically stained on frozen liver sections by applying peroxidase-antiperoxidase IgG complex as a ligand, and the FcR activity, i.e., capacity of binding the ligands represented by the FcR staining intensity, was semiquantitatively analyzed as an indicator of SEC function. The serum level of hyaluronic acid, which is specifically cleared from the circulation by receptor-mediated SEC endocytosis, was also assayed, along with the total serum bilirubin. Three days after the operation, the SECs of rejectors showed a significantly weaker FcR staining intensity of about half the value of that seen in the controls (P < 0.05), and staining disappeared after 5 days (P < 0.01). The decrease of FcR staining intensity, i.e., FcR activity, showed a correlation with elevation of the serum hyaluronic acid level (r = -0.77; P < 0.001). Histological evidence of endothelialitis and a significant elevation of total serum bilirubin (P < 0.01) were also present at 3 and 5 days, respectively. These results suggest that impairment of the endocytic function of SECs occurs at an earlier phase of acute liver rejection when compared with development of abnormalities of traditional indicators. Determination of receptor-mediated SEC endocytic functions may thus provide useful information for the early diagnosis of acute rejection.

  16. Abnormal relaxin secretion during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Paul G; Edwards, J R G; Randolph, Carla; Büllesbach, Erika E; Schwabe, Christian; Steinetz, Bernard G

    2003-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that relaxin may play a role in the fetal abnormalities associated with pregnancy in type 1 diabetic women, we previously compared gestational relaxin concentrations in diabetic and clinically normal women using a porcine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA): Serum immunoactive relaxin was significantly (P < 0.001) elevated in the diabetic women. To confirm and extend this work in a larger group of subjects, we have now used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for human H2 relaxin (the normal human gene product) to determine immunoactive serum relaxin concentrations in serial samples from 61 Type 1 diabetic and 21 normal pregnant women. Samples from 22 of the diabetic and nine of the normal women were also directly compared in the porcine relaxin RIA. ELISA-determined serum relaxin was higher (P < 0.001) at 24 and 36 weeks of pregnancy in type 1 diabetic women than in controls, confirming previous findings. However, the geometric mean increase in immunoactive relaxin concentration in identical samples from pregnant diabetic women over that of controls was significantly greater with the RIA than with the ELISA (271% vs 44%; P < 0.001). To investigate this discrepancy, the specificity and epitope selectivity of the RIA and the ELISA were compared using several synthetic polypeptides, including human relaxins H1 and H2, and relaxin and insulin derivatives. Both assays showed great specificity, but the porcine RIA selectively identified the epitopes of the receptor-binding domain of the relaxin B chain and cross-reacted strongly with H1 and H2 relaxins. In contrast, only the H2 peptide was detected by the ELISA antiserum. Therefore, the marked discrepancy between the RIA and the ELISA could be due to the presence in the diabetic samples of another relaxin-like molecule in addition to the normal H2 relaxin. The biological consequences of elevated serum relaxin in diabetic pregnancy remain to be elucidated.

  17. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  18. Serum ferritin.

    PubMed

    Worwood, M

    1979-01-01

    (1) Brief introduction to iron metabolism and the biochemistry of ferritin. (2) Early studies of circulating ferritin. (3) Methods for measuring serum ferritin concentrations -- immunoradiometric, radioimmuno- and enzyme-linked immuno assays based on liver or spleen ferritin -- an evaluation of these techniques. (4) Serum ferritin concentrations in normal subjects -- definition of normality -- relationship between storage iron and serum ferritin concentrations -- changes during development from birth to old age -- iron deficiency -- variability of serum ferritin concentration -- evaluation of use of ferritin assay for assessment of storage iron levels. (5) Serum ferritin concentrations in disease -- hemochromatosis -- secondary iron overload -- liver damage -- infection and chronic disease -- cancer. (6) Assay of serum ferritin with antibodies to ferritins other than liver or spleen -- ferritinemia and cancer. (7) Properties of serum ferritin -- molecular weight -- iron content -- isoelectric focusing patterns -- carbohydrate content -- immunological properties. (8) Physiology of circulating ferritin -- release of ferritin from tissues -- origin of circulating ferritin -- clearance from the plasma -- iron and protein turnover. (9) Summary -- factors influencing serum ferritin concentrations and clinical use of ferritin estimations.

  19. Serum glutathione S-transferase B1 activity as an index of liver function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rattenbury, J M; Taylor, C J; Heath, P K; Howie, A F; Beckett, G J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate serum glutathione S-transferase B1 (GST B1), a highly sensitive test of hepatocellular function, as a means of identifying liver disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS--The presence of liver disease was sought over a three year period in 60 children with CF, using a combination of clinical assessment, ultrasound examination, conventional biochemical tests of liver function (LFTs), and measurement of GST B1. RESULTS--Reference ranges for serum GST B1 were established in a paediatric control population. The 95% value (4.55 micrograms/l) was similar to the upper limit of normal previously derived in adults. Mean (SE) serum GST B1 activities were higher in the CF population (9.0 (1.14) micrograms/l) than in age matched controls (2.4 (0.15) micrograms/l). Ten patients with CF showed clinical signs of liver dysfunction. All but one had a serum GST B1 > 4.55 micrograms/l. Twelve other patients had elevated LFTs without clinically evident liver dysfunction, six had abnormal ultrasound scans and two showed both of these anomalies. Thirty patients with CF had neither biochemical, ultrasonographic nor clinical signs of liver disease. On review three years later, clinically important liver disease was reaffirmed in eight of the 10 index cases and had become apparent in a further eight, all of whom had elevated GST B1 activities. Five (36%) of the patients with elevated LFTs and two (33%) with isolated ultrasound changes continued to show these abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS--The limitations of conventional LFTs and ultrasound scans were evident from this study. The results suggest that elevated GST B1 activities may be a better predictor of hepatic dysfunction in CF than conventional LFTs. PMID:7560208

  20. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sucking thus creating a "wink" when chewing or sucking. Is Monocular Elevation Deficiency associated with other diseases or developmental problems? There is no known association between Monocular Elevation ...

  1. [Gangliosides in the serum in lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Fumić, K; Vladović-Relja, T; Karada, J; Kracun, I; Stavljenić, A; Kubat, M; Cosović, C; Oberman, B

    1990-01-01

    In this study, tumor and serum gangliosides were analyzed in patients bearing lung planocellular carcinoma (LPC) before and after operative therapy. Tumor tissue, pathohistologically characterized as carcinoma planocellulare corneum (Ca. epidermoide, type 8070/3, WHO, Geneva, 1981), showed an elevated concentration of gangliosides in comparison to normal tung tissue. The composition of gangliosides in LPC tissue varied from one tumor sample to another, however, two general features were observed. First, LPC contained an increased amount of GM3 and a decreased amount of GD3 gangliosides. Second, an elevated proportion of gangliosides migrating as polysialogangliosides (x3, x5, x6) characterized the majority of LPC tissues. On the other hand, serum of patients with LPC contained an elevated amount of gangliosides (15.8 +/- 0.3 mumols/L) in comparison to control serum (6.1 +/- 0.8 mumols/L) (P less than 0.01). However, analyzing the composition of serum gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography, all serum gangliosides were more or less elevated. By day 21 after the surgical removal of LPC, serum gangliosides dropped by approximately 50% approaching the normal values. It seems that elevated serum gangliosides in LPC patients were secreted from carcinoma cells, because they normalized after surgical removal of LPC. Thus, serum gangliosides might be a useful biochemical tool for diagnosis and therapy monitoring of this carcinoma.

  2. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  3. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  4. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  5. Elevated Serum Levels of CXC Chemokine Ligand-12 Are Associated with Unfavorable Functional Outcome and Mortality at 6-Month Follow-up in Chinese Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuan; Lian, Ya-Jun; Ma, Yun-Qing; Xie, Nan-Chang; Wu, Chuan-Jie

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the circulating CXC chemokine ligand-12 (CXCL12) level can predict a 6-month outcome in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In a prospective study, CXCL12 levels were measured on admission in the serum of 304 consecutive patients with AIS. The prognostic value of CXCL12 to predict the functional outcome and mortality within 1 year was compared with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and with other known outcome predictors. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of serum CXCL12 in predicting functional outcome and mortality. Patients with an unfavorable outcome and non-survivors had significantly increased CXCL12 levels on admission (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that CXCL12 (≥12.4 ng/mL; third quartile) was an independent predictor of functional outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 4.92-24.79) and mortality (OR = 10.15; 95 %CI 2.44-27.98). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CXCL12 was 0.84 (95 % CI 0.76-0.92) for functional outcome and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.80-0.93) for mortality. Circulating CXCL12 serum levels at admission is a useful and complementary biomarker to predict functional outcome and mortality 6 months after acute ischemic stroke.

  6. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduces mineral and bone abnormalities in rats with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen; Secker, Roger; Shen, Victor; Lorenzo, Victor; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background. Lanthanum carbonate (FOSRENOL®, Shire Pharmaceuticals) is an effective non-calcium, non-resin phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we used a rat model of chronic renal failure (CRF) to examine the long-term effects of controlling serum phosphorus with lanthanum carbonate treatment on the biochemical and bone abnormalities associated with CKD–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD). Methods. Rats were fed a normal diet (normal renal function, NRF), or a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 3 weeks to induce CRF. NRF rats continued to receive normal diet plus vehicle or normal diet supplemented with 2% (w/w) lanthanum carbonate for 22 weeks. CRF rats received a diet containing 0.1% adenine, with or without 2% (w/w) lanthanum carbonate. Blood and urine biochemistry were assessed, and bone histomorphometry was performed at study completion. Results. Treatment with 0.75% adenine induced severe CRF, as demonstrated by elevated serum creatinine. Hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, elevated calcium × phosphorus product and secondary hyperparathyroidism were evident in CRF + vehicle animals. Treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduced hyperphosphataemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in CRF animals (P < 0.05), and had little effect in NRF animals. Bone histomorphometry revealed a severe form of bone disease with fibrosis in CRF + vehicle animals; lanthanum carbonate treatment reduced the severity of the bone abnormalities observed, particularly woven bone formation and fibrosis. Conclusions. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduced the biochemical and bone abnormalities of CKD–MBD in a rat model of CRF. PMID:21098011

  7. A condition closely mimicking IgG4-related disease despite the absence of serum IgG4 elevation and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration.

    PubMed

    Hara, Satoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Fujita, Kentaro; Harada, Kenichi; Matsumura, Masami; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sato, Yasuharu; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Nagata, Michio

    2016-09-01

    We describe a 74-year-old Japanese man with systemic fibroinflammatory conditions closely resembling those of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Radiology and histology showed characteristics of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, despite normal serum IgG4 value and scanty IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in each organ. This case suggests that a condition closely mimicking IgG4-RD may develop without IgG4-positive plasma cells and those exceptional cases should also be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of IgG4-RD.

  8. Serum free light chains, not urine specimens, should be used to evaluate response in light-chain multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Thomas; Corre, Jill; Caillon, Helene; Hulin, Cyrille; Perrot, Aurore; Caillot, Denis; Boyle, Eileen; Chretien, Marie-Lorraine; Fontan, Jean; Belhadj, Karim; Brechignac, Sabine; Decaux, Olivier; Voillat, Laurent; Rodon, Philippe; Fitoussi, Olivier; Araujo, Carla; Benboubker, Lotfi; Fontan, Charlotte; Tiab, Mourad; Godmer, Pascal; Luycx, Odile; Allangba, Olivier; Pignon, Jean-Michel; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Legros, Laurence; Stoppa, Anne Marie; Dib, Mamoun; Pegourie, Brigitte; Orsini-Piocelle, Frederique; Karlin, Lionel; Arnulf, Bertrand; Roussel, Murielle; Garderet, Laurent; Mohty, Mohamad; Meuleman, Nathalie; Doyen, Chantal; Lenain, Pascal; Macro, Margaret; Leleu, Xavier; Facon, Thierry; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for monitoring multiple myeloma (MM) patients expressing light chains only (light-chain MM [LCMM]) rely on measurements of monoclonal protein in urine. Alternatively, serum free light chain (sFLC) measurements have better sensitivity over urine methods, however, demonstration that improved sensitivity provides any clinical benefit is lacking. Here, we compared performance of serum and urine measurements in 113 (72κ, 41λ) newly diagnosed LCMM patients enrolled in the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) 2009 trial. All diagnostic samples (100%) had an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio, and involved (monoclonal) FLC (iFLC) expressed at levels deemed measurable for monitoring (≥100 mg/L). By contrast, only 64% patients had measurable levels of monoclonal protein (≥200 mg per 24 hours) in urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP). After 1 and 3 treatment cycles, iFLC remained elevated in 71% and 46% of patients, respectively, whereas UPEP reported a positive result in 37% and 18%; all of the patients with positive UPEP at cycle 3 also had elevated iFLC levels. Importantly, elevated iFLC or an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio after 3 treatment cycles associated with poorer progression-free survival (P = .006 and P < .0001, respectively), whereas positive UPEP or urine immunofixation electrophoresis (uIFE) did not. In addition, patients with an abnormal κ:λ sFLC ratio had poorer overall survival (P = .022). Finally, early normalization of κ:λ sFLC ratio but not negative uIFE predicted achieving negative minimal residual disease, as determined by flow cytometry, after consolidation therapy (100% positive predictive value). We conclude that improved sensitivity and prognostic value of serum over urine measurements provide a strong basis for recommending the former for monitoring LCMM patients. PMID:27729323

  9. Abnormal expression of ENaC and SGK1 mRNA induced by dietary sodium in Dahl salt-sensitively hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Wataru; Niisato, Naomi; Sawabe, Yukinori; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Tokuda, Shinsaku; Nishio, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-10-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a crucial role in controlling sodium reabsorption in the kidney keeping the normal blood pressure. We previously reported that the expression of ENaC mRNA in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats was abnormally regulated by aldosterone, however it is unknown if dietary sodium affects the expression of ENaC and serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), which plays an important role in ENaC activation, in DS rats. In the present study, we investigated whether dietary sodium abnormally affects the expression of ENaC and SGK1 mRNA in DS rats. DS and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats (8 weeks old) were divided into three different groups, respectively: (1) low sodium diet (0.005% NaCl), (2) normal sodium diet (0.3% NaCl), and (3) high sodium diet (8% NaCl). The high sodium diet for 4 weeks in DS rats elevated the systolic blood pressure, but did not in any other groups. The expression of alpha-ENaC mRNA in DS rats was abnormally increased by high sodium diet in contrast to DR rats, while it was normally increased by low sodium diet in DS rats similar to DR rats. The expression of beta- and gamma-ENaC mRNA in DS rats was also abnormally increased by high sodium diet unlike DR rats. The expression of SGK1 mRNA was elevated by high sodium diet in DS rats, but it was decreased in DR rats. These observations indicate that the expression of ENaC and SGK1 mRNA is abnormally regulated by dietary sodium in salt-sensitively hypertensive rats, and that this abnormal expression would be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  10. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  11. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  13. Unusual and abnormal canine estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2007-12-01

    Preovulatory serum progesterone concentrations are used to estimate the day of LH peak (day 0), not only to accurately time insemination and predict parturition, but to identify abnormal or unusual estrous cycles due to ovarian dysfunction. Early identification of these disorders is of therapeutic and economic importance. This review discusses anovulation, slow preovulatory progesterone rise, "split heat", insufficient luteal phase, and persistent estrus in the bitch. Some of these were temporary dysfunctions; with appropriate breeding management, pregnancy can be achieved. However, in other cases, these were signs of severe, permanent ovarian dysfunction associated with infertility, with potentially lethal sequelae.

  14. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  15. [A case of cardiac myxoma presenting with multiple cerebellar hemorrhages and elevation of interleukin-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid].

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Yasuo; Sengoku, Renpei; Sato, Hironori; Inoue, Kiyoharu

    2004-10-01

    We report a 25-year old man with cardiac myxoma presenting with multiple cerebellar hemorrhages and elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient was first admitted to our hospital because of cerebral infarctions at the age of 23. After systemic exploration he was diagnosed as cardiac myxoma. In this patient, the serum level of IL-6 was elevated. The cardiac myxoma was resected and the serum IL-6 level returned to normal. His neurological symptoms improved almost to normal and he was discharged. The patient had been well for two years until he developed headache at the age of 25. Brain MRI revealed multiple cerebellar hemorrhages that overlaid old infarctions. The hemorrhages enlarged in a three months period and his headache became worse, and then he was admitted again. The IL-6 value was normal in serum at that time, but it was elevated in the CSF. The CSF IgG index was also elevated. Cerebral angiograms showed no abnormal vessel in the infratentorium, while multiple fusiform aneurysms were found in both middle cerebral arteries. A transesophageal echocardiography revealed no recurrence of cardiac myxoma. Craniotomy was performed and intracerebellar hematomas were removed. Histopathological examination showed only old and recent bleedings; no metastatic myxoma tissue was found. Although no myxoma tissue was found in biopsy specimen, it seemed reasonable that an elevated level of IL-6 in the CSF was due to metastasized intracranial myxoma, which caused cerebellar embolism, and then invaded the vessel walls and continued to grow. In reviewing the literature we have found no reported case of cardiac myxoma with analysis of IL-6 value in the CSF. We speculate that the level of IL-6 in the CSF might be a good marker for the neurological manifestations of cardiac myxoma.

  16. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  17. Simultaneous measurement of serum chemokines in autoimmune thyroid diseases: possible role of IP-10 in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Izumi; Itoh, Mitsuyasu; Yamada, Hiroya; Yamamoto, Keiko; Tomatsu, Eisuke; Makino, Masaki; Hashimoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves' diseases (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), are the most common autoimmune diseases, and are mainly mediated by T cells that produce cytokines and chemokines in abnormal amounts. Few reports have described the circulating chemokines active in AITDs. Recently, we used a new multiplex immunobead assay to simultaneously measure cytokines and chemokines in small volume serum samples from patients with AITDs. We measured 23 selected serum chemokines in patients with GD (n=45) or HT (n=26), and healthy controls (n=9). GD patients were further classified as either untreated, intractable, or in remission, while HT patients were classified as either hypothyroid or euthyroid. Of the 23 serum chemokines assayed, only the serum level of IP-10 (CXCL10/interferon-γ-inducible protein 10) was elevated, depending on disease activity, in GD or HT compared with healthy controls. However, the serum level of IP-10 was also increased in both untreated GD patients and hypothyroid HT patients, suggesting that levels of this cytokine may not be affected by disease specificity. In conclusion, autoimmune inflammation in patients with AITD is closely related to the level of the serum chemokine, IP-10. Therefore, IP-10 might be a good biomarker for tissue inflammation in the thyroid, but not a useful biomarker for predicting disease specific activity, the progression of AITDs, or responsiveness to treatment because of its independence from thyroid function or disease specificity.

  18. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  19. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  20. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  1. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  2. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Phenotype and function of CXCR5+CD45RA-CD4+ T cells were altered in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma and elevated serum CXCL13 predicted better prognosis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhaojun; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Ling; Liang, Hua; Huang, Xiangbo; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Tao; Lu, Fengmin

    2015-12-29

    The present study reveals an immunological characterization of circulating and tumor-infiltrating T follicular helper cells (Tfh), namely CXCR5+CD45RA-CD4+ T cells, and their related cytokines in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In HCC patients, circulating Tfh cells showed a CCR7+ and/or ICOS+ phenotype with increased Th2-like cells and decreased Th1-like and Th17-like subsets. Although the bulk frequency of circulating Tfh cells was not altered in HCC patients, the frequency of infiltrated CXCR5+CD45RA-CD4+ CD3+cells was higher in tumor than in para-tumor tissues, and Th1-like cells were the predominant phenotype. Circulating Tfh cells in HCC patients were defective in the production of IL-21 in vitro, which was in accordance with lower IL-21 levels in tumor tissues than in para-tumor tissues. Serum CXCL13 was increased in HCC patients and associated with recurrence-free survival after hepatectomy. This was confirmed in an additional HCC cohort of 111 patients with up to 5 years follow-up. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the percentage of CXCR5+ or CXCL13+ cells was higher in poorly differentiated than in well-differentiated tumors. In conclusion, patients with HBV-related HCC showed altered phenotypes and impaired function of Tfh cells or subpopulations. CXCL13 could be a potential biomarker for predicting recurrence in HCC patients after hepatectomy.

  4. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  5. The effects of heparins on the liver: application of mechanistic serum biomarkers in a randomized study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harrill, A H; Roach, J; Fier, I; Eaddy, J S; Kurtz, C L; Antoine, D J; Spencer, D M; Kishimoto, T K; Pisetsky, D S; Park, B K; Watkins, P B

    2012-08-01

    Heparins have been reported to cause elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but have not been associated with clinically significant liver injury. The mechanisms underlying these benign laboratory abnormalities are unknown. Forty-eight healthy men were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections of unfractionated heparin (UFH; 150 U/kg), enoxaparin sodium (1 mg/kg), dalteparin sodium (120 IU/kg), or adomiparin sodium (125 IU/kg; a novel heparin) every 12 h for 4.5 days. Asymptomatic elevations in serum ALT or AST were observed in >90% of the subjects. Elevations were also observed in the levels of serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), miR-122, high-mobility group box-1 protein (including the acetylated form), full-length keratin 18, and DNA. Keratin 18 fragments, which are apoptosis biomarkers, were not detected. Biomarker profiles did not differ significantly across heparin treatments. We conclude that heparins as a class cause self-limited and mild hepatocyte necrosis with secondary activation of an innate immune response.

  6. Serum oestradiol in women with and without breast disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, I. C.; McCaffrey, J. F.; McCaffrey, E.; Wyatt, B.

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that the percentage of non-protein-bound or free oestradiol (E2) is abnormally high in patients with breast cancer. In this study, the serum oestradiol profiles of a large group of women were analysed to determine whether a significant correlation could be found between serum oestradiol and various breast diseases. In addition oestradiol levels were measured in relation to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), albumin levels, oestrogen receptor status and family history of breast cancer. Serum samples were taken from a total of 300 women who had either no breast disease, benign breast disease or breast cancer. The percentage of free oestradiol was found to be highest in women with breast cancer, lowest in the control group and intermediate for the women with benign breast disease. These differences were most marked in post-menopausal women. The absolute values for total and free oestradiol were not statistically different in the three groups studied. There did not appear to be a correlation between oestrogen receptor (ER) concentration in breast cancer tissue and free E2 percentage levels. Women who had a family history of breast cancer did not appear to have higher percentage levels of free E2 than those with no such history. The presence of elevated proportions of free oestradiol in the serum of women with breast cancer may be significant in regard to understanding the aetiology of breast neoplasia. There also may be important implications for the use of this measurement in the earlier diagnosis and detection of breast cancer. PMID:2393409

  7. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  8. MCT8 Deficiency in Male Mice Mitigates the Phenotypic Abnormalities Associated With the Absence of a Functional Type 3 Deiodinase.

    PubMed

    Stohn, J Patrizia; Martinez, M Elena; Matoin, Kassey; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Mice deficient in the type 3 deiodinase (D3KO mice) manifest impaired clearance of thyroid hormone (TH), leading to elevated levels of TH action during development. This alteration causes reduced neonatal viability, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism. Here we examined how these phenotypes are affected by a deficiency in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), which is a major contributor to the transport of the active thyroid hormone, T3, into the cell. MCT8 deficiency eliminated the neonatal lethality of type 3 deiodinase (D3)-deficient mice and significantly ameliorated their growth retardation. Double-mutant newborn mice exhibited similar peripheral thyrotoxicosis and increased brain expression of T3-dependent genes as mice with D3 deficiency only. Later in neonatal life and adulthood, double-mutant mice manifested central and peripheral TH status similar to mice with single MCT8 deficiency, with low serum T4, elevated serum TSH and T3, and decreased T3-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. In double-mutant adult mice, both thyroid gland size and the hypothyroidism-induced rise in TSH were greater than those in mice with single D3 deficiency but less than those in mice with MCT8 deficiency alone. Our results demonstrate that the marked phenotypic abnormalities observed in the D3-deficient mouse, including perinatal mortality, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism in adult animals, require expression of MCT8, confirming the interdependent relationship between the TH transport into cells and the deiodination processes.

  9. The Role of Dietary Cholesterol in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Related Metabolic Abnormalities: A Mini-review.

    PubMed

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Goulet, Amy; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-10-25

    Cholesterol plays a vital role in cell biology. Dietary cholesterol or "exogenous" cholesterol accounts for approximately one-third of the pooled body cholesterol, and the remaining 70% is synthesized in the body (endogenous cholesterol). Increased dietary cholesterol intake may result in increased serum cholesterol in some individuals, while other subjects may not respond to dietary cholesterol. However, diet-increased serum cholesterol levels do not increase the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) cholesterol ratio, nor do they decrease the size of LDL particles or HDL cholesterol levels. Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol levels, and small, dense LDL particles are independent risk factors for coronary artery disease. Dietary cholesterol is the primary approach for treatment of conditions such as the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Recent studies have highlighted mechanisms for absorption of dietary cholesterol. These studies have help understand how dietary and/or pharmaceutical agents inhibit cholesterol absorption and thereby reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations. In this article, various aspects of cholesterol metabolism, including dietary sources, absorption, and abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism, have been summarized and discussed.

  10. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  11. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  12. Postoperative chronic pressure abnormalities in the vitreon study.

    PubMed

    Adile, S L; Peyman, G A; Greve, M D; Millsap, C M; Verma, L K; Wafapoor, H; Soheilian, M

    1994-01-01

    Perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon) was used as an intraoperative hydrokinetic retinal manipulator, followed by C3F8 or SF6 gases, silicone oil, or Vitreon as postoperative tamponading agents in 234 eyes. Two chronic intraoperative pressure abnormalities were defined: hypotony (5 mm Hg or less) and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) (25 mm Hg or more at three or more postoperative visits). Postoperatively, 28 eyes (12%) had chronically elevated IOP, and 41 (18%) had chronic hypotony. There was no significant difference in the incidence of abnormal IOP among the groups of eyes in which the various tamponading agents had been used. In particular, the use of Vitreon as an intraoperative tool or as a short-term tamponade did not affect the incidence of chronic abnormal IOP any more than did the use of silicone oil, C3F8, or SF6 as tamponading agents.

  13. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jane Q; Mori, Hidetoshi; Cardiff, Robert D; Trott, Josephine F; Hovey, Russell C; Hubbard, Neil E; Engelberg, Jesse A; Tepper, Clifford G; Willis, Brandon J; Khan, Imran H; Ravindran, Resmi K; Chan, Szeman R; Schreiber, Robert D; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1(tm1Rds) homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment.

  14. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cardiff, Robert D.; Trott, Josephine F.; Hovey, Russell C.; Hubbard, Neil E.; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Tepper, Clifford G.; Willis, Brandon J.; Khan, Imran H.; Ravindran, Resmi K.; Chan, Szeman R.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Borowsky, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1tm1Rds homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment. PMID:26075897

  15. Meiotic abnormalities and spermatogenic parameters in severe oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, J M; García, F; Veiga, A; Calderón, G; Egozcue, S; Egozcue, J; Barri, P N

    1999-02-01

    The incidence of meiotic abnormalities and their relationship with different spermatogenic parameters was assessed in 103 male patients with presumably idiopathic severe oligoasthenozoospermia (motile sperm concentration < or = 1.5 x 10(6)/ml). Meiosis on testicular biopsies was independently evaluated by two observers. Meiotic patterns included normal meiosis and two meiotic abnormalities, i.e. severe arrest and synaptic anomalies. A normal pattern was found in 64 (62.1%), severe arrest in 21 (20.4%) and synaptic anomalies in 18 (17.5%). The overall rate of meiotic abnormalities was 37.9%. Most (66.7%) meiotic abnormalities occurred in patients with a sperm concentration < or = 1 x 10(6)/ml. In this group, total meiotic abnormalities were found in 57.8% of the patients; of these, 26.7% had synaptic anomalies. When the sperm concentration was < or = 0.5 x 10(6)/ml, synaptic anomalies were detected in 40% of the patients. In patients with increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations, total meiotic abnormalities occurred in 54.8% (synaptic anomalies in 22.6%). There were statistically significant differences among the three meiotic patterns in relation to sperm concentration (P < 0.001) and serum FSH concentration (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, sperm concentration < or = 1 x 10(6)/ml and/or FSH concentration > 10 IU/l were the only predictors of meiotic abnormalities.

  16. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Wilkinson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel on serum lipid levels. Methods Serum lipids were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years on 703 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA, OC, or nonhormonal (NH) birth control. DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 additional years. Participants completed questionnaires containing demographic and behavioral measures every 6 months and underwent 24 hour dietary recalls annually. Mixed model regression analyses and general estimating equations procedures were used to estimate changes over time in lipids by method, along with their predictors. Results OC users experienced significantly greater increases in levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than NH users (P<.001). However, no difference was noted in the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio between OC and NH users. Among DMPA users, HDL-C levels initially decreased for 6 months, but then returned to baseline. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio rose during the first 6 months of DMPA use, but then dropped back to baseline over the next 24 months. After DMPA was discontinued, women who used OC increased their TG, TC, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels significantly more than those who chose NH (P< .05). Conclusion Use of very low dose OC containing desogestrel can elevate lipid levels. DMPA users were at increased risk of developing an abnormally low HDL-C level as well as an abnormally high LDL level and an increase in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio, although these effects appeared to be temporary. PMID:19888036

  17. Impact of diabetic serum on endothelial cells: An in-vitro-analysis of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus type 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muenzel, Daniela; Lehle, Karla Haubner, Frank; Schmid, Christof; Birnbaum, Dietrich E.; Preuner, Juergen G.

    2007-10-19

    Diabetic endothelial dysfunction was characterized by altered levels of adhesion molecules and cytokines. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of diabetic serum on cell-growth and proinflammatory markers in human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVEC) from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic serum showed (1) complementary proliferative activity for non-diabetic and diabetic HSVEC, (2) unchanged surface expression of adhesion molecules, and (3) elevated levels of sICAM-1 in HSVEC of all donors. The concentration of sVCAM-1 was increased only in diabetic cells. The proinflammatory state of diabetic HSVEC characterized by increased levels of cytokines was compensated. We concluded that even under normoglycemic conditions the serum itself contains critical factors leading to abnormal regulation of inflammation in diabetics. We introduced an in vitro model of diabetes representing the endothelial situation at the beginning of diabetes (non-diabetic cells/diabetic serum) as well as the diabetic chronic state (diabetic cells/diabetic serum)

  18. Association of Abnormal Liver Function Parameters with HIV Serostatus and CD4 Count in Antiretroviral-Naive Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Rudakemwa, Emmanuel; Ndacyayisenga, Victorien; Gakindi, Léonard; Mulvihill, Michael; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Musabeyezu, Emmanuel; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV−) Rwandan women. In 2005, 710 HIV+ ART-naive and 226 HIV− women enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment. Liver enzymes were measured with abnormality defined as either AST or ALT ≥1.25 times the upper limit of normal. Low serum albumin level was defined as <3.5 g/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified independent predictors of elevated AST/ALT and low serum albumin. HIV− women had the lowest prevalence (6.6%) of abnormal AST/ALT, with the highest prevalence (16.4%) in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/μl (p=0.01). The odds of having serum albumin <3.5 g/dl was 5.7-fold higher in HIV+ than HIV− women (OR=5.68, 95% CI: 3.32–9.71). The risk of low albumin decreased from low to high CD4 count, with OR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.66, 4.14 and OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.43 in HIV+ women with a CD4 count <200 and 200–350 cells/μl, respectively vs. HIV+ with CD4 >350 (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for all comparisons). Our findings suggest that HIV-associated liver damage may occur in ART-naive patients. Although liver abnormality prevalences in this cohort of HIV-infected Rwandan women are less than reported in developed countries, caution is needed for risk assessment measures to monitor and screen HIV-infected patients pre- and post-ART initiation in African clinical settings to curtail potential risks associated with HIV infection. PMID:25924728

  19. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  2. Association of hypertension with coexistence of abnormal metabolism and inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Guiyan; Wang, Aili; Tong, Weijun; Zhang, Yonghong

    2013-06-01

    To explore association of hypertension with coexistence of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and abnormal metabolism, a community-based study was conducted among Mongolian people in China. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors were investigated, blood pressure, body weight and waist circumference were measured, fasting blood samples were obtained to measure blood lipids, fasting plasma glucose and the biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and angiotensin II. Rates of abnormal metabolism, elevated CRP, elevated sICAM-1, elevated sE-selectin and elevated angiotensin II as well as coexistence of abnormal metabolism with the elevated biomarkers were all higher in hypertensives than these in normotensives (all p < 0.01). Compared with subjects with normal metabolism and without any elevated biomarker, multivariate adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension associated with abnormal metabolism, elevated CRP, elevated sICAM-1, elevated sE-selectin, elevated angiotensin II, coexistences of abnormal metabolism with elevated CRP, elevated sICAM-1,elevated sE-selectin and elevated angiotensin II were 2.209 (1.594-3.062), 2.820 (1.992-3.992), 2.370 (1.665-3.374), 1.893 (1.331-2.691), 2.545 (1.793-3.612), 2.990 (2.102-4.252), 2.551 (1.775-3.667), 2.223 (1.544-3.220), 3.135 (2.185-4.519), respectively. In conclusion, this study indicated that inflammation and endothelial dysfunction was associated with hypertension and abnormal metabolism, and individuals with co-existence of abnormal metabolism with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction had higher risk of prevalent hypertension among Mongolian population. This study suggests that further study on treatment for hypertension patients with coexistence of abnormal metabolism with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction should be conducted in the near

  3. Abnormalities in Chromosomes 1q and 13 Independently Correlate With Factors of Poor Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyoung; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Hyoun Chan; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background We comprehensively profiled cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and analyzed the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities of undetermined prognostic significance and established prognostic factors. Methods The karyotype of 333 newly diagnosed MM cases was analyzed in association with established prognostic factors. Survival analysis was also performed. Results MM with abnormal karyotypes (41.1%) exhibited high international scoring system (ISS) stage, frequent IgA type, elevated IgG or IgA levels, elevated calcium levels, elevated creatine (Cr) levels, elevated β2-microglobulin levels, and decreased Hb levels. Structural abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 were independently associated with elevated levels of IgG or IgA, calcium, and Cr, respectively. Chromosome 13 abnormalities were associated with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 are associated with established factors for poor prognosis, irrespective of the presence of other concurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 13 abnormalities have a prognostic impact on overall survival in association with elevated Cr levels. Frequent centromeric breakpoints appear to be related to MM pathogenesis. PMID:27578511

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  6. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  7. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  8. Serum triiodothyronine determination in clinical use.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, J E; Lees, S; Watson, D

    1976-01-01

    Two radioimmunassays for the determination of serum triiodothyronine (T3) were developed. The assay of T3 in unextracted serum had several advantages over the assay on extracted serum and was chosen for the routine determination of T3 in serum from 117 patients requiring assessment of their thyroid status. In 53 subjects considered retrospectively not to have thyroid dysfunction nor to have been on steroid contraceptives or therapy, the pooled mean serum T3 concentration was 1-92 (actual range 0-88-2-62) nmol/l. A significant inverse relationship was observed between the serum T3 level and the age of the subject. Serum total T3 levels discriminate clearly between hypo-,eu- and hyperthyroid patients and provide a rather more sensitive index of hyperthyroid function than total serum T4. In the face of normal serum T4 the T3 level was depressed in five patients with marked hypoproteinaemia and elevated in two patients taking heroin. PMID:977774

  9. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  10. Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation

    PubMed Central

    MOGHADAM-KIA, SIAMAK; ODDIS, CHESTER V.; AGGARWAL, ROHIT

    2016-01-01

    How to manage a patient who has an elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level but no or insignificant muscle-related signs and symptoms is a clinical conundrum. The authors provide a systematic approach, including repeat testing after a period of rest, defining higher thresholds over which pursuing a diagnosis is worthwhile, and evaluating for a variety of nonneuromuscular causes. They also outline a workup for neuromuscular causes. PMID:26760521

  11. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  12. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hemolysis Hyperimmunization Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Immunofixation blood test Liver disease Malignancy Malnutrition Nephrotic syndrome Rheumatoid arthritis Serum globulin electrophoresis Serum iron test Systemic lupus erythematosus ...

  13. The presence of antibodies to oxidative modified proteins in serum from polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, J R; Iborra, A; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Badia, R; Martínez, P

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age. Free radicals, as a product of oxidative stress, impair cells and tissue properties related to human fertility. These free radicals, together with the oxidized molecules, may have a cytotoxic or deleterious effects on sperm and oocytes, on early embryo development or on the endometrium. Aldehyde-modified proteins are highly immunogenic and circulating autoantibodies to new epitopes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), may affect the reproductive system. Autoantibodies or elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum are often associated with inflammatory response. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether PCOS women show increased levels of oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) and anti-endometrial antibodies (AEA) in their sera, compared with control patients, and to determine whether AEA specificity is related to oxidized protein derivatives. Sera from 31 women [10 patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 21 women with male factor of infertility (control group)] were chosen from patients attending for infertility. Anti-endometrial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an endometrial cell line (RL-95). Antibodies against MDA modified human serum albumin (HSA–MDA) were also determined by ELISA. Oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum were determined by a colorimetric assay. Patients with PCOS have significantly higher levels of AEA and anti-HSA–MDA, as well as oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum than control patients. For the first time, we describe an autoimmune response in PCOS patients, in terms of AEA. The evidence of protein–MDA in the serum of these patients, together with the increased antibody reactivity to MDA-modified proteins (HSA–MDA) in vitro, supports the conclusion that oxidative stress may be one of the important causes for abnormal endometrial environment with poor embryo receptivity in PCOS patients. PMID:16634794

  14. Bacterial Endotoxin Activity in Human Serum Is Associated With Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lassenius, Mariann I.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaartinen, Kati; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Syrjänen, Jaana; Forsblom, Carol; Pörsti, Ilkka; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Mustonen, Jukka; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity in human serum is associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in type 1 diabetic patients with various degrees of kidney disease and patients with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum LPS activity was determined with the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate chromogenic end point assay in type 1 diabetic patients with a normal albumin excretion rate (n = 587), microalbuminuria (n = 144), macroalbuminuria (n = 173); patients with IgAGN (n = 98); and in nondiabetic control subjects (n = 345). The relationships of the LPS/HDL ratio and MetS-associated variables were evaluated with Pearson correlation. RESULTS The MetS was more prevalent in type 1 diabetic patients (48%) than in patients with IgAGN (15%). Diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria had a significantly higher serum LPS/HDL ratio than patients with IgAGN. In the normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic group, patients in the highest LPS/HDL quartile were diagnosed as having the MetS three times more frequently than patients in the lowest quartile (69 vs. 22%; P < 0.001). High LPS activity was associated with higher serum triglyceride concentration, earlier onset of diabetes, increased diastolic blood pressure, and elevated urinary excretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. CONCLUSIONS High serum LPS activity is strongly associated with the components of the MetS. Diabetic patients with kidney disease seem to be more susceptible to metabolic endotoxemia than patients with IgAGN. Bacterial endotoxins may thus play an important role in the development of the metabolic and vascular abnormalities commonly seen in obesity and diabetes-related diseases. PMID:21636801

  15. Expression of FGF23 is correlated with serum phosphate level in isolated fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Imanishi, Yasuo; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Wakasa, Kenichi; Kawata, Takehisa; Goto, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Koyano, Hajime M; Mochizuki, Ryuichi; Miki, Takami; Inaba, Masaaki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-04-11

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) patients sometimes suffer from concomitant hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia, resulting from renal phosphate wasting. It was recently reported that FD tissue in the patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) expressed fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), which is now known to be as a pathogenic phosphaturic factor in patients with oncogenic osteomalacia and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Since it remains controversial whether serum phosphate levels are influenced by FGF23 expressions in FD tissue, isolated FD patients without MAS syndrome were examined for the relationship between FGF23 expressions, circulating levels of FGF-23 and phosphate to negate the effects of MAS-associated endocrine abnormalities on serum phosphate. Eighteen paraffin embedded FD tissues and 2 frozen tissues were obtained for the study. Sixteen of 18 isolated FD tissues were successfully analyzed GNAS gene, which exhibited activated mutations observed in MAS. Eight of 16 FD tissues, which exhibited GNAS mutations, revealed positive staining for FGF-23. These evidence indicate that postzygotic activated mutations of GNAS is necessary for the FD tissue formation by mosaic distribution of mutated osteogenic cell lineage, but is not sufficient to elevate FGF23 expression causing generalized osteomalacia with severe renal phosphate wasting. The expression level of FGF23 in isolated FD tissue with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia determined by real-time PCR was abundant close to the levels in OOM tumors. Osteoblasts/osteocytes in woven bone were predominant source of circulating FGF-23 in FD tissues by immunohistochemistry. A negative correlation of the intensity of FGF-23 staining with serum inorganic phosphate levels indicated that the expression of FGF23 in focal FD tissues could be a prominent determinant of serum phosphate levels in isolated FD patient. These data provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of serum inorganic phosphate levels in

  16. Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Ingudomnukul, Erin; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Knickmeyer, Rebecca

    2007-05-01

    The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone (FT) levels, which are positively correlated with a number of autistic traits and inversely correlated with social development and empathy. A medical questionnaire was completed by n=54 women with ASC, n=74 mothers of children with ASC, and n=183 mothers of typically developing children to test whether women with ASC have an increased rate of testosterone-related medical conditions, and to see whether mothers of children with ASC show similar abnormalities, as part of the 'broader autism phenotype'. Compared to controls, significantly more women with ASC reported (a) hirsutism, (b) bisexuality or asexuality, (c) irregular menstrual cycle, (d) dysmenorrhea, (e) polycystic ovary syndrome, (f) severe acne, (g) epilepsy, (h) tomboyism, and (i) family history of ovarian, uterine, and prostate cancers, tumors, or growths. Compared to controls, significantly more mothers of ASC children reported (a) severe acne, (b) breast and uterine cancers, tumors, or growths, and (c) family history of ovarian and uterine cancers, tumors, or growths. These results suggest current hormone abnormalities in women with ASC and their mothers. Direct investigations of serum testosterone levels and genetic susceptibility to high testosterone production or sensitivity in women with ASC would illuminate the origin of these conditions. The relationship between FT and current testosterone levels also needs to be clarified. The present results may be relevant to understanding the increased male risk to developing autism.

  17. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-04-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.

  18. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal kidney function in children with sickle cell disease –a cross sectional review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal disease is a known contributor to mortality in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and renal abnormalities are evident in childhood. Hyperfiltration (evidenced by elevated glomerular filtration rate, GFR) occurs in children with SCD early in disease. However, the incidence of low GFR (<90 ml/min/1.73 m2) suggestive of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is not well established. The prevalence of hypertension is also not well known. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and CKD in a cohort of children with SCD. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients followed at the Rainbow Babies and Children’s Sickle Cell Disease Clinic who were seen during routine follow up visits. Inclusion criteria were all patients ages 3–18. Exclusion criteria included recent (within 2 weeks) hospitalization and/or episode of acute chest, pain crises, febrile illness or red blood cell transfusion. Data collected included serum creatinine, blood pressure and history of sickle cell complications (acute chest syndrome, stroke or stroke risk). Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using the updated Schwartz creatinine-based estimating formula. Analysis examined the associations among eGFR, blood pressure and sickle cell complications. The Institutional Review Board at University Hospitals Case Medical Center approved this study. Results A total of 48 children had complete data available. Mean eGFR was 140 mL/min/1.73 m2 +/- 34.9 (range 71.9-404.2 mL/min/1.73 m2). Four patients (8.3%) had eGFRs < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, 35 patients (72.9%) had eGFRs > 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 9 patients (18.8%) had eGFRs in the normal range. Eight patients (16.7%) had evidence of elevated blood pressures (pre-hypertension or hypertension). There was no correlation between eGFR and age, and no association of eGFR with acute chest or stroke risk. Conclusion In this SCD cohort, we identified abnormally low eGFR (suggestive of early CKD

  19. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  20. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis as only pathological finding at FDG-PET/CT in case of tumor marker elevation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria Luz Dominguez; Rayo, Juan Ignacio; Serrano, Justo; Infante, Jose Rafael; Garcia, Lucia; Duran, Carmen; Gomez-Caminero, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is an infrequent disease and although its treatment is palliative, earlier diagnosis will lead to prolonged survival and improve functional outcome. Whole-body FDG-PET allows the entire spinal cord to be examined noninvasively, so close attention should be paid to the spinal canal, since these lesions can easily be mistaken for physiologic uptake, sometimes there is no clinical suspicion and may occur without concurrent active cancer. We present a female patient with a history of carcinoma of the breast, who presented an elevation of serum tumor marker CA 15-3. An FDG-PET/CT study only revealed multiple abnormal uptake at the vertebral foramen at thoracic and lumbosacral regions suggesting leptomeningeal metastases that were confirmed by MRI and cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

  1. The National Map - Elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean; Evans, Gayla; Mauck, James; Hutchinson, John; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the USGS. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the island territories. The NED is derived from diverse source data sets that are processed to a specification with a consistent resolution, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED is the logical result of the maturation of the long-standing USGS elevation program, which for many years concentrated on production of topographic map quadrangle-based digital elevation models. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States. The NED is a multi-resolution dataset that is updated bimonthly to integrate newly available, improved elevation source data. NED data are available nationally at grid spacings of 1 arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, and at 1/3 and 1/9 arc-seconds (approximately 10 and 3 meters, respectively) for parts of the United States. Most of the NED for Alaska is available at 2-arc-second (about 60 meters) grid spacing, where only lower resolution source data exist. Part of Alaska is available at the 1/3-arc-second resolution, and plans are in development for a significant upgrade in elevation data coverage of the State over the next 5 years. Specifications for the NED include the following: *Coordinate system: Geographic (decimal degrees of latitude and longitude), *Horizontal datum: North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), *Vertical datum: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) over the conterminous United States and varies in other areas, and *Elevation units: Decimal meters.

  2. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  3. Sperm shape abnormalities in carbaryl-exposed employees

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Watchmaker, G.; Gordon, L.; Wong, K.; Moore, D.; Whorton, D.

    1981-01-01

    Semen was collected from 50 men occupationally exposed to carbaryl (1-naphthyl methyl carbamate) in a produciton plant for durations of 1 to 18 years and compared to semen from a control group of 34 unexposed, newly-hired workers. Employment, fertility, health, personal data, and blood samples were collected for each individual. Semen samples were analyzed for changes in sperm count, morphology, and frequency of sperm carrying double flourescent bodies (YFF). As a group, the exposed workers showed a significantly higher proportion of sperm with abnormal head shapes than did the control group (p < 0.005). Age, smoking habits, and medical problems did not appear to affect this result. This finding appears to be limited to men working in the carbaryl production area at the time of sampling. Sperm count and YFF did not show similar differences, which may be because they are known to be statistically less sensitive to small changes. Formerly exposed workers (away from carbaryl for an average of 6.3 years) showed a marginally significant elevation in sperm abnormalities compared to controls (p < .05, one-tailed statistical analyses) suggesting that the increase in abnormal morphology may not be reversible. However, the question of reversibility is sensitive to confounding factors and small sample sizes and, therefore, requires further study. With these data a definitive link between carbaryl exposure and human seminal defects cannot be established. Although a distinct effect on sperm morphology was seen in the exposed group, the increases in sperm shape abnormalities were not related to exposure dose (estimated by number of years on the job or job classification during the year prior to semen collection). Inexplicably, the increases in sperm abnormalities were seen primarily in currently exposed men who had worked with carbaryl for less than approximately 6 years. These findings suggest the need for further study since other workplace-related factor(s) may be responsible

  4. House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House: Southeast/Front Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Rear Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, House Plan - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  5. Striatal Abnormalities and Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Orr, Joseph M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica; Gupta, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals experiencing non-clinical psychosis (NCP) represent a critical group for improving understanding of etiological factors underlying the broader psychosis continuum. Although a wealth of evidence supports widespread neural dysfunction in formal psychosis, there has been little empirical evidence to support our understanding of putative vulnerability markers or brain structure in NCP. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of spontaneous movement abnormalities, a neural biomarker previously detected in NCP that is linked to abnormalities in the striatal dopamine. Methods We screened a total of 1,285 adolescents/young adults, and those scoring in the upper 15 percentile on a NCP scale were invited to participate; 20 of those invited agreed and these individuals were matched with healthy controls. Participants were administered a structural scan, clinical interviews, and an instrumental motor assessment. Results The NCP group showed elevated force variability, smaller putamen (but not caudate), and there was a significant relationship between motor dysfunction and striatal abnormalities for the sample. Elevated force variability was associated with both higher positive and negative symptoms, and there was a strong trend (p=.06) to suggest that smaller left putamen volumes were associated with elevated positive symptoms. Conclusions The results are among the first to suggest an association between neural structure and a risk marker in NCP. Findings indicate that vulnerabilities seen in schizophrenia also characterize the lower end of the psychosis spectrum. PMID:24156901

  6. Serum adipokine profiles in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.

  7. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  8. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  9. Serum selenium assay following serum ferritin assay

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.; Morris, J.S.; Hann, H.L.; Pulsipher, B.; Stahlhut, M.W.

    1986-08-01

    Stored serum samples can be an important research resource into the etiology of cancer. These sera cannot be replaced and should therefore be used to best advantage. In previous epidemiologic studies, only single serum constituents have been assayed in individual serum samples. For example, serum ferritin has been examined in samples stored for as long as 10 years at -20C for a possible relation with general mortality (1) and cancer death (2). Ferritin is the tissue iron-storage protein and is therefore subject to denaturation. Serum selenium has also been examined in relation to cancer risk in a prospective manner by using stored frozen serum samples (3, 4). The interactions of a variety of serum factors in relation to cancer risk would be a desirable research goal, except that the amounts of serum typically available in frozen serum banks are less than 1 ml. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine if a radioimmunoassay for ferritin affected a subsequent neutron activation assay for selenium on the same 0.1 ml serum sample.

  10. Abnormal Hypermethylation at Imprinting Control Regions in Patients with S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase (AHCY) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Motzek, Antje; Knežević, Jelena; Switzeny, Olivier J.; Cooper, Alexis; Barić, Ivo; Beluzić, Robert; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Vugrek, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in methionine metabolism caused by mutations in the AHCY gene. Main characteristics are psychomotor delay including delayed myelination and myopathy (hypotonia, absent tendon reflexes etc.) from birth, mostly associated with hypermethioninaemia, elevated serum creatine kinase levels and increased genome wide DNA methylation. The prime function of AHCY is to hydrolyse and efficiently remove S-adenosylhomocysteine, the by-product of transmethylation reactions and one of the most potent methyltransferase inhibitors. In this study, we set out to more specifically characterize DNA methylation changes in blood samples from patients with AHCY deficiency. Global DNA methylation was increased in two of three analysed patients. In addition, we analysed the DNA methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of six imprinted genes (MEST, SNRPN, LIT1, H19, GTL2 and PEG3) as well as Alu and LINE1 repetitive elements in seven patients. Three patients showed a hypermethylation in up to five imprinted gene DMRs. Abnormal methylation in Alu and LINE1 repetitive elements was not observed. We conclude that DNA hypermethylation seems to be a frequent but not a constant feature associated with AHCY deficiency that affects different genomic regions to different degrees. Thus AHCY deficiency may represent an ideal model disease for studying the molecular origins and biological consequences of DNA hypermethylation due to impaired cellular methylation status. PMID:26974671

  11. Abnormal Hypermethylation at Imprinting Control Regions in Patients with S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase (AHCY) Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Motzek, Antje; Knežević, Jelena; Switzeny, Olivier J; Cooper, Alexis; Barić, Ivo; Beluzić, Robert; Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G; Mudd, S Harvey; Vugrek, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in methionine metabolism caused by mutations in the AHCY gene. Main characteristics are psychomotor delay including delayed myelination and myopathy (hypotonia, absent tendon reflexes etc.) from birth, mostly associated with hypermethioninaemia, elevated serum creatine kinase levels and increased genome wide DNA methylation. The prime function of AHCY is to hydrolyse and efficiently remove S-adenosylhomocysteine, the by-product of transmethylation reactions and one of the most potent methyltransferase inhibitors. In this study, we set out to more specifically characterize DNA methylation changes in blood samples from patients with AHCY deficiency. Global DNA methylation was increased in two of three analysed patients. In addition, we analysed the DNA methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of six imprinted genes (MEST, SNRPN, LIT1, H19, GTL2 and PEG3) as well as Alu and LINE1 repetitive elements in seven patients. Three patients showed a hypermethylation in up to five imprinted gene DMRs. Abnormal methylation in Alu and LINE1 repetitive elements was not observed. We conclude that DNA hypermethylation seems to be a frequent but not a constant feature associated with AHCY deficiency that affects different genomic regions to different degrees. Thus AHCY deficiency may represent an ideal model disease for studying the molecular origins and biological consequences of DNA hypermethylation due to impaired cellular methylation status.

  12. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  13. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  14. A patient with serum creatinine of 61 mg/dl

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, S.; Srinivas, S.; Naveen, P. S. R.

    2017-01-01

    Spurious elevation of serum creatinine by Jaffe assay is known to occur due to a variety of substances. This results in subjecting the patient to invasive and complicated procedures such as dialysis. We report a rare case of false elevation of this renal parameter following exposure to an organic solvent. PMID:28182048

  15. Choline or CDP-choline attenuates coagulation abnormalities and prevents the development of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Zeki; Ozarda, Yesim; Cansev, Mehmet; Eralp, Oya; Kocaturk, Meric; Ulus, Ismail H

    2010-06-01

    Sepsis/endotoxemia causes platelet dysfunctions, abnormalities in coagulation and hemostatic mechanisms leading to organ dysfunctions and mortality. Choline prevents organ injury and improves survival during endotoxemia. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of choline or cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation and development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Dogs were treated intravenously (i.v.) with saline, choline (20 mg/kg), or CDP-choline (70 mg/kg) three times with 4-h intervals starting 5 min before i.v. injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg). Platelet counts and functions, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, coagulation factors, D-dimer and antithrombin (AT) were measured before and at 0.5-96 h after endotoxin. Circulating platelet, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and AT were decreased, whereas PT and aPTT were prolonged and serum D-dimer levels were elevated after endotoxin. Endotoxin-induced reductions in platelet counts and functions, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and AT were attenuated or blocked by choline or CDP-choline. Choline or CDP-choline blocked endotoxin-induced prolongation in PT and aPTT and enhancement in D-dimer. Elevated DIC scores were attenuated by choline and blocked by CDP-choline. Choline administration increased serum choline concentrations and caused bradycardia. Choline also increased choline and acetylcholine contents of circulating mononuclear cells and inhibited radioligand binding to their cholinergic receptors. These data show that choline administration, as choline chloride or CDP-choline, restores the abnormalities in the primary, secondary, and tertiary hemostasis and prevents the development of DIC during experimental endotoxemia in dogs probably by increasing both neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic activity.

  16. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  17. Abnormalities of zinc and copper during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, S F; Goodgame, J T; Smith, J C; Maher, M M; Makuch, R W; Henkin, R I; Brennan, M F

    1979-01-01

    Changes in serum zinc and copper levels were studied in 19 tumor bearing patients undergoing parenteral nutrition (TPN) for five to 42 days. Before initiation of intravenous feeding mean serum zinc and copper concentrations were within normal limits but during TPN levels decreased significantly below those measured prior to parenteral nutrition. During TPN nitrogen, zinc, and copper intake, urinary output and serum levels were studied prospectively in nine of these patients. These nine patients exhibited positive nitrogen retention based upon urinary nitrogen excretion, but elevated urinary zinc and copper excretion and lowered serum zinc and copper concentrations. Neither blood administration nor limited oral intake was consistently able to maintain normal serum levels of zinc or copper. Zinc and copper supplementation of hyperalimentation fluids in four patients studied for five to 16 days was successful in increasing serum zinc and copper levels in only two. The data obtained suggest that patients undergoing parenteral nutrition may require supplementation of zinc and copper to prevent deficiencies of these elements. PMID:103506

  18. Prothrombin Segovia: a new congenital abnormality of prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Rocha, E; Paramo, J A; Bascones, C; Fisac, P R; Cuesta, B; Fernandez, J

    1986-05-01

    A family with a new congenital dysprothrombinemia is presented. The propositus is a 21-yr-old man who presented simultaneously with hemartrosis of the left knee and an extensive hematoma following a minor trauma. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged. Prothrombin activity was very low when measured by biological assay using physiological activators (7% by one-stage method and 20% by two-stage method) or a Russel's viper venom-cephalin mixture (23%), Notechis scutatus scutatus venom (15%) and Echis carinatus venom (17%); in contrast, the level was found to be borderline to normal using Taipan viper venom (64%) and normal by both staphylocoagulase and immunologic methods. Family studies revealed consanguinity between the propositus' mother and father and both presented a 50% reduced prothrombin level when physiological activators or Echis carinatus viper venom were used. A line of identity between normal and abnormal prothrombin was observed on immunodiffusion. The migration of the abnormal prothrombin was less anodic and was not changed by the addition of calcium. The patient's serum showed 3 bands in the bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis system, whereas normal serum showed only 2 bands. The term prothrombin Segovia is proposed to define this new prothrombin abnormality.

  19. Elevated creatine kinase and transaminases in asymptomatic SBMA.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Eric J; Klein, Christopher J

    2007-02-01

    X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease) has a variable prognosis. Most male carriers are affected by their fourth or fifth decade of life, while some remain asymptomatic lifelong. Elevations of serum creatine kinase are well known to occur in clinically manifesting SBMA patients. Elevations prior to the onset of the clinical syndrome have not been reported. Here we report two cases of SBMA presenting with 'idiopathic' elevations of serum transaminases and creatine kinase a decade in advance of their symptomatic onset. These cases emphasize the need to consider SBMA and genetic testing for the androgen receptor trinucleotide CAG expansion in males otherwise healthy with 'idiopathic' elevated creatinine kinase.

  20. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  1. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ataga, K I; Orringer, E P

    2000-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia and the related hemoglobinopathies are associated with a large spectrum of renal abnormalities. The patients have impaired urinary concentrating ability, defects in urinary acidification and potassium excretion, and supranormal proximal tubular function. The latter is manifest by increased secretion of creatinine and by reabsorption of phosphorus and beta(2)-microglobulin. Young patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have supranormal renal hemodynamics with elevations in both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). These parameters decrease with age as well as following the administration of prostaglandin inhibitors. Proteinuria, a common finding in adults with sickle cell disease, may progress to the nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria, hypertension, and increasing anemia predict end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While ESRD can be managed by dialysis and/or renal transplantation, there may be an increased rate of complications in renal transplant recipients with SCD. Hematuria is seen in individuals with all of the SCDs as well as with sickle cell trait. In most cases the etiology of the hematuria turns out to be benign. However, there does appear to be an increased association between SCD and renal medullary carcinoma. Therefore, those SCD patients who present with hematuria should initially undergo a thorough evaluation in order to exclude this aggressive neoplasm. Papillary necrosis may occur due to medullary ischemia and infarction. Erythropoietin levels are usually lower than expected for their degree of anemia and decrease further as renal function deteriorates. An abnormal balance of renal prostaglandins may be responsible for some of the changes in sickle cell nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a component of the acute multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS). Finally, progression of sickle cell nephropathy to ESRD may be slowed by adequate control of hypertension and proteinuria. However, the prevention of the

  2. Carotid Vascular Abnormalities in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M. D.; Fleischer, J.; Rundek, T.; McMahon, D. J.; Homma, S.; Sacco, R.; Silverberg, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data on the presence, extent, and reversibility of cardiovascular disease in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are conflicting. Objective: This study evaluated carotid structure and function in PHPT patients compared with population-based controls. Design: This is a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted in a university hospital metabolic bone disease unit. Participants: Forty-nine men and women with PHPT and 991 controls without PHPT were studied. Outcome Measures: We measured carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque presence and thickness, and carotid stiffness, strain, and distensibility. Results: IMT, carotid plaque thickness, carotid stiffness, and distensibility were abnormal in PHPT patients, and IMT was higher in patients than controls (0.959 vs. 0.907 mm, P < 0.0001). In PHPT, PTH levels, but not calcium concentration, predicted carotid stiffness (P = 0.04), strain (P = 0.06), and distensibility (P = 0.07). Patients with increased carotid stiffness had significantly higher PTH levels than did those with normal stiffness (141 ± 48 vs. 94.9 ± 44 pg/ml, P = 0.002), and odds of abnormal stiffness increased 1.91 (confidence interval = 1.09–3.35; P = 0.024) for every 10 pg/ml increase in PTH, adjusted for age, creatinine, and albumin-corrected calcium. Conclusions: Mild PHPT is associated with subclinical carotid vascular manifestations. IMT, a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, is increased. Measures of carotid stiffness are associated with extent of PTH elevation, suggesting that those with more severe PHPT may have impaired vascular compliance and that PTH, rather than calcium, is the mediator. PMID:19755478

  3. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  4. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  5. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid tau in Wernicke encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Frijlink, Daphne W; Tilanus, Joachim J; Roks, Gerwin

    2012-08-08

    Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) commonly presents with oculomotor abnormalities, gait ataxia and confusion. WE can mimic rapidly progressive dementia syndromes, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau is frequently used for diagnosis of several dementia subtypes, predominantly CJD and Alzheimer's disease. The combination of very high CSF tau (tau) and normal phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels is almost exclusively seen in aggressive diseases, such as CJD. The authors present a case of a woman with WE, caused by chronic insufficient dietary intake, with highly elevated CSF tau and normal p-tau. The clinical symptoms and CSF findings raised the suspicion of CJD. However, shortly after immediate treatment with thiamine the patient clinically improved. At follow-up, 2.5 months later, she had made a good recovery. This case of rapidly progressive dementia illustrates that, even in the case of a highly elevated CSF tau, clinicians should be alert for treatable causes such as WE.

  6. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  8. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  9. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  10. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  11. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  12. Ocular abnormalities in multi-transfused beta-thalassemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Reza; Heydarian, Samira; Karami, Hosein; Shektaei, Mohammad Momeni; Dailami, Kiumars Noruzpour; Amiri, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh; Rezaee, Majid Reza Sheikh; Far, Asad Allah Farrokh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess ocular changes in thalassemia patients who have received multiple transfusions and chelate binding therapy in order to avoid iron accumulation. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 54 thalassemia major patients were selected as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as a control group. Ocular examination included visual acuity, refraction testing, slit lamp examination, funduscopy, tonometry, perimetry, tear break-up time test, and color vision testing were performed for all the participants. We computed the frequency and duration of blood transfusion, the mean serum ferritin level, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and type, duration, and daily dose of chelation therapy for thalassemia patients based on their records. Statistical Analysis Used: All data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 19. Results: All the thalassemic patients were asymptomatic, but abnormal ocular findings (dry eye (33.3%), cataract (10.2%), retinal pigment epithelium degeneration (16.7%), color vision deficiency (3.7%), and visual field defects (33.7%)) were seen in 68.5% of thalassemic group. The prevalence of ocular abnormalities in normal group was 19.4%, which was significantly lower than that in thalassemia patients (P = 0.000). No significant correlation was found between ocular abnormalities and mean serum ferritin level (P = 0.627) and mean hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.143). Correlation of number of blood transfusion with the presence of ocular abnormalities was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.005). Conclusions: As life expectancy for beta-thalassemia patients extends, regular ophthalmological evaluation to detect early changes in their ocular system is recommended. PMID:26632126

  13. Serum sickness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, R Y

    1986-01-01

    Numerous agents are known to cause serum sickness reactions. Although generally a benign disorder, serum sickness must be distinguished from various rheumatic and infectious disorders. The causative agent must be identified in order to avoid subsequent reactions. With the introduction of new drugs and biotechnically produced hormones and antibodies, new causes of serum sickness reactions are likely.

  14. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  15. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  16. Elevated calprotectin levels reveal bowel inflammation in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cypers, H; Varkas, G; Beeckman, S; Debusschere, K; Vogl, T; Roth, J; Drennan, M B; Lavric, M; Foell, D; Cuvelier, C A; De Vos, M; Delanghe, J; Van den Bosch, F; Elewaut, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microscopic bowel inflammation is present in up to 50% of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and is associated with more severe disease. Currently no reliable biomarkers exist to identify patients at risk. Calprotectin is a sensitive marker of neutrophilic inflammation, measurable in serum and stool. Objectives To assess whether serum and faecal calprotectin in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to identify patients with SpA at risk of microscopic bowel inflammation. Methods Serum calprotectin and CRP were measured in 125 patients with SpA. In 44 of these patients, faecal samples were available for calprotectin measurement. All 125 patients underwent an ileocolonoscopy to assess the presence of microscopic bowel inflammation. Results Microscopic bowel inflammation was present in 53 (42.4%) patients with SpA. Elevated serum calprotectin and CRP were independently associated with microscopic bowel inflammation. Faecal calprotectin was also significantly higher in patients with microscopic bowel inflammation. Patients with CRP and serum calprotectin elevated had a frequency of bowel inflammation of 64% vs 25% in patients with low levels of both. When either CRP or serum calprotectin was elevated, the risk was intermediate (40%) and measuring faecal calprotectin provided further differentiation. Hence we suggest a screening approach where initially serum calprotectin and CRP are assessed and, if necessary, faecal calprotectin. The model using this scenario provided an area under the ROC curve of 74.4% for detection of bowel inflammation. Conclusions Calprotectin measurements in stool and serum, in addition to CRP, may provide a promising strategy to identify patients with SpA at risk of bowel inflammation and could play a role in overall patient stratification. PMID:26698844

  17. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  18. Resveratrol reverses the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress on behavior, serum corticosterone levels and BDNF expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexiang; Xie, Kai; Yang, Xudong; Gu, Jianhua; Ge, Li; Wang, Xueer; Wang, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders and has been associated with the neuroendocrine system and alterations in specific brain proteins. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities, including potent antidepressant-like effects. The present study attempts to explore the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like action of resveratrol by measuring serum corticosterone levels and the content of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats exposed to the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Male Wistar rats were subjected to the CUMS protocol for a period of 5 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. Resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg/i.p. 5 weeks) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased locomotor activity) and the elevated serum corticosterone levels observed in stressed rats. Additionally, 5-weeks of CUMS exposure significantly decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala, and was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), while resveratrol treatment normalized these levels. All of these effects of resveratrol were essentially identical to that observed with the established antidepressant, desipramine. In conclusion, our study shows that resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats, mediated in part by normalizing serum corticosterone levels while up-regulating pERK, pCREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala.

  19. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  20. Uterine torsion and metabolic abnormalities in a cat with a pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Skye W.; Pacchiana, Philip D.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, intact female, Russian Blue cat was presented with abdominal distention, vaginal discharge, and a firm tubular structure palpable in the mid-abdomen. Serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a pyometra with uterine torsion; an ovariohysterectomy was performed. PMID:18481551

  1. Abnormal tyrosine metabolism in chronic cluster headache.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Giovanni; Leone, Massimo; Bussone, Gennaro; Fiore, Paola Di; Bolner, Andrea; Aguggia, Marco; Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Perini, Francesco; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gucciardi, Antonina; Leon, Alberta

    2017-02-01

    Objective Episodic cluster headache is characterized by abnormalities in tyrosine metabolism (i.e. elevated levels of dopamine, tyramine, octopamine and synephrine and low levels of noradrenalin in plasma and platelets.) It is unknown, however, if such biochemical anomalies are present and/or constitute a predisposing factor in chronic cluster headache. To test this hypothesis, we measured the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline together with those of elusive amines, such as tyramine, octopamine and synephrine, in plasma of chronic cluster patients and control individuals. Methods Plasma levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and trace amines, including tyramine, octopamine and synephrine, were measured in a group of 23 chronic cluster headache patients (10 chronic cluster ab initio and 13 transformed from episodic cluster), and 16 control participants. Results The plasma levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and tyramine were several times higher in chronic cluster headache patients compared with controls. The levels of octopamine and synephrine were significantly lower in plasma of these patients with respect to control individuals. Conclusions These results suggest that anomalies in tyrosine metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic cluster headache and constitute a predisposing factor for the transformation of the episodic into a chronic form of this primary headache.

  2. Severe ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated CA125 concentration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ryosuke; Imaeda, Kenro; Mizuno, Tatsuo; Wakami, Kazuko; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Naotsuka; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Joh, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Ascites caused by hypothyroidism is rare and the pathogenesis is unclear. Several reports have presented cases of progressive ascites with hypothyroidism and elevated tumor markers. We report a 31-year-old female case with massive ascites and elevated serum CA 125 concentrations. The patient had no typical feature of hypothyroidism except an accumulation of ascitic fluid which showed elevated total protein concentration and a high serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG). There was no finding of malignancy. Following thyroid hormone replacement, the ascites was completely resolved accompanied by reduced concentrations of serum CA125. In general, primary hypothyroidism with ascites presents with coexisting massive pericardial or pleural effusion. The massive ascites and increased serum CA125 concentrations may have led us to make the incorrect diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. The evaluation of thyroid function is useful to determine the pathology of high-protein ascites or elevated tumor markers, and ascites may be treatable by thyroid replacement therapy.

  3. [Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism.

  4. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    coated with 3Z Carbowax 20 M. Serum proteins were removed by precipitation with 0.5 M percholoric acid. The clear, protein -free supernatant was...this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...no ethanol, and who according to the history had been two days without any alcohol intake . DISCUSSION The source of the 2,3-butanediol found in the

  5. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  7. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-05-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15 l of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol ( UC)palmitoyl CoA, 200 g of serine and threonine and incubated at 37C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of ( UC)palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of ( UC)palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.

  8. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Guozhe; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 5919 hypertensive adults (2892 men and 3027 women) aged 35 years or older, was recruited from rural areas of China. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. The self-reported information was collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. The logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had significantly higher prevalences of all cardiometabolic risk factors than those without the HTGW phenotype (P < 0.001). Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had much higher possibilities to have all cardiometabolic risk factors, especially for 8.35 times more likely of having ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.92–11.79], 6.14 times more likely of having low HDL cholesterol (95% CI 4.98–7.58), 5.49 times more likely of having hyperuricemia (95% CI 4.40–6.86), and 4.32 times more likely of having 1 to 2 cardiometabolic risk factors (95% CI 3.68–5.07) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities (P < 0.05). This study concluded that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. The HTGW phenotype showed to be an important tool for monitoring of hypertensive adults with metabolic abnormalities, which is low cost, simple, and useful in clinical practice, especially in primary health care in the rural area of China. PMID:27930589

  9. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  10. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  11. Analysis of falsely elevated risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm in women with ovarian endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Jun; Lee, Ye Ji; Kim, Ranah; Lee, Da Yong; Won, Kyu-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of falsely elevated risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) in a group of women with pathologically confirmed endometrioma and to investigate the associated factors. Methods One hundred premenopausal women surgically diagnosed with ovarian endometrioma were selected. Preoperative clinical, laboratory, and surgical characteristics were compared between the elevated-risk group (ROMA-premenopausal value, ≥7.4%) and normal-risk group (ROMA-premenopausal value, <7.4%). Results Elevated ROMA was observed in 15 women (false positive rate, 15%). Excluding one woman with known chronic renal failure, we compared the characteristics of 99 women between the elevated-risk group (n=14) and the normalrisk group (n=85). None of the clinical and surgical variables distinguished the two groups. Serum level of CA 125 >82.3 U/mL and serum level of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) >46 pmol/L could predict an elevated ROMA test with a statistical significance. When serum level of HE4 ≤46 pmol/L, none of the women showed an elevated ROMA test, regardless of serum level of CA 125; however, 55.6% of the women showed an elevated ROMA test when serum level of HE4 >46 pmol/L and CA 125 ≤82.3 U/mL and all women showed an elevated ROMA test when serum level of HE4 >46 pmol/L and CA 125 >82.3 U/mL. Conclusion The incidence of falsely elevated ROMA was 15% in the group of women with pathologically confirmed endometrioma. Interpretation of the ROMA results should be cautious when serum level of HE4 >46 pmol/L and CA 125 >82.3 U/mL in women with suspicious ovarian endometrioma. PMID:27462596

  12. Electrocardiographic ST segment elevation: a comparison of AMI and non-AMI ECG syndromes.

    PubMed

    Brady, William J; Perron, Andrew D; Ullman, Edward A; Syverud, Scott A; Holstege, Christopher; Riviello, Ralph; Ghammaghami, Chris

    2002-11-01

    Chest pain (CP) patients presenting to the ED may manifest electrocardiographic ST segment elevation (STE). AMI (acute myocardial infarction) is a less frequent cause of such abnormality and one of many patterns responsible for ST segment elevation in ED CP patients. We performed a retrospective comparative review of the electrocardiographic features of various STE syndromes, focusing on differences between AMI and non-AMI syndromes. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) of consecutive ED adult CP patients (with 3 serial troponin I determinations) were interpreted by 3 attending emergency physicians. These ECGs with STE represented the study population used for analysis. Various electrocardiographic features such as STE, ST segment depression (STD), STE morphology, anatomic distribution of STE, and the number of leads with STE were recorded; derived values such as total STE, total ST segment deviation, and average STE per lead were calculated. Interobserver reliability concerning STE morphology was determined. AMI was diagnosed by abnormal serum troponin I values (>0.1 mg/dL) followed by a rise and fall of the serum marker; STE diagnoses of non-AMI causes were determined by medical record review. Five hundred ninety-nine CP patients were entered in the study with 212 (35%) individuals showing STE, 55 (26%) with electrocardiographic AMI and 157 (74%) with non-AMI electrocardiographic syndromes. Anatomic location within the AMI group included 32 inferior and inferior variants, 18 anterior and anterior variants, and 5 lateral; non-AMI anatomic locations included 56 inferior and inferior variants, 98 anterior and anterior variants, and 3 lateral; anterior STE occurred significantly more often in non-AMI syndromes. Total STE was 15.3 mm in AMI patients and 7.4 mm in non-AMI patients (P =.0004). The number of leads with STE was not significantly different between the two groups, 3.4 mm in AMI and 4.1 in non-AMI syndromes. ST segment elevation per lead was not significantly

  13. [Serum immunoglobulin E level in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N

    1976-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.

  14. Serum IgG subclasses in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoze; Li, Ping; Wu, Di; Xu, Dong; Hou, Yong; Wang, Qian; Li, Mengtao; Li, Yongzhe; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Shi, Qun

    2015-01-01

    To characterize serum IgG subclass levels in several autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We aimed to analyze serum IgG subclass distribution and to test whether serum IgG4 levels are elevated in these diseases. Serum IgG subclass levels from 102 pSS, 102 SSc, 100 SLE, and 59 PBC patients, as well as 40 healthy controls (HCs), were measured using the immunonephelometric assay. The distribution of IgG subclasses among these autoimmune diseases was analyzed. In this cross-sectional study, serum IgG1 (IgG1/IgG) and/or IgG3 (IgG3/IgG) were significantly increased, compared with those in HCs. Only 6.34% of patients had levels of serum IgG4 >135 mg/dL. There were no significant differences in the frequency of elevated serum IgG4 levels between patients and HC. In pSS, serum IgG1 levels were much higher than those in other disease groups, whereas serum IgG2 and IgG3 levels were most prominently increased in PBC. A strikingly different serum IgG subclass distribution was detected in patients with autoimmune diseases compared with HCs. Serum IgG subclass levels also showed distinct characteristics among different autoimmune diseases. Serum IgG4 levels in these patients were lower or not much higher than those in HCs, which differed from IgG4-related diseases.

  15. Lower extremity abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

    2003-08-01

    Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

  16. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  17. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared with controls, SD significantly increased serum ACTH, indicating that the SD model was successful. In the SD group, H&E staining revealed greater vessel hyperplasia in the synovial membrane and thicker hypertrophic layers in condylar cartilages. Compared with controls, RNA and protein expression of the inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α and the bone metabolism-related factor RANKL increased in condylar cartilage in the SD group, whereas OPG and the OPG/RANKL ratio decreased. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that OPG/RANKL immunopositive cells were mainly located in hypertrophic layers. Conclusions: These results suggest that sleep deprivation might play an important role in the occurrence and development of temporomandibular disorders, which may occur through abnormal secretion of inflammatory and bone metabolism-related factors. PMID:25785010

  18. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  19. Elevated temperature envelope forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gane, David H. (Inventor); Starowski, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Elevated temperature envelope forming includes enclosing a part blank and form tool within an envelope sealed against the atmosphere, heat treating the combination while forming pressure holds the envelope and part against the form tool, and allowing part cool down to occur in an inert atmosphere with forming pressure removed. The forming pressure is provided by evacuating the envelope and may be aided by differential force applied between the envelope and the form tool.

  20. Correlation of serum ghrelin levels with body mass index and carbohydrate metabolism in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Palik, E; Birkás, K D; Faludi, G; Karádi, I; Cseh, K

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome is higher in patients with schizophrenia than in the normal population. Atypical antipsychotic drugs are used in psychiatry since the beginning of 1990. These drugs differ from the "typical" antipsychotics used previously, as they have less extrapyramidal side effects, and because of this they are tolerated better, but are associated with weight-gain and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Ghrelin is an orexigen hormone partaking in body weight regulation. It is produced in the enteroendocrine P/D1 cells of the gastric mucosa and secreted to the circulation. The aim of our study was to determine ghrelin levels of atypical antipsychotic-treated patients in relationship with their body mass index (BMI) and carbohydrate metabolism. We measured the fasting serum ghrelin levels in 56 patients (male/female: 16/40, age mean+/-S.D.: 50.6+/-5.6 years) treated with atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidon and quetiapine), and in 75 healthy control subjects, age and gender matched (RIA Linco, USA) in relationship with their BMI and their fasting and 75 g OGTT 120 min blood glucose values. The serum ghrelin levels of the patient group were notably higher (1333+/-659 pg/ml) than in the control group (368+/-103, p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney). We found no difference among the four antipsychotics in weight-gain, diabetes prevalence and the serum ghrelin levels. The BMI of the patient group was significantly higher (29.3+/-7.2 kg/m2 versus 24.3+/-3.7 kg/m2, p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney); 32% of them had blood glucose abnormality (18/56). There was no difference between the ghrelin levels in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. We found a significant negative linear correlation between the serum ghrelin and BMI (r=-0.35, p=0.0078; Spearman), the ghrelin and fasting blood glucose (r=-0.32, p=0.015) and OGTT 75 g 120 min blood glucose levels (r=-0.27, p=0.036). The orexigen effect of elevated serum ghrelin levels can

  1. Gaucher iPSC-derived macrophages produce elevated levels of inflammatory mediators and serve as a new platform for therapeutic development

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Leelamma M.; Miller, Diana; Awad, Ola; Bose, Vivek; Lun, Yu; Park, Tea Soon; Zambidis, Elias T.; Sgambato, Judi A.; Feldman, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the acid beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene. The hallmark of GD is the presence of lipid-laden Gaucher macrophages, which infiltrate bone marrow and other organs. These pathological macrophages are believed to be the source of elevated levels of inflammatory mediators present in the serum of GD patients. The alteration in the immune environment caused by GD is believed to play a role in the increased risk of developing multiple myeloma and other malignancies in GD patients. To determine directly whether Gaucher macrophages are abnormally activated and if their functional defects can be reversed by pharmacological intervention, we generated GD macrophages by directed differentiation of human iPS cells (hiPSC) derived from patients with types 1, 2, and 3 GD. GD hiPSC-derived macrophages expressed higher levels of TNF alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta than control cells, and this phenotype was exacerbated by treatment with LPS. In addition, GD hiPSC macrophages exhibited a striking delay in clearance of phagocytosed red blood cells, recapitulating the presence of RBC remnants in Gaucher macrophages from bone marrow aspirates. Incubation of GD hiPSC macrophages with recombinant glucocerebrosidase, or with the chaperones isofagomine and ambroxol, corrected the abnormal phenotypes of GD macrophages to an extent that reflected their known clinical efficacies. We conclude that Gaucher macrophages are the likely source of the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators in the serum of GD patients, and that GD hiPSC are valuable new tools for studying disease mechanisms and drug discovery. PMID:24801745

  2. Prevalence of elevated anticardiolipin antibodies in pregnant women with unexplained elevations of alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yetman, D L; Kutteh, W H; Castorena, R; Brown, C; Baskin, L

    1997-04-01

    The goal was to determine what proportion of pregnant women with unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) have increased levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), and if this might explain the increased prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels of 12,295 pregnant women were evaluated at 15-19.5 gestational weeks. Elevated readings (> 2.5 MOM) were identified in 190 women (1.5%) and 86 (0.7%) of these had unexplained causes. Specimens (80) were recovered and ACA levels for cardiolipin were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Positive IgG ACA were identified in 10 out of 80 cases (12.5%) of elevated MSAFP; 3 out of 80 cases (3.8%) had positive IgM ACA. The control women with normal MSAFP levels had positive IgG ACA in 3 of 86 cases (3.5%) and 1 of 86 cases (1.2%) for IgM. Women with increased MSAFP and positive ACA had infants with an average birth weight of 2684 +/- 889 g compared to 2793 +/- 847 g in women with increased MSAFP and normal ACA. No significant differences in IgG ACA were found in pregnant women with unexplained elevated MSAFP (10/80, 12.5%) compared to women with normal MSAFP (3/86, 3.5%). As expected, lower birth weight was identified in women who had elevated MSAFP (2738 +/- 868 g) vs. women with normal MSAFP 3181 +/- 1082 g (P = 0.004), independent of ACA positivity.

  3. Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Niwa, Koichiro; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Jensen, Thomas; Bjornstad, Petter; Milagres, Tamara; Cicerchi, Christina; Song, Zhilin; Garcia, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Methods This study was a large-scale, single-center, retrospective 5-year cohort study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between 2004 and 2009. We analyzed 13,201 subjects who underwent annual medical examination of which 12,041 subjects (age 35 to 85) without DM and/or CKD were enrolled. This analysis evaluated age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, fasting glucose, BUN, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and calculated serum osmolarity. Results Elevated serum sodium was an independent risk factor for development of CKD (OR: 1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) after adjusted regression analysis with an 18 percent increased risk for every 5 mmol/L change in serum sodium. Calculated serum osmolarity was also an independent risk factor for CKD (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.05) as was BUN (OR: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06–1.10) (independent of serum creatinine). Conclusions Elevated serum sodium and calculated serum osmolarity are independent risk factors for developing CKD. This finding supports the role of limiting salt intake and preventing dehydration to reduce risk of CKD. PMID:28081152

  4. Serum PINP, PIIINP, galectin-3, and ST2 as surrogates of myocardial fibrosis and echocardiographic left venticular diastolic filling properties

    PubMed Central

    Lepojärvi, E. Samuli; Piira, Olli-Pekka; Pääkkö, Eija; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Risteli, Juha; Miettinen, Johanna A.; Perkiömäki, Juha S.; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Junttila, M. Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Background: Serum biomarkers have been proposed to reflect fibrosis of several human tissues, but their specific role in the detection of myocardial fibrosis has not been well-established. We studied the association between N-terminal propeptide of type I and III procollagen (PINP, PIIINP, respectively), galectin-3 (gal-3), soluble ST2 (ST2), and myocardial fibrosis measured by late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE CMR) and their relation to left ventricular diastolic filling properties measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/e') in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results: We determined the PINP, PIIINP, gal-3, and ST2 serum levels and performed LGE CMR and echocardiography on 63 patients with stable CAD without a history of prior myocardial infarction. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement T1 relaxation time was defined as a specific marker of myocardial fibrosis. ST2, PINP, and PIIINP did not have a significant correlation with the post-LGE T1 relaxation time tertiles (NS for all), but the lowest post-LGE T1 relaxation time tertile had significantly higher gal-3 values than the other two tertiles (p = 0.002 and 0.002) and higher E/é-values (p = 0.009) compared to the highest T1 relaxation time tertile. ST2 (p = 0.025 and 0.029), gal-3 (p = 0.003 and < 0.001) and PIIINP (p = 0.001 and 0.007) levels were also significantly higher in the highest E/é tertile, compared to the other two tertiles. Conclusions: Elevated serum levels of gal-3 reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis assessed by LGE CMR. Gal-3, ST2, and PIIINP are also elevated in patients with impaired LV diastolic function, suggesting that these biomarkers are useful surrogates of structural and functional abnormality of the myocardium. PMID:26217237

  5. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  6. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-15

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior.

  7. Failure of pyridoxine to suppress raised serum prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    de Waal, J M; Steyn, A F; Harms, J H; Slabber, C F; Pannall, P R

    1978-02-25

    Pyridoxine has been reported as having an antilactogenic effect, presumably by suppressing prolactin secretion. We have measured serum prolactin levels during pyridoxine administration in two groups of hyperprolactinaemic subjects. In normal postpartum women, the postdelivery fall in serum prolactin levels did not differ significantly in treated and control subjects. In patients with chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea, pyridoxine did not reduce the elevated levels. In neither group was milk production suppressed.

  8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST GABLE ELEVATIONS AND NORTH ELEVATIONS OF ENGINE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND ECCENTRIC HOUSE IN REAR NOTE ROD LINES IN FOREGROUND RIGHT. - Golden Oil Company, Lot 410 Lease, Sheffield Field, Donaldson, Warren County, PA

  9. 21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior of elevator, view from upper elevator room. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  10. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  11. first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest showing facade (east elevation) and north elevation - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Service Building, Between Williamson Drive & Green Street, adjacent to northern driveway behind Medical Officer's Quarters C, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  13. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  14. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  15. 3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  16. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in systemic sclerosis patients: correlation between NO levels and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    TAKAGI, K; KAWAGUCHI, Y; HARA, M; SUGIURA, T; HARIGAI, M; KAMATANI, N

    2003-01-01

    Vascular damage in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may be a factor in the abnormal regulation of several vasoactive agents. It has been well confirmed that plasma endothelin-1, as a vasoconstrictive factor, is elevated in patients with SSc. However, it is still controversial whether the levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), a strong vasodilator, are increased or decreased in SSc patients compared to healthy donors. In this study, we measured the levels of serum NO metabolites in SSc patients and determined the contribution of the excessive production of NO synthase (NOS)-2 by skin fibroblasts to NO synthesis. Serum NO levels of 45 patients with SSc were significantly higher than those of 20 healthy volunteers. In addition, some clinical features of SSc (the extent of skin fibrosis, short disease duration, and the complication of active fibrosing alveolitis) were all correlated positively with the levels of NO metabolites in SSc patients. To evaluate the levels of NOS-2 produced by skin fibroblasts, skin fibroblast cultures were established from SSc patients and healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that NOS-2 mRNA was spontaneously expressed in cultured fibroblasts derived from SSc patients, but not in those derived from healthy normal controls. Immunohistochemical staining also showed that NOS-2 proteins were detected in SSc fibroblasts but not in normal fibroblasts. The production of NO by cultured fibroblasts was visualized directly by a reagent (DAF-2 DA) used for the fluorescent detection of NO. Cultured SSc fibroblasts were capable of NO synthesis in culture media containing l-arginine, whereas normal fibroblasts (with no expression of NOS-2) did not synthesize detectable NO. These observations indicate that NO production is increased markedly in early-stage diffuse cutaneous SSc patients with active fibrosing alveolitis, and that constitutive NOS-2 expression in SSc fibroblasts may contribute to increased NO production. PMID

  17. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  18. Serum complement and immunoconglutinin in malnutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K

    1975-01-01

    Serum haemolytic complement activity and C3 were significantly decreased in 35 malnourished children. The changes were more pronounced in those with infection. Electrophoretically altered forms of complement C were detected in 14. There was an inverse correlation between C3 levels and immunoconglutinin titres. Nutritional rehabilitation and eradication of infection reversed the abnormalities. It is suggested that reduced complement function in malnutrition is the combined result of impaired synthesis, complement activation in vivo, and changes in plasma volume, and that it may contribute to an increased susceptibility to infection in undernourished individuals. PMID:807166

  19. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  20. Potential Metabolic Biomarkers to Identify Interstitial Lung Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong; Jia, Dongmei; Lin, Zhang; Guo, Baosheng; He, Bing; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Cheng; Liu, Zhongdi; Zhao, Ning; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Xinru; Lu, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Determining sensitive biomarkers in the peripheral blood to identify interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) is essential for the simple early diagnosis of ILAs. This study aimed to determine serum metabolic biomarkers of ILAs and the corresponding pathogenesis. Three groups of subjects undergoing health screening, including healthy subjects, subjects with ILAs, and subjects who were healthy initially and with ILAs one year later (Healthy→ILAs), were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects’ serum were analyzed by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolic characteristics of the ILAs subjects were discovered, and the corresponding biomarkers were predicted. The metabolomic data from the Healthy→ILAs subjects were collected for further verification. The results indicated that five serum metabolite alterations (up-regulated phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, betaine aldehyde and phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as down-regulated 1-acylglycerophosphocholine) were sensitive and reliable biomarkers for identifying ILAs. Perturbation of the corresponding biological pathways (RhoA signaling, mTOR/P70S6K signaling and phospholipase C signaling) might be at least partially responsible for the pathogenesis of ILAs. This study may provide a good template for determining the early diagnostic markers of subclinical disease status and for obtaining a better understanding of their pathogenesis. PMID:27438829

  1. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  3. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  4. A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, A; Ono, S; Shibata, M; Imai, T; Suzuki, M; Shimizu, N

    2001-01-01

    A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease.
Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI.
In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease.

 PMID:11723201

  5. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  6. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Alloy 718 crack growth experiments were conducted to assess the ability of the selected path-independent (P-I) integrals to describe the elevated temperature crack growth behavior. These tests were performed on single edge notch (SEN) specimens under displacement control with multiple extensometers to monitor the specimen and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The displacements in these tests were sufficiently high to induce bulk cyclic inelastic deformation of the specimen. Under these conditions, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter K does not correlate the crack growth data. The experimentally measured displacement gradients at the end of specimen gage length were used as the boundary conditions in elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) analyses. These analyses were performed with a node release approach using CYANIDE, a GEAE FEM code, which included a gap element which is capable of efficiently simulating crack closure. Excellent correlation was obtained between the experimentally measured and predicted variation of stress and CMOD with crack length and the stress-CMOD loops for Alloy 718 tests conducted at 538 C. This confirmed the accuracy of the FEM crack growth simulation approach. The experimentally measured crack growth rate data correlated well the selected P-I integrals. These investigations have produced significant progress in developing P-I integrals as non-linear fracture mechanics parameters. The results suggest that this methodology has the potential of accurately describing elevated temperature crack growth behavior under the combined influence of thermal cycling and bulk elastic-inelastic deformation states.

  7. Neocortical vasculature abnormalities in the Fragile X mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Ashley M; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-08-30

    The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited mental retardation. To date, the most prominent neuronal phenotype associated with the syndrome is an abundance of long thin spines exhibiting an immature morphology. However, in addition to synaptic abnormalities, recent case studies have demonstrated that Fragile X (FX) patients also exhibit abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF). To examine the role of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in altering CBF, we examined blood vessel density (BVD) in the visual cortex of Adult and Middle-aged FX mice. Analysis of Middle-aged FX mice demonstrated elevated BVD compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that FX mice exhibit a lack of age-induced BVD plasticity. However, Adult FX and wildtype mice did not exhibit consistent differences in BVD. These data demonstrate that FMRP is required for age-induced neocortical vasculature plasticity. Furthermore, these data suggest a new role for FMRP in blood vessel regulation that would have profound implications towards appropriately timed delivery of neuronal nutrients, thus contributing to or exacerbating FX cognitive and neuronal abnormalities.

  8. Serum phenylalanine screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... test to look for signs of the disease phenylketonuria (PKU). The test detects abnormally high levels of ... MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap P. Read More Phenylketonuria Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated by: Neil ...

  9. [Measurement of serum PSA by DELFIA PSA kit and its application for mass screening. The Gunma Urological Oncology Study Group].

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Watanabe, K; Higashi, H; Shinya, H; Okamura, K; Matsuo, Y; Yazima, H; Takezawa, Y; Yamanaka, H

    1993-09-01

    The significance of prostate specific antigen (PSA) measured by DELFIA PSA kit in the 1,177 serum samples examined by mass screening for prostate cancer was evaluated. All subjects were examined by questionnaire, digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and the subjects in whom prostate cancer was suspected from abnormal DRE and/or elevated PAP were recommended to receive the secondary screening for the presence of prostate cancer. All serum specimens used for this study were kept in our serum bank. The cut-off value was investigated between non-cancer subjects (diagnosed as normal, voiding disturbance or BPH) and prostate cancer patients. When the cut-off value was 2.89 ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as prostate marker was 80.6%, 90.0% and 89.4%, respectively. Therefore, the cut-off value was determined as 3.0 ng/ml. The significance of PSA was retrospectively evaluated compared to PAP in the subjects examined by our mass screening. Twenty eight of the 39 palpable prostate cancers which could not be detected from the PAP level were detected from the PSA level, namely the sensitivity of the detection using the PSA level is more excellent than that using PAP. However, the false negative rate obtained using PSA was high (30.3%) in the patients with stage B disease. The relationship among serum PSA concentration, prostate size estimated by DRE and age was investigated. PSA was increased with age and prostate size. This estimation should be confirmed by using an ultrasonography because the prostate size obtained by DRE is inaccurate as compared with that obtained by ultrasonography.

  10. Serum free light chains for monitoring multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mead, G P; Carr-Smith, H D; Drayson, M T; Morgan, G J; Child, J A; Bradwell, A R

    2004-08-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) are found in the serum and urine of patients with a number of B-cell proliferative disorders, including multiple myeloma. Automated immunoassays, which can measure FLC in serum, are useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of light chain (AL) amyloidosis, Bence Jones myeloma and non-secretory myeloma patients. We report the results of a study investigating the utility of serum FLC measurements in myeloma patients producing monoclonal intact immunoglobulin proteins. FLC concentrations were measured in presentation sera from 493 multiple myeloma patients with monoclonal, intact immunoglobulin proteins. Serial samples were assayed from 17 of these patients and the FLC measurements were compared with other disease markers. Serum FLC concentrations were abnormal in 96% of patients at presentation. FLC concentrations fell more rapidly in response to treatment than intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) and showed greater concordance with serum beta2 microglobulin concentrations and bone marrow plasma cell assessments. It was concluded that serum FLC assays could be used to follow the disease course in nearly all multiple myeloma patients. In addition, because of their short serum half-life, changes in serum FLC concentrations provide a rapid indication of the response to treatment.

  11. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  12. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  13. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  14. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  15. FOLH1/GCPII is elevated in IBD patients, and its inhibition ameliorates murine IBD abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Jiang, Weiwei; Zhai, Huihong; Wozniak, Krystyna M.; Stathis, Marigo; Hollinger, Kristen R.; Thomas, Ajit G.; Rojas, Camilo; Vornov, James J.; Marohn, Michael; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent gene-profiling analyses showed significant upregulation of the folate hydrolase (FOLH1) gene in the affected intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The FOLH1 gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein termed glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII). To establish that the previously reported increased gene expression was functional, we quantified the glutamate carboxypeptidase enzymatic activity in 31 surgical specimens and report a robust 2.8- to 41-fold increase in enzymatic activity in the affected intestinal mucosa of IBD patients compared with an uninvolved area in the same patients or intestinal mucosa from healthy controls. Using a human-to-mouse approach, we next showed a similar enzymatic increase in two well-validated IBD murine models and evaluated the therapeutic effect of the potent FOLH1/GCPII inhibitor 2-phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) (IC50 = 300 pM). In the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model, 2-PMPA inhibited the GCPII activity in the colonic mucosa by over 90% and substantially reduced the disease activity. The significance of the target was confirmed in FOLH1–/– mice who exhibited resistance to DSS treatment. In the murine IL-10–/– model of spontaneous colitis, daily 2-PMPA treatment also significantly reduced both macroscopic and microscopic disease severity. These results provide the first evidence of FOLH1/GCPII enzymatic inhibition as a therapeutic option for IBD. PMID:27536732

  16. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  17. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  18. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  19. [Serum sickness in diphtheria].

    PubMed

    Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I

    1999-01-01

    As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.

  20. [Relaxin in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Wiest, E; Armbruster, F P; Loeser, E L; Seeger, H; Voelter, W; Lippert, T H

    1997-01-01

    Relaxin was measured in serum and amniotic fluid of 136 pregnant women between the 12th and 38th gestational week by means of a new human relaxin-RIA. The pregnancies consisted of 111 pathology-free single fetuses, 10 with rhesus incompatibility, 7 with chromosomal aberration and 8 with sonographic diagnosed abnormalities. Relaxin could be detected in all samples tested the levels being ten times lower in amniotic fluid compared to serum. Serum relaxin levels showed a slight but not statistically significant decrease with increasing gestational age, in amniotic fluid relaxin values were consistent over the course of pregnancy. The ratio of amniotic fluid to serum relaxin displayed a statistically significant increase from the 12th to 23rd week of pregnancy. Individual courses of relaxin concentration in amniotic fluid revealed only low intra-individual variations but distinct inter-individual differences.

  1. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants caused by late-onset sepsis

    PubMed Central

    van den Dungen, F. A. M.; Vermeulen, R. J.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study describes cerebral ultrasound abnormalities caused by late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants with a gestational age of < 32 weeks and/or birthweight < 1500 grams. Methods The prospective study (“INFANT study”) included 117 preterm infants with suspected LOS. Proven LOS was defined as a positive blood culture after 72 hours of life. In case of coagulase-negative staphylococci an elevated C-reactive protein was additionally required to establish proven LOS. Patients were identified as proven LOS and patients with only clinical symptoms of LOS. Cerebral ultrasound images were obtained in the first week after birth, during/after LOS and before discharge. Cerebral findings were divided in no/minor and major abnormalities. Results Eighty-six preterm infants had proven LOS and 31 preterm infants had only clinical signs of LOS. Four infants were excluded because pre-existing major brain abnormalities. No significant differences (p = 0.624) for incidence of major brain abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound were found. Conclusion No differences were revealed in prevalence of major brain abnormalities between the groups with proven LOS and with clinical signs of LOS. Both infants with a gram negative sepsis developed major brain abnormalities, whereas only two of 66 preterm infants coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis developed major brain abnormalities. PMID:28301503

  2. The production and distribution of IL-6 and TNF-α in subcutaneous adipose tissue and their correlation with serum concentrations in Welsh ponies with equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Nicpoń, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    A main symptom of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) in ponies is pathological obesity characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat deposits and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the correlation with serum concentrations in peripheral blood of Welsh ponies. Based on clinical examination findings, the animals were divided into two groups: ponies affected with EMS (n = 8) and obese ponies (n = 8). The adipose tissue was examined using immunohistochemical analysis while concentrations IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Additionally, histological characterization of the adipose tissue was performed. The results obtained showed that IL-6 expression in adipose tissue biopsies derived from animals with EMS was enhanced while TNF-α levels of both groups were comparable. Compared to the obese ponies, EMS animals also had significantly elevated levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α. Histological analysis revealed macrophage infiltration and fibrosis in adipose tissue preparations from the EMS group. These data suggest that IL-6 may play a key role in the course of EMS in Welsh ponies. Our findings also demonstrated that analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum may serve as an additional tool for diagnosing EMS. PMID:25269712

  3. Imaging and serum biomarkers reflecting the functional efficacy of extended erythropoietin treatment in rats following infantile traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Shenandoah; Winer, Jesse L.; Berkner, Justin; Chan, Lindsay A. S.; Denson, Jesse L.; Maxwell, Jessie R.; Yang, Yirong; Sillerud, Laurel O.; Tasker, Robert C.; Meehan, William P.; Mannix, Rebekah; Jantzie, Lauren L.

    2017-01-01

    .001), potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2-DPs; p = 0.037), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-DPs; p = 0.002), as well as serum GFAP (serum GFAP-DPs; p = 0.001). In injured rats multiplex electrochemi-luminescence analyses on PID3 revealed elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα; p = 0.01) and chemokine (CXC) ligand 1 (CXCL1). Chronically, that is, in PID13–16 CCI-veh rats, as compared with sham rats, gait deficits were demonstrated (p = 0.033) but then were reversed (p = 0.022) with EPO treatment. Diffusion tensor MRI of the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and white matter in PID16–23 CCI-veh rats showed widespread injury and significant abnormalities of functional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD); MD, AD, and RD improved after EPO treatment. Chronically, P13–P28 CCI-veh rats also had elevated serum CXCL1 levels, which normalized in CCI-EPO rats. CONCLUSIONS Efficient translation of emerging neuro-reparative interventions dictates the use of age-appropriate preclinical models with human clinical trial–compatible biomarkers. In the present study, the authors showed that CCI produced chronic gait deficits in P12 rats that resolved with EPO treatment and that chronic imaging and serum biomarkers correlated with this improvement. PMID:26894518

  4. Imaging and serum biomarkers reflecting the functional efficacy of extended erythropoietin treatment in rats following infantile traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Shenandoah; Winer, Jesse L; Berkner, Justin; Chan, Lindsay A S; Denson, Jesse L; Maxwell, Jessie R; Yang, Yirong; Sillerud, Laurel O; Tasker, Robert C; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Jantzie, Lauren L

    2016-06-01

    .001), potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2-DPs; p = 0.037), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-DPs; p = 0.002), as well as serum GFAP (serum GFAP-DPs; p = 0.001). In injured rats multiplex electrochemiluminescence analyses on PID3 revealed elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα p = 0.01) and chemokine (CXC) ligand 1 (CXCL1). Chronically, that is, in PID13-16 CCI-veh rats, as compared with sham rats, gait deficits were demonstrated (p = 0.033) but then were reversed (p = 0.022) with EPO treatment. Diffusion tensor MRI of the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and white matter in PID16-23 CCI-veh rats showed widespread injury and significant abnormalities of functional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD); MD, AD, and RD improved after EPO treatment. Chronically, P13-P28 CCI-veh rats also had elevated serum CXCL1 levels, which normalized in CCI-EPO rats. CONCLUSIONS Efficient translation of emerging neuro-reparative interventions dictates the use of age-appropriate preclinical models with human clinical trial-compatible biomarkers. In the present study, the authors showed that CCI produced chronic gait deficits in P12 rats that resolved with EPO treatment and that chronic imaging and serum biomarkers correlated with this improvement.

  5. Maternal serum screening.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Maternal serum screening (MSS) measures three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, from which the risk of fetal Down syndrome or open neural tube defect is calculated. Initially, 8% of women will have positive results. I present a protocol for investigating these women. Family physicians should be informed about MSS so they can give their patients information and guidance. PMID:7524838

  6. Clinical associations of serum interleukin-17 in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Serum interleukin (IL)-17 concentrations have been reported to be increased in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but associations with clinical characteristics are not well understood. We characterized clinical associations of serum IL-17 in SLE. Methods We quantified IL-17 in serum samples from 98 SLE patients studied cross-sectionally, and in 246 samples from 75 of these patients followed longitudinally over two years. Disease activity was recorded using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2k. Serum IL-6, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and B cell activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) were also measured in these samples. Results Serum IL-17 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy donors (P <0.0001). No correlation was observed between serum IL-17 and SLEDAI-2k, at baseline or during longitudinal follow-up. However, we observed that SLEDAI-2k was positively correlated with IL-17/IL-6 ratio. Serum IL-17 was significantly increased in SLE patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease (P = 0.0298). A strong correlation was observed between serum IL-17 and IL-6 (r = 0.62, P <0.0001), and this relationship was observed regardless of disease activity and persisted when integrating cytokine levels over the period observed (r = 0.66, P <0.0001). A strong correlation of serum IL-17 was also observed with serum BAFF (r = 0.64, P <0.0001), and MIF (r = 0.36, P = 0.0016). Conclusions Serum IL-17 concentration correlates poorly with SLE disease activity but is significantly elevated in patients with CNS disease. IL-17/IL-6 ratio may be more useful than IL-17 or IL-6 alone to characterize Th17-driven disease, such as SLE. The association of other cytokines with serum IL-17 suggests that IL-17 may drive activation of diverse immune pathways in SLE. PMID:23968496

  7. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  8. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  9. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  10. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  11. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  12. G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of activated T-cell-mediated signalling but is not essential for muscle development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Melissa P; Doyle, Jamie R; Barry, Brenda; Beauvais, Ariane; Rozkalne, Anete; Piao, Xianhua; Lawlor, Michael W; Kopin, Alan S; Walsh, Christopher A; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian muscle cell differentiation is a complex process of multiple steps for which many of the factors involved have not yet been defined. In a screen to identify the regulators of myogenic cell fusion, we found that the gene for G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) was transiently up-regulated during the early fusion of human myoblasts. Human mutations in the gene for GPR56 cause the disease bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria; however, the consequences of receptor dysfunction on muscle development have not been explored. Using knockout mice, we defined the role of GPR56 in skeletal muscle. GPR56(-/-) myoblasts have decreased fusion and smaller myotube sizes in culture. In addition, a loss of GPR56 expression in muscle cells results in decreases or delays in the expression of myogenic differentiation 1, myogenin and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT)c2. Our data suggest that these abnormalities result from decreased GPR56-mediated serum response element and NFAT signalling. Despite these changes, no overt differences in phenotype were identified in the muscle of GPR56 knockout mice, which presented only a mild but statistically significant elevation of serum creatine kinase compared to wild-type. In agreement with these findings, clinical data from 13 bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria patients revealed mild serum creatine kinase increase in only two patients. In summary, targeted disruption of GPR56 in mice results in myoblast abnormalities. The absence of a severe muscle phenotype in GPR56 knockout mice and human patients suggests that other factors may compensate for the lack of this G-protein coupled receptor during muscle development and that the motor delay observed in these patients is likely not a result of primary muscle abnormalities.

  13. Lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, dietary intake, and drug use of older rural Iowa women.

    PubMed

    Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R

    1991-06-01

    Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.

  14. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen as a tumour marker in patients with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Y.; Kasai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Ichimura, T.; Yasui, T.; Sumi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background No potential tumour markers have been validated for prognosis in endometrial cancer. However, carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) is one of the most widely used tumour markers in various types of cancer. Although cea expression in endometrial cancer has been investigated, its prognostic value remains controversial, and no studies have investigated serum cea levels in large case series. In the present study, we investigated diagnostic and prognostic applications of serum cea for endometrial cancer. Methods This prospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Between January 2006 and December 2012, serum cea was measured prospectively in 215 patients with endometrial cancer and was subsequently measured during treatment and at scheduled follow-up examinations in patients with elevated baseline serum cea. Results During the study period, 215 patients (142 stage i, 19 stage ii, 32 stage iii, 22 stage iv) were treated for endometrial cancer. By the time of last follow-up, 52 had relapsed (24.2%), and the median follow-up duration was 45 months (range: 1–95 months). Elevated serum cea was identified in 25 patients (11.6%) and was associated with histologic type (p = 0.04), histologic grade (p = 0.03), and myometrial invasion depth (p = 0.01). Elevated serum cea was not related to clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, age, menopausal status, or body mass index. Relapse of disease was related to elevated serum cea (p = 0.006). Conclusions Serum cea is a potential prognostic indicator for endometrial cancer. PMID:27803603

  15. Serum hypercoagulability states in Coats’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Shields, Carol L; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Nili Ahmadabadi, Mehdi; Morsali, Fatemeh; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats’ disease versus a normal control group. Materials and methods In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats’ disease and 19 non-Coats’ patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated. Results The mean age for the Coats’ group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years), and for the control group it was 30.6 years (median 17 years, range: 2–82 years). In patients aged 10 years or younger, anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P≤0.01), homocysteine (P=0.03), and serum beta globulin (P<0.001) were associated with Coats’ disease. In those older than 10 years, higher serum protein S (P=0.04), beta globulin (P=0.05), and gamma globulin (P=0.04) were related to Coats’ diagnosis. After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats’ disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.1, P=0.02). Conclusion Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats’ disease. PMID:28223774

  16. Serum sickness-like reaction with clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.

  17. Brain white matter abnormality in a newborn infant with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients.

  18. Shoulder girdle elevation during neurodynamic testing: an assessable sign?

    PubMed

    Coppieters, M W; Stappaerts, K H; Staes, F F; Everaert, D G

    2001-05-01

    One of the signs advocated for monitoring during neurodynamic testing in the assessment of patients with upper quadrant disorders, is the response of the shoulder girdle. It is stated that a protective rising of the shoulder girdle is present when patients with neurogenic disorders are assessed and that the elevation is absent in asymptomatic subjects. As sensory responses are elicited in the majority of asymptomatic subjects and as the range of motion (ROM) is often limited during neurodynamic testing, it is questionable whether the elevation of the shoulder girdle would be absent in asymptomatic subjects. The aim of this study was to measure the shoulder girdle elevation force during five variants of the neural tissue provocation test for the median nerve. Thirty-five asymptomatic male subjects were assessed. A load cell was used to measure the amount of shoulder girdle elevation force and two electrogoniometers were used to measure the ROM at the elbow and wrist. When the ROM at the end of the test was restricted, a gradual increase in shoulder girdle elevation force could be observed throughout the test. Compared to the initial force at the start of the test, all variants resulted in a significant increase in force. It is concluded that a gradual increase in shoulder girdle elevation force should not be regarded as an abnormal sign in the interpretation of neurodynamic tests.

  19. Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve. An autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1981-07-01

    The distribution of transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve from eyes subjected to five hours of pressure elevation (perfusion pressure of 35 mm Hg) was studied. Tissue autoradiography and electron microscopy were used to localize regions of the lamina cribrosa with increased transport interruption. A preferential involvement by this transport abnormality involved the superior, temporal, and inferior portions, to the exclusion of the nasal portion, of the optic nerve head. This observation supports the hypothesis that transport interruption seen in this model may be pertinent to the study of clinical glaucomatous neuropathy.

  20. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  1. Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Root Cellar: Plan, Southeast/Side Elevation, Northwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  2. Serum copper concentration as an index of experimental lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Ischiropoulos, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury in two rat models of pneumotoxicity: hemithoracic irradiation and monocrotaline ingestion. In both models there was a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration. This hypercupremia paralleled the development of pulmonary endothelial dysfunction (decreased lung plasminogen activator activity and increased prostacyclin production) and pulmonary fibrosis (hydroxyproline accumulation). In the radiation model, lung injury and hypercupremia persisted for at least 6 months, and were spared similarly when the total dose was delivered in multiple daily fractions as compared to single doses. In irradiated rats, the elevated serum Cu concentration was accompanied by increases in plasma ceruloplasmin, lung Cu concentration, and lung Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In monocrotaline-treated rats, lung damage and hypercupremia also were accompanied by a reduction in liver Cu concentration, and by a direct correlation between the concentrations of Cu and SGOT in the serum. In both models, some but not all modifiers of lung damage (penicillamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, pentoxifylline) also partially prevented the insult-induced hypercupremia. In contrast, serum iron concentration was largely independent of treatment in all experiments. These data suggest that elevated serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in irradiated and monocrotaline-treated rats.

  3. [Does coffee drinking influence serum uric acid concentration?].

    PubMed

    Olak-Białoń, Bogusława; Marcisz, Czesław; Jonderko, Gerard; Olak, Zygfryd; Szymszal, Jan; Orzeł, Arkadiusz

    2004-01-01

    The drinking of coffee, a commonly used beverage, was a subject of many studies, mainly regarded to coffee influence on cardiovascular system. However, only one study indicates that coffee drinking in male adults may lead to decrease in serum uric acid level. Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor of many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of coffee drinking on serum uric acid concentration. 1955 working persons aged from 18 to 65 years were included into research. There were 571 women among them. We determined energy expenditure during professional work, blood pressure, body mass index, and measured serum levels of uric acid, glucose and creatinine. The amount of coffee and ethanol consumption was evaluated on the ground of an interview. It was showed that persons drinking coffee have lower serum uric acid concentration than non-drinkers, especially among women, who drank more coffee then men. Uricaemia was correlated negatively with number of cups of coffee consumed and positively with body mass index, ethanol consumption and diastolic blood pressure. The author conclude that: 1) among women drinking on an average 10 cups of coffee per week appeared a decrease in serum uric acid concentration and a lower risk of development of hyperuricaemia, 2) elevated serum uric acid concentration is accompanied by elevated blood pressure and increased body mass index.

  4. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  7. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  9. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  10. Serum Cystatin C as a Biomarker in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Nada E; Salah El-Din, Manal A; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M; El-Gayar, Amal M

    2017-03-08

    Elevated serum levels of cystatin C are found to be related to poor outcome and metastatic potential of some malignant disorders. To evaluate the clinical prominence of serum cystatin C in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), blood samples were obtained from 58 patients at the time of diagnosis and paired blood samples were obtained from 22 patients at the time of remission. Also, serum cystatin C level was measured in matched healthy controls. Serum cystatin C levels were significantly more elevated in DLBCL patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, paired-sample analysis revealed that pretreatment cystatin C levels were reduced significantly in patients who achieved remission after therapy (p = 0.016). High serum cystatin C levels were correlated with age over 60 years (p = 0.049), extra-nodal involvement (p = 0.005) and with high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.013). Elevated serum cystatin C levels were associated with extra-nodal involvement and they were significantly reduced to normal range after the remission. However, Kaplan-Meier curves revealed no survival difference in the pretreatment serum cystatin C levels. Therefore, serum cystatin C may be a novel biomarker that reflects tumor burden in DLBCL but bears no prognostic significance regarding survival.