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Sample records for abnormally expressed genes

  1. Association of abnormal morphology and altered gene expression in human preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dagan; Bermúdez, Mercedes G; Steuerwald, Nury; Malter, Henry E; Thornhill, Alan R; Cohen, Jacques

    2005-08-01

    We set out to characterize the expression of nine genes in human preimplantation embryos and determine whether abnormal morphology is associated with altered gene activity. Reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to quantify the expression of multiple genes in each embryo. The genes studied have various important cellular roles (e.g., cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and apoptosis). Research laboratory working closely with a clinical IVF practice. Over 50 embryos were donated by infertile patients (various etiologies). Among these, all major stages of preimplantation development and a variety of common morphologic abnormalities were represented. None. Quantification of mRNA transcripts. We detected an association between certain forms of abnormal morphology and disturbances of gene activity. Cellular fragmentation was associated with altered expression of several genes, including TP53, suggesting that fragmenting blastomeres are suffering stress of a type monitored by p53, possibly as a consequence of suboptimal culture conditions. Appropriate gene expression is vital for the regulation of metabolic pathways and key developmental events. Our data indicates a possible causal relationship between changes in gene expression and the formation of clinically relevant abnormal embryo morphologies. We hypothesize that embryos with expression profiles characteristic of good morphology and appropriate for their developmental stage have the greatest potential for implantation. If confirmed, this could lead to a new generation of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) tests for assessing embryo viability and predicting implantation potential.

  2. Gene expression abnormalities in histologically normal breast epithelium from patients with luminal type of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zubor, Pavol; Hatok, Jozef; Moricova, Petra; Kajo, Karol; Kapustova, Ivana; Mendelova, Andrea; Racay, Peter; Danko, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The gene expression profile of breast cancer has been described as a great breakthrough on the way to comprehend differences in cancer origin, behavior and therapy. However, gene expression profile in histologically normal epithelium (HNEpi) which could harbor genetic abnormalities predisposing breast tissue to develop malignancy was minor scope for scientists in the past. Thus, we aimed to analyze gene expressions in HNEpi and breast cancer tissue (BCTis) in order to establish its value as potential diagnostic marker for cancer development. We evaluated a panel of disease-specific genes in luminal type (A/B) of breast cancer and tumor surrounding HNEpi by qRT-PCR Array in 32 microdissected samples. There was 20.2 and 2.4% deregulation rate in genes with at least 2-fold or 5-fold over-expression between luminal (A/B) type breast carcinomas and tumor surrounding HNEpi, respectively. The high-grade luminal carcinomas showed higher number of deregulated genes compared to low-grade cases (50.6 vs. 23.8% with at least 2-fold deregulation rate). The main overexpressed genes in HNEpi were KLK5, SCGB1D2, GSN, EGFR and NGFR. The significant differences in gene expression between BCTis and HNEpi samples were revealed for BAG1, C3, CCNA2, CD44, FGF1, FOSL1, ID2, IL6R, NGFB, NGFR, PAPPA, PLAU, SERPINB5, THBS1 and TP53 gene (p < 0.05) and BCL2L2, CTSB, ITGB4, JUN, KIT, KLF5, SCGB1D2, SCGB2A1, SERPINE1 (p < 0.01), and EGFR, GABRP, GSN, MAP2K7 and THBS2 (p < 0.001), and GSN, KLK5 (p < 0.0001). The ontological gene analyses revealed high deregulations in gene group directly associated with breast cancer prognosis and origin.

  3. Gene expression during skeletal development in three osteopetrotic rat mutations. Evidence for osteoblast abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, V; Jackson, M E; Lian, J B; Stein, G S; Marks, S C

    1991-05-25

    Osteopetrosis is a group of metabolic bone diseases characterized by reductions in osteoclast development and/or function. These aspects of osteoclast biology are known to be influenced by osteoblasts and their products. To ascertain whether osteoblast dysfunction contributes to aberrations in the structural and functional properties of osteoclasts in osteopetrosis, we systematically examined gene expression as reflected by mRNA levels for a series of cell growth- and tissue-related genes associated with the osteoblast phenotype during skeletal development in normal and mutant rats of three different osteopetrotic stocks. We show that the methods used permit the reproducible isolation of undegraded total cellular RNA from bone and that mRNA levels can be reliably quantitated in these preparations. Each osteopetrotic mutation exhibits a distinct aberrant pattern of osteoblast gene expression that may be correlated with and explain some abnormalities in extracellular matrix composition, mineralization, osteoclast development, and effects of elevated serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, depending upon the mutation. Normal rats show minor variations in gene expression that reflect the genetic background (stock). This, the first comprehensive molecular analysis of osteoblast gene expression in osteopetrosis, suggests that some osteopetroses, particularly in the toothless rat, are associated with and potentially related to mechanisms associated with aberrations in osteoblast function. More generally, the present studies demonstrate alterations in gene expression as reflected by mRNA levels that are associated with functional properties of the osteoblast, particularly those contributing to the recruitment and/or differentiation of osteoclasts, thereby influencing skeletal modeling.

  4. CAFE: an R package for the detection of gross chromosomal abnormalities from gene expression microarray data.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Sander; Leddin, Mathias; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Mah, Nancy

    2014-05-15

    The current methods available to detect chromosomal abnormalities from DNA microarray expression data are cumbersome and inflexible. CAFE has been developed to alleviate these issues. It is implemented as an R package that analyzes Affymetrix *.CEL files and comes with flexible plotting functions, easing visualization of chromosomal abnormalities. CAFE is available from https://bitbucket.org/cob87icW6z/cafe/ as both source and compiled packages for Linux and Windows. It is released under the GPL version 3 license. CAFE will also be freely available from Bioconductor. sander.h.bollen@gmail.com or nancy.mah@mdc-berlin.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Abnormal gene expression profiles in human ovaries from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erik; Laven, Joop S E; Dommerholt, Henri B R; Polman, Jan; van Rijt, Cindy; van den Hurk, Caroline; Westland, Jolanda; Mosselman, Sietse; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2004-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. The current study is the first to describe consistent differences in gene expression profiles in human ovaries comparing PCOS patients vs. healthy normoovulatory individuals. The microarray analysis of PCOS vs. normal ovaries identifies dysregulated expression of genes encoding components of several biological pathways or systems such as Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix components, and immunological factors. Resulting data may provide novel clues for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Intriguingly, the gene expression profiles of ovaries from (long-term) androgen-treated female-to-male transsexuals (TSX) show considerable overlap with PCOS. This observation provides supportive evidence that androgens play a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Presented data may contribute to a better understanding of dysregulated pathways in PCOS, which might ultimately reveal novel leads for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Kouhei; Ohno, Ryoko; Yoshida, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids. PMID:28463975

  7. [Abnormality of TOP2A expression and its gene copy number variations in neuroblastic tumors].

    PubMed

    Chen, J M; Zhou, C J; Ma, X L; Guan, D D; Yang, L Y; Yue, P; Gong, L P

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To detect TOP2A protein expression and gene copy number alterations, and to analyze related clinical and pathological implications in pediatric neuroblastic tumors (NT). Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect TOP2A protein expression. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect numerical aberrations of TOP2A. Results: TOP2A protein was expressed in 59.1%(52/88) of cases, which was associated with differentiation ( P =0.006), Ki-67 index ( P <0.01) and MKI ( P =0.001). Twenty-eight cases (35.0%, 28/88) showed TOP2A gene amplification, which was correlated with the age ( P <0.01), clinical stage ( P =0.028), high risk group ( P =0.001), Ki-67 index ( P =0.040) and differentiation ( P =0.014). Survival analysis showed that TOP2A expression was related to survival rate. Multivariate analyses showed that TOP2A expression was an independent predictor for poor prognosis ( P =0.010). Conclusions: More than half of the cases show TOP2A expression, which is more likely associated with NB, high Ki-67 index and high MKI. Cases with TOP2A expression have shorter survivals and poorer prognosis. TOP2A amplification is seen in 35% and likely occurs in patients older than 18 months and at advanced INSS stages (Ⅲ and Ⅳ). As a target of the anthracycline-based adjuvant drugs, TOP2A test can be used to select patient with NT for the therapy.

  8. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Increased mitochondrial calcium sensitivity and abnormal expression of innate immunity genes precede dopaminergic defects in Pink1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akundi, Ravi S; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A; Sullivan, Patrick G; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-13

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca²+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice. Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice showed impaired Ca²+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca²+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1⁻/⁻ mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1⁻/⁻ mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1⁻/⁻ embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1⁻/⁻ mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Increased mitochondrial Ca²+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1⁻/⁻ mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant expression of genes that regulate innate

  10. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  11. Over-expression of a grape stilbene synthase gene in tomato induces parthenocarpy and causes abnormal pollen development.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, Ilaria; Bonsegna, Stefania; De Domenico, Stefania; Laddomada, Barbara; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo; Giovinazzo, Giovanna

    2011-10-01

    A novel strategy to induce parthenocarpy in tomato fruits by the induction of resveratrol biosynthesis in flower tissues was exploited. Two transgenic tomato lines were considered: a higher resveratrol-producing (35SS) line, constitutively expressing a grape stilbene synthase cDNA, and a lower resveratrol-producing (LoxS) line, expressing stilbene synthase under a fruit-specific promoter. The expression of the stilbene synthase gene affected flavonoid metabolism in a different manner in the transgenic lines, and in one of these, the 35SS line, resulted in complete male sterility. Resveratrol was synthesised either in 35SS or LoxS tomato flowers, at an even higher extent (about 8-10 times) in the former line. We further investigated whether stilbene synthase expression may have resulted in impaired naringenin accumulation during flower development. In the 35SS flowers, naringenin was significantly impaired by about 50%, probably due to metabolic competition. Conversely, the amount of glycosylated flavonols increased in transgenic flowers, thereby excluding the diminished production of flavonols as a reason for parthenocarpy in tomato. We further investigated whether resveratrol synthesis may have resulted changes to pollen structure. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of few and abnormal flake-like pollen grains in 35SS flowers with no germination capability. Finally, the analysis of coumaric and ferulic acids, the precursors of lignin and sporopollenin biosynthesis, revealed significant depletion of these compounds, therefore suggesting an impairment in structural compounds as a reason for pollen ablation. These overall outcomes, to the best of our knowledge, reveal for the first time the major role displayed by resveratrol synthesis on parthenocarpy in tomato fruits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Tomato Flower Abnormalities Induced by Low Temperatures Are Associated with Changes of Expression of MADS-Box Genes1

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Rafael; Angosto, Trinidad; Gómez, Pedro; Payán, Carmen; Capel, Juan; Huijser, Peter; Salinas, Julio; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Flower and fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were severely affected when plants were grown at low temperatures, displaying homeotic and meristic transformations and alterations in the fusion pattern of the organs. Most of these homeotic transformations modified the identity of stamens and carpels, giving rise to intermediate organs. Complete homeotic transformations were rarely found and always affected organs of the reproductive whorls. Meristic transformations were also commonly observed in the reproductive whorls, which developed with an excessive number of organs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that meristic transformations take place very early in the development of the flower and are related to a significant increase in the floral meristem size. However, homeotic transformations should occur later during the development of the organ primordia. Steady-state levels of transcripts corresponding to tomato MADS-box genes TM4, TM5, TM6, and TAG1 were greatly increased by low temperatures and could be related to these flower abnormalities. Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses showed that low temperatures also altered the stage-specific expression of TM4. PMID:9576778

  13. Abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms and Per gene expression in six-month-old triple transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meina; Zhou, Fang; Cao, Xiuli; Yang, Junting; Bai, Yu; Yan, Xudong; Cao, Jimin; Qi, Jinshun

    2018-05-29

    Circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD) is one of the iconic manifestations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease tightly associated with age, but the characteristics and gender difference of CRD occurred in AD have not been well demonstrated. Using 6-month-old triple transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD) without obvious brain pathological changes, we demonstrated the gender difference of CRD at this age. We further showed abnormal Per gene expression in the central clock suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the 3xTg-AD mice. Specifically, compared with the wide type (WT) mice, the 3xTg-AD mice showed disrupted circadian locomotor rhythms both at LD (light-dark 12 h:12 h) and DD (constant dark) conditions, such as increased activities in the resting phase, decreased and scattered activities in the active phase, decreased overall activity intensities, amplitude, robustness, and increased intradaily variability. We further observed that 3xTg-AD female mice showed obviously less CRD compared with the 3xTg-AD male mice, and female mice of both WT and 3xTg-AD were more active in locomotor activity. Accordingly, 3xTg-AD mice showed a phase delay in the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNA in the SCN, with the levels of Per1 and Per2 mRNA were significantly lower than that of WT mice at specific time points. We conclude that 3xTg-AD mice exhibit behavioral CRD at the age of six months with male gender preference, and these phenomena are at least partly associated with the alteration of Per1 and Per2 transcription patterns in the SCN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  15. [Abnormal expression of genes that regulate retinoid metabolism and signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E S; Zinovieva, O L; Oparina, N Yu; Prokofjeva, M M; Spirin, P V; Favorskaya, I A; Zborovskaya, I B; Lisitsyn, N A; Prassolov, V S; Mashkova, T D

    2016-01-01

    Retinoids are signaling molecules that control a wide variety of cellular processes and possess antitumor activity. This work presents a comprehensive description of changes in the expression of 23 genes that regulate retinoid metabolism and signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues obtained using RT-PCR. Even at early stages of malignant transformation, a significant decrease in ADH1B, ADH3, RDHL, and RALDH1 mRNA levels was observed in 82, 79, 73, and 64% of tumor specimens, respectively, and a considerable increase in AKR1B10 mRNA content was observed in 80% of tumors. Dramatic changes in the levels of these mRNAs can impair the synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid, a key natural regulatory retinoid. Apart from that, it was found that mRNA levels of nuclear retinoid receptor genes RXRγ, RARα, RXRα, and gene RDH11 were significantly decreased in 80, 67, 57, and 66% of tumor specimens, respectively. Thus, neoplastic transformation of lung tissue cells is accompanied with deregulated expression of key genes of retinoid metabolism and function.

  16. Activation of the hexosamine pathway causes oxidative stress and abnormal embryo gene expression: involvement in diabetic teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horal, Melissa; Zhang, Zhiquan; Stanton, Robert; Virkamäki, Antti; Loeken, Mary R

    2004-08-01

    Oxidative stress is critical to the teratogenic effects of diabetic pregnancy, yet the specific biochemical pathways responsible for oxidative stress have not been fully elucidated. The hexosamine pathway is activated in many tissues during diabetes and could contribute to oxidative stress by inhibiting the pentose shunt pathway, thereby diminishing production of the cellular antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). To test the hypothesis that activation of the hexosamine pathway might contribute to the teratogenic effects of diabetic pregnancy, pregnant mice were injected with glucose, to induce hyperglycemia, or glucosamine, to directly activate the hexosamine pathway. Embryo tissue fragments were also cultured in physiological glucose, high glucose, or physiological glucose plus glucosamine, to test effects on oxidative stress and embryo gene expression. Glucosamine increased hexosamine synthesis and inhibited pentose shunt activity. There was a trend for transient hyperglycemia to have the same effects, but they did not reach statistical significance. However, both glucose and glucosamine significantly decreased GSH, and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein fluorescence. Glucose and glucosamine inhibited expression of Pax-3, a gene required for neural tube closure both in vivo and in vitro, and increased neural tube defects (NTDs) in vivo; these effects were prevented by GSH ethyl ester. High glucose and glucosamine inhibited Pax-3 expression by embryo culture, but culture in glutamine-free media to block the hexosamine pathway prevented the inhibition of Pax-3 expression by high glucose. Activation of the hexosamine pathway causes oxidative stress through depletion of GSH and consequent disruption of embryo gene expression. Activation of this pathway may contribute to diabetic teratogenesis.

  17. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    PubMed Central

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  18. Disruption of the midkine gene (Mdk) resulted in altered expression of a calcium binding protein in the hippocampus of infant mice and their abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Kadomatsu, K; Yuasa, S; Muramatsu, H; Mamiya, T; Nabeshima, T; Fan, Q W; Ishiguro, K; Igakura, T; Matsubara, S; Kaname, T; Horiba, M; Saito, H; Muramatsu, T

    1998-12-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense and prolonged calretinin expression was found in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of the hippocampus of infant Mdk(-/-) mice. In infant Mdk(+/+) mice, calretinin expression in the granule cell layer was weaker, and had disappeared by 4 weeks after birth, when calretinin expression still persisted in Mdk(-/-) mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks after birth, Mdk(-/-) mice showed a deficit in their working memory, as revealed by a Y-maze test, and had an increased anxiety, as demonstrated by the elevated plus-maze test. Midkine plays an important role in the regulation of postnatal development of the hippocampus.

  19. Differences in MYB expression and gene abnormalities further confirm that salivary cribriform basal cell tumors and adenoid cystic carcinoma are two distinct tumor entities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Lei; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Gu, Ting; Li, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    In practices, some cases of salivary basal cell tumors that consist mainly of cribriform growth pattern are difficult to differentiate from adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). Identification of reliable molecular biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between them is required. Twenty-two cases of cribriform salivary basal cell tumors (at least 10% cribriform pattern present in each tumor) comprising 18 cases of basal cell adenoma (BCA) and four cases of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BcAC) were collected between 1985 and 2008. Twenty cases of cribriform AdCC were retrieved from our archives. MYB protein expression and gene abnormalities were detected in all cases by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, respectively. Neither MYB protein nor split genes were detected in any of the cases of cribriform basal cell tumors, while 55% (11/20) of cases of cribriform AdCC had MYB protein expression. High MYB expression was detected in 81.8% (9/11) cases, while low expression was found in the remaining cases. FISH analysis indicated that nine AdCC tumors with high MYB protein expression were split gene-positive, while MYB gene splitting was not detected in the 11 cases with low or absent MYB protein expression. The molecular changes in AdCC differ from those associated with cribriform basal cell tumors, which further confirms that cribriform basal cell tumors and AdCC are two distinct tumor entities. Simultaneous detection of MYB protein expression and the associated molecular changes could be beneficial in differentiating salivary cribriform basal cell tumors from AdCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Duplication of the EFNB1 Gene in Familial Hypertelorism: Imbalance in Ephrin-B1 Expression and Abnormal Phenotypes in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Babbs, Christian; Stewart, Helen S; Williams, Louise J; Connell, Lyndsey; Goriely, Anne; Twigg, Stephen RF; Smith, Kim; Lester, Tracy; Wilkie, Andrew OM

    2011-01-01

    Familial hypertelorism, characterized by widely spaced eyes, classically shows autosomal dominant inheritance (Teebi type), but some pedigrees are compatible with X-linkage. No mechanism has been described previously, but clinical similarity has been noted to craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS), which is caused by mutations in the X-linked EFNB1 gene. Here we report a family in which females in three generations presented with hypertelorism, but lacked either craniosynostosis or a grooved nasal tip, excluding CFNS. DNA sequencing of EFNB1 was normal, but further analysis revealed a duplication of 937 kb including EFNB1 and two flanking genes: PJA1 and STARD8. We found that the X chromosome bearing the duplication produces ∼1.6-fold more EFNB1 transcript than the normal X chromosome and propose that, in the context of X-inactivation, this difference in expression level of EFNB1 results in abnormal cell sorting leading to hypertelorism. To support this hypothesis, we provide evidence from a mouse model carrying a targeted human EFNB1 cDNA, that abnormal cell sorting occurs in the cranial region. Hence, we propose that X-linked cases resembling Teebi hypertelorism may have a similar mechanism to CFNS, and that cellular mosaicism for different levels of ephrin-B1 (as well as simple presence/absence) leads to craniofacial abnormalities. Hum Mutat 32:1–9, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21542058

  1. Dysregulation of gene expression in the striatum of BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin and associated abnormalities on molecular and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Yu-Taeger, Libo; Bonin, Michael; Stricker-Shaver, Janice; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Hoa Huu Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for the huntingtin protein (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) has been proposed to cause neuronal dysfunction and neuronal loss through multiple mechanisms. Transcriptional changes may be a core pathogenic feature of HD. Utilizing the Affymetrix platform we performed a genome-wide RNA expression analysis in two BACHD transgenic rat lines (TG5 and TG9) at 12 months of age, both of which carry full-length human mHTT but with different expression levels. By defining the threshold of significance at p < 0.01, we found 1608 genes and 871 genes differentially expressed in both TG5 and TG9 rats when compared to the wild type littermates, respectively. We only chose the highly up-/down-regulated genes for further analysis by setting an additional threshold of 1.5 fold change. Comparing gene expression profiles of human HD brains and BACHD rats revealed a high concordance in both functional and IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) canonical pathways relevant to HD. In addition, we investigated the causes leading to gene expression changes at molecular and protein levels in BACHD rats including the involvement of polyQ-containing transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP), Sp1 and CBP as well as the chromatin structure. We demonstrate that the BACHD rat model recapitulates the gene expression changes of the human disease supporting its role as a preclinical research animal model. We also show for the first time that TFIID complex formation is reduced, while soluble TBP is increased in an HD model. This finding suggests that mHTT is a competitor instead of a recruiter of polyQ-containing transcription factors in the transcription process in HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression.

    PubMed

    Márquez, C; Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I; Larsen, M H; Groner, A; Marquis, J; Magistretti, P J; Trono, D; Sandi, C

    2013-01-15

    Although adverse early life experiences have been found to increase lifetime risk to develop violent behaviors, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain unclear. We present a novel animal model for pathological aggression induced by peripubertal exposure to stress with face, construct and predictive validity. We show that male rats submitted to fear-induction experiences during the peripubertal period exhibit high and sustained rates of increased aggression at adulthood, even against unthreatening individuals, and increased testosterone/corticosterone ratio. They also exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala under both basal conditions (evaluated by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography) and after a resident-intruder (RI) test (evaluated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry), and hypoactivation of the medial orbitofrontal (MO) cortex after the social challenge. Alterations in the connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were linked to the aggressive phenotype. Increased and sustained expression levels of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene were found in the prefrontal cortex but not in the amygdala of peripubertally stressed animals. They were accompanied by increased activatory acetylation of histone H3, but not H4, at the promoter of the MAOA gene. Treatment with an MAOA inhibitor during adulthood reversed the peripuberty stress-induced antisocial behaviors. Beyond the characterization and validation of the model, we present novel data highlighting changes in the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex-and pointing at epigenetic control of the MAOA gene-in the establishment of the link between peripubertal stress and later pathological aggression. Our data emphasize the impact of biological factors triggered by peripubertal adverse experiences on the emergence of violent behaviors.

  3. Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, C; Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I; Larsen, M H; Groner, A; Marquis, J; Magistretti, P J; Trono, D; Sandi, C

    2013-01-01

    Although adverse early life experiences have been found to increase lifetime risk to develop violent behaviors, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain unclear. We present a novel animal model for pathological aggression induced by peripubertal exposure to stress with face, construct and predictive validity. We show that male rats submitted to fear-induction experiences during the peripubertal period exhibit high and sustained rates of increased aggression at adulthood, even against unthreatening individuals, and increased testosterone/corticosterone ratio. They also exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala under both basal conditions (evaluated by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography) and after a resident–intruder (RI) test (evaluated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry), and hypoactivation of the medial orbitofrontal (MO) cortex after the social challenge. Alterations in the connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were linked to the aggressive phenotype. Increased and sustained expression levels of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene were found in the prefrontal cortex but not in the amygdala of peripubertally stressed animals. They were accompanied by increased activatory acetylation of histone H3, but not H4, at the promoter of the MAOA gene. Treatment with an MAOA inhibitor during adulthood reversed the peripuberty stress-induced antisocial behaviors. Beyond the characterization and validation of the model, we present novel data highlighting changes in the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex—and pointing at epigenetic control of the MAOA gene—in the establishment of the link between peripubertal stress and later pathological aggression. Our data emphasize the impact of biological factors triggered by peripubertal adverse experiences on the emergence of violent behaviors. PMID:23321813

  4. Abnormal Expressions of DNA Glycosylase Genes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 Are Associated with Somatic Mutation Loads in Human Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Kato, Hisami; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Igarashi, Hisaki; Goto, Masanori; Tao, Hong; Inoue, Yusuke; Nakamura, Satoki; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of abnormalities in the DNA glycosylases NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 on human cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we found that the median somatic total mutation loads and the median somatic single nucleotide mutation loads exhibited significant inverse correlations with the median NEIL1 and NEIL2 expression levels and a significant positive correlation with the median NEIL3 expression level using data for 13 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subset of the cancer types exhibited reduced NEIL1 and NEIL2 expressions and elevated NEIL3 expression, and such abnormal expressions of NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 were also significantly associated with the mutation loads in cancer. As a mechanism underlying the reduced expression of NEIL1 in cancer, the epigenetic silencing of NEIL1 through promoter hypermethylation was found. Finally, we investigated the reason why an elevated NEIL3 expression level was associated with an increased number of somatic mutations in cancer and found that NEIL3 expression was positively correlated with the expression of APOBEC3B, a potent inducer of mutations, in diverse cancers. These results suggested that the abnormal expressions of NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 are involved in cancer through their association with the somatic mutation load.

  5. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hajime

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kgmore » for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene

  6. Ikaros gene expression and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tonnelle, Cécile; Calmels, Boris; Maroc, Christine; Gabert, Jean; Chabannon, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Ikaros (Ik) protein, or LyF1, was initially described as a protein binding to regulatory sequences of a number of genes expressed in murine lymphoid cells. Ikaros is a critical regulator of normal hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, as evidenced by dramatic defects in the lymphoid compartments, in homozygous animals with gene inactivation. Because differential splicing produces multiple isoforms with potentially different functions, Ikaros provides a unique model to study how post-transcriptional mechanisms may be involved in neoplastic processes. Indeed, several groups including ours have underlined evidences that expression of different Ikaros isoforms vary among different types of leukemias. The predominance of short isoforms in certain subsets is intriguing. Here, additional observations reinforced the hypothesis that Ikaros expression may be deregulated in human leukemias. Whether this is a cause or a consequence of the leukemic process remains speculative. Other human diseases however, provide examples of abnormal post-transcriptional regulations that have been further characterized.

  7. An XPA gene splicing mutation resulting in trace protein expression in an elderly patient with xeroderma pigmentosum group A without neurological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Endo, Y; Kusaka-Kikushima, A; Nakamaura, S; Nakazawa, Y; Ogi, T; Uryu, M; Tsuji, G; Furue, M; Moriwaki, S

    2017-07-01

    A certain relationship between XPA gene mutations and the severity of symptoms has been observed in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A). Patients with mutations within the DNA-binding domain usually exhibit severe symptoms, whereas splicing mutations in the same domain sometimes cause very mild symptoms. This inconsistency can be explained by a small amount of functional XPA protein produced from normally spliced transcripts. We herein report the case of an adult Japanese patient with XP-A with unusually mild symptoms. We identified a homozygous c.529G>A mutation in exon 4 of the XPA gene, which resulted in aberrant splicing with a 29-bp deletion in exon 4 causing a frameshift. Intact mRNA was observable, but a Western blot analysis failed to detect any normal XPA protein. We therefore evaluated the DNA repair capacity in normal cells in which the XPA expression was artificially diminished. The repair capacity was still present in cells with trace levels of the XPA protein. The repair capacity of the cells derived from our patient with mild symptoms was poor by comparison, but still significant compared with that of the cells derived from a patient with XP-A with severe symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that a trace level of XPA protein can still exert a relatively strong repair capacity, resulting in only a mild phenotype. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

  9. Abnormally high digestive enzyme activity and gene expression explain the contemporary evolution of a Diabrotica biotype able to feed on soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Spencer, Joseph L; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2012-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) (WCR) depends on the continuous availability of corn. Broad adoption of annual crop rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) exploited WCR biology to provide excellent WCR control, but this practice dramatically reduced landscape heterogeneity in East-central Illinois and imposed intense selection pressure. This selection resulted in behavioral changes and “rotation-resistant” (RR) WCR adults. Although soybeans are well defended against Coleopteran insects by cysteine protease inhibitors, RR-WCR feed on soybean foliage and remain long enough to deposit eggs that will hatch the following spring and larvae will feed on roots of planted corn. Other than documenting changes in insect mobility and egg laying behavior, 15 years of research have failed to identify any diagnostic differences between wild-type (WT)- and RR-WCR or a mechanism that allows for prolonged RR-WCR feeding and survival in soybean fields. We documented differences in behavior, physiology, digestive protease activity (threefold to fourfold increases), and protease gene expression in the gut of RR-WCR adults. Our data suggest that higher constitutive activity levels of cathepsin L are part of the mechanism that enables populations of WCR to circumvent soybean defenses, and thus, crop rotation. These new insights into the mechanism of WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory transcend the issue of RR-WCR diagnostics and management to link changes in insect gut proteolytic activity and behavior with landscape heterogeneity. The RR-WCR illustrates how agro-ecological factors can affect the evolution of insects in human-altered ecosystems. PMID:22957201

  10. GPER and ERα expression in abnormal endometrial proliferations.

    PubMed

    Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Pirici, Daniel; Bogdan, Maria; Ciurea, Tudorel; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Comănescu, Alexandru Cristian; Bălşeanu, Tudor Adrian; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Osiac, Eugen; Buga, Ana Maria; Ciurea, Marius Eugen

    2016-01-01

    G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), a particular extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER), seems not to be significantly involved in normal female phenotype development but especially associated with severe genital malignancies. This study investigated the GPER expression in different types of normal and abnormal proliferative endometrium, and the correlation with the presence of ERα. GPER was much highly expressed in cytoplasm (than onto cell membrane), contrary to ERα, which was almost exclusively located in the nucleus. Both ERs' densities were higher in columnar epithelial then in stromal cells, according with higher estrogen-sensitivity of epithelial cells. GPER and ERα density decreased as follows: complex endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) > simple endometrial hyperplasia (SHE) > normal proliferative endometrium (NPE) > atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH), ERα' density being constantly higher. In endometrial adenocarcinomas, both ERs were significant lower expressed, and widely varied, but GPER÷ERα ratio was significantly increased in high-grade lesions. The nuclear ERα is responsible for the genomic (the most important) mechanism of action of estrogens, involved in cell growth and multiplication. In normal and benign proliferations, ERα expression is increased as an evidence of its effects on cells with conserved architecture, in atypical and especially in malignant cells ERα's (and GPER's) density being much lower. Cytoplasmic GPER probably interfere with different tyrosine÷protein kinases signaling pathways, also involved in cell growth and proliferation. In benign endometrial lesions, GPER's presence is, at least partially, the result of an inductor effect of ERα on GPER gene transcription. In high-grade lesions, GPER÷ERα ratio was increased, demonstrating that GPER is involved per se in malignant endometrial proliferations.

  11. Gene Expression in Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  12. Cell cycle regulatory gene abnormalities are important determinants of leukemogenesis and disease biology in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stock, W; Tsai, T; Golden, C; Rankin, C; Sher, D; Slovak, M L; Pallavicini, M G; Radich, J P; Boldt, D H

    2000-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that cell cycle regulatory gene abnormalities are determinants of clinical outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we screened lymphoblasts from patients on a Southwest Oncology Group protocol for abnormalities of the genes, retinoblastoma (Rb), p53, p15(INK4B), and p16(INK4A). Aberrant expression occurred in 33 (85%) patients in the following frequencies: Rb, 51%; p16(INK4A), 41%; p53, 26%. Thirteen patients (33%) had abnormalities in 2 or more genes. Outcomes were compared in patients with 0 to 1 abnormality versus patients with multiple abnormalities. The 2 groups did not differ in a large number of clinical and laboratory characteristics. The CR rates for patients with 0 to 1 and multiple abnormalities were similar (69% and 54%, respectively). Patients with 0 to 1 abnormality had a median survival time of 25 months (n = 26; 95% CI, 13-46 months) versus 8 months (n = 13; 95% CI, 4-12 months) for those with multiple abnormalities (P <.01). Stem cells (CD34+lin-) were isolated from adult ALL bone marrows and tested for p16(INK4A) expression by immunocytochemistry. In 3 of 5 patients lymphoblasts and sorted stem cells lacked p16(INK4A) expression. In 2 other patients only 50% of sorted stem cells expressed p16(INK4A). By contrast, p16 expression was present in the CD34+ lin- compartment in 95% (median) of 9 patients whose lymphoblasts expressed p16(INK4A). Therefore, cell cycle regulatory gene abnormalities are frequently present in adult ALL lymphoblasts, and they may be important determinants of disease outcome. The presence of these abnormalities in the stem compartment suggests that they contribute to leukemogenesis. Eradication of the stem cell subset harboring these abnormalities may be important to achieve cure.

  13. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  14. Expression of human PQBP-1 in Drosophila impairs long-term memory and induces abnormal courtship.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Masao; Saitoe, Minoru; Qi, Mei-Ling; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2006-04-17

    Frame shift mutations of the polyglutamine binding protein-1 (PQBP1) gene lead to total or partial truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) and cause mental retardation in human patients. Interestingly, normal Drosophila homologue of PQBP-1 lacks CTD. As a model to analyze the molecular network of PQBP-1 affecting intelligence, we generated transgenic flies expressing human PQBP-1 with CTD. Pavlovian olfactory conditioning revealed that the transgenic flies showed disturbance of long-term memory. In addition, they showed abnormal courtship that male flies follow male flies. Abnormal functions of PQBP-1 or its binding partner might be linked to these symptoms.

  15. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  16. Expression of Mutant Human DISC1 in Mice Supports Abnormalities in Differentiation of Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Katsel, Pavel; Tan, Weilun; Abazyan, Bagrat; Davis, Kenneth L; Ross, Christopher; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Haroutunian, Vahram

    2011-01-01

    Abnormalities in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and OLG gene expression deficit have been described in schizophrenia (SZ). Recent studies revealed a critical requirement for Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in neural development. Transgenic mice with forebrain restricted expression of mutant human DISC1 (ΔhDISC1) are characterized by neuroanatomical and behavioral abnormalities reminiscent of some features of SZ. We sought to determine whether the expression of ΔhDISC1 may influence the development of OLGs in this mouse model. OLG- and cell cycle-associated gene and protein expression were characterized in the forebrain of ΔhDISC1 mice during different stages of neurodevelopment (E15 and P1 days) and in adulthood. The results suggest that the expression of ΔhDISC1 exerts a significant influence on oligodendrocyte differentiation and function, evidenced by premature OLG differentiation and increased proliferation of their progenitors. Additional findings showed that neuregulin 1 and its receptors may be contributing factors to the observed upregulation of OLG genes. Thus, OLG function may be perturbed by mutant hDISC1 in a model system that provides new avenues for studying aspects of the pathogenesis of SZ. PMID:21605958

  17. Gene expression systems in corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Preeti; Deb, J K

    2005-04-01

    Corynebacterium belongs to a group of gram-positive bacteria having moderate to high G+C content, the other members being Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus. Considerable information is now available on the plasmids, gene regulatory elements, and gene expression in corynebacteria, especially in soil corynebacteria such as Corynebacterium glutamicum. These bacteria are non-pathogenic and, unlike Bacillus and Streptomyces, are low in proteolytic activity and thus have the potential of becoming attractive systems for expression of heterologous proteins. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the organization of various regulatory elements, such as promoters, transcription terminators, and development of vectors for cloning and gene expression.

  18. Monoallelic Gene Expression in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chess, Andrew

    2016-11-23

    Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies. Another issue that has been raised in recent years by a number of publications is the question of how skewed allelic expression should be for it to be designated as monoallelic expression and, further, what methods are appropriate or inappropriate for analyzing genomic data to examine allele-specific expression. Perhaps the most exciting recent development in mammalian monoallelic expression is a clever and carefully executed analysis of genetic diversity of autosomal genes subject to random monoallelic expression (RMAE), which provides compelling evidence for distinct evolutionary forces acting on random monoallelically expressed genes.

  19. Hematopoietic progenitors express neural genes

    PubMed Central

    Goolsby, James; Marty, Marie C.; Heletz, Dafna; Chiappelli, Joshua; Tashko, Gerti; Yarnell, Deborah; Fishman, Paul S.; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Bever, Christopher T.; Pessac, Bernard; Trisler, David

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow, or cells selected from bone marrow, were reported recently to give rise to cells with a neural phenotype after in vitro treatment with neural-inducing factors or after delivery into the brain. However, we showed previously that untreated bone marrow cells express products of the neural myelin basic protein gene, and we demonstrate here that a subset of ex vivo bone marrow cells expresses the neurogenic transcription factor Pax-6 as well as neuronal genes encoding neurofilament H, NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), HuC/HuD (Hu-antigen C/Hu-antigen D), and GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65), as well as the oligodendroglial gene encoding CNPase (2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphohydrolase). In contrast, astroglial glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was not detected. These cells also were CD34+, a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Cultures of these highly proliferative CD34+ cells, derived from adult mouse bone marrow, uniformly displayed a phenotype comparable with that of hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD45+, CD34+, Sca-1+, AA4.1+, cKit+, GATA-2+, and LMO-2+). The neuronal and oligodendroglial genes expressed in ex vivo bone marrow also were expressed in all cultured CD34+ cells, and GFAP was not observed. After CD34+ cell transplantation into adult brain, neuronal or oligodendroglial markers segregated into distinct nonoverlapping cell populations, whereas astroglial GFAP appeared, in the absence of other neural markers, in a separate set of implanted cells. Thus, neuronal and oligodendroglial gene products are present in a subset of bone marrow cells, and the expression of these genes can be regulated in brain. The fact that these CD34+ cells also express transcription factors (Rex-1 and Oct-4) that are found in early development elicits the hypothesis that they may be pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells. PMID:14634211

  20. Expression of EGFP and NPTII protein is not associated with organ abnormalities in deceased transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Qian; Cui, Huiting; Li, Qinghe; Zhao, Yiqiang; Luo, Juan; Liu, Qiuyue; Sun, Xiuzhu; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2008-12-01

    Both enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase type II enzyme (NPTII) are widely used in transgenic studies, but their side effects have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of the two marker genes and the relationship between their expression and organ abnormalities. Eight transgenic cloned cattle were studied, four harboring both EGFP and NPTII, and four harboring only the NPTII gene. Four age-matched cloned cattle were used as controls. EGFP and NPTII expression were measured and detected by Q-PCR, Western blot, ELISA, and RIA in heart, liver, and lungs, and the values ranged from 0.3 to 5 microg/g. The expression profiles exhibited differential or mosaic pattern between the organs, the pathologic symptoms of which were identified, but were similar to those of age-matched cloned cattle. All data indicated that the expression of EGFP and NPTII is not associated with organ abnormalities in transgenic cloned cattle.

  1. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  2. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  3. DNMT3B modulates the expression of cancer-related genes and downregulates the expression of the gene VAV3 via methylation

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Arrieta, Irlanda; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2017-01-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic abnormalities in human cancer. DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferase, is clearly related to abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes and its overexpression contributes to oncogenic processes and tumorigenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells on global gene expression and on the methylation of selected genes to the identification of genes that can be target of DNMT3B. We found that the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells, modulate the expression of genes related to cancer, downregulated the expression of 151 genes with CpG islands and downregulated the expression of the VAV3 gene via methylation of its promoter. These results highlight the importance of DNMT3B in gene expression and human cancer. PMID:28123849

  4. DNMT3B modulates the expression of cancer-related genes and downregulates the expression of the gene VAV3 via methylation.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Arrieta, Irlanda; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2017-01-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic abnormalities in human cancer. DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferase, is clearly related to abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes and its overexpression contributes to oncogenic processes and tumorigenesis in vivo . The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells on global gene expression and on the methylation of selected genes to the identification of genes that can be target of DNMT3B. We found that the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells, modulate the expression of genes related to cancer, downregulated the expression of 151 genes with CpG islands and downregulated the expression of the VAV3 gene via methylation of its promoter. These results highlight the importance of DNMT3B in gene expression and human cancer.

  5. Models of stochastic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Johan

    2005-06-01

    Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process: Genes are activated and inactivated by random association and dissociation events, transcription is typically rare, and many proteins are present in low numbers per cell. The last few years have seen an explosion in the stochastic modeling of these processes, predicting protein fluctuations in terms of the frequencies of the probabilistic events. Here I discuss commonalities between theoretical descriptions, focusing on a gene-mRNA-protein model that includes most published studies as special cases. I also show how expression bursts can be explained as simplistic time-averaging, and how generic approximations can allow for concrete interpretations without requiring concrete assumptions. Measures and nomenclature are discussed to some extent and the modeling literature is briefly reviewed.

  6. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  7. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a “primitive” vascular tissue (a lycophyte), as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte), and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non-vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT, and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants. PMID:23882276

  8. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Jose M.G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is a process central to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges to the use of traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and other properties of gene regulation, including precision and flexibility of the transcriptional responses. PMID:23790365

  9. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Hulver, Matthew W; Berggren, Jason R; Carper, Michael J; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M; Hoffman, Eric P; Thyfault, John P; Stevens, Robert; Dohm, G Lynis; Houmard, Joseph A; Muoio, Deborah M

    2005-10-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and accumulation of intramyocellular triacylglycerol, but the underlying cause of these perturbations are yet unknown. Herein, we show that the lipogenic gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), is robustly up-regulated in skeletal muscle from extremely obese humans. High expression and activity of SCD1, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, increased triacylglycerol synthesis and increased monounsaturation of muscle lipids. Elevated SCD1 expression and abnormal lipid partitioning were retained in primary skeletal myocytes derived from obese compared to lean donors, implying that these traits might be driven by epigenetic and/or heritable mechanisms. Overexpression of human SCD1 in myotubes from lean subjects was sufficient to mimic the obese phenotype. These results suggest that elevated expression of SCD1 in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism and progression of obesity.

  11. Small Molecule Disrupts Abnormal Gene Fusion Associated with Leukemia | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Rare chromosomal abnormalities, called chromosomal translocations, in which part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome, can result in the generation of chimeric proteins. These aberrant proteins have unpredictable, and sometimes harmful, functions, including uncontrolled cell growth that can lead to cancer. One type of translocation, in which a portion of the gene encoding nucleoporin 98 (NUP98)—one of about 50 proteins comprising the nuclear pore complex through which proteins are shuttled into and out of the nucleus—fuses with another gene, has been shown to result in improper histone modifications. These abnormalities alter the gene expression patterns of certain types of hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells, resulting primarily in overexpression of the Hoxa7, Hoxa9,and Hoxa10 genes. NUP98 chromosomal translocations have been associated with many types of leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (CML-bc), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

  12. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR) is associated with abnormal enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Arquitt, C K; Boyd, C; Wright, J T

    2002-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a chloride ion transport disorder, is caused by mutations of the cftr gene and is the most common autosomal-recessive heritable disease in Caucasians. CFTR knockout mice have enamel with crystallite defects, retained protein, and hypomineralization, suggesting a role for CFTR in enamel formation and mineralization. This investigation examined CFTR expression and elemental composition in developing murine incisor teeth. RT-PCR showed cftr mRNA expression in the normal mouse apical incisor tissue but not in the CFTR knockout tissue. Elemental analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed relatively decreased chloride in secretory-stage CF enamel. Iron and potassium were significantly increased, and calcium was significantly decreased (p value = 0.05) in the CF mature enamel. Abnormal enamel mineralization, ion concentrations, and molecular evidence of cftr mRNA expression by odontogenic cells strongly suggest that CFTR plays an important role in enamel formation.

  13. The Gene Expression Omnibus Database.

    PubMed

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome-protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/.

  14. The Gene Expression Omnibus database

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome–protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/. PMID:27008011

  15. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Intranuclear inclusions of meningioma associated with abnormal cytoskeletal protein expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Hirato, J; Sasaki, A; Yokoo, H; Nakazato, Y; Kurachi, H

    1999-01-01

    We describe a case of meningothelial meningioma with a large number of intranuclear inclusions. Morphologically, these are divided into cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear vacuoles. The cytoplasmic inclusion has a limiting membrane with cell organelles and filaments. Inclusions of this type are generally eosinophilic, like the cytoplasm. However, there are many inclusions that are more eosinophilic than the cytoplasm or that have a ground-glass appearance. Some of them may contain fine or coarse granules. On the other hand, the nuclear vacuole lacks a limiting membrane and appears empty. In most of the inclusions of this type, there is a faintly basophilic substance in the margin. Generally, the cytoplasmic inclusions are as immunopositive as cytoplasm with vimentin, but some of these cytoplasmic inclusions are more reactive. Under the electron microscope, abnormal aggregation of intermediate filaments is recognized in the cytoplasmic inclusions. It is considered that a strong reaction of cytoplasmic inclusions with vimentin immunostaining is due to abnormal aggregation of intermediate filaments. The present study distinctly demonstrates abnormal localization of intermediate filaments in the cytoplasmic inclusions, and it is suggested that the cytoskeleton participates in the evolution of the cytoplasmic inclusions.

  17. Imprinted gene expression in fetal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, L; Marsit, C J; Sharma, P; Maccani, M; Ma, Y; Hu, J; Chen, J

    2012-06-01

    Experimental studies showed that genomic imprinting is fundamental in fetoplacental development by timely regulating the expression of the imprinted genes to overlook a set of events determining placenta implantation, growth and embryogenesis. We examined the expression profile of 22 imprinted genes which have been linked to pregnancy abnormalities that may ultimately influence childhood development. The study was conducted in a subset of 106 placenta samples, overrepresented with small and large for gestational age cases, from the Rhode Island Child Health Study. We investigated associations between imprinted gene expression and three fetal development parameters: newborn head circumference, birth weight, and size for gestational age. Results from our investigation show that the maternally imprinted/paternally expressed gene ZNF331 inversely associates with each parameter to drive smaller fetal size, while paternally imprinted/maternally expressed gene SLC22A18 directly associates with the newborn head circumference promoting growth. Multidimensional Scaling analysis revealed two clusters within the 22 imprinted genes which are independently associated with fetoplacental development. Our data suggest that cluster 1 genes work by assuring cell growth and tissue development, while cluster 2 genes act by coordinating these processes. Results from this epidemiologic study offer solid support for the key role of imprinting in fetoplacental development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. VH gene family expression in mice with the xid defect

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Preferential use of particular VH gene families in the response to specific antigens has been demonstrated in several systems. The lack of responses to certain types of antigens, therefore, could be the result of deletion of or failure to express some VH genes. Because CBA/N mice, which carry the X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) gene defect, have been shown to be unresponsive to thymus-independent polysaccharide antigens, it was of interest to examine if this unresponsiveness could be accounted for by abnormal expression of particular VH gene families. Using in situ hybridization on B cell colonies, we determined the expression of nine VH gene families in CBA/CaHN females (genotypically normal), CBA/N males (xid) and females (xid), and (CBA/N x CBA/CaHN)F1 males (xid) and females (phenotypically normal). Our results indicate that VH gene family expression, including the S107 family, in CBA/N males and F1 males, is similar to that of CBA/CaHN and F1 females with predominant expression of J558, the largest gene family, in all individuals. Interestingly, CBA/N female mice, which carry two defective X chromosomes, as a group expressed significantly reduced levels of the J558 gene family, and as individuals showed variation in which family was predominantly expressed. We conclude that the unresponsiveness of mice with the xid defect to polysaccharide antigens can not attributed to a failure to express the nine VH gene families that we examined. Our findings do not support previous studies (Primi, D., and P.-A. Cazenave 1986. J. Exp. Med. 165:357), which found an absence of expression of the S107 family in xid mice. PMID:1711566

  19. Gene expression in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosane; Araripe, Júlia R; Rondinelli, Edson; Urményi, Turán P

    2004-03-31

    The repertoire of 4,431 open reading frames (ORFs), eight rRNA operons and 98 tRNA genes of Chromobacterium violaceum must be expressed in a regulated manner for successful adaptation to a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this feat, the organism relies on protein machineries involved in transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of the C. violaceum genome showed that transcription initiation, elongation and termination are performed by the five well-known RNA polymerase subunits, five categories of sigma 70 factors, one sigma 54 factor, as well as six auxiliary elongation and termination factors. RNA processing is performed by a variety of endonucleases and exonucleases, such as ribonuclease H, ribonuclease E, ribonuclease P, and ribonuclease III, in addition to poly(A) polymerase and specific methyltransferases and pseudouridine synthases. ORFs for all ribosomal proteins, except S22, were found. Only 19 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were found, in addition to three aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-related proteins. Asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn) is probably obtained by enzymatic modification of a mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA. The translation factors IF-1, IF-2, IF-3, EF-Ts, EF-Tu, EF-G, RF-1, RF-2 and RF-3 are all present in the C. violaceum genome, although the absence of selB suggests that C. violaceum does not synthesize selenoproteins. The components of trans-translation, tmRNA and associated proteins, are present in the C. violaceum genome. Finally, a large number of ORFs related to regulation of gene expression were also found, which was expected, considering the apparent adaptability of this bacterium.

  20. Gene Expression: Sizing it all up

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic architecture appears to be a largely unexplored component of gene expression. Although surely not the end of the story, we are learning that when it comes to gene expression, size is important. We have been surprised to find that certain patterns of expression, tissue-specific versus constit...

  1. Vascular Gene Expression in Nonneoplastic and Malignant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Stephen L.; Cook, Brian P.; Nacht, Mariana; Weber, William D.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Jiang, Yide; Dufault, Michael R.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wen; Walter-Yohrling, Jennifer; Rouleau, Cecile; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R.; Wang, Clarence J.; Cao, Xiaohong; St. Martin, Thia B.; Roberts, Bruce L.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Klinger, Katherine W.; Stan, Radu-Virgil; Lucey, Brenden; Carson-Walter, Eleanor B.; Laterra, John; Walter, Kevin A.

    2004-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are uniformly lethal tumors whose morbidity is mediated in large part by the angiogenic response of the brain to the invading tumor. This profound angiogenic response leads to aggressive tumor invasion and destruction of surrounding brain tissue as well as blood-brain barrier breakdown and life-threatening cerebral edema. To investigate the molecular mechanisms governing the proliferation of abnormal microvasculature in malignant brain tumor patients, we have undertaken a cell-specific transcriptome analysis from surgically harvested nonneoplastic and tumor-associated endothelial cells. SAGE-derived endothelial cell gene expression patterns from glioma and nonneoplastic brain tissue reveal distinct gene expression patterns and consistent up-regulation of certain glioma endothelial marker genes across patient samples. We define the G-protein-coupled receptor RDC1 as a tumor endothelial marker whose expression is distinctly induced in tumor endothelial cells of both brain and peripheral vasculature. Further, we demonstrate that the glioma-induced gene, PV1, shows expression both restricted to endothelial cells and coincident with endothelial cell tube formation. As PV1 provides a framework for endothelial cell caveolar diaphragms, this protein may serve to enhance glioma-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier and transendothelial exchange. Additional characterization of this extensive brain endothelial cell gene expression database will provide unique molecular insights into vascular gene expression. PMID:15277233

  2. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shao-Qi; Xu, Liang-De; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Li, Xia; Li, Lin; Shen, Gong-Qing; Jiang, Yang; Yang, Yue-Ying; Gong, Bin-Sheng; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Wang, Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis by using the in vitro cell gene expressions of 3300 human autosome genes (Problem 1 data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15) in order to answer three basic genetics questions. First, we investigated how gene expressions aggregate among different types (degrees) of relative pairs. Second, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of highly familially aggregated genes to see how they are distributed on chromosomes. Third, we performed a gene ontology enrichment test of familially aggregated genes to find evidence to support their functional consensus. The results indicated that 1) gene expressions did aggregate in families, especially between sibs. Of 3300 human genes analyzed, there were a total of 1105 genes with one or more significant (empirical p < 0.05) familial correlation; 2) there were several genomic hot spots where highly familially aggregated genes (e.g., the chromosome 6 HLA genes cluster) were clustered; 3) as we expected, gene ontology enrichment tests revealed that the 1105 genes were aggregating not only in families but also in functional categories. PMID:18466548

  3. In vivo cell-autonomous transcriptional abnormalities revealed in mice expressing mutant huntingtin in striatal but not cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Coppola, Giovanni; Tang, Bin; Kuhn, Alexandre; Kim, SoongHo; Geschwind, Daniel H; Brown, Timothy B; Luthi-Carter, Ruth; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2011-03-15

    Huntington's disease (HD), caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, is characterized by abnormal protein aggregates and motor and cognitive dysfunction. Htt protein is ubiquitously expressed, but the striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) is most susceptible to dysfunction and death. Abnormal gene expression represents a core pathogenic feature of HD, but the relative roles of cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects on transcription remain unclear. To determine the extent of cell-autonomous dysregulation in the striatum in vivo, we examined genome-wide RNA expression in symptomatic D9-N171-98Q (a.k.a. DE5) transgenic mice in which the forebrain expression of the first 171 amino acids of human Htt with a 98Q repeat expansion is limited to MSNs. Microarray data generated from these mice were compared with those generated on the identical array platform from a pan-neuronal HD mouse model, R6/2, carrying two different CAG repeat lengths, and a relatively high degree of overlap of changes in gene expression was revealed. We further focused on known canonical pathways associated with excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine signaling and trophic support. While genes related to excitotoxicity, dopamine signaling and trophic support were altered in both DE5 and R6/2 mice, which may be either cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous, genes related to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor are primarily affected in DE5 transgenic mice, indicating cell-autonomous mechanisms. Overall, HD-induced dysregulation of the striatal transcriptome can be largely attributed to intrinsic effects of mutant Htt, in the absence of expression in cortical neurons.

  4. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  5. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  6. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  7. Gene expression inference with deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. Results: We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. Availability and implementation: D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX. Contact: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26873929

  8. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Loss of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to metabolic and sleep abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312

  10. Alteration of gene expression by alcohol exposure at early neurulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng C; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Yunlong; Goodlett, Charles R; Liang, Tiebing; McClintick, Jeanette N; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Lang

    2011-02-21

    We have previously demonstrated that alcohol exposure at early neurulation induces growth retardation, neural tube abnormalities, and alteration of DNA methylation. To explore the global gene expression changes which may underline these developmental defects, microarray analyses were performed in a whole embryo mouse culture model that allows control over alcohol and embryonic variables. Alcohol caused teratogenesis in brain, heart, forelimb, and optic vesicle; a subset of the embryos also showed cranial neural tube defects. In microarray analysis (accession number GSM9545), adopting hypothesis-driven Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) informatics and intersection analysis of two independent experiments, we found that there was a collective reduction in expression of neural specification genes (neurogenin, Sox5, Bhlhe22), neural growth factor genes [Igf1, Efemp1, Klf10 (Tieg), and Edil3], and alteration of genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, histone variants, eye and heart development. There was also a reduction of retinol binding protein 1 (Rbp1), and de novo expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (Aldh1B1). Remarkably, four key hematopoiesis genes (glycophorin A, adducin 2, beta-2 microglobulin, and ceruloplasmin) were absent after alcohol treatment, and histone variant genes were reduced. The down-regulation of the neurospecification and the neurotrophic genes were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the gene expression profile demonstrated distinct subgroups which corresponded with two distinct alcohol-related neural tube phenotypes: an open (ALC-NTO) and a closed neural tube (ALC-NTC). Further, the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway and histone variants were specifically altered in ALC-NTO, and a greater number of neurotrophic/growth factor genes were down-regulated in the ALC-NTO than in the ALC-NTC embryos. This study revealed a set of genes vulnerable to alcohol exposure and genes that were associated with neural tube

  11. HOXB homeobox gene expression in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López, R; Garrido, E; Piña, P; Hidalgo, A; Lazos, M; Ochoa, R; Salcedo, M

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox (HOX) genes are a family of transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences in target genes regulating gene expression. Thirty-nine HOX genes have been mapped in four conserved clusters: A, B, C, and D; they act as master genes regulating the identity of body segments along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. The role played by HOX genes in adult cell differentiation is unclear to date, but growing evidence suggests that they may play an important role in the development of cancer. To study the role played by HOX genes in cervical cancer, in the present work, we analyzed the expression of HOXB genes and the localization of their transcripts in human cervical tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and nonradioactive RNA in situ hybridization were used to detect HOXB expression in 11 normal cervical tissues and 17 cervical carcinomas. It was determined that HOXB1, B3, B5, B6, B7, B8, and B9 genes are expressed in normal adult cervical epithelium and squamous cervical carcinomas. Interestingly, HOXB2, HOXB4, and HOXB13 gene expression was found only in tumor tissues. Our findings suggest that the new expression of HOXB2, HOXB4, and B13 genes is involved in cervical cancer.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Jacob, Harrys K.C.; Jakharia, Aniruddha; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Goel, Renu; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Dwivedi, Sutopa; Pathare, Swapnali; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Singh, Sujay; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S; Vijayakumar, M.; Veerendra Kumar, Kariyanakatte Veeraiah; Premalatha, Chennagiri Shrinivasamurthy; Tata, Pramila; Hariharan, Ramesh; Roa, Juan Carlos; Prasad, T.S.K; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, both in men and women. A genomewide gene expression analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. We used Agilent’s whole human genome oligonucleotide microarray platform representing ~41,000 genes to carry out gene expression analysis. Two-color microarray analysis was employed to directly compare the expression of genes between tumor and normal tissues. Through this approach, we identified several previously known candidate genes along with a number of novel candidate genes in gastric cancer. Testican-1 (SPOCK1) was one of the novel molecules that was 10-fold upregulated in tumors. Using tissue microarrays, we validated the expression of testican-1 by immunohistochemical staining. It was overexpressed in 56% (160/282) of the cases tested. Pathway analysis led to the identification of several networks in which SPOCK1 was among the topmost networks of interacting genes. By gene enrichment analysis, we identified several genes involved in cell adhesion and cell proliferation to be significantly upregulated while those corresponding to metabolic pathways were significantly downregulated. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study are candidate biomarkers for gastric adenoacarcinoma. PMID:27030788

  13. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  14. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  15. Gene Expression Studies in Lygus lineolaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genes are expressed in insect cells, as in all living organisms, by transcription of DNA into RNA followed by translation of RNA into proteins. The intricate patterns of differential gene expression in time and space directly influence the development and function of every aspect of the organism. Wh...

  16. Regulators of gene expression as biomarkers for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Stacey S; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in gene expression analysis have led to the discovery of a promising new group of prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers that have the potential to influence diagnosis and the prediction of disease severity. The accumulation of deleterious changes in gene expression is a fundamental mechanism of prostate carcinogenesis. Aberrant gene expression can arise from changes in epigenetic regulation or mutation in the genome affecting either key regulatory elements or gene sequences themselves. At the epigenetic level, a myriad of abnormal histone modifications and changes in DNA methylation are found in PCa patients. In addition, many mutations in the genome have been associated with higher PCa risk. Finally, over- or underexpression of key genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell adhesion and regulation of transcription has been observed. An interesting group of biomarkers are emerging from these studies which may prove more predictive than the standard prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum test. In this review, we discuss recent results in the field of gene expression analysis in PCa including the most promising biomarkers in the areas of epigenetics, genomics and the transcriptome, some of which are currently under investigation as clinical tests for early detection and better prognostic prediction of PCa. PMID:23226612

  17. Gene expression elucidates functional impact of polygenic risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fromer, Menachem; Roussos, Panos; Sieberts, Solveig K; Johnson, Jessica S; Kavanagh, David H; Perumal, Thanneer M; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Oh, Edwin C; Topol, Aaron; Shah, Hardik R; Klei, Lambertus L; Kramer, Robin; Pinto, Dalila; Gümüş, Zeynep H; Cicek, A Ercument; Dang, Kristen K; Browne, Andrew; Lu, Cong; Xie, Lu; Readhead, Ben; Stahl, Eli A; Xiao, Jianqiu; Parvizi, Mahsa; Hamamsy, Tymor; Fullard, John F; Wang, Ying-Chih; Mahajan, Milind C; Derry, Jonathan M J; Dudley, Joel T; Hemby, Scott E; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Talbot, Konrad; Raj, Towfique; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Sullivan, Patrick F; Chess, Andrew; Purcell, Shaun M; Shinobu, Leslie A; Mangravite, Lara M; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Gur, Raquel E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Lewis, David A; Haroutunian, Vahram; Peters, Mette A; Lipska, Barbara K; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Schadt, Eric E; Hirai, Keisuke; Roeder, Kathryn; Brennand, Kristen J; Katsanis, Nicholas; Domenici, Enrico; Devlin, Bernie; Sklar, Pamela

    2016-11-01

    Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia-associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ∼20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3 or SNAP91. Altering expression of FURIN, TSNARE1 or CNTN4 changed neurodevelopment in zebrafish; knockdown of FURIN in human neural progenitor cells yielded abnormal migration. Of 693 genes showing significant case-versus-control differential expression, their fold changes were ≤ 1.33, and an independent cohort yielded similar results. Gene co-expression implicates a network relevant for schizophrenia. Our findings show that schizophrenia is polygenic and highlight the utility of this resource for mechanistic interpretations of genetic liability for brain diseases.

  18. Gene Expression Elucidates Functional Impact of Polygenic Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fromer, Menachem; Roussos, Panos; Sieberts, Solveig K; Johnson, Jessica S; Kavanagh, David H; Perumal, Thanneer M; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Oh, Edwin C; Topol, Aaron; Shah, Hardik R; Klei, Lambertus L; Kramer, Robin; Pinto, Dalila; Gümüş, Zeynep H; Cicek, A. Ercument; Dang, Kristen K; Browne, Andrew; Lu, Cong; Xie, Lu; Readhead, Ben; Stahl, Eli A; Parvizi, Mahsa; Hamamsy, Tymor; Fullard, John F; Wang, Ying-Chih; Mahajan, Milind C; Derry, Jonathan M J; Dudley, Joel; Hemby, Scott E; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Talbot, Konrad; Raj, Towfique; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Sullivan, Patrick F; Chess, Andrew; Purcell, Shaun M; Shinobu, Leslie A; Mangravite, Lara M; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Gur, Raquel E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Lewis, David A; Haroutunian, Vahram; Peters, Mette A; Lipska, Barbara K; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Schadt, Eric E; Hirai, Keisuke; Roeder, Kathryn; Brennand, Kristen J; Katsanis, Nicholas; Domenici, Enrico; Devlin, Bernie; Sklar, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia cases (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ~20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3, or SNAP91. Altering expression of FURIN, TSNARE1, or CNTN4 changes neurodevelopment in zebrafish; knockdown of FURIN in human neural progenitor cells yields abnormal migration. Of 693 genes showing significant case/control differential expression, their fold changes are ≤ 1.33, and an independent cohort yields similar results. Gene co-expression implicates a network relevant for schizophrenia. Our findings show schizophrenia is polygenic and highlight the utility of this resource for mechanistic interpretations of genetic liability for brain diseases. PMID:27668389

  19. Reconstructing directed gene regulatory network by only gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Feng, Xi Kang; Ng, Yen Kaow; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2016-08-18

    Accurately identifying gene regulatory network is an important task in understanding in vivo biological activities. The inference of such networks is often accomplished through the use of gene expression data. Many methods have been developed to evaluate gene expression dependencies between transcription factor and its target genes, and some methods also eliminate transitive interactions. The regulatory (or edge) direction is undetermined if the target gene is also a transcription factor. Some methods predict the regulatory directions in the gene regulatory networks by locating the eQTL single nucleotide polymorphism, or by observing the gene expression changes when knocking out/down the candidate transcript factors; regrettably, these additional data are usually unavailable, especially for the samples deriving from human tissues. In this study, we propose the Context Based Dependency Network (CBDN), a method that is able to infer gene regulatory networks with the regulatory directions from gene expression data only. To determine the regulatory direction, CBDN computes the influence of source to target by evaluating the magnitude changes of expression dependencies between the target gene and the others with conditioning on the source gene. CBDN extends the data processing inequality by involving the dependency direction to distinguish between direct and transitive relationship between genes. We also define two types of important regulators which can influence a majority of the genes in the network directly or indirectly. CBDN can detect both of these two types of important regulators by averaging the influence functions of candidate regulator to the other genes. In our experiments with simulated and real data, even with the regulatory direction taken into account, CBDN outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches for inferring gene regulatory network. CBDN identifies the important regulators in the predicted network: 1. TYROBP influences a batch of genes that are

  20. Gene Architectures that Minimize Cost of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Idan; Schirman, Dvir; Rotman, Aviv; Li, Fangfei; Zahavi, Liron; Mordret, Ernest; Asraf, Omer; Wu, Song; Levy, Sasha F; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2017-01-05

    Gene expression burdens cells by consuming resources and energy. While numerous studies have investigated regulation of expression level, little is known about gene design elements that govern expression costs. Here, we ask how cells minimize production costs while maintaining a given protein expression level and whether there are gene architectures that optimize this process. We measured fitness of ∼14,000 E. coli strains, each expressing a reporter gene with a unique 5' architecture. By comparing cost-effective and ineffective architectures, we found that cost per protein molecule could be minimized by lowering transcription levels, regulating translation speeds, and utilizing amino acids that are cheap to synthesize and that are less hydrophobic. We then examined natural E. coli genes and found that highly expressed genes have evolved more forcefully to minimize costs associated with their expression. Our study thus elucidates gene design elements that improve the economy of protein expression in natural and heterologous systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Compendium of Canine Normal Tissue Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Rong; Wen, Xinyu; Khan, Javed; Khanna, Chand

    2011-01-01

    Background Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. Conclusions/Significance These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large. PMID:21655323

  2. Abnormal expression of leiomyoma cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ura, Blendi; Scrimin, Federica; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Aloisio, Michelangelo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are monoclonal tumors. Several factors are involved in the neoplastic transformation of the myometrium. In our study we focused on dysregulated cytoskeletal proteins in the leiomyoma as compared to the myometrium. Paired tissue samples of ten leiomyomas and adjacent myometria were obtained and analyzed by two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was used for protein identification, and western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The values of ten cytoskeletal proteins were found to be significantly different: eight proteins were upregulated in the leiomyoma and two proteins were downregulated. Three of the upregulated proteins (myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) are involved in cell migration, while downregulated protein transgelin is involved in replicative senescence. Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9) was further validated by western blotting because it is considered to be a cell migration marker in several cancers and could play a key role in leiomyoma development. Our data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in leiomyoma growth. A better understanding of the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in leiomyoma pathogenesis may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new pharmacological approaches.

  3. Gene Expression Noise, Fitness Landscapes, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Daniel

    The stochastic (or noisy) process of gene expression can have fitness consequences for living organisms. For example, gene expression noise facilitates the development of drug resistance by increasing the time scale at which beneficial phenotypic states can be maintained. The present work investigates the relationship between gene expression noise and the fitness landscape. By incorporating the costs and benefits of gene expression, we track how the fluctuation magnitude and timescale of expression noise evolve in simulations of cell populations under stress. We find that properties of expression noise evolve to maximize fitness on the fitness landscape, and that low levels of expression noise emerge when the fitness benefits of gene expression exceed the fitness costs (and that high levels of noise emerge when the costs of expression exceed the benefits). The findings from our theoretical/computational work offer new hypotheses on the development of drug resistance, some of which are now being investigated in evolution experiments in our laboratory using well-characterized synthetic gene regulatory networks in budding yeast. Nserc Postdoctoral Fellowship (Grant No. PDF-453977-2014).

  4. Multiple Renal Cyst Development but Not Situs Abnormalities in Transgenic RNAi Mice against Inv::GFP Rescue Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamijho, Yuki; Shiozaki, Yayoi; Sakurai, Eiki; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In this study we generated RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown transgenic mice (transgenic RNAi mice) against the functional Inv gene. Inv mutant mice show consistently reversed internal organs (situs inversus), multiple renal cysts and neonatal lethality. The Inv::GFP-rescue mice, which introduced the Inv::GFP fusion gene, can rescue inv mutant mice phenotypes. This indicates that the Inv::GFP gene is functional in vivo. To analyze the physiological functions of the Inv gene, and to demonstrate the availability of transgenic RNAi mice, we introduced a short hairpin RNA expression vector against GFP mRNA into Inv::GFP-rescue mice and analyzed the gene silencing effects and Inv functions by examining phenotypes. Transgenic RNAi mice with the Inv::GFP-rescue gene (Inv-KD mice) down-regulated Inv::GFP fusion protein and showed hypomorphic phenotypes of inv mutant mice, such as renal cyst development, but not situs abnormalities or postnatal lethality. This indicates that shRNAi-mediated gene silencing systems that target the tag sequence of the fusion gene work properly in vivo, and suggests that a relatively high level of Inv protein is required for kidney development in contrast to left/right axis determination. Inv::GFP protein was significantly down-regulated in the germ cells of Inv-KD mice testis compared with somatic cells, suggesting the existence of a testicular germ cell-specific enhanced RNAi system that regulates germ cell development. The Inv-KD mouse is useful for studying Inv gene functions in adult tissue that are unable to be analyzed in inv mutant mice showing postnatal lethality. In addition, the shRNA-based gene silencing system against the tag sequence of the fusion gene can be utilized as a new technique to regulate gene expression in either in vitro or in vivo experiments. PMID:24586938

  5. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Hulver, Matthew W.; Berggren, Jason R.; Carper, Michael J.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Thyfault, John P.; Stevens, Robert; Dohm, G. Lynis; Houmard, Joseph A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obesity and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and accumulation of intramyocellular triacylglycerol, but the underlying cause of these perturbations are yet unknown. Herein, we show that the lipogenic gene, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), is robustly up-regulated in skeletal muscle from extremely obese humans. High expression and activity of SCD1, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, increased triacylglycerol synthesis and increased monounsaturation of muscle lipids. Elevated SCD1 expression and abnormal lipid partitioning were retained in primary skeletal myocytes derived from obese compared to lean donors, implying that these traits might be driven by epigenetic and/or heritable mechanisms. Overexpression of human SCD1 in myotubes from lean subjects was sufficient to mimic the obese phenotype. These results suggest that elevated expression of SCD1 in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism and progression of obesity. PMID:16213227

  6. Anderson's disease (chylomicron retention disease): a new mutation in the SARA2 gene associated with muscular and cardiac abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Silvain, M; Bligny, D; Aparicio, T; Laforêt, P; Grodet, A; Peretti, N; Ménard, D; Djouadi, F; Jardel, C; Bégué, J M; Walker, F; Schmitz, J; Lachaux, A; Aggerbeck, L P; Samson-Bouma, M E

    2008-12-01

    Anderson's disease (AD) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) is a rare hereditary lipid malabsorption syndrome linked to SARA2 gene mutations. We report in this study a novel mutation in two sisters for which the Sar1b protein is predicted to be truncated by 32 amino acids at its carboxyl-terminus. Because the SARA2 gene is also expressed in the muscle, heart, liver and placenta, extraintestinal clinical manifestations may exist. For the first time, we describe in this study in the two sisters muscular as well as cardiac abnormalities that could be related to the reported expression of SARA2 in these tissues. We also evaluated six other patients for potential manifestations of the SARA2 mutation. The creatine phosphokinase levels were increased in all patients [1.5-9.4 x normal (N)] and transaminases were moderately elevated in five of the eight patients (1.2-2.6 x N), probably related to muscle disease rather than to liver dysfunction. A decreased ejection fraction occurred in one patient (40%, N: 60%). The muscle, liver and placental tissues that were examined had no specific abnormalities and, in particular, no lipid accumulation. These results suggest that myolysis and other extraintestinal abnormalities can occur in AD/CMRD and that the clinical evaluation of patients should reflect this.

  7. Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ilka Schultheiß; Pietsch, Jessica Magdalena; Keizer, Emma Mathilde; Greese, Bettina; Balkunde, Rachappa; Fleck, Christian; Hülskamp, Martin

    2017-12-14

    Although plant development is highly reproducible, some stochasticity exists. This developmental stochasticity may be caused by noisy gene expression. Here we analyze the fluctuation of protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the photoconvertible KikGR marker, we show that the protein expressions of individual cells fluctuate over time. A dual reporter system was used to study extrinsic and intrinsic noise of marker gene expression. We report that extrinsic noise is higher than intrinsic noise and that extrinsic noise in stomata is clearly lower in comparison to several other tissues/cell types. Finally, we show that cells are coupled with respect to stochastic protein expression in young leaves, hypocotyls and roots but not in mature leaves. Our data indicate that stochasticity of gene expression can vary between tissues/cell types and that it can be coupled in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

  8. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  9. Endogenous Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Bicuspid Aortic Valve Associated Aortopathy in Humans.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Oliver J; Moorjani, Narain; Torrens, Christopher; Ohri, Sunil K; Cagampang, Felino R

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is the most common congenital cardiac abnormality and predisposes patients to life-threatening aortic complications including aortic aneurysm. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most commonly used methods to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms involved in aortopathy. The accuracy of the gene expression data is dependent on normalization by appropriate housekeeping (HK) genes, whose expression should remain constant regardless of aortic valve morphology, aortic diameter and other factors associated with aortopathy. Here, we identified an appropriate set of HK genes to be used as endogenous reference for quantifying gene expression in ascending aortic tissue using a spin column-based RNA extraction method. Ascending aortic biopsies were collected intra-operatively from patients undergoing aortic valve and/or ascending aortic surgery. These patients had BAV or tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), and the aortas were either dilated (≥4.5cm) or undilated. The cohort had an even distribution of gender, valve disease and hypertension. The expression stability of 12 reference genes were investigated (ATP5B, ACTB, B2M, CYC1, EIF4A2, GAPDH, SDHA, RPL13A, TOP1, UBC, YWHAZ, and 18S) using geNorm software. The most stable HK genes were found to be GAPDH, UBC and ACTB. Both GAPDH and UBC demonstrated relative stability regardless of valve morphology, aortic diameter, gender and age. The expression of B2M and SDHA were found to be the least stable HK genes. We propose the use of GAPDH, UBC and ACTB as reference genes for gene expression studies of BAV aortopathy using ascending aortic tissue.

  10. Candidate genes for panhypopituitarism identified by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Amanda H.; MacDonald, James W.; Ghosh, Debashis

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factors PROP1 and PIT1 (POU1F1) lead to pituitary hormone deficiency and hypopituitarism in mice and humans. The dysmorphology of developing Prop1 mutant pituitaries readily distinguishes them from those of Pit1 mutants and normal mice. This and other features suggest that Prop1 controls the expression of genes besides Pit1 that are important for pituitary cell migration, survival, and differentiation. To identify genes involved in these processes we used microarray analysis of gene expression to compare pituitary RNA from newborn Prop1 and Pit1 mutants and wild-type littermates. Significant differences in gene expression were noted between each mutant and their normal littermates, as well as between Prop1 and Pit1 mutants. Otx2, a gene critical for normal eye and pituitary development in humans and mice, exhibited elevated expression specifically in Prop1 mutant pituitaries. We report the spatial and temporal regulation of Otx2 in normal mice and Prop1 mutants, and the results suggest Otx2 could influence pituitary development by affecting signaling from the ventral diencephalon and regulation of gene expression in Rathke's pouch. The discovery that Otx2 expression is affected by Prop1 deficiency provides support for our hypothesis that identifying molecular differences in mutants will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms that control pituitary organogenesis and lead to human pituitary disease. PMID:21828248

  11. Aberrant expression of NKL homeobox gene HLX in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Drexler, Hans G

    2018-03-06

    NKL homeobox genes are basic regulators of cell and tissue differentiation, many acting as oncogenes in T-cell leukemia. Recently, we described an hematopoietic NKL-code comprising six particular NKL homeobox genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors, unmasking their physiological roles in the development of these cell types. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a B-cell malignancy showing aberrant activity of several developmental genes resulting in disturbed B-cell differentiation. To examine potential concordances in abnormal lymphoid differentiation of T- and B-cell malignancies we analyzed the expression of the hematopoietic NKL-code associated genes in HL, comprising HHEX, HLX, MSX1, NKX2-3, NKX3-1 and NKX6-3. Our approach revealed aberrant HLX activity in 8 % of classical HL patients and additionally in HL cell line L-540. Accordingly, to identify upstream regulators and downstream target genes of HLX we used L-540 cells as a model and performed chromosome and genome analyses, comparative expression profiling and functional assays via knockdown and overexpression experiments therein. These investigations excluded chromosomal rearrangements of the HLX locus at 1q41 and demonstrated that STAT3 operated directly as transcriptional activator of the HLX gene. Moreover, subcellular analyses showed highly enriched STAT3 protein in the nucleus of L-540 cells which underwent cytoplasmic translocation by repressing deacetylation. Finally, HLX inhibited transcription of B-cell differentiation factors MSX1, BCL11A and SPIB and of pro-apoptotic factor BCL2L11/BIM, thereby suppressing Etoposide-induced cell death. Collectively, we propose that aberrantly expressed NKL homeobox gene HLX is part of a pathological gene network in HL, driving deregulated B-cell differentiation and survival.

  12. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  13. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  14. Perspectives: Gene Expression in Fisheries Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Pavey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional genes and gene expression have been connected to physiological traits linked to effective production and broodstock selection in aquaculture, selective implications of commercial fish harvest, and adaptive changes reflected in non-commercial fish populations subject to human disturbance and climate change. Gene mapping using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify functional genes, gene expression (analogue microarrays and real-time PCR), and digital sequencing technologies looking at RNA transcripts present new concepts and opportunities in support of effective and sustainable fisheries. Genomic tools have been rapidly growing in aquaculture research addressing aspects of fish health, toxicology, and early development. Genomic technologies linking effects in functional genes involved in growth, maturation and life history development have been tied to selection resulting from harvest practices. Incorporating new and ever-increasing knowledge of fish genomes is opening a different perspective on local adaptation that will prove invaluable in wild fish conservation and management. Conservation of fish stocks is rapidly incorporating research on critical adaptive responses directed at the effects of human disturbance and climate change through gene expression studies. Genomic studies of fish populations can be generally grouped into three broad categories: 1) evolutionary genomics and biodiversity; 2) adaptive physiological responses to a changing environment; and 3) adaptive behavioral genomics and life history diversity. We review current genomic research in fisheries focusing on those that use microarrays to explore differences in gene expression among phenotypes and within or across populations, information that is critically important to the conservation of fish and their relationship to humans.

  15. An Investigation of Voice Quality in Individuals with Inherited Elastin Gene Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Christopher R.; Awan, Shaheen N.; Marler, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The human elastin gene (ELN) is responsible for the generation of elastic fibres in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue throughout the body, including the vocal folds. Individuals with Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and Williams syndrome (WS) lack one normal ELN allele due to heterozygous ELN abnormalities, resulting in a…

  16. Chemical Approaches to Control Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Turner, James M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    A current goal in molecular medicine is the development of new strategies to interfere with gene expression in living cells in the hope that novel therapies for human disease will result from these efforts. This review focuses on small-molecule or chemical approaches to manipulate gene expression by modulating either transcription of messenger RNA-coding genes or protein translation. The molecules under study include natural products, designed ligands, and compounds identified through functional screens of combinatorial libraries. The cellular targets for these molecules include DNA, messenger RNA, and the protein components of the transcription, RNA processing, and translational machinery. Studies with model systems have shown promise in the inhibition of both cellular and viral gene transcription and mRNA utilization. Moreover, strategies for both repression and activation of gene transcription have been described. These studies offer promise for treatment of diseases of pathogenic (viral, bacterial, etc.) and cellular origin (cancer, genetic diseases, etc.). PMID:11097426

  17. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs w

  18. Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongmei; Ding, Jingzhong; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Lohman, Kurt; Register, Thomas C.; De La Fuente, Alberto; Howard, Timothy D.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Cui, Wei; Morris, Jessica; Smith, Shelly G.; Barr, R. Graham; Kaufman, Joel D.; Burke, Gregory L.; Post, Wendy; Shea, Steven; Mccall, Charles E.; Siscovick, David; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Herrington, David M.; Hoeschele, Ina

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of gene expression; however, the extent to which methylation of CpG dinucleotides correlates with gene expression at the genome-wide level is still largely unknown. Using purified primary monocytes from subjects in a large community-based cohort (n = 1264), we characterized methylation (>485 000 CpG sites) and mRNA expression (>48K transcripts) and carried out genome-wide association analyses of 8370 expression phenotypes. We identified 11 203 potential cis-acting CpG loci whose degree of methylation was associated with gene expression (eMS) at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.001. Most of the associations were consistent in effect size and direction of effect across sex and three ethnicities. Contrary to expectation, these eMS were not predominately enriched in promoter regions, or CpG islands, but rather in the 3′ UTR, gene bodies, CpG shores or ‘offshore’ sites, and both positive and negative correlations between methylation and expression were observed across all locations. eMS were enriched for regions predicted to be regulatory by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data in multiple cell types, particularly enhancers. One of the strongest association signals detected (P < 2.2 × 10−308) was a methylation probe (cg17005068) in the promoter/enhancer region of the glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1, encoding the detoxification enzyme) with GSTT1 mRNA expression. Our study provides a detailed description of the epigenetic architecture in human monocytes and its relationship to gene expression. These data may help prioritize interrogation of biologically relevant methylation loci and provide new insights into the epigenetic basis of human health and diseases. PMID:23900078

  19. VE-Cadherin–Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Endothelial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Morini, Marco F.; Giampietro, Costanza; Corada, Monica; Pisati, Federica; Lavarone, Elisa; Cunha, Sara I.; Conze, Lei L.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Joshi, Dhira; Kjaer, Svend; George, Roger; Nye, Emma; Ma, Anqi; Jin, Jian; Mitter, Richard; Lupia, Michela; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pasini, Diego; Calado, Dinis P.

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: The mechanistic foundation of vascular maturation is still largely unknown. Several human pathologies are characterized by deregulated angiogenesis and unstable blood vessels. Solid tumors, for instance, get their nourishment from newly formed structurally abnormal vessels which present wide and irregular interendothelial junctions. Expression and clustering of the main endothelial-specific adherens junction protein, VEC (vascular endothelial cadherin), upregulate genes with key roles in endothelial differentiation and stability. Objective: We aim at understanding the molecular mechanisms through which VEC triggers the expression of a set of genes involved in endothelial differentiation and vascular stabilization. Methods and Results: We compared a VEC-null cell line with the same line reconstituted with VEC wild-type cDNA. VEC expression and clustering upregulated endothelial-specific genes with key roles in vascular stabilization including claudin-5, vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), and von Willebrand factor (vWf). Mechanistically, VEC exerts this effect by inhibiting polycomb protein activity on the specific gene promoters. This is achieved by preventing nuclear translocation of FoxO1 (Forkhead box protein O1) and β-catenin, which contribute to PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex-2) binding to promoter regions of claudin-5, VE-PTP, and vWf. VEC/β-catenin complex also sequesters a core subunit of PRC2 (Ezh2 [enhancer of zeste homolog 2]) at the cell membrane, preventing its nuclear translocation. Inhibition of Ezh2/VEC association increases Ezh2 recruitment to claudin-5, VE-PTP, and vWf promoters, causing gene downregulation. RNA sequencing comparison of VEC-null and VEC-positive cells suggested a more general role of VEC in activating endothelial genes and triggering a vascular stability-related gene expression program. In pathological angiogenesis of human ovarian carcinomas, reduced VEC expression paralleled decreased

  20. VE-Cadherin-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Endothelial Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Morini, Marco F; Giampietro, Costanza; Corada, Monica; Pisati, Federica; Lavarone, Elisa; Cunha, Sara I; Conze, Lei L; O'Reilly, Nicola; Joshi, Dhira; Kjaer, Svend; George, Roger; Nye, Emma; Ma, Anqi; Jin, Jian; Mitter, Richard; Lupia, Michela; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pasini, Diego; Calado, Dinis P; Dejana, Elisabetta; Taddei, Andrea

    2018-01-19

    The mechanistic foundation of vascular maturation is still largely unknown. Several human pathologies are characterized by deregulated angiogenesis and unstable blood vessels. Solid tumors, for instance, get their nourishment from newly formed structurally abnormal vessels which present wide and irregular interendothelial junctions. Expression and clustering of the main endothelial-specific adherens junction protein, VEC (vascular endothelial cadherin), upregulate genes with key roles in endothelial differentiation and stability. We aim at understanding the molecular mechanisms through which VEC triggers the expression of a set of genes involved in endothelial differentiation and vascular stabilization. We compared a VEC-null cell line with the same line reconstituted with VEC wild-type cDNA. VEC expression and clustering upregulated endothelial-specific genes with key roles in vascular stabilization including claudin-5 , vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase ( VE-PTP ), and von Willebrand factor ( vWf ). Mechanistically, VEC exerts this effect by inhibiting polycomb protein activity on the specific gene promoters. This is achieved by preventing nuclear translocation of FoxO1 (Forkhead box protein O1) and β-catenin, which contribute to PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex-2) binding to promoter regions of claudin-5 , VE-PTP , and vWf . VEC/β-catenin complex also sequesters a core subunit of PRC2 (Ezh2 [enhancer of zeste homolog 2]) at the cell membrane, preventing its nuclear translocation. Inhibition of Ezh2/VEC association increases Ezh2 recruitment to claudin-5 , VE-PTP , and vWf promoters, causing gene downregulation. RNA sequencing comparison of VEC-null and VEC-positive cells suggested a more general role of VEC in activating endothelial genes and triggering a vascular stability-related gene expression program. In pathological angiogenesis of human ovarian carcinomas, reduced VEC expression paralleled decreased levels of claudin-5 and VE-PTP. These

  1. Correlation between CD34 expression and chromosomal abnormalities but not clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fruchart, C; Lenormand, B; Bastard, C; Boulet, D; Lesesve, J F; Callat, M P; Stamatoullas, A; Monconduit, M; Tilly, H

    1996-11-01

    The hemopoietic stem cell marker CD34 has been reported to be a useful predictor of treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous data suggested that CD34 expression may be associated with other poor prognosis factors in AML such as undifferentiated leukemia, secondary AML (SAML), and clonal abnormalities involving chromosome 5 and 7. In order to analyze the correlations between the clinicopathologic features, cytogenetic and CD34 expression in AML, we retrospectively investigated 99 patients with newly diagnosed AML: 85 with de novo disease and 14 with secondary AML (SAML). Eighty-six patients who received the same induction chemotherapy were available for clinical outcome. Defining a case as positive when > or = 20% of bone marrow cells collected at diagnosis expressed the CD34 antigen, forty-five patients were included in the CD34 positive group. Ninety patients had adequate cytogenetic analysis. Thirty-two patients (72%) with CD34 positive AML exhibited an abnormal karyotype whereas 15 patients (28%) with CD34 negative AML had abnormal metaphases (P < 0.01). Monosomy 7/7q- or monosomy 5/5q- occurred in 10 patients and 8 of them expressed the CD34 antigen (P < 0.05). All patients with t(8;21) which is considered as a favorable factor in AML had levels of CD34 >/= 20% (P < 0.05). We did not find any association between CD34 expression and attainment of complete remission, overall survival, or disease-free survival. In conclusion, the variations of CD34 expression in AML are correlated with cytogenetic abnormalities associated both with poor and favorable outcome. The evaluation of the correlations between CD34 antigen and clinical outcome in AML should take into account the results of pretreatment karyotype.

  2. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  3. Dlx homeobox gene family expression in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B L; Blin-Wakkach, C; Castaneda, B; Bolanos, A; Hotton, D; Sharpe, P T; Heymann, D; Carles, G F; Grigoriadis, A E; Berdal, A

    2010-06-01

    Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, Dlx2 expression in osteoclasts was examined using a Dlx2/LacZ transgenic mouse. Dlx2 is expressed in a subpopulation of osteoclasts in association with tooth, brain, nerve, and bone marrow volumetric growths. Altogether the present data suggest a role for Dlx2 in regulation of skeletal morphogenesis via functions within osteoclasts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  5. Abnormal expression of ephrin-A5 affects brain development of congenital hypothyroidism rats.

    PubMed

    Suo, Guihai; Shen, Feifei; Sun, Baolan; Song, Honghua; Xu, Meiyu; Wu, Youjia

    2018-05-14

    EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats. Thyroxine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampus and triiodothyronine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampal neurons significantly improved ephrin-A5 expression but could not restore its expression to control levels. Hypothyroid hippocampal neurons in-vitro showed synaptogenesis disorder characterized by a reduction in the number and length of neurites. Furthermore, the synaptogenesis-associated molecular expressions of NMDAR-1 (NR1), PSD95 and CaMKII were all downregulated correspondingly. These results suggest that ephrin-A5 expression may be decreased in CH, and abnormal activation of ephrin-A5/EphA5 signaling affects synaptogenesis during brain development. Such findings provide an important basis for exploring the pathogenesis of CH genetically.

  6. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  7. Regulation of gene expression in plasmid ColE1: delayed expression of the kil gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S P; Yan, L F; Zubay, G

    1988-01-01

    cea, imm, and kil are a cluster of three functionally related genes of the plasmid ColE1. The cea and kil genes are in the same inducible operon, with transcription being initiated from a promoter adjacent to the cea gene. The imm gene is located between the cea and kil genes, but it is transcribed in the opposite direction. Complementary interaction between the imm mRNA and the anti-imm sequences in the middle of the cea-kil transcript causes a pronounced delay in expression of the kil gene when the cea-kil operon is induced. A segment in the overlapping region between the cea and imm genes causes delayed expression of the kil gene in the absence of imm gene transcription. This delay effect increases the yields of colicin synthesized in induced cells. Images PMID:3142845

  8. Polyandry and sex-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Mank, Judith E.; Wedell, Nina; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread in nature, and has important evolutionary consequences for the evolution of sexual dimorphism and sexual conflict. Although many of the phenotypic consequences of polyandry have been elucidated, our understanding of the impacts of polyandry and mating systems on the genome is in its infancy. Polyandry can intensify selection on sexual characters and generate more intense sexual conflict. This has consequences for sequence evolution, but also for sex-biased gene expression, which acts as a link between mating systems, sex-specific selection and the evolution of sexual dimorphism. We discuss this and the remarkable confluence of sexual-conflict theory and patterns of gene expression, while also making predictions about transcription patterns, mating systems and sexual conflict. Gene expression is a key link in the genotype–phenotype chain, and although in its early stages, understanding the sexual selection–transcription relationship will provide significant insights into this critical association. PMID:23339238

  9. Evolutionary Approach for Relative Gene Expression Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space. PMID:24790574

  10. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  11. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Brain angiogenic gene-expression in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Olga; Ruiz-Romero, Aina; Domínguez, Carmen; Ferrer, Queralt; Ribera, Irene; Rodríguez-Sureda, Víctor; Alijotas, Jaume; Arévalo, Sílvia; Carreras, Elena; Cabero, Lluís; Llurba, Elisa

    2017-12-05

    To analyze potential differences in the expression of antiangiogenic and angiogenic factors and of genes associated with chronic hypoxia in cerebral tissue from euploid fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) and control fetuses. Cerebral tissue was obtained from 15 fetuses with CHD and 12 control fetuses undergoing termination of pregnancy. Expression profiles of the antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and placental growth factor (PlGF), and genes associated with chronic hypoxia were determined by real-time PCR in tissue from the frontal cortex and from basal ganglia-hypothalamus. sFlt-1 expression was 48% higher in the frontal cortex (p=0.0431) and 72% higher in the basal ganglia-hypothalamus (p=0.0369) of CHD fetuses than controls. VEGF-A expression was 60% higher in the basal ganglia-hypothalamus (p=0.0432) of CHD fetuses. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the basal ganglia-hypothalamus was 98% higher in CHD fetuses (p=0.0456). An overall dysregulation of angiogenesis with a net balance towards an antiangiogenic environment was observed in the cerebral tissue from fetuses with CHD, suggesting that these fetuses may have an intrinsic angiogenic impairment that could contribute to impaired brain perfusion and abnormal neurological development later in life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical Feedback and Arrest in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart; Levine, Herbert

    The ability to watch biochemical events at the single-molecule level has increasingly revealed that stochasticity plays a leading role in many biological phenomena. One important and well know example is the noisy, ``bursty'' manner of transcription. Recent experiments have revealed relationships between the level and noise in gene expression hinting at deeper stochastic connections. In this talk we will discuss how the mechanical nature of transcription can explain this relationship and examine the limits that the physical aspects of transcription place on gene expression.

  14. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    PubMed

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate transporter gene therapy corrects metabolic and myeloid abnormalities in glycogen storage disease type Ib mice

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Wai Han; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Allamarvdasht, Mohammad; Kim, So Youn; Chou, Janice Y.

    2008-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed. GSD-Ib patients suffer from disturbed glucose homeostasis and myeloid dysfunctions. To evaluate the feasibility of gene replacement therapy for GSD-Ib, we have infused adenoviral (Ad) vector containing human G6PT (Ad-hG6PT) into G6PT-deficient (G6PT-/-) mice that manifest symptoms characteristics of the human disorder. Ad-hG6PT-infusion restores significant levels of G6PT mRNA expression in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen and corrects metabolic as well as myeloid abnormalities in G6PT-/- mice. The G6PT-/- mice receiving gene therapy exhibit improved growth; normalized serum profiles for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and lactic acid; and reduced hepatic glycogen deposition. The therapy also corrects neutropenia and lowers the elevated serum levels of granulocyte colony stimulating factor. The development of bone and spleen in the infused G6PT-/- mice is improved and accompanied by increased cellularity and normalized myeloid progenitor cell frequencies in both tissues. This effective use of gene therapy to correct metabolic imbalances and myeloid dysfunctions in GSD-Ib mice holds promise for the future of gene therapy in humans. PMID:17006547

  16. Downregulation of the expression of mitochondrial electron transport complex genes in autism brains.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Thanseem, Ismail; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Miyachi, Taishi; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Mori, Norio

    2013-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) and abnormal brain bioenergetics have been implicated in autism, suggesting possible candidate genes in the electron transport chain (ETC). We compared the expression of 84 ETC genes in the post-mortem brains of autism patients and controls. Brain tissues from the anterior cingulate gyrus, motor cortex, and thalamus of autism patients (n = 8) and controls (n = 10) were obtained from Autism Tissue Program, USA. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify gene expression. We observed reduced expression of several ETC genes in autism brains compared to controls. Eleven genes of Complex I, five genes each of Complex III and Complex IV, and seven genes of Complex V showed brain region-specific reduced expression in autism. ATP5A1 (Complex V), ATP5G3 (Complex V) and NDUFA5 (Complex I) showed consistently reduced expression in all the brain regions of autism patients. Upon silencing ATP5A1, the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK13), a p38 MAPK responsive to stress stimuli, was upregulated in HEK 293 cells. This could have been induced by oxidative stress due to impaired ATP synthesis. We report new candidate genes involved in abnormal brain bioenergetics in autism, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondria, critical for neurodevelopment, may play a role in autism. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  18. The low noise limit in gene expression

    DOE PAGES

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiencymore » can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.« less

  19. Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks

  20. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  1. MEPD: a Medaka gene expression pattern database

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Thorsten; Ramialison, Mirana; Quiring, Rebecca; Wittbrodt, Beate; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Kondoh, Hisato

    2003-01-01

    The Medaka Expression Pattern Database (MEPD) stores and integrates information of gene expression during embryonic development of the small freshwater fish Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Expression patterns of genes identified by ESTs are documented by images and by descriptions through parameters such as staining intensity, category and comments and through a comprehensive, hierarchically organized dictionary of anatomical terms. Sequences of the ESTs are available and searchable through BLAST. ESTs in the database are clustered upon entry and have been blasted against public data-bases. The BLAST results are updated regularly, stored within the database and searchable. The MEPD is a project within the Medaka Genome Initiative (MGI) and entries will be interconnected to integrated genomic map databases. MEPD is accessible through the WWW at http://medaka.dsp.jst.go.jp/MEPD. PMID:12519950

  2. The human phospholamban gene: structure and expression.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, C F; Frye, C S; Lemster, B H; Kinder, E A; Ogletree-Hughes, M L; Moravec, C S; Feldman, A M

    1999-03-01

    Phospholamban, through modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase activity, is a key regulator of cardiac diastolic function. Alterations in phospholamban expression may define parameters of muscle relaxation. In experimental animals, phospholamban is differentially expressed in various striated and smooth muscles, and within the four chambers of the heart. Decreased phospholamban expression within the heart during heart failure has also been observed. Furthermore, regulatory elements of mammalian phospholamban genes remain poorly defined. To extend these studies to humans, we (1) characterized phospholamban expression in various human organs, (2) isolated genomic clones encoding the human phospholamban gene, and (3) prepared human phospholamban promoter/luciferase reporter constructs and performed transient transfection assays to begin identification of regulatory elements. We observed that human ventricle and quadriceps displayed high levels of phospholamban transcripts and proteins, with markedly lower expression observed in smooth muscles, while the right atria also expressed low levels of phospholamban. The human phospholamban gene structure closely resembles that reported for chicken, rabbit, rat, and mouse. Comparison of the human to other mammalian phospholamban genes indicates a marked conservation of sequence for at least 217 bp upstream of the transcription start site, which contains conserved motifs for GATA, CP1/NFY, M-CAT-like, and E-box elements. Transient transfection assays with a series of plasmids containing deleted 5' flanking regions (between -2530 and -66 through +85) showed that sequences between -169 and the CP1-box at -93 were required for maximal promoter activity in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Activity of these reporters in HeLa cells was markedly lower than that observed in rat cardiomyocytes, suggesting at least a partial tissue selectivity of these reporter constructs.

  3. Digital gene expression analysis of gene expression differences within Brassica diploids and allopolyploids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Bao; Fang, Tingting; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-27

    Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U's triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale. We examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547-21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species. Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.

  4. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-08-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete pipeline for the analysis of single cell qPCR data that uses the mathematics behind bursty expression to develop more accurate and robust algorithms for analyzing the origin of heterogeneity in experimental samples, specifically an algorithm for clustering cells by their bursting behavior (Simulated Annealing for Bursty Expression Clustering, SABEC) and a statistical tool for comparing the kinetic parameters of bursty expression across populations of cells (Estimation of Parameter changes in Kinetics, EPiK). We applied these methods to hematopoiesis, including a new single cell dataset in which transcription factors (TFs) involved in the earliest branchpoint of blood differentiation were individually up- and down-regulated. We could identify two unique sub-populations within a seemingly homogenous group of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we could predict regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of eighteen key hematopoietic transcription factors throughout differentiation. Detailed information about gene regulatory mechanisms can therefore be obtained simply from high throughput single cell gene expression data, which should be widely applicable given the rapid expansion of single cell genomics.

  5. Transcriptome-Level Signatures in Gene Expression and Gene Expression Variability during Bacterial Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Keesha E; Otoupal, Peter B; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation. Here, we research the regulation of adaptive resistance by investigating transcriptome profiles of Escherichia coli upon adaptation to disparate toxins, including antibiotics and biofuels. We locate potential target genes via conventional gene expression analysis as well as using a new analysis technique examining differential gene expression variability. By investigating trends across the diverse adaptation conditions, we identify a focused set of genes with conserved behavior, including those involved in cell motility, metabolism, membrane structure, and transport, and several genes of unknown function. To validate the biological relevance of the observed changes, we synthetically perturb gene expression using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-dCas9. Manipulation of select genes in combination with antibiotic treatment promotes adaptive resistance as demonstrated by an increased degree of antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity in MICs. We study the mechanisms by which identified genes influence adaptation and find that select differentially variable genes have the potential to impact metabolic rates, mutation rates, and motility. Overall, this work provides evidence for a complex nongenetic response, encompassing shifts in gene expression and gene expression variability, which underlies adaptive resistance. IMPORTANCE Even initially sensitive bacteria can rapidly thwart antibiotic treatment through stress

  6. T-cell lymphomas associated gene expression signature: Bioinformatics analysis based on gene expression Omnibus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei-Lei; Xu, Xiao-Yue; Ni, Jie; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Due to the low incidence and the heterogeneity of subtypes, the biological process of T-cell lymphomas is largely unknown. Although many genes have been detected in T-cell lymphomas, the role of these genes in biological process of T-cell lymphomas was not further analyzed. Two qualified datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of differentially expressed genes were evaluated by gene ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. The network for intersection genes was constructed by the cytoscape v3.0 software. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test were employed to assess the association between differentially expressed genes and clinical characters. The intersection mRNAs were proved to be associated with fundamental processes of T-cell lymphoma cells. These intersection mRNAs were involved in the activation of some cancer-related pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Ras, JAK-STAT, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. PDGFRA, CXCL12, and CCL19 were the most significant central genes in the signal-net analysis. The results of survival analysis are not entirely credible. Our findings uncovered aberrantly expressed genes and a complex RNA signal network in T-cell lymphomas and indicated cancer-related pathways involved in disease initiation and progression, providing a new insight for biotargeted therapy in T-cell lymphomas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Abnormal levels of expression of plasma microRNA-33 in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, S; Arias-Santiago, S; Orgaz-Molina, J; Magro-Checa, C; Valenzuela, I; Navarro, P; Naranjo-Sintes, R; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M

    2014-06-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism (miRNA-33) and vascular function and angiogenesis (miRNA-126). The objective of this exploratory study was to measure plasma levels of miRNA-33 and miRNA-126 in patients with plaque psoriasis and evaluate their association with clinical parameters. We studied 11 patients with plaque psoriasis. The median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was 13 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-14) and body surface area involvement was 12 (IQR, 11-15). Eleven healthy controls matched for age and sex were also included. We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical carotid atheromatosis. Plasma miRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in patients (0.57mm; IQR, 0.54-0.61; n=11) than in controls (0.50mm; IQR, 0.48-0.54; data available for 9 controls) (P=.0055, Mann-Whitney). Expression of miRNA-33 in patients (5.34; IQR, 3.12-7.96; n=11) was significantly higher than in controls (2.33; IQR, 1.71-2.84; only detected in 7 of 11 controls) (P=.0049, Wilcoxon signed rank). No differences in miRNA-126 levels were observed between patients and controls. In patients (n=11), we observed a positive correlation between miRNA-33 and insulin levels (r=0.7289, P=.0109) and a negative correlation between miRNA-126 and carotid intima-media thickness (r=-0.6181, P=.0426). In psoriasis patients plasma levels of lipid and glucose metabolism-related miRNA-33 are increased and correlated with insulin. The study of circulating miRNA-33 in psoriasis may provide new insights about the associated systemic inflammatory abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. FARO server: Meta-analysis of gene expression by matching gene expression signatures to a compendium of public gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Manijak, Mieszko P; Nielsen, Henrik B

    2011-06-11

    Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700 Arabidopsis microarray experiments. Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro/.

  9. Programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert Sidney; Surette, Michael G; Elowitz, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    Promoters control the expression of genes in response to one or more transcription factors (TFs). The architecture of a promoter is the arrangement and type of binding sites within it. To understand natural genetic circuits and to design promoters for synthetic biology, it is essential to understand the relationship between promoter function and architecture. We constructed a combinatorial library of random promoter architectures. We characterized 288 promoters in Escherichia coli, each containing up to three inputs from four different TFs. The library design allowed for multiple −10 and −35 boxes, and we observed varied promoter strength over five decades. To further analyze the functional repertoire, we defined a representation of promoter function in terms of regulatory range, logic type, and symmetry. Using these results, we identified heuristic rules for programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters. PMID:18004278

  10. Cell-Free Optogenetic Gene Expression System.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Yeoh, Jing Wui; Jayaraman, Sudhaghar; Teh, Ai Ying; Zhang, Jingyun; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2018-04-20

    Optogenetic tools provide a new and efficient way to dynamically program gene expression with unmatched spatiotemporal precision. To date, their vast potential remains untapped in the field of cell-free synthetic biology, largely due to the lack of simple and efficient light-switchable systems. Here, to bridge the gap between cell-free systems and optogenetics, we studied our previously engineered one component-based blue light-inducible Escherichia coli promoter in a cell-free environment through experimental characterization and mathematical modeling. We achieved >10-fold dynamic expression and demonstrated rapid and reversible activation of the target gene to generate oscillatory response. The deterministic model developed was able to recapitulate the system behavior and helped to provide quantitative insights to optimize dynamic response. This in vitro optogenetic approach could be a powerful new high-throughput screening technology for rapid prototyping of complex biological networks in both space and time without the need for chemical induction.

  11. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutations is characterized by a gene expression profile with dysregulated HOX gene expression distinct from MLL-rearranged leukemias.

    PubMed

    Mullighan, C G; Kennedy, A; Zhou, X; Radtke, I; Phillips, L A; Shurtleff, S A; Downing, J R

    2007-09-01

    Somatic mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) occur in approximately 35% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To assess the frequency of NPM1 mutations in pediatric AML, we sequenced NPM1 in the diagnostic blasts from 93 pediatric AML patients. Six cases harbored NPM1 mutations, with each case lacking common cytogenetic abnormalities. To explore the phenotype of the AMLs with NPM1 mutations, gene expression profiles were obtained using Affymetrix U133A microarrays. NPM1 mutations were associated with increased expression of multiple homeobox genes including HOXA9, A10, B2, B6 and MEIS1. As dysregulated homeobox gene expression is also a feature of MLL-rearranged leukemia, the gene expression signatures of NPM1-mutated and MLL-rearranged leukemias were compared. Significant differences were identified between these leukemia subtypes including the expression of different HOX genes, with NPM1-mutated AML showing higher levels of expression of HOXB2, B3, B6 and D4. These results confirm recent reports of perturbed HOX expression in NPM1-mutated adult AML, and provide the first evidence that the NPM1-mutated signature is distinct from MLL-rearranged AML. These findings suggest that mutated NPM1 leads to dysregulated HOX expression via a different mechanism than MLL rearrangement.

  12. Blood Gene Expression Predicts Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Danger, Richard; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Reboulleau, Damien; Durand, Eugénie; Loy, Jennifer; Tissot, Adrien; Lacoste, Philippe; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Gomez, Carine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean-François; Guillemain, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Knoop, Christiane; Botturi, Karine; Foureau, Aurore; Pison, Christophe; Koutsokera, Angela; Nicod, Laurent P.; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine; Jougon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, leads to poor long-term survival after lung transplantation. Identifying predictors of BOS is essential to prevent the progression of dysfunction before irreversible damage occurs. By using a large set of 107 samples from lung recipients, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of whole blood to identify early biomarkers of BOS, including samples from 49 patients with stable function for at least 3 years, 32 samples collected at least 6 months before BOS diagnosis (prediction group), and 26 samples at or after BOS diagnosis (diagnosis group). An independent set from 25 lung recipients was used for validation by quantitative PCR (13 stables, 11 in the prediction group, and 8 in the diagnosis group). We identified 50 transcripts differentially expressed between stable and BOS recipients. Three genes, namely POU class 2 associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL1A), and B cell lymphocyte kinase, were validated as predictive biomarkers of BOS more than 6 months before diagnosis, with areas under the curve of 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 respectively. These genes allow stratification based on BOS risk (log-rank test p < 0.01) and are not associated with time posttransplantation. This is the first published large-scale gene expression analysis of blood after lung transplantation. The three-gene blood signature could provide clinicians with new tools to improve follow-up and adapt treatment of patients likely to develop BOS. PMID:29375549

  13. Expression of foreign genes in filamentous cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritz, T.; Wolk, C.P.

    1993-06-01

    Several advantages make cyanobacteria attractive hosts for biodegradative genes and possibly for other exogenous genes that have practical uses. The authors have obtained expression in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Nostoc ellipsosporum of a dechlorination operon, fcbAB, from Arthrobacter globiformis, and have also developed a simple method for qualitative assessment of dechlorination by microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria, whose metabolism is dependent on the presence of chloride in the medium. Transcription of fcbAB under the control of a variety of promoters was monitored by placing luxAB (encoding luciferase) downstream from fcbAB, and by measuring light emission from luciferase. They believemore » that the system that they have described has value as a means to screen for factors influencing transcription of foreign genes in cyanobacteria.« less

  14. A gene expression biomarker accurately predicts estrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s vision for the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) in the 21st Century (EDSP21) includes utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays coupled with computational modeling to prioritize chemicals with the goal of eventually replacing current Tier 1 screening tests. The ToxCast program currently includes 18 HTS in vitro assays that evaluate the ability of chemicals to modulate estrogen receptor α (ERα), an important endocrine target. We propose microarray-based gene expression profiling as a complementary approach to predict ERα modulation and have developed computational methods to identify ERα modulators in an existing database of whole-genome microarray data. The ERα biomarker consisted of 46 ERα-regulated genes with consistent expression patterns across 7 known ER agonists and 3 known ER antagonists. The biomarker was evaluated as a predictive tool using the fold-change rank-based Running Fisher algorithm by comparison to annotated gene expression data sets from experiments in MCF-7 cells. Using 141 comparisons from chemical- and hormone-treated cells, the biomarker gave a balanced accuracy for prediction of ERα activation or suppression of 94% or 93%, respectively. The biomarker was able to correctly classify 18 out of 21 (86%) OECD ER reference chemicals including “very weak” agonists and replicated predictions based on 18 in vitro ER-associated HTS assays. For 114 chemicals present in both the HTS data and the MCF-7 c

  15. Global gene expression analysis by combinatorial optimization.

    PubMed

    Ameur, Adam; Aurell, Erik; Carlsson, Mats; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski

    2004-01-01

    Generally, there is a trade-off between methods of gene expression analysis that are precise but labor-intensive, e.g. RT-PCR, and methods that scale up to global coverage but are not quite as quantitative, e.g. microarrays. In the present paper, we show how how a known method of gene expression profiling (K. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3685-3690 (1995)), which relies on a fairly small number of steps, can be turned into a global gene expression measurement by advanced data post-processing, with potentially little loss of accuracy. Post-processing here entails solving an ancillary combinatorial optimization problem. Validation is performed on in silico experiments generated from the FANTOM data base of full-length mouse cDNA. We present two variants of the method. One uses state-of-the-art commercial software for solving problems of this kind, the other a code developed by us specifically for this purpose, released in the public domain under GPL license.

  16. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Methods Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Results Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration

  17. Maternally expressed gene 3, an imprinted noncoding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-03-15

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15% to 25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. The chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore, it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 which encodes a noncoding RNA with an antiproliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a noncoding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism.

  18. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DGEM--a microarray gene expression database for primary human disease tissues.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuni; Campen, Andrew; Rigsby, Dan; Guo, Ying; Feng, Xingdong; Su, Eric W; Palakal, Mathew; Li, Shuyu

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression patterns can reflect gene regulations in human tissues under normal or pathologic conditions. Gene expression profiling data from studies of primary human disease samples are particularly valuable since these studies often span many years in order to collect patient clinical information and achieve a large sample size. Disease-to-Gene Expression Mapper (DGEM) provides a beneficial community resource to access and analyze these data; it currently includes Affymetrix oligonucleotide array datasets for more than 40 human diseases and 1400 samples. The data are normalized to the same scale and stored in a relational database. A statistical-analysis pipeline was implemented to identify genes abnormally expressed in disease tissues or genes whose expressions are associated with clinical parameters such as cancer patient survival. Data-mining results can be queried through a web-based interface at http://dgem.dhcp.iupui.edu/. The query tool enables dynamic generation of graphs and tables that are further linked to major gene and pathway resources that connect the data to relevant biology, including Entrez Gene and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). In summary, DGEM provides scientists and physicians a valuable tool to study disease mechanisms, to discover potential disease biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, and to identify novel gene targets for drug discovery. The source code is freely available for non-profit use, on request to the authors.

  20. Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to understand patterns of adaptation and molecular evolution it is important to quantify both variation in gene expression and nucleotide sequence divergence. Gene expression profiling in non-model organisms has recently been facilitated by the advent of massively parallel sequencing technology. Here we investigate tissue specific gene expression patterns in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) with special emphasis on the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Results Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed. A total of 11,793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data, indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes, suggesting that genes with a specialised function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint) than genes with a more general function. In line with this, there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen. Several MHC genes, including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Furthermore, for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function. Conclusions Our study highlights the usefulness of next-generation sequence data for quantifying gene expression in the genome as a whole as well as in specific candidate genes. Overall, the data show predicted patterns of gene expression profiles and molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. Expression of MHC genes in particular, corresponds well with expression patterns in other vertebrates

  1. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  2. Cerebellar Ataxia, Seizures, Premature Death, and Cardiac Abnormalities in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Cacna2d2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Sergey V.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Tessarollo, Lino; McAreavey, Dorothea; Sachdev, Vandana; Fananapazir, Lameh; Banks, Melissa K.; Morris, Nicole; Djurickovic, Draginja; Devor-Henneman, Deborah E.; Wei, Ming-Hui; Alvord, Gregory W.; Gao, Boning; Richardson, James A.; Minna, John D.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Lerman, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    CACNA2D2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region that shows frequent allelic imbalances in lung, breast, and other cancers. The α2δ-2 protein encoded by the gene is a regulatory subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels and is expressed in brain, heart, and other tissues. Here we report that mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the Cacna2d2 gene exhibit growth retardation, reduced life span, ataxic gait with apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells followed by Purkinje cell depletion, enhanced susceptibility to seizures, and cardiac abnormalities. The Cacna2d2tm1NCIF null phenotype has much in common with that of Cacna1a mutants, such as cerebellar neuro-degeneration associated with ataxia, seizures, and premature death. A tendency to bradycardia and limited response of null mutants to isoflurane implicate α2δ-2 in sympathetic regulation of cardiac function. In summary, our findings provide genetic evidence that the α2δ-2 subunit serves in vivo as a component of P/Q-type calcium channels, is indispensable for the central nervous system function, and may be involved in hereditary cerebellar ataxias and epileptic disorders in humans. PMID:15331424

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P < .0001). Patients reporting heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  4. Human MSC gene expression under simulated microgravity (RPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, Ludmila; Gershovich, Pavel; Grigoriev, Anatoly

    It is generally supposed that microgravity cell response is mediated by some structures of actin cytoskeleton that can be implicated in cell mechanosensitivity. Cytoskeletal reorganization in the microgravity environment can affect gene expression, which results in alterations of cell function. However the direct impact of microgravity on expression of some cytoskeletal genes and encoded proteins remains unknown. Multipotential adult mesechymal stromal cells (MSCs) are the early precursors of bone marrow that can be induced to differentiate into bone-like cells as well as to the other mesenchymal tissues. In our previous experiments we revealed cytoskele-ton alterations and reduced human MSCs growth and osteogenesis in simulated microgravity by Random Positioning Machine. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of low gravity on F-actin organization and gene expression level of α-, β-, γ-actin, vinculin, cofilin, small GTPase RhoA, Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein expression of some adhesion molecules in cultured hMSCs. Fluorescent microscopy have shown that even 30 min of SMG results in rearrangement of F-actin and the lack of stress fibers in cultured hMSCs. Cell number with abnormal F-actin organization was increased after 6 h, 24 h and 48 h of SMG. On the other hand, after 120 hours of SMG cells displayed partial restoration of F-actin fibers in comparison with 24 h and 48 h. Similarly, near the same restoration was seen in F-actin after readaptation for 24 h in 1g environment after 24 h of SMG. However, the observed alterations in F-actin dimensional organization were accompanied by changes in related proteins gene expression. Real-time PCR revealed slight up-regulation of α-actin expression that became more signifi-cant after 48 h of SMG. Down-regulation of γ-actin was observed after 48 hours of exposure in RPM. Moreover the up-regulation of β-tubulin, cofilin and small GTPase RhoA gene expres-sion was also detected after 48 h of SMG. On the

  5. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shishodia, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin derived from the tropical plant Curcuma longa has a long history of use as a dietary agent, food preservative, and in traditional Asian medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Extensive research over several decades has attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of curcumin action. Curcumin modulates numerous molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways, or through direct interaction. Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways. Based on its ability to affect multiple targets, curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. GPR48 Increases Mineralocorticoid Receptor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqiu; Li, Xiaoying; Ke, Yingying; Lu, Yan; Wang, Feng; Fan, Nengguang; Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Ruixin; Yang, Jun; Ye, Lei; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are critical to the maintenance of electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Mutations in the MR cause aldosterone resistance known as pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1); however, some cases consistent with PHA1 do not exhibit known gene mutations, suggesting the possibility of alternative genetic variants. We observed that G protein–coupled receptor 48 (Gpr48/Lgr4) hypomorphic mutant (Gpr48m/m) mice had hyperkalemia and increased water loss and salt excretion despite elevated plasma aldosterone levels, suggesting aldosterone resistance. When we challenged the mice with a low-sodium diet, these features became more obvious; the mice also developed hyponatremia and increased renin expression and activity, resembling a mild state of PHA1. There was marked renal downregulation of MR and its downstream targets (e.g., the α-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel), which could provide a mechanism for the aldosterone resistance. We identified a noncanonical cAMP-responsive element located in the MR promoter and demonstrated that GPR48 upregulates MR expression via the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GPR48 enhances aldosterone responsiveness by activating MR expression, suggesting that GPR48 contributes to homeostasis of electrolytes and BP and may be a candidate gene for PHA1. PMID:22135314

  7. Gene expression profiling and candidate gene resequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Rachel L; Harper, David P; Caudell, David; Slape, Christopher; Beachy, Sarah H; Aplan, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both preleukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 of 27 (30%) acquired an Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired an Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Covariance Structure Models for Gene Expression Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    Covariance structure models are applied to gene expression data using a factor model, a path model, and their combination. The factor model is based on a few factors that capture most of the expression information. A common factor of a group of genes may represent a common protein factor for the transcript of the co-expressed genes, and hence, it…

  9. Nicotine suppresses bone sialoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Mezawa, M; Araki, S; Sasaki, Y; Wang, S; Han, J; Li, X; Takai, H; Ogata, Y

    2009-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis and osteoporosis. Nicotine is a major component of tobacco, and has been reported to inhibit proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein expressed by differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on bone metabolism. We used rat osteobast-like UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells and rat stromal bone marrow RBMC-D8 cells. To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of the BSP gene by nicotine, we conducted Northern hybridization, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene and gel mobility shift assays. Nicotine (250 microg/mL) decreased the BSP mRNA levels at 12 and 24 h in UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells. From transient transfection assays using various sized BSP promoter-luciferase constructs, nicotine decreased the luciferase activities of the construct, including the promoter sequence nucleotides -116 to +60, in UMR106 and RBMC-D8 cells. Nicotine decreased the nuclear protein binding to the cAMP response element (CRE), fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE) and homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX) at 12 and 24 h. This study indicates that nicotine suppresses BSP transcription mediated through CRE, FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.

  10. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes in endometrium of women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Grzechocinska, Barbara; Dabrowski, Filip A; Chlebus, Marcin; Gondek, Agata; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Michalowski, Lukasz; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is caused by derangement of physiological processes of tissue growth, shedding and regeneration. It is known that interplay between metalloproteinases (MMP's) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP's) may play a crucial role in its occurrence. To define if expression of proMMP-2, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in endometrium of women with AUB is dependent on steroid sex hormone concentration and histopathological picture. Endometrial scraps were taken from 21 women with AUB and 19 controls. Samples were evaluated in light microscopy by a certified pathologist. Activity of proMMP-2 and MMP-2 proteins levels were evaluated by gelatin zymography and TIMP-1 by reversed zymography. The results has been correlated with serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations in linear regression model. Expression: of proMMP-2 in endometrium of women with AUB is correlated with estradiol concentration and inversely correlated with progesterone levels. It was significantly higher in women with dysfunctional endometrium (p<0.001). Expression of MMP-2 was highest in women with endometrial polyps and longer bleeding (p<0.01), while expression of TIMP-1 was independent from hormone concentration. Lack of correlation between proMMP-2 and MMP-2 levels suggest different pathway of their activation in AUB. ProMMP-2 is up regulated by estradiol and down regulated by progesterone while MMP-2 levels increase with the length of bleeding.

  11. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Reyad A; Lucas, Bronwyn A; Maquat, Lynne E

    2016-02-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Elbarbary, Reyad A.; Lucas, Bronwyn A.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body’s defense mechanisms. PMID:26912865

  13. A novel approach for discovering condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways by using cloud computing technology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tzu-Hao; Wu, Shih-Lin; Wang, Wei-Jen; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Microarrays are widely used to assess gene expressions. Most microarray studies focus primarily on identifying differential gene expressions between conditions (e.g., cancer versus normal cells), for discovering the major factors that cause diseases. Because previous studies have not identified the correlations of differential gene expression between conditions, crucial but abnormal regulations that cause diseases might have been disregarded. This paper proposes an approach for discovering the condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways. Because analyzing gene expression correlations is time consuming, an Apache Hadoop cloud computing platform was implemented. Three microarray data sets of breast cancer were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was applied for discovering meaningful biological correlations. The results showed that adopting the Hadoop platform considerably decreased the computation time. Several correlations of differential gene expressions were discovered between the relapse and nonrelapse breast cancer samples, and most of them were involved in cancer regulation and cancer-related pathways. The results showed that breast cancer recurrence might be highly associated with the abnormal regulations of these gene pairs, rather than with their individual expression levels. The proposed method was computationally efficient and reliable, and stable results were obtained when different data sets were used. The proposed method is effective in identifying meaningful biological regulation patterns between conditions.

  14. Alterations in gene expression and DNA methylation during murine and human lung alveolar septation.

    PubMed

    Cuna, Alain; Halloran, Brian; Faye-Petersen, Ona; Kelly, David; Crossman, David K; Cui, Xiangqin; Pandit, Kusum; Kaminski, Naftali; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Ahmad, Ausaf; Mariani, Thomas J; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2015-07-01

    DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mechanism, may regulate coordinated expression of multiple genes at specific time points during alveolar septation in lung development. The objective of this study was to identify genes regulated by methylation during normal septation in mice and during disordered septation in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In mice, newborn lungs (preseptation) and adult lungs (postseptation) were evaluated by microarray analysis of gene expression and immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by sequencing (MeDIP-Seq). In humans, microarray gene expression data were integrated with genome-wide DNA methylation data from bronchopulmonary dysplasia versus preterm and term lung. Genes with reciprocal changes in expression and methylation, suggesting regulation by DNA methylation, were identified. In mice, 95 genes with inverse correlation between expression and methylation during normal septation were identified. In addition to genes known to be important in lung development (Wnt signaling, Angpt2, Sox9, etc.) and its extracellular matrix (Tnc, Eln, etc.), genes involved with immune and antioxidant defense (Stat4, Sod3, Prdx6, etc.) were also observed. In humans, 23 genes were differentially methylated with reciprocal changes in expression in bronchopulmonary dysplasia compared with preterm or term lung. Genes of interest included those involved with detoxifying enzymes (Gstm3) and transforming growth factor-β signaling (bone morphogenetic protein 7 [Bmp7]). In terms of overlap, 20 genes and three pathways methylated during mouse lung development also demonstrated changes in methylation between preterm and term human lung. Changes in methylation correspond to altered expression of a number of genes associated with lung development, suggesting that DNA methylation of these genes may regulate normal and abnormal alveolar septation.

  15. Characterization of Gene Expression Phenotype in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weihua; Beers, David R.; Hooten, Kristopher G.; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Zhang, Aijun; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Traini, Christopher M.; Halsey, Wendy S.; Hughes, Ashley M.; Sathe, Ganesh M.; Livi, George P.; Fan, Guo-Huang

    2017-01-01

    Importance Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Patients with ALS have persistent peripheral and central inflammatory responses including abnormally functioning T cells and activated microglia. However, much less is known about the inflammatory gene profile of circulating innate immune monocytes in these patients. Objective To characterize the transcriptomics of peripheral monocytes in patients with ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of 43 patients with ALS and 22 healthy control individuals. Total RNA was extracted from the monocytes and subjected to deep RNA sequencing, and these results were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Main Outcomes and Measures The differential expressed gene signatures of these monocytes were identified using unbiased RNA sequencing strategy for gene expression profiling. Results The demographics between the patients with ALS (mean [SD] age, 58.8 [1.57] years; 55.8% were men and 44.2% were women; 90.7% were white, 4.65% were Hispanic, 2.33% were black, and 2.33% were Asian) and control individuals were similar (mean [SD] age, 57.6 [2.15] years; 50.0% were men and 50.0% were women; 90.9% were white, none were Hispanic, none were black, and 9.09% were Asian). RNA sequencing data from negative selected monocytes revealed 233 differential expressed genes in ALS monocytes compared with healthy control monocytes. Notably, ALS monocytes demonstrated a unique inflammation-related gene expression profile, the most prominent of which, including IL1B, IL8, FOSB, CXCL1, and CXCL2, were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IL8, mean [SE], 1.00 [0.18]; P = .002; FOSB, 1.00 [0.21]; P = .009; CXCL1, 1.00 [0.14]; P = .002; and CXCL2, 1.00 [0.11]; P = .01). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis monocytes

  16. Impaired leptin expression and abnormal response to fasting in corticotropin-releasing hormone-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Sakihara, Satoru; Widmaier, Eric P; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2004-07-01

    Leptin has been postulated to comprise part of an adipostat, whereby during states of excessive energy storage, elevated levels of the hormone prevent further weight gain by inhibiting appetite. A physiological role for leptin in this regard remains unclear because the presence of excessive food, and therefore the need to restrain overeating under natural conditions, is doubtful. We have previously shown that CRH-deficient (Crh(-/-)) mice have glucocorticoid insufficiency and lack the fasting-induced increase in glucocorticoid, a hormone important in stimulating leptin synthesis and secretion. We hypothesized that these mice might have low circulating leptin. Indeed, Crh(-/-) mice exhibited no diurnal variation of leptin, whereas normal littermates showed a clear rhythm, and their leptin levels were lower than their counterparts. A continuous peripheral CRH infusion to Crh(-/-) mice not only restored corticosterone levels, but it also increased leptin expression to normal. Surprisingly, 36 h of fasting elevated leptin levels in Crh(-/-) mice, rather than falling as in normal mice. This abnormal leptin change during fasting in Crh(-/-) mice was corrected by corticosterone replacement. Furthermore, Crh(-/-) mice lost less body weight during 24 h of fasting and ate less food during refeeding than normal littermates. Taken together, we conclude that glucocorticoid insufficiency in Crh(-/-) mice results in impaired leptin production as well as an abnormal increase in leptin during fasting, and propose that the fast-induced physiological reduction in leptin may play an important role to stimulate food intake during the recovery from fasting.

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Blood Cells of Narcolepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Susumu; Honda, Yutaka; Honda, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: A close association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*1501/DQB1*0602 and abnormalities in some inflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated in narcolepsy. Specific alterations in the immune system have been suggested to occur in this disorder. We attempted to identify alterations in gene expression underlying the abnormalities in the blood cells of narcoleptic patients. Designs: Total RNA from 12 narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and from 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were pooled. The pooled samples were initially screened for candidate genes for narcolepsy by differential display analysis using annealing control primers (ACP). The second screening of the samples was carried out by semiquantitative PCR using gene-specific primers. Finally, the expression levels of the candidate genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR using a new set of samples (20 narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and 20 healthy controls). Results: The second screening revealed differential expression of 4 candidate genes. Among them, MX2 was confirmed as a significantly down-regulated gene in the white blood cells of narcoleptic patients by quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion: We found the MX2 gene to be significantly less expressed in comparison with normal subjects in the white blood cells of narcoleptic patients. This gene is relevant to the immune system. Although differential display analysis using ACP technology has a limitation in that it does not help in determining the functional mechanism underlying sleep/wakefulness dysregulation, it is useful for identifying novel genetic factors related to narcolepsy, such as HLA molecules. Further studies are required to explore the functional relationship between the MX2 gene and narcolepsy pathophysiology. Citation: Tanaka S; Honda Y; Honda M. Identification of differentially expressed genes in blood cells of narcolepsy patients. SLEEP 2007;30(8):974-979. PMID:17702266

  18. The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Martin, David A; Nichols, Charles D

    2018-01-01

    The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session. How does this occur? Much work has recently been published from imaging studies showing that psychedelics alter brain network connectivity. They facilitate a disintegration of the default mode network, producing a hyperconnectivity between brain regions that allow centers that do not normally communicate with each other to do so. The immediate and acute effects on both behaviors and network connectivity are likely mediated by effector pathways downstream of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation. These acute molecular processes also influence gene expression changes, which likely influence synaptic plasticity and facilitate more long-term changes in brain neurochemistry ultimately underlying the therapeutic efficacy of a single administration to achieve long-lasting effects. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the molecular genetic responses to psychedelics within the brain and discuss how gene expression changes may contribute to altered cellular physiology and behaviors.

  19. Gene transfer and expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Argelia; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, agriculture and plant breeding relied solely on the accumulated experience of generations of farmers and breeders that is, on sexual transfer of genes between plant species. However, recent developments in plant molecular biology and genomics now give us access to knowledge and understanding of plant genomes and the possibility of modifying them. This chapter presents an updated overview of the two most powerful technologies for transferring genetic material (DNA) into plants: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and microparticle bombardment (biolistics). Some of the topics that are discussed in detail are the main variables controlling the transformation efficiency that can be achieved using each one of these approaches; the advantages and limitations of each methodology; transient versus stable transformation approaches; the potential of some in planta transformation systems; alternatives to developing transgenic plants without selection markers; the availability of diverse genetic tools generated as part of the genome sequencing of different plant species; transgene expression, gene silencing, and their association with regulatory elements; and prospects and ways to possibly overcome some transgene expression difficulties, in particular the use of matrix-attachment regions (MARs).

  20. [Association of folate metabolism genes MTRR and MTHFR with complex congenital abnormalities among Chinese population in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Bai, Bao-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Miao, Chun-Yue; Li, Hui-Li

    2014-08-01

    To explore the association of polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, with complex congenital abnormalities and to further investigate its association with complex congenital abnormalities derived from three germ layers. A total of 250 cases of birth defects (with complex congenital abnormalities including congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, and craniofacial anomalies) in Shanxi Province, China were included in the study. MTRR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1801394) and MTHFR SNP (rs1801133) were genotyped by the SNaPshot method, and the genotyping results were compared with those of controls (n=420). SNPs rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. For the recessive model, individuals with GG genotype at rs1801394 and CC genotype at rs1801133 had a relatively low risk of developing birth defects, so the two genotypes were protective factors against birth defects. The homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801133, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities, while the homozygous recessive genotype at rs1801394, which served as a protective factor, was associated with ectoderm-, mesoderm- or endoderm-derived complex congenital abnormalities. Among the Chinese population in Shanxi Province, the SNPs in folate metabolism genes (MTRR and MTHFR) are associated with complex congenital abnormalities and related to ectoderm, mesoderm or endoderm development.

  1. Anteroposterior Patterning of Gene Expression in the Human Infant Sclera: Chondrogenic Potential and Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seko, Yuko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Yokoi, Tadashi; Kami, Daisuke; Ishii, Ryuga; Nishina, Sachiko; Toyoda, Masashi; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Aim: We sought to identify the anteroposterior spatial gene expression hierarchy in the human sclera to develop a hypothesis for axial elongation and deformity of the eyeball. We analyzed the global gene expression of human scleral cells derived from distinct parts of the human infant sclera obtained from surgically enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma, using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays, and compared, in particular, gene expression levels between the anterior and posterior parts of the sclera. The ages of three donors were 10M, 4M, and 1Y9M. K-means clustering analysis of gene expression revealed that expression levels of cartilage-associated genes such as COLXIA and ACAN increased from the anterior to the posterior part of the sclera. Microarray analyses and RT-PCR data showed that the expression levels of MGP, COLXIA, BMP4, and RARB were significantly higher in the posterior than in the anterior sclera of two independent infant eyes. Conversely, expression levels of WNT2, DKK2, GREM1, and HOXB2 were significantly higher in the anterior sclera. Among several Wnt-family genes examined, WNT2B was found to be expressed at a significantly higher level in the posterior sclera, and the reverse order was observed for WNT2. The results of luciferase reporter assays suggested that a GSK-3β inhibitor stimulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling particularly strongly in the posterior sclera. The expression pattern of RARB, a myopia-related gene, was similar in three independent eyes. Chondrogenic potential was higher and Wnt/β-catenin signaling was more potently activated by a GSK-3β inhibitor in the posterior than in the anterior part of the human infant sclera. Although the differences in the gene expression profiles between the anterior and posterior sclera might be involved only in normal growth processes, this anteroposterior hierarchy in the sclera might contribute to disorders involving abnormal elongation and deformity of the eyeball, including myopia.

  2. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  3. Altered Expression of Diabetes-Related Genes in Alzheimer's Disease Brains: The Hisayama Study

    PubMed Central

    Hokama, Masaaki; Oka, Sugako; Leon, Julio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Honda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kensuke; Iwaki, Toru; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Tomio; LaFerla, Frank M.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this risk is not well understood. We examined gene expression profiles in postmortem human brains donated for the Hisayama study. Three-way analysis of variance of microarray data from frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus was performed with the presence/absence of AD and vascular dementia, and sex, as factors. Comparative analyses of expression changes in the brains of AD patients and a mouse model of AD were also performed. Relevant changes in gene expression identified by microarray analysis were validated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The hippocampi of AD brains showed the most significant alteration in gene expression profile. Genes involved in noninsulin-dependent DM and obesity were significantly altered in both AD brains and the AD mouse model, as were genes related to psychiatric disorders and AD. The alterations in the expression profiles of DM-related genes in AD brains were independent of peripheral DM-related abnormalities. These results indicate that altered expression of genes related to DM in AD brains is a result of AD pathology, which may thereby be exacerbated by peripheral insulin resistance or DM. PMID:23595620

  4. Expressing genes do not forget their LINEs: transposable elements and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kines, Kristine J.; Belancio, Victoria P.

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Historically the accumulated mass of mammalian transposable elements (TEs), particularly those located within gene boundaries, was viewed as a genetic burden potentially detrimental to the genomic landscape. This notion has been strengthened by the discovery that transposable sequences can alter the architecture of the transcriptome, not only through insertion, but also long after the integration process is completed. Insertions previously considered harmless are now known to impact the expression of host genes via modification of the transcript quality or quantity, transcriptional interference, or by the control of pathways that affect the mRNA life-cycle. Conversely, several examples of the evolutionary advantageous impact of TEs on the host gene structure that diversified the cellular transcriptome are reported. TE-induced changes in gene expression can be tissue-or disease-specific, raising the possibility that the impact of TE sequences may vary during development, among normal cell types, and between normal and disease-affected tissues. The understanding of the rules and abundance of TE-interference with gene expression is in its infancy, and its contribution to human disease and/or evolution remains largely unexplored. PMID:22201807

  5. Ablation of XP-V gene causes adipose tissue senescence and metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yih-Wen; Harris, Robert A.; Hatahet, Zafer; Chou, Kai-ming

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have evolved to be major health issues throughout the world. Whether loss of genome integrity contributes to this epidemic is an open question. DNA polymerase η (pol η), encoded by the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-V) gene, plays an essential role in preventing cutaneous cancer caused by UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Herein, we demonstrate that pol η deficiency in mice (pol η−/−) causes obesity with visceral fat accumulation, hepatic steatosis, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. In comparison to WT mice, adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice exhibits increased DNA damage and a greater DNA damage response, indicated by up-regulation and/or phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Concomitantly, increased cellular senescence in the adipose tissue from pol η−/− mice was observed and measured by up-regulation of senescence markers, including p53, p16Ink4a, p21, senescence-associated (SA) β-gal activity, and SA secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as early as 4 wk of age. Treatment of pol η−/− mice with a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, reduced adipocyte senescence and attenuated the metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, elevation of adipocyte DNA damage with a high-fat diet or sodium arsenite exacerbated adipocyte senescence and metabolic abnormalities in pol η−/− mice. In contrast, reduction of adipose DNA damage with N-acetylcysteine or metformin ameliorated cellular senescence and metabolic abnormalities. These studies indicate that elevated DNA damage is a root cause of adipocyte senescence, which plays a determining role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26240351

  6. Analysis of multiplex gene expression maps obtained by voxelation.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Xie, Hongbo; Chin, Mark H; Obradovic, Zoran; Smith, Desmond J; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2009-04-29

    Gene expression signatures in the mammalian brain hold the key to understanding neural development and neurological disease. Researchers have previously used voxelation in combination with microarrays for acquisition of genome-wide atlases of expression patterns in the mouse brain. On the other hand, some work has been performed on studying gene functions, without taking into account the location information of a gene's expression in a mouse brain. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the relation between gene expression maps obtained by voxelation and gene functions. To analyze the dataset, we chose typical genes as queries and aimed at discovering similar gene groups. Gene similarity was determined by using the wavelet features extracted from the left and right hemispheres averaged gene expression maps, and by the Euclidean distance between each pair of feature vectors. We also performed a multiple clustering approach on the gene expression maps, combined with hierarchical clustering. Among each group of similar genes and clusters, the gene function similarity was measured by calculating the average gene function distances in the gene ontology structure. By applying our methodology to find similar genes to certain target genes we were able to improve our understanding of gene expression patterns and gene functions. By applying the clustering analysis method, we obtained significant clusters, which have both very similar gene expression maps and very similar gene functions respectively to their corresponding gene ontologies. The cellular component ontology resulted in prominent clusters expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The molecular function ontology gave prominent clusters in cortex, corpus callosum and hypothalamus. The biological process ontology resulted in clusters in cortex, hypothalamus and choroid plexus. Clusters from all three ontologies combined were most prominently expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The experimental

  7. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated completemore » MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.« less

  8. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals aberrant MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways associated with early parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Enkemann, Steven A; Liang, Ping; Hersmus, Remko; Zanazzi, Claudia; Huang, Junjiu; Wu, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian parthenogenesis could not survive but aborted during mid-gestation, presumably because of lack of paternal gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of parthenogenesis at early stages of development, we performed global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of parthenogenetic blastocysts in comparison with those of blastocysts from normally fertilized embryos. Parthenogenetic blastocysts exhibited changes in the expression of 749 genes, of which 214 had lower expression and 535 showed higher expressions than fertilized embryos using a minimal 1.8-fold change as a cutoff. Genes important for placenta development were decreased in their expression in parthenote blastocysts. Some maternally expressed genes were up-regulated and paternal-related genes were down-regulated. Moreover, aberrantly increased Wnt signaling and reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling were associated with early parthenogenesis. The protein level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) was low in parthenogenetic blastocysts compared with that of fertilized blastocysts 120 h after fertilization. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, a specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, significantly decreased embryo hatching. The expression of several imprinted genes was altered in parthenote blastocysts. Gene expression also linked reduced expression of Xist to activation of X chromosome. Our findings suggest that failed X inactivation, aberrant imprinting, decreased ERK/MAPK signaling and possibly elevated Wnt signaling, and reduced expression of genes for placental development collectively may contribute to abnormal placenta formation and failed fetal development in parthenogenetic embryos.

  9. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  10. Elevated transcription factor specificity protein 1 in autistic brains alters the expression of autism candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Suda, Shiro; Iwata, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Ueki, Takatoshi; Katayama, Taiichi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Minoshima, Shinsei; Mori, Norio

    2012-03-01

    Profound changes in gene expression can result from abnormalities in the concentrations of sequence-specific transcription factors like specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Specificity protein 1 binding sites have been reported in the promoter regions of several genes implicated in autism. We hypothesize that dysfunction of Sp1 could affect the expression of multiple autism candidate genes, contributing to the heterogeneity of autism. We assessed any alterations in the expression of Sp1 and that of autism candidate genes in the postmortem brain (anterior cingulate gyrus [ACG], motor cortex, and thalamus) of autism patients (n = 8) compared with healthy control subjects (n = 13). Alterations in the expression of candidate genes upon Sp1/DNA binding inhibition with mithramycin and Sp1 silencing by RNAi were studied in SK-N-SH neuronal cells. We observed elevated expression of Sp1 in ACG of autism patients (p = .010). We also observed altered expression of several autism candidate genes. GABRB3, RELN, and HTR2A showed reduced expression, whereas CD38, ITGB3, MAOA, MECP2, OXTR, and PTEN showed elevated expression in autism. In SK-N-SH cells, OXTR, PTEN, and RELN showed reduced expression upon Sp1/DNA binding inhibition and Sp1 silencing. The RNA integrity number was not available for any of the samples. Transcription factor Sp1 is dysfunctional in the ACG of autistic brain. Consequently, the expression of potential autism candidate genes regulated by Sp1, especially OXTR and PTEN, could be affected. The diverse downstream pathways mediated by the Sp1-regulated genes, along with the environmental and intracellular signal-related regulation of Sp1, could explain the complex phenotypes associated with autism.

  11. Blockage of hemichannels alters gene expression in osteocytes in a high magneto-gravitational environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiyun; Ning, Dandan; Zhao, Dezhi; Chen, Yunhe; Zhao, Dongdong; Gu, Sumin; Jiang, Jean X.; Shang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in bone, are highly responsive to external environmental changes. We tested how Cx43 hemichannels which mediate the exchange of small molecules between cells and extracellular environment impact genome wide gene expression under conditions of abnormal gravity and magnetic field. To this end, we subjected osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to a high magneto-gravitational environment and used microarray to examine global gene expression and a specific blocking antibody was used to assess the role of Cx43 hemichannels. While 3 hr exposure to abnormal gravity and magnetic field had relatively minor effects on global gene expression, blocking hemichannels significantly impacted the expression of a number of genes which are involved in cell viability, apoptosis, mineral absorption, protein absorption and digestion, and focal adhesion. Also, blocking of hemichannels enriched genes in multiple signaling pathways which are enaged by TGF-beta, Jak-STAT and VEGF. These results show the role of connexin hemichannels in bone cells in high magneto-gravitational environments. PMID:27814646

  12. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  13. Evaluating Fumonisin Gene Expression in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Transcript levels of key genes in a biosynthetic pathway are often taken as a proxy for metabolite production. This is the case of FUM1, encoding the first dedicated enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the production of the mycotoxins Fumonisins by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. FUM1 expression can be quantified by different methods; here, we detail a protocol based on quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), by which relative or absolute transcript abundance can be estimated in Fusaria grown in vitro or in planta. As very seldom commercial kits for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis are optimized for fungal samples, we developed a protocol tailored for these organisms, which stands alone but can be also easily integrated with specific reagents and kits commercially available.

  14. Peak flood estimation using gene expression programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, Conrad R.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2015-12-01

    As a case study for the Auckland Region of New Zealand, this paper investigates the potential use of gene-expression programming (GEP) in predicting specific return period events in comparison to the established and widely used Regional Flood Estimation (RFE) method. Initially calibrated to 14 gauged sites, the GEP derived model was further validated to 10 and 100 year flood events with a relative errors of 29% and 18%, respectively. This is compared to the RFE method providing 48% and 44% errors for the same flood events. While the effectiveness of GEP in predicting specific return period events is made apparent, it is argued that the derived equations should be used in conjunction with those existing methodologies rather than as a replacement.

  15. RNA-Seq for Bacterial Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Vinther, Jeppe

    2018-06-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become the preferred method for global quantification of bacterial gene expression. With the continued improvements in sequencing technology and data analysis tools, the most labor-intensive and expensive part of an RNA-seq experiment is the preparation of sequencing libraries, which is also essential for the quality of the data obtained. Here, we present a straightforward and inexpensive basic protocol for preparation of strand-specific RNA-seq libraries from bacterial RNA as well as a computational pipeline for the data analysis of sequencing reads. The protocol is based on the Illumina platform and allows easy multiplexing of samples and the removal of sequencing reads that are PCR duplicates. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Evolution under monogamy feminizes gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Brian; Houle, David; Yan, Zheng; Kawecki, Tadeusz J; Keller, Laurent

    2014-03-18

    Many genes have evolved sexually dimorphic expression as a consequence of divergent selection on males and females. However, because the sexes share a genome, the extent to which evolution can shape gene expression independently in each sex is controversial. Here, we use experimental evolution to reveal suboptimal sex-specific expression for much of the genome. By enforcing a monogamous mating system in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for over 100 generations, we eliminated major components of selection on males: female choice and male-male competition. If gene expression is subject to sexually antagonistic selection, relaxed selection on males should cause evolution towards female optima. Monogamous males and females show this pattern of feminization in both the whole-body and head transcriptomes. Genes with male-biased expression patterns evolved decreased expression under monogamy, while genes with female-biased expression evolved increased expression, relative to polygamous populations. Our results demonstrate persistent and widespread evolutionary tension between male and female adaptation.

  17. The roles of Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes in sex determination and differentiation mechanisms: Ubiquity and diversity across the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta-analysis of the prognostic value of abnormally expressed lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Yin, Chang-Qing; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be abnormally expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and may have the potential to serve as prognostic markers. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in HCC. Eligible literatures were systematically collected from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (up to December 30, 2015). The main outcomes including overall survival, relapse-free survival, and disease-free survival were analyzed. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. A total of 2,991 patients with HCC in People's Republic of China from 27 studies were included in the analysis. The level of lncRNAs showed a significant association with clinical outcomes. Abnormally elevated lncRNA transcription level predicted poor overall survival (HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20-2.34, P=0.002; I (2)=75.5%, P=0.000) and relapse-free survival (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.65-2.61, P<0.001; I (2)=24.0%, P=0.215), while no association was observed with disease-free survival of HCC patients (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.51-3.78, P=0.524; I (2)=81.3%, P=0.005). Subgroup analysis further showed that lncRNA transcription level was significantly associated with tumor size (relative risk [RR]: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39, P=0.035), microvascular invasion (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.10-1.89, P=0.009), and portal vein tumor thrombus (RR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03-2.20, P=0.036). Publication bias and sensitivity analysis further confirmed the stability of our results. Our present meta-analysis indicates that abnormal lncRNA transcription level may serve as a promising indicator for prognostic evaluation of patients with HCC in People's Republic of China.

  19. Reference genes for measuring mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dundas, Jitesh; Ling, Maurice

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this review is to find answers to some of the questions surrounding reference genes and their reliability for quantitative experiments. Reference genes are assumed to be at a constant expression level, over a range of conditions such as temperature. These genes, such as GADPH and beta-actin, are used extensively for gene expression studies using techniques like quantitative PCR. There have been several studies carried out on identifying reference genes. However, a lot of evidence indicates issues to the general suitability of these genes. Recent studies had shown that different factors, including the environment and methods, play an important role in changing the expression levels of the reference genes. Thus, we conclude that there is no reference gene that can deemed suitable for all the experimental conditions. In addition, we believe that every experiment will require the scientific evaluation and selection of the best candidate gene for use as a reference gene to obtain reliable scientific results.

  20. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Abidemi A.; Cox, Gerald F.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Hafler, David A.; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease is of interest. Mutations in the human forkhead box P2 gene, FOXP2, cause developmental verbal dyspraxia with profound speech and language deficits. Here, we show that the human FOXP2 gene undergoes RMAE. Studying an individual with developmental verbal dyspraxia, we identify a deletion 3 Mb away from the FOXP2 gene, which impacts FOXP2 gene expression in cis. Together these data suggest the intriguing possibility that RMAE impacts the haploinsufficiency phenotypes observed for FOXP2 mutations. PMID:25422445

  1. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Abidemi A; Cox, Gerald F; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Hafler, David A; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2015-06-02

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease is of interest. Mutations in the human forkhead box P2 gene, FOXP2, cause developmental verbal dyspraxia with profound speech and language deficits. Here, we show that the human FOXP2 gene undergoes RMAE. Studying an individual with developmental verbal dyspraxia, we identify a deletion 3 Mb away from the FOXP2 gene, which impacts FOXP2 gene expression in cis. Together these data suggest the intriguing possibility that RMAE impacts the haploinsufficiency phenotypes observed for FOXP2 mutations.

  2. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidermal dysplasia and abnormal hair follicles in transgenic mice overexpressing homeobox gene MSX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T X; Liu, Y H; Widelitz, R B; Kundu, R K; Maxson, R E; Chuong, C M

    1999-08-01

    The homeobox gene Msx-2 is expressed specifically in sites of skin appendage formation. To explore its part in skin morphogenesis, we produced transgenic mice expressing Msx-2 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The skin of these transgenic mice was flaky, exhibiting desquamation and shorter hairs. Histologic analysis showed thickened epidermis with hyperproliferation, which was restricted to the basal layer. Hyperkeratosis was also evident. A wide zone of suprabasal cells were misaligned and coexpressed keratins 14 and 10. There was reduced expression of integrin beta 1 and DCC in the basal layer. Hair follicles were misaligned with a shrunken matrix region. The dermis showed increased cellularity and empty vacuoles. We suggest that Msx-2 is involved in the growth control of skin and skin appendages.

  4. High levels of bcl-2 protein expression do not correlate with genetic abnormalities but predict worse prognosis in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yajun; Pan, Yi; Meng, Bin; Guan, Bingxin; Fu, Kai; Sun, Baocun; Zheng, Fang

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to investigate bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc rearrangements in patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), especially focus on the correlation of protein expression with genetic abnormalities. Moreover, their prognostic significance was further analyzed in LBL. Protein expression and genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were investigated in microarrayed tumors from 33 cases of T cell LBL and eight cases of B cell lineage. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to evaluate protein expression, including bcl-2, bcl-6, c-myc, TdT, CD1α, CD34, Ki-67, PAX-5, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20. Genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were detected by dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bcl-2 protein was positive in 51.2 % (21/41) of the patients, bcl-6 protein in 7.3 % (three out of 41), and c-myc protein in 78.0 % (32/41). Bcl-2 breakpoint was found in two cases by FISH analysis. There was no evidence of bcl-6 or c-myc rearrangement in patients with LBL. However, both gene gain and loss events occurred in bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc. A univariate analysis showed that stage III or IV, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and positivity for bcl-2 protein were associated with shorter survival (p<0.05). Enhanced protein expression and detectable genetic abnormalities of bcl-2, bcl-6, and c-myc were observed in patients with LBL. No statistical correlation was found between IHC results and cytogenetic findings. Stage III or IV, elevated LDH, and positivity for bcl-2 protein were identified as adverse prognostic factors. The patients with more adverse factors would have increasingly worse prognosis.

  5. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    Background Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Conclusion Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments. PMID:15317655

  6. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-08-18

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling in Pachyonychia Congenita Skin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu-An; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Seegmiller, Brandon L.; Grapov, Dmitry; Gross, Maren M.; Bessette, Marc R.; Phinney, Brett S.; Flores, Manuel A.; Speaker, Tycho J.; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Bravo, Albert A.; Bruckner, Anna L.; Milstone, Leonard M.; Schwartz, Mary E.; Rice, Robert H.; Kaspar, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a skin disorder resulting from mutations in keratin (K) proteins including K6a, K6b, K16, and K17. One of the major symptoms is painful plantar keratoderma. The pathogenic sequelae resulting from the keratin mutations remain unclear. Objective To better understand PC pathogenesis. Methods RNA profiling was performed on biopsies taken from PC-involved and uninvolved plantar skin of seven genotyped PC patients (two K6a, one K6b, three K16, and one K17) as well as from control volunteers. Protein profiling was generated from tape-stripping samples. Results A comparison of PC-involved skin biopsies to adjacent uninvolved plantar skin identified 112 differentially-expressed mRNAs common to patient groups harboring K6 (i.e., both K6a and K6b) and K16 mutations. Among these mRNAs, 25 encode structural proteins including keratins, small proline-rich and late cornified envelope proteins, 20 are related to metabolism and 16 encode proteases, peptidases, and their inhibitors including kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), and serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). mRNAs were also identified to be differentially expressed only in K6 (81) or K16 (141) patient samples. Furthermore, 13 mRNAs were identified that may be involved in pain including nociception and neuropathy. Protein profiling, comparing three K6a plantar tape-stripping samples to non-PC controls, showed changes in the PC corneocytes similar, but not identical, to the mRNA analysis. Conclusion Many differentially-expressed genes identified in PC-involved skin encode components critical for skin barrier homeostasis including keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, cornification, and desquamation. The profiling data provide a foundation for unraveling the pathogenesis of PC and identifying targets for developing effective PC therapeutics. PMID:25656049

  8. Using RNA-Seq data to select refence genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for t...

  9. [Differential gene expression profile in ischemic myocardium of Wistar rats with acute myocardial infarction: the study on gene construction, identification and function].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun Yu; Yin, Hui Jun; Jiang, Yue Rong; Xue, Mei; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Da Zhuo

    2008-06-18

    To construct the differential genes expressed profile in the ischemic myocardium tissue reduced from acute myocardial infarction(AMI), and determine the biological functions of target genes. AMI model was generated by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats. Total RNA was extracted from the normal and the ischemic heart tissues under the ligation point 7 days after the operation. Differential gene expression profiles of the two samples were constructed using Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression(LongSAGE). Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to verify gene expression profile and to identify the expression of 2 functional genes. The activities of enzymes from functional genes were determined by histochemistry. A total of 15,966 tags were screened from the normal and the ischemic LongSAGE maps. The similarities of the sequences were compared using the BLAST algebra in NCBI and 7,665 novel tags were found. In the ischemic tissue 142 genes were significantly changed compared with those in the normal tissue (P<0.05). These differentially expressed genes represented the proteins which might play important roles in the pathways of oxidation and phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and glycolysis. The partial genes identified by LongSAGE were confirmed using real time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Two genes related to energy metabolism, COX5a and ATP5e, were screened and quantified. Expression of two functional genes down-regulated at their mRNA levels and the activities of correlative functional enzymes decreased compared with those in the normal tissue. AMI causes a series of changes in gene expression, in which the abnormal expression of genes related to energy metabolism could be one of the molecular mechanisms of AMI. The intervention of the expressions of COX5a and ATP5e may be a new target for AMI therapy.

  10. Discovering causal signaling pathways through gene-expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jignesh R.; Klinger, Bertram; Xia, Yu; Marto, Jarrod A.; Blüthgen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput gene-expression studies result in lists of differentially expressed genes. Most current meta-analyses of these gene lists include searching for significant membership of the translated proteins in various signaling pathways. However, such membership enrichment algorithms do not provide insight into which pathways caused the genes to be differentially expressed in the first place. Here, we present an intuitive approach for discovering upstream signaling pathways responsible for regulating these differentially expressed genes. We identify consistently regulated signature genes specific for signal transduction pathways from a panel of single-pathway perturbation experiments. An algorithm that detects overrepresentation of these signature genes in a gene group of interest is used to infer the signaling pathway responsible for regulation. We expose our novel resource and algorithm through a web server called SPEED: Signaling Pathway Enrichment using Experimental Data sets. SPEED can be freely accessed at http://speed.sys-bio.net/. PMID:20494976

  11. [Differential expression genes of bone tissues surrounding implants in diabetic rats by gene chip].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xin; Ma, Yue; Li, Qing; Jiang, Bao-qi; Lan, Jing

    2012-10-01

    To compare mRNA expression profiles of bone tissues surrounding implants between normal rats and rats with diabetes using microarray technology. Six Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into normal model group and diabetic group. Diabetic model condition was established by injecting Streptozotocin into peritoneal space. Titanium implants were implanted into the epiphyseal end of the rats' tibia. Bone tissues surrounding implant were harvested and sampled after 3 months to perform comprehensive RNA gene expression profiling, including 17983 for genome-wide association study.GO analysis was used to compare different gene expression and real-time PCR was used to confirm the results on core samples. The results indicated that there were 1084 differential gene expression. In the diabetic model, there were 352 enhanced expression genes, 732 suppressed expression genes. GO analysis involved 1154 different functional type. Osteoblast related gene expressions in bone tissue samples of diabetic rats were decreased, and lipid metabolism pathway related gene expression was increased.

  12. GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Sang-Min; Park, Sanghyun

    2018-01-01

    When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find "differentially predicted" genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.

  13. Automated Discovery of Functional Generality of Human Gene Expression Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Georg K; Dowell, Robin D; Jaakkola, Tommi S; Gifford, David K

    2007-01-01

    An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-κB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal “cross-talk,” and

  14. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  15. Clustering cancer gene expression data by projective clustering ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianxue; Yu, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression data analysis has paramount implications for gene treatments, cancer diagnosis and other domains. Clustering is an important and promising tool to analyze gene expression data. Gene expression data is often characterized by a large amount of genes but with limited samples, thus various projective clustering techniques and ensemble techniques have been suggested to combat with these challenges. However, it is rather challenging to synergy these two kinds of techniques together to avoid the curse of dimensionality problem and to boost the performance of gene expression data clustering. In this paper, we employ a projective clustering ensemble (PCE) to integrate the advantages of projective clustering and ensemble clustering, and to avoid the dilemma of combining multiple projective clusterings. Our experimental results on publicly available cancer gene expression data show PCE can improve the quality of clustering gene expression data by at least 4.5% (on average) than other related techniques, including dimensionality reduction based single clustering and ensemble approaches. The empirical study demonstrates that, to further boost the performance of clustering cancer gene expression data, it is necessary and promising to synergy projective clustering with ensemble clustering. PCE can serve as an effective alternative technique for clustering gene expression data. PMID:28234920

  16. Partitioning of functional gene expression data using principal points.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehee; Kim, Haseong

    2017-10-12

    DNA microarrays offer motivation and hope for the simultaneous study of variations in multiple genes. Gene expression is a temporal process that allows variations in expression levels with a characterized gene function over a period of time. Temporal gene expression curves can be treated as functional data since they are considered as independent realizations of a stochastic process. This process requires appropriate models to identify patterns of gene functions. The partitioning of the functional data can find homogeneous subgroups of entities for the massive genes within the inherent biological networks. Therefor it can be a useful technique for the analysis of time-course gene expression data. We propose a new self-consistent partitioning method of functional coefficients for individual expression profiles based on the orthonormal basis system. A principal points based functional partitioning method is proposed for time-course gene expression data. The method explores the relationship between genes using Legendre coefficients as principal points to extract the features of gene functions. Our proposed method provides high connectivity in connectedness after clustering for simulated data and finds a significant subsets of genes with the increased connectivity. Our approach has comparative advantages that fewer coefficients are used from the functional data and self-consistency of principal points for partitioning. As real data applications, we are able to find partitioned genes through the gene expressions found in budding yeast data and Escherichia coli data. The proposed method benefitted from the use of principal points, dimension reduction, and choice of orthogonal basis system as well as provides appropriately connected genes in the resulting subsets. We illustrate our method by applying with each set of cell-cycle-regulated time-course yeast genes and E. coli genes. The proposed method is able to identify highly connected genes and to explore the complex

  17. The complexity of gene expression dynamics revealed by permutation entropy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High complexity is considered a hallmark of living systems. Here we investigate the complexity of temporal gene expression patterns using the concept of Permutation Entropy (PE) first introduced in dynamical systems theory. The analysis of gene expression data has so far focused primarily on the identification of differentially expressed genes, or on the elucidation of pathway and regulatory relationships. We aim to study gene expression time series data from the viewpoint of complexity. Results Applying the PE complexity metric to abiotic stress response time series data in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes involved in stress response and signaling were found to be associated with the highest complexity not only under stress, but surprisingly, also under reference, non-stress conditions. Genes with house-keeping functions exhibited lower PE complexity. Compared to reference conditions, the PE of temporal gene expression patterns generally increased upon stress exposure. High-complexity genes were found to have longer upstream intergenic regions and more cis-regulatory motifs in their promoter regions indicative of a more complex regulatory apparatus needed to orchestrate their expression, and to be associated with higher correlation network connectivity degree. Arabidopsis genes also present in other plant species were observed to exhibit decreased PE complexity compared to Arabidopsis specific genes. Conclusions We show that Permutation Entropy is a simple yet robust and powerful approach to identify temporal gene expression profiles of varying complexity that is equally applicable to other types of molecular profile data. PMID:21176199

  18. Changes in Gene Expression with Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Thimgan, Matthew S.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement within the sleep community and among public health officials of the need for an accessible biomarker of sleepiness. As the foregoing discussions emphasize, however, it may be more difficult to reach consensus on how to define such a biomarker than to identify candidate molecules that can be then evaluated to determine if they might be useful to solve a variety of real-world problems related to insufficient sleep. With that in mind, a goal of our laboratories has been to develop a rational strategy to expedite the identification of candidate biomarkers. 1 We began with the assumption that since both the genetic and environmental context of a gene can influence its behavior, an effective test of sleep loss will likely be composed of a panel of multiple biomarkers. That is, we believe that it is premature to exclude a candidate analyte simply because it might also be modulated in response to other conditions (e.g., illness, metabolism, sympathetic tone, etc.). Our next assumption was that an easily accessible biomarker would be more useful in real-world settings. Thus, we have focused on saliva, as opposed to urine or blood, as a rich source of biological analytes that can be mined to optimize the chances of bringing a biomarker out into the field. Finally, we recognize that conducting validation studies in humans can be expensive and time consuming. Thus, we have exploited genetic and pharmacological tools in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to more fully characterize the behavior of the most exciting candidate biomarkers. Citation: Thimgan MS; Duntley SP; Shaw PJ. Changes in gene expression with sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):Supplement S26-S27. PMID:22003326

  19. MicroRNA expression, target genes, and signaling pathways in infants with a ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hui; Yan, Zhaoyuan; Huang, Ke; Jiang, Yuanqing; Zhang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate the relationship between miRNA expression and the occurrence of ventricular septal defect (VSD), and characterize the miRNA target genes and pathways that can lead to VSD. The miRNAs that were differentially expressed in blood samples from VSD and normal infants were screened and validated by implementing miRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using three target gene databases. The functions and signaling pathways of the target genes were enriched using the GO database and KEGG database, respectively. The transcription and protein expression of specific target genes in critical pathways were compared in the VSD and normal control groups using qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Compared with the normal control group, the VSD group had 22 differentially expressed miRNAs; 19 were downregulated and three were upregulated. The 10,677 predicted target genes participated in many biological functions related to cardiac development and morphogenesis. Four target genes (mGLUR, Gq, PLC, and PKC) were involved in the PKC pathway and four (ECM, FAK, PI3 K, and PDK1) were involved in the PI3 K-Akt pathway. The transcription and protein expression of these eight target genes were significantly upregulated in the VSD group. The 22 miRNAs that were dysregulated in the VSD group were mainly downregulated, which may result in the dysregulation of several key genes and biological functions related to cardiac development. These effects could also be exerted via the upregulation of eight specific target genes, the subsequent over-activation of the PKC and PI3 K-Akt pathways, and the eventual abnormal cardiac development and VSD.

  20. Short communication: expression and alternative splicing of POU1F1 pathway genes in preimplantation bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Driver, A; Khatib, H

    2011-08-01

    Early embryo loss is a major contributing factor to cow infertility and that 70 to 80% of this loss occurs between d 8 and 16 postfertilization. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms and the nature of genes involved in normal and abnormal embryonic development. Moreover, information is limited on the contributions of the genomes of dams and of embryos to the development and survival of preimplantation embryos. We hypothesized that proper gene expression level in the developing embryo is essential for embryo survival and pregnancy success. As such, the characterization of expression profiles in early embryos could lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in normal and abnormal embryo development. To test this hypothesis, 2 d-8 embryo populations (degenerate embryos and blastocysts) that differed in morphology and developmental status were investigated. Expression levels of POU1F1 pathway genes were estimated in 4 sets of biological replicate pools of degenerate embryos and blastocysts. The OPN and STAT5A genes were found to be upregulated in degenerate embryos compared with blastocysts, whereas STAT5B showed similar expression levels in both embryo groups. Analysis of splice variants of OPN and STAT5A revealed expression patterns different from the total expression values of these genes. As such, measuring expression of individual transcripts should be considered in gene expression studies. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient, Inducible, Placenta-Specific Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Petitt, Matthew; Gamboa, Matthew; Huang, Mei; Dhal, Sabita; Druzin, Maurice L.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular understanding of placental functions and pregnancy disorders is limited by the absence of methods for placenta-specific gene manipulation. Although persistent placenta-specific gene expression has been achieved by lentivirus-based gene delivery methods, developmentally and physiologically important placental genes have highly stage-specific functions, requiring controllable, transient expression systems for functional analysis. Here, we describe an inducible, placenta-specific gene expression system that enables high-level, transient transgene expression and monitoring of gene expression by live bioluminescence imaging in mouse placenta at different stages of pregnancy. We used the third generation tetracycline-responsive tranactivator protein Tet-On 3G, with 10- to 100-fold increased sensitivity to doxycycline (Dox) compared with previous versions, enabling unusually sensitive on-off control of gene expression in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing Tet-On 3G were created using a new integrase-based, site-specific approach, yielding high-level transgene expression driven by a ubiquitous promoter. Blastocysts from these mice were transduced with the Tet-On 3G-response element promoter-driving firefly luciferase using lentivirus-mediated placenta-specific gene delivery and transferred into wild-type pseudopregnant recipients for placenta-specific, Dox-inducible gene expression. Systemic Dox administration at various time points during pregnancy led to transient, placenta-specific firefly luciferase expression as early as d 5 of pregnancy in a Dox dose-dependent manner. This system enables, for the first time, reliable pregnancy stage-specific induction of gene expression in the placenta and live monitoring of gene expression during pregnancy. It will be widely applicable to studies of both placental development and pregnancy, and the site-specific Tet-On G3 mouse will be valuable for studies in a broad range of tissues. PMID:23011919

  2. XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Moalem, Sharon; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Stavropolous, Dmitri J; Wherrett, Diane; Bägli, Darius J; Thomas, Paul; Chitayat, David

    2012-07-01

    Differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testis is initiated by the Y chromosome-linked gene SRY (Sex-determining Region Y) through upregulation of its autosomal direct target gene SOX9 (Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9). Sequence and chromosome homology studies have shown that SRY most probably evolved from SOX3, which in humans is located at Xq27.1. Mutations causing SOX3 loss-of-function do not affect the sex determination in mice or humans. However, transgenic mouse studies have shown that ectopic expression of Sox3 in the bipotential gonad results in upregulation of Sox9, resulting in testicular induction and XX male sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which these rearrangements cause sex reversal and the frequency with which they are associated with disorders of sex development remains unclear. Rearrangements of the SOX3 locus were identified recently in three cases of human XX male sex reversal. We report on a case of XX male sex reversal associated with a novel de novo duplication of the SOX3 gene. These data provide additional evidence that SOX3 gain-of-function in the XX bipotential gonad causes XX male sex reversal and further support the hypothesis that SOX3 is the evolutionary antecedent of SRY. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Male sex interspecies divergence and down regulation of expression of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila sterile hybrids.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.

  4. William's syndrome: gene expression is related to parental origin and regional coordinate control

    PubMed Central

    Collette, Jeremy C; Chen, Xiao-Ning; Mills, Debra L; Galaburda, Albert M; Reiss, Allan L; Bellugi, Ursula; Korenberg, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    William's syndrome (WS) features a spectrum of neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities due to a rare 1.5MB deletion that includes about 24–28 genes on chromosome band 7q11.23. Study of the expression of these genes from the single normal copy provides an opportunity to elucidate the genetic and epigenetic controls on these genes as well as their roles in both WS and normal brain development and function. We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the transcriptional level of 14 WS gene markers in a cohort of 77 persons with WS and 48 normal controls. Results reported here: (1) show that the expression of the genes deleted in WS is decreased in some but not all cases, (2) demonstrate that the parental origin of the deletion contributes to the level of expression of GTF2I independently of age and gender and (3) indicate that the correlation of expression between GTF2I and some other genes in the WS region differs in WS subjects and normal controls, which in turn points toward a regulatory role for this gene. Interspecies comparisons suggest GTF2I may play a key role in normal brain development. PMID:19282872

  5. Gene and enhancer trap tagging of vascular-expressed genes in poplar trees

    Treesearch

    Andrew Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Gayle Dupper; Caiping Ma; Robert Martienssen; Steven Strauss; Richard Meilan

    2004-01-01

    We report a gene discovery system for poplar trees based on gene and enhancer traps. Gene and enhancer trap vectors carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were inserted into the poplar genome via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation, where they reveal the expression pattern of genes at or near the insertion sites. Because GUS...

  6. Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Richard P.; Malone, John H.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA–seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the “faster-X” effect often observed in DNA sequence evolution. Faster-X evolution of gene expression was recently described in mammals, but it was limited to the evolutionary lineages shortly following the creation of the therian X chromosome. In contrast, we detect a faster-X effect along both deep lineages and those on the tips of the Drosophila phylogeny. In Drosophila males, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds the X chromosome, creating a unique chromatin environment that promotes the hyper-expression of X-linked genes. We find that DCC binding, chromatin environment, and breadth of expression are all predictive of the rate of gene expression evolution. In addition, estimates of the intraspecific genetic polymorphism underlying gene expression variation suggest that X-linked expression levels are not under relaxed selective constraints. We therefore hypothesize that the faster-X evolution of gene expression is the result of the adaptive fixation of beneficial mutations at X-linked loci that change expression level in cis. This adaptive faster-X evolution of gene expression is limited to genes that are narrowly expressed in a single tissue, suggesting that relaxed pleiotropic constraints permit a faster response to selection. Finally, we present a conceptional framework to explain faster-X expression evolution, and we use this framework to examine differences in the faster-X effect between Drosophila and mammals. PMID:23071459

  7. Comparative analysis of temporal gene expression patterns in the developing ovary of the embryonic chicken

    PubMed Central

    YU, Minli; XU, Yali; YU, Defu; YU, Debing; DU, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Many genes participate in the process of ovarian germ cell development, while the combined action mechanisms of these molecular regulators still need clarification. The present study was focused on determination of differentially expressed genes and gene functions at four critical time points in chicken ovarian development. Comparative transcriptional profiling of ovaries from embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5), E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5 was performed using an Affymetrix GeneChip chicken genome microarray. Differential expression patterns for genes specifically depleted and enriched in each stage were identified. The results showed that most of the up- and downregulated genes were involved in the metabolism of retinoic acid (RA) and synthesis of hormones. Among them, a higher number of up- and downregulated genes in the E15.5 ovary were identified as being involved in steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism, respectively. To validate gene changes, expressions of twelve candidate genes related to germ cell development were examined by real-time PCR and found to be consistent with the of GeneChip data. Moreover, the immunostaining results suggested that ovarian development during different stages was regulated by different genes. Furthermore, a Raldh2 knockdown chicken model was produced to investigate the fundamental role of Raldh2 in meiosis initiation. It was found that meiosis occurred abnormally in Raldh2 knockdown ovaries, but the inhibitory effect on meiosis was reversed by the addition of exogenous RA. This study offers insights into the profile of gene expression and mechanisms regulating ovarian development, especially the notable role of Raldh2 in meiosis initiation in the chicken. PMID:25736178

  8. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Eric; Mucher, Elodie; Jeansoule, Nicolas; Larcher, Thibaut; Guigand, Lydie; Herszberg, Bérénice; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Guérin, Gérard; Mata, Xavier; Benech, Philippe; Canale, Marielle; Alibert, Olivier; Maltere, Péguy; Gidrol, Xavier

    2009-08-07

    Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA) and 5 heterozygous (GA) PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses.Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p < 0.05). The following genes were up-regulated over 2 fold: IL18, CTSS, LUM, CD44, FN1, GST01. The most down-regulated genes were the following: mitochondrial tRNA, SLC2A2, PRKCalpha, VEGFalpha. Data mining analysis showed that protein synthesis, apoptosis, cellular movement, growth and proliferation were the main cellular functions significantly associated with the modulated genes (p < 0.05). Several up-regulated genes, especially IL18, revealed a severe muscular inflammation in PSSM muscles. The up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3beta) under its active form could be responsible for glycogen synthase (GYS1) inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1alpha

  9. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  10. Diatoms morphology and gene expression in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iudicone, D.; Amato, A.; Ferrante, M. I.; Ribera, M.

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms are an ecologically important algal group that prospers in turbulent environments. Despite previous efforts, a general scenario that explains mesocosm and in situ observations is missing. Importantly, according to the present theories, the main effect of microscale turbulence is the increase of nutrient uptake efficiency in nutrient-depleted conditions and for very large cells. We will present evidences from laboratory experiments in nutrient-repleted conditions that chain-forming diatoms sense and respond to turbulence by varying their chain length spectra and tuning their metabolism. Further, we compared growth and gene expressions of small-sized cells in turbulent and in still conditions and found that turbulence sensing activates a series of pathways suggesting a partial metabolic switch in response to agitation. In addition, a long-time exposure experiment showed that when silicates become depleted these same diatoms take up other nutrients differently than in still condition. This implies that in natural environment prolonged turbulence would shape the phytoplankton community structure and succession.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase gene expression in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Hostein, I; Dorion-Bonnet, F; Bloch, B; Vaillier, D; Juzan, M; Gualde, N

    1992-09-01

    Eicosanoids are arachidonic acid metabolites issued both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways. Many of these products were reported to modulate the immune response. Since most of eicosanoids have a short half life they are considered as local immunomodulators. Interactions between eicosanoids and thymocytes appear to be complex within the thymus. It was reported that cyclooxegenase derivatives of arachidonic acid are produced in this primary lymphoid organ mostly by cells of the thymic microenvironment. On the other hand it is not yet clearly established (1) what is the location of the lipoxygenase-positive cells within the gland and (2) what is the ratio of cells producing lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid when compared to the whole thymocyte population. Using two oligonucleotides complementary to the rat 5-lipoxygenase mRNA we demonstrated (by both hybridization on Northern blots and in situ hybridization) the expression of the 5-lipoxygenase gene in the thymus. 5-lipoxygenase positive cells appear to be associated in "clusters" and are mostly located in the thymic cortex. It is likely that they belong to the thymic microenvironment.

  12. White Matter Abnormalities and Dystonic Motor Disorder Associated with Mutations in the "SLC16A2" Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gika, Artemis D.; Siddiqui, Ata; Hulse, Anthony J.; Edward, Selvakumari; Fallon, Penny; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Jan, Wajanat; Josifova, Dragana; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Refetoff, Samuel; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Mutations in the "SLC16A2" gene have been implicated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked learning disability syndrome associated with thyroid function test (TFT) abnormalities. Delayed myelination is a non-specific finding in individuals with learning disability whose genetic basis is often uncertain. The aim of this study…

  13. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  14. Disruption of the Zdhhc9 intellectual disability gene leads to behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kouskou, Marianna; Thomson, David M; Brett, Ros R; Wheeler, Lee; Tate, Rothwelle J; Pratt, Judith A; Chamberlain, Luke H

    2018-06-23

    Protein S-acylation is a widespread post-translational modification that regulates the trafficking and function of a diverse array of proteins. This modification is catalysed by a family of twenty-three zDHHC enzymes that exhibit both specific and overlapping substrate interactions. Mutations in the gene encoding zDHHC9 cause mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, seizures, speech and language impairment, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and reduced volume of sub-cortical structures. In this study, we have undertaken behavioural phenotyping, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and isolation of S-acylated proteins to investigate the effect of disruption of the Zdhhc9 gene in mice in a C57BL/6 genetic background. Zdhhc9 mutant male mice exhibit a range of abnormalities compared with their wild-type littermates: altered behaviour in the open-field test, elevated plus maze and acoustic startle test that is consistent with a reduced anxiety level; a reduced hang time in the hanging wire test that suggests underlying hypotonia but which may also be linked to reduced anxiety; deficits in the Morris water maze test of hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory; and a 36% reduction in corpus callosum volume revealed by MRI. Surprisingly, membrane association and S-acylation of H-Ras was not disrupted in either whole brain or hippocampus of Zdhhc9 mutant mice, suggesting that other substrates of this enzyme are linked to the observed changes. Overall, this study highlights a key role for zDHHC9 in brain development and behaviour, and supports the utility of the Zdhhc9 mutant mouse line to investigate molecular and cellular changes linked to intellectual disability and other deficits in the human population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  16. GeneSigDB—a curated database of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Picard, Shaita C.; Lu, Tim H.; Franklin, Katherine R.; French, Simon J.; Papenhausen, Gerald; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of most gene expression studies is the identification of one or more gene signatures; lists of genes whose transcriptional levels are uniquely associated with a specific biological phenotype. Whilst thousands of experimentally derived gene signatures are published, their potential value to the community is limited by their computational inaccessibility. Gene signatures are embedded in published article figures, tables or in supplementary materials, and are frequently presented using non-standard gene or probeset nomenclature. We present GeneSigDB (http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb) a manually curated database of gene expression signatures. GeneSigDB release 1.0 focuses on cancer and stem cells gene signatures and was constructed from more than 850 publications from which we manually transcribed 575 gene signatures. Most gene signatures (n = 560) were successfully mapped to the genome to extract standardized lists of EnsEMBL gene identifiers. GeneSigDB provides the original gene signature, the standardized gene list and a fully traceable gene mapping history for each gene from the original transcribed data table through to the standardized list of genes. The GeneSigDB web portal is easy to search, allows users to compare their own gene list to those in the database, and download gene signatures in most common gene identifier formats. PMID:19934259

  17. Reduced expression of the NMDA receptor-interacting protein SynGAP causes behavioral abnormalities that model symptoms of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Hamilton, Peter J; Reish, Nicholas J; Sweatt, J David; Miller, Courtney A; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2009-06-01

    Abnormal function of NMDA receptors is believed to be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. NMDAR subunits and postsynaptic-interacting proteins of these channels are abnormally expressed in some patients with this illness. In mice, reduced NMDAR expression leads to behaviors analogous to symptoms of schizophrenia, but reports of animals with mutations in core postsynaptic density proteins having similar a phenotype have yet to be reported. Here we show that reduced expression of the neuronal RasGAP and NMDAR-associated protein, SynGAP, results in abnormal behaviors strikingly similar to that reported in mice with reduced NMDAR function. SynGAP mutant mice exhibited nonhabituating and persistent hyperactivity that was ameliorated by the antipsychotic clozapine. An NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, induced hyperactivity in normal mice but SynGAP mutants were less responsive, suggesting that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to this behavioral abnormality. SynGAP mutants exhibited enhanced startle reactivity and impaired sensory-motor gating. These mice also displayed a complete lack of social memory and a propensity toward social isolation. Finally, SynGAP mutants had deficits in cued fear conditioning and working memory, indicating abnormal function of circuits that control emotion and choice. Our results demonstrate that SynGAP mutant mice have gross neurological deficits similar to other mouse models of schizophrenia. Because SynGAP interacts with NMDARs, and the signaling activity of this protein is regulated by these channels, our data in dicate that SynGAP lies downstream of NMDARs and is a required intermediate for normal neural circuit function and behavior. Taken together, these data support the idea that schizophrenia may arise from abnormal signaling pathways that are mediated by NMDA receptors.

  18. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  19. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcaniimore » was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of

  20. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    PubMed

    Douaud, Marine; Feve, Katia; Pituello, Fabienne; Gourichon, David; Boitard, Simon; Leguern, Eric; Coquerelle, Gérard; Vieaud, Agathe; Batini, Cesira; Naquet, Robert; Vignal, Alain; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Pitel, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A) is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  1. Using differential gene expression to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Carol A.; Petri, William A.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the Entamoeba histolytica genome has facilitated the development of techniques to survey rapidly and to relate gene expression with biology. The association and potential contribution of differential gene expression to the life cycle and the virulence of this protozoan parasite of humans are reviewed here. PMID:19217826

  2. An Exercise to Estimate Differential Gene Expression in Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The expression of genes in cells of various tissue types varies considerably and is correlated with the function of a particular organ. The pattern of gene expression changes in diseased tissues, in response to therapy or infection and exposure to environmental mutagens, chemicals, ultraviolet light, and ionizing radiation. To better understand…

  3. Gene expression in cerebral ischemia: a new approach for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Millán, Mónica; Arenillas, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the strongest stimuli for gene induction in the brain. Hundreds of genes have been found to be induced by brain ischemia. Many genes are involved in neurodestructive functions such as excitotoxicity, inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. However, cerebral ischemia is also a powerful reformatting and reprogramming stimulus for the brain through neuroprotective gene expression. Several genes may participate in both cellular responses. Thus, isolation of candidate genes for neuroprotection strategies and interpretation of expression changes have been proven difficult. Nevertheless, many studies are being carried out to improve the knowledge of the gene activation and protein expression following ischemic stroke, as well as in the development of new therapies that modify biochemical, molecular and genetic changes underlying cerebral ischemia. Owing to the complexity of the process involving numerous critical genes expressed differentially in time, space and concentration, ongoing therapeutic efforts should be based on multiple interventions at different levels. By modification of the acute gene expression induced by ischemia or the apoptotic gene program, gene therapy is a promising treatment but is still in a very experimental phase. Some hurdles will have to be overcome before these therapies can be introduced into human clinical stroke trials. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Du, Baoying; Zhou, Hao; Shen, Fengxian; Li, Juan; Xie, Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism. Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (p< 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in Nrf2 mRNA expression levels between the adenomyosis and control groups. Using an agonist and Nrf2 siRNA, we regulated the Nrf2 protein levels of primary cultured endometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  5. Direct Introduction of Genes into Rats and Expression of the Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenisty, Nissim; Reshef, Lea

    1986-12-01

    A method of introducing actively expressed genes into intact mammals is described. DNA precipitated with calcium phosphate has been injected intraperitoneally into newborn rats. The injected genes have been taken up and expressed by the animal tissues. To examine the generality of the method we have injected newborn rats with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase prokaryotic gene fused with various viral and cellular gene promoters and the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen, and we observed appearance of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and hepatitis B surface antigen in liver and spleen. In addition, administration of genes coding for hormones (insulin or growth hormone) resulted in their expression.

  6. Gene expression changes in honey bees induced by sublethal imidacloprid exposure during the larval stage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Wen; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Yang, En-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Honey bee larvae exposed to sublethal doses of imidacloprid show behavioural abnormalities as adult insects. Previous studies have demonstrated that this phenomenon originates from abnormal neural development in response to imidacloprid exposure. Here, we further investigated the global gene expression changes in the heads of newly emerged adults and observed that 578 genes showed more than 2-fold changes in gene expression after imidacloprid exposure. This information might aid in understanding the effects of pesticides on the health of pollinators. For example, the genes encoding major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), a group of multifunctional proteins with significant roles in the sustainable development of bee colonies, were strongly downregulated. These downregulation patterns were further confirmed through analyses using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on the heads of 6-day-old nurse bees. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that sublethal doses of imidacloprid affect mrjp expression and likely weaken bee colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AP4M1 is abnormally expressed in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Cheng, X Y; Sheng, G Y

    2014-03-20

    AP4M1 mutations have been suggested to be associated with autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome. But the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how AP4M1 expression is changed in injured neurons. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were prepared for this experiment. They were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leading to apoptosis, mimicking brain ischemia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was labeled immunofluorescently to confirm that the purity of neuron was higher than 90%. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the gene expression. AP4M1 was labeled with MAP2 or Tau-1 to observe the distribution. We found that the AP4M1 protein levels immediately after the procedure were similar between the OGD group and the sham group. However, down-regulation was observed 12h after the reperfusion, and became more notable at 24h. The real-time PCR showed similar results, except that the down-regulation of mRNA was able to be detected immediately after the OGD. Immunofluorescent labeling revealed AP4M1 distributed in the dendrites of normal neurons, but it redistributed to the axons after the OGD procedure. In conclusion, AP4M1 is not only down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels, but also redistributed from dendrites to axons in oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COLLAPSED ABNORMAL POLLEN1 Gene Encoding the Arabinokinase-Like Protein Is Involved in Pollen Development in Rice1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kenji; Yoshimura, Fumiaki; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a pollen-defective mutant, collapsed abnormal pollen1 (cap1), from Tos17 insertional mutant lines of rice (Oryza sativa). The cap1 heterozygous plant produced equal numbers of normal and collapsed abnormal grains. The abnormal pollen grains lacked almost all cytoplasmic materials, nuclei, and intine cell walls and did not germinate. Genetic analysis of crosses revealed that the cap1 mutation did not affect female reproduction or vegetative growth. CAP1 encodes a protein consisting of 996 amino acids that showed high similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) l-arabinokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of l-arabinose to l-arabinose 1-phosphate. A wild-type genomic DNA segment containing CAP1 restored mutants to normal pollen grains. During rice pollen development, CAP1 was preferentially expressed in anthers at the bicellular pollen stage, and the effects of the cap1 mutation were mainly detected at this stage. Based on the metabolic pathway of l-arabinose, cap1 pollen phenotype may have been caused by toxic accumulation of l-arabinose or by inhibition of cell wall metabolism due to the lack of UDP-l-arabinose derived from l-arabinose 1-phosphate. The expression pattern of CAP1 was very similar to that of another Arabidopsis homolog that showed 71% amino acid identity with CAP1. Our results suggested that CAP1 and related genes are critical for pollen development in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23629836

  9. A comparative analysis of gene-expression data of multiple cancer types.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Cui, Juan; Olman, Victor; Yang, Qing; Puett, David; Xu, Ying

    2010-10-27

    A comparative study of public gene-expression data of seven types of cancers (breast, colon, kidney, lung, pancreatic, prostate and stomach cancers) was conducted with the aim of deriving marker genes, along with associated pathways, that are either common to multiple types of cancers or specific to individual cancers. The analysis results indicate that (a) each of the seven cancer types can be distinguished from its corresponding control tissue based on the expression patterns of a small number of genes, e.g., 2, 3 or 4; (b) the expression patterns of some genes can distinguish multiple cancer types from their corresponding control tissues, potentially serving as general markers for all or some groups of cancers; (c) the proteins encoded by some of these genes are predicted to be blood secretory, thus providing potential cancer markers in blood; (d) the numbers of differentially expressed genes across different cancer types in comparison with their control tissues correlate well with the five-year survival rates associated with the individual cancers; and (e) some metabolic and signaling pathways are abnormally activated or deactivated across all cancer types, while other pathways are more specific to certain cancers or groups of cancers. The novel findings of this study offer considerable insight into these seven cancer types and have the potential to provide exciting new directions for diagnostic and therapeutic development.

  10. Implementation of plaid model biclustering method on microarray of carcinoma and adenoma tumor gene expression data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardaneswari, Gianinna; Bustamam, Alhadi; Sarwinda, Devvi

    2017-10-01

    A Tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that serves no purpose. Carcinoma is a tumor that grows from the top of the cell membrane and the organ adenoma is a benign tumor of the gland-like cells or epithelial tissue. In the field of molecular biology, the development of microarray technology is used in the data store of disease genetic expression. For each of microarray gene, an amount of information is stored for each trait or condition. In gene expression data clustering can be done with a bicluster algorithm, thats clustering method which not only the objects to be clustered, but also the properties or condition of the object. This research proposed Plaid Model Biclustering as one of biclustering method. In this study, we discuss the implementation of Plaid Model Biclustering Method on microarray of Carcinoma and Adenoma tumor gene expression data. From the experimental results, we found three biclusters are formed by Carcinoma gene expression data and four biclusters are formed by Adenoma gene expression data.

  11. Dimensionality of Data Matrices with Applications to Gene Expression Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xingdong

    2009-01-01

    Probe-level microarray data are usually stored in matrices. Take a given probe set (gene), for example, each row of the matrix corresponds to an array, and each column corresponds to a probe. Often, people summarize each array by the gene expression level. Is one number sufficient to summarize a whole probe set for a specific gene in an array?…

  12. Gene expression profiling of mucolipidosis type IV fibroblasts reveals deregulation of genes with relevant functions in lysosome physiology.

    PubMed

    Bozzato, Andrea; Barlati, Sergio; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV, MIM 252650) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that causes mental and motor retardation as well as visual impairment. The lysosomal storage defect in MLIV is consistent with abnormalities of membrane traffic and organelle dynamics in the late endocytic pathway. MLIV is caused by mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which codes for mucolipin-1 (MLN1), a member of the large family of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. Although a number of studies have been performed on mucolipin-1, the pathological mechanisms underlying MLIV are not fully understood. To identify genes that characterize pathogenic changes in mucolipidosis type IV, we compared the expression profiles of three MLIV and three normal skin fibroblasts cell lines using oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes that were differentially expressed in patients' cells were identified. 231 genes were up-regulated, and 116 down-regulated. Real-Time RT-PCR performed on selected genes in six independent MLIV fibroblasts cell lines was generally consistent with the microarray findings. This study allowed to evidence the modulation at the transcriptional level of a discrete number of genes relevant in biological processes which are altered in the disease such as endosome/lysosome trafficking, lysosome biogenesis, organelle acidification and lipid metabolism.

  13. Evaluating the consistency of gene sets used in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Nathan L; Sitarik, Alexandra; Boerema, Benjamin; Young, Kylie; Best, Aaron A; Dejongh, Matthew

    2012-08-08

    Statistical analyses of whole genome expression data require functional information about genes in order to yield meaningful biological conclusions. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) are common sources of functionally grouped gene sets. For bacteria, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide alternative, complementary sources of gene sets. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the data obtained from these resources has been performed. We define a series of gene set consistency metrics directly related to the most common classes of statistical analyses for gene expression data, and then perform a comprehensive analysis of 3581 Affymetrix® gene expression arrays across 17 diverse bacteria. We find that gene sets obtained from GO and KEGG demonstrate lower consistency than those obtained from the SEED and MicrobesOnline, regardless of gene set size. Despite the widespread use of GO and KEGG gene sets in bacterial gene expression data analysis, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide more consistent sets for a wide variety of statistical analyses. Increased use of the SEED and MicrobesOnline gene sets in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data may improve statistical power and utility of expression data.

  14. Peripheral retinopathy in offspring of carriers of Norrie disease gene mutations. Possible transplacental effect of abnormal Norrin.

    PubMed

    Mintz-Hittner, H A; Ferrell, R E; Sims, K B; Fernandez, K M; Gemmell, B S; Satriano, D R; Caster, J; Kretzer, F L

    1996-12-01

    The Norrie disease (ND) gene (Xp11.3) (McKusick 310600) consists of one untranslated exon and two exons partially translated as the Norrie disease protein (Norrin). Norrin has sequence homology and computer-predicted tertiary structure of a growth factor containing a cystine knot motif, which affects endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Norrie disease (congenital retinal detachment), X-linked primary retinal dysplasia (congenital retinal fold), and X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (congenital macular ectopia) are allelic disorders. Blood was drawn for genetic studies from members of two families to test for ND gene mutations. Sixteen unaffected family members were examined ophthalmologically. If any retinal abnormality were identified, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography was performed. Family A had ND (R109stp), and family B had X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (R121L). The retinas of 11 offspring of carrier females were examined: three of seven carrier females, three of three otherwise healthy females, and one of one otherwise healthy male had peripheral inner retinal vascular abnormalities. The retinas of five offspring of affected males were examined: none of three carrier females and none of two otherwise healthy males had this peripheral retinal finding. Peripheral inner retinal vascular abnormalities similar to regressed retinopathy of prematurity were identified in seven offspring of carriers of ND gene mutations in two families. These ophthalmologic findings, especially in four genetically healthy offspring, strongly support the hypothesis that abnormal Norrin may have an adverse transplacental (environmental) effect on normal inner retinal vasculogenesis.

  15. Comparative gene expression analysis of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos with different developmental potential by cDNA microarray and real-time PCR to determine genes that might reflect calf normality.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoko; Li, Xiangping; Amarnath, Dasari; Ushizawa, Koichi; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki; Taniguchi, Masanori; Tsunoda, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Placental abnormalities are the main factor in the high incidence of somatic cell clone abnormalities. The expression of several trophoblast cell-specific molecules is enhanced during gestational days 7 to 14. To determine the possible genes whose expression patterns might reflect calf normality, we first compared the gene expression profiles on day 15 between in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos and two types of somatic cell nuclear-transferred embryos with either a high (FNT) or low (CNT) incidence of neonatal abnormalities using a cDNA microarray containing 16 of 21 placenta-specific genes developed from tissues collected across gestation. To identify significant genes from the screening of day 15 embryos, genes with a less than two-fold difference in expression between IVF and CNT embryos, and those with a greater than two-fold difference between IVF and FNT and between CNT and FNT were considered to contribute to clone abnormalities. These two comparisons revealed 18 down-regulated and 18 upregulated genes of the 1722 genes examined. We then examined the expression levels of 10 genes with known functions in eight-cell and blastocyst-stage embryos by real-time PCR. The mRNA expression pattern of interferon (IFN)-tau, a trophectoderm-related gene, differed between IVF, CNT, and FNT eight-cell embryos; few or none of the IVF or CNT eight-cell embryos expressed IFN-tau mRNA, but all eight-cell FNT embryos expressed IFN-tau. IFN-tau mRNA expression was significantly higher in IVF blastocysts, however, than in nuclear-transferred blastocysts. Average IFN-tau mRNA expression in FNT blastocysts was not different from that in CNT blastocysts, due to one CNT blastocyst with high expression. The precise relation between early expression of IFN-tau mRNA and inferior developmental potential in cloned embryos should be examined further.

  16. Rethinking cell-cycle-dependent gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Three studies of gene expression during the division cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe led to the proposal that a large number of genes are expressed at particular times during the S. pombe cell cycle. Yet only a small fraction of genes proposed to be expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner are reproducible in all three published studies. In addition to reproducibility problems, questions about expression amplitudes, cell-cycle timing of expression, synchronization artifacts, and the problem with methods for synchronizing cells must be considered. These problems and complications prompt the idea that caution should be used before accepting the conclusion that there are a large number of genes expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in S. pombe.

  17. Chamber Specific Gene Expression Landscape of the Zebrafish Heart

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Angom Ramcharan; Sivadas, Ambily; Sabharwal, Ankit; Vellarikal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Jayarajan, Rijith; Verma, Ankit; Kapoor, Shruti; Joshi, Adita; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The organization of structure and function of cardiac chambers in vertebrates is defined by chamber-specific distinct gene expression. This peculiarity and uniqueness of the genetic signatures demonstrates functional resolution attributed to the different chambers of the heart. Altered expression of the cardiac chamber genes can lead to individual chamber related dysfunctions and disease patho-physiologies. Information on transcriptional repertoire of cardiac compartments is important to understand the spectrum of chamber specific anomalies. We have carried out a genome wide transcriptome profiling study of the three cardiac chambers in the zebrafish heart using RNA sequencing. We have captured the gene expression patterns of 13,396 protein coding genes in the three cardiac chambers—atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus. Of these, 7,260 known protein coding genes are highly expressed (≥10 FPKM) in the zebrafish heart. Thus, this study represents nearly an all-inclusive information on the zebrafish cardiac transcriptome. In this study, a total of 96 differentially expressed genes across the three cardiac chambers in zebrafish were identified. The atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus displayed 20, 32 and 44 uniquely expressing genes respectively. We validated the expression of predicted chamber-restricted genes using independent semi-quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques. In addition, we identified 23 putative novel protein coding genes that are specifically restricted to the ventricle and not in the atrium or bulbus arteriosus. In our knowledge, these 23 novel genes have either not been investigated in detail or are sparsely studied. The transcriptome identified in this study includes 68 differentially expressing zebrafish cardiac chamber genes that have a human ortholog. We also carried out spatiotemporal gene expression profiling of the 96 differentially expressed genes throughout the three cardiac chambers in 11 developmental stages and 6

  18. Downregulation of p300 gene expression in airway mesenchyme of nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lungs.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromizu; Friedmacher, Florian; Fujiwara, Naho; Hofmann, Alejandro; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Puri, Prem

    2014-04-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a relatively common developmental abnormality causing life-threatening respiratory distress at birth. The nitrofen model has been widely used to investigate the pathogenesis of hypoplastic lungs associated with CDH. Embryos lacking p300 and CBP genes are significantly smaller in lung formation. We hypothesized that pulmonary gene expression of p300 and CBP is downregulated during late gestation in the nitrofen-induced CDH model. Time-pregnant rats were treated with either nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetal lungs were harvested on D18 and D21 (n = 8 at each time point). Pulmonary gene expression of p300 and CBP was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate expression and localization of pulmonary p300 and CBP proteins. Relative mRNA expression levels of p300 were significantly decreased in nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lungs on D18 compared to controls (3.00 ± 0.20 vs. 3.76 ± 0.14; p = 0.0039), while CBP levels were not altered. p300 immunoreactivity was markedly diminished in surrounding mesenchymal compartments and nuclei of proximal and distal airway cells, while CBP expression was not altered. Downregulation of p300 gene expression during the early canalicular stage may disrupt epithelial-mesenchymal signaling interactions, contributing to the development of hypoplastic lungs in the nitrofen-induced CDH model.

  19. Prenatal Nutritional Deficiency Reprogrammed Postnatal Gene Expression in Mammal Brains: Implications for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiawei; He, Guang; Zhu, Jingde; Zhou, Xinyao; St Clair, David; Wang, Teng; Xiang, Yuqian; Zhao, Qingzhu; Xing, Qinghe; Liu, Yun; Wang, Lei; Li, Qiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have identified prenatal exposure to famine as a risk factor for schizophrenia, and animal models of prenatal malnutrition display structural and functional brain abnormalities implicated in schizophrenia. Methods: The offspring of the RLP50 rat, a recently developed animal model of prenatal famine malnutrition exposure, was used to investigate the changes of gene expression and epigenetic modifications in the brain regions. Microarray gene expression analysis was carried out in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus from 8 RLP50 offspring rats and 8 controls. MBD-seq was used to test the changes in DNA methylation in hippocampus depending on prenatal malnutrition exposure. Results: In the prefrontal cortex, offspring of RLP50 exhibit differences in neurotransmitters and olfactory-associated gene expression. In the hippocampus, the differentially-expressed genes are related to synaptic function and transcription regulation. DNA methylome profiling of the hippocampus also shows widespread but systematic epigenetic changes; in most cases (87%) this involves hypermethylation. Remarkably, genes encoded for the plasma membrane are significantly enriched for changes in both gene expression and DNA methylome profiling screens (p = 2.37×10–9 and 5.36×10–9, respectively). Interestingly, Mecp2 and Slc2a1, two genes associated with cognitive impairment, show significant down-regulation, and Slc2a1 is hypermethylated in the hippocampus of the RLP50 offspring. Conclusions: Collectively, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to malnutrition leads to the reprogramming of postnatal brain gene expression and that the epigenetic modifications contribute to the reprogramming. The process may impair learning and memory ability and result in higher susceptibility to schizophrenia. PMID:25522397

  20. Co-expression of mitosis-regulating genes contributes to malignant progression and prognosis in oligodendrogliomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanwei; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Zheng; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dabiao; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The clinical prognosis of patients with glioma is determined by tumor grades, but tumors of different subtypes with equal malignancy grade usually have different prognosis that is largely determined by genetic abnormalities. Oligodendrogliomas (ODs) are the second most common type of gliomas. In this study, integrative analyses found that distribution of TCGA transcriptomic subtypes was associated with grade progression in ODs. To identify critical gene(s) associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes, we analyzed 34 normal brain tissue (NBT), 146 WHO grade II and 130 grade III ODs by microarray and RNA sequencing, and identified a co-expression network of six genes (AURKA, NDC80,CENPK, KIAA0101, TIMELESS and MELK) that was associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes as well as Ki-67 expression. Validation of the six genes was performed by qPCR in additional 28 ODs. Importantly, these genes also were validated in four high-grade recurrent gliomas and the initial lower-grade gliomas resected from the same patients. Finally, the RNA data on two genes with the highest discrimination potential (AURKA and NDC80) and Ki-67 were validated on an independent cohort (5 NBTs and 86 ODs) by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of AURKA and NDC80 by siRNAs suppressed Ki-67 expression and proliferation of gliomas cells. Survival analysis showed that high expression of the six genes corporately indicated a poor survival outcome. Correlation and protein interaction analysis provided further evidence for this co-expression network. These data suggest that the co-expression of the six mitosis-regulating genes was associated with malignant progression and prognosis in ODs. PMID:26468983

  1. Dynamic changes in gene expression during human trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Handwerger, Stuart; Aronow, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The genetic program that directs human placental differentiation is poorly understood. In a recent study, we used DNA microarray analyses to determine genes that are dynamically regulated during human placental development in an in vitro model system in which highly purified cytotrophoblast cells aggregate spontaneously and fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium that expresses placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and other proteins normally expressed by fully differentiated syncytiotrophoblast cells. Of the 6918 genes present on the Incyte Human GEM V microarray that we analyzed over a 9-day period, 141 were induced and 256 were downregulated by more than 2-fold. The dynamically regulated genes fell into nine distinct kinetic patterns of induction or repression, as detected by the K-means algorithm. Classifying the genes according to functional characteristics, the regulated genes could be divided into six overall categories: cell and tissue structural dynamics, cell cycle and apoptosis, intercellular communication, metabolism, regulation of gene expression, and expressed sequence tags and function unknown. Gene expression changes within key functional categories were tightly coupled to the morphological changes that occurred during trophoblast differentiation. Within several key gene categories (e.g., cell and tissue structure), many genes were strongly activated, while others with related function were strongly repressed. These findings suggest that trophoblast differentiation is augmented by "categorical reprogramming" in which the ability of induced genes to function is enhanced by diminished synthesis of other genes within the same category. We also observed categorical reprogramming in human decidual fibroblasts decidualized in vitro in response to progesterone, estradiol, and cyclic AMP. While there was little overlap between genes that are dynamically regulated during trophoblast differentiation versus decidualization, many of the categories

  2. Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF- α genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN- γ genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis. PMID:21637453

  3. Magnetic field-controlled gene expression in encapsulated cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Viktoria; Kaspar, Cornelius; Halter, Christian; Töllner, Lars; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Walzer, Johann; Günzburg, Walter H.; Dangerfield, John A.; Hohenadl, Christine; Czerny, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cell and gene therapies have an enormous range of potential applications, but as for most other therapies, dosing is a critical issue, which makes regulated gene expression a prerequisite for advanced strategies. Several inducible expression systems have been established, which mainly rely on small molecules as inducers, such as hormones or antibiotics. The application of these inducers is difficult to control and the effects on gene regulation are slow. Here we describe a novel system for induction of gene expression in encapsulated cells. This involves the modification of cells to express potential therapeutic genes under the control of a heat inducible promoter and the co-encapsulation of these cells with magnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles produce heat when subjected to an alternating magnetic field; the elevated temperatures in the capsules then induce gene expression. In the present study we define the parameters of such systems and provide proof-of-principle using reporter gene constructs. The fine-tuned heating of nanoparticles in the magnetic field allows regulation of gene expression from the outside over a broad range and within short time. Such a system has great potential for advancement of cell and gene therapy approaches. PMID:22197778

  4. Clustering Algorithms: Their Application to Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Jelili; Isewon, Itunuoluwa; Oladipupo, Funke; Aromolaran, Olufemi; Uwoghiren, Efosa; Ameh, Faridah; Achas, Moses; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression data hide vital information required to understand the biological process that takes place in a particular organism in relation to its environment. Deciphering the hidden patterns in gene expression data proffers a prodigious preference to strengthen the understanding of functional genomics. The complexity of biological networks and the volume of genes present increase the challenges of comprehending and interpretation of the resulting mass of data, which consists of millions of measurements; these data also inhibit vagueness, imprecision, and noise. Therefore, the use of clustering techniques is a first step toward addressing these challenges, which is essential in the data mining process to reveal natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. The clustering of gene expression data has been proven to be useful in making known the natural structure inherent in gene expression data, understanding gene functions, cellular processes, and subtypes of cells, mining useful information from noisy data, and understanding gene regulation. The other benefit of clustering gene expression data is the identification of homology, which is very important in vaccine design. This review examines the various clustering algorithms applicable to the gene expression data in order to discover and provide useful knowledge of the appropriate clustering technique that will guarantee stability and high degree of accuracy in its analysis procedure. PMID:27932867

  5. Transposon Variants and Their Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi; Weigel, Detlef; Smith, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) make up the majority of many plant genomes. Their transcription and transposition is controlled through siRNAs and epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. To dissect the interplay of siRNA–mediated regulation and TE evolution, and to examine how TE differences affect nearby gene expression, we investigated genome-wide differences in TEs, siRNAs, and gene expression among three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Both TE sequence polymorphisms and presence of linked TEs are positively correlated with intraspecific variation in gene expression. The expression of genes within 2 kb of conserved TEs is more stable than that of genes next to variant TEs harboring sequence polymorphisms. Polymorphism levels of TEs and closely linked adjacent genes are positively correlated as well. We also investigated the distribution of 24-nt-long siRNAs, which mediate TE repression. TEs targeted by uniquely mapping siRNAs are on average farther from coding genes, apparently because they more strongly suppress expression of adjacent genes. Furthermore, siRNAs, and especially uniquely mapping siRNAs, are enriched in TE regions missing in other accessions. Thus, targeting by uniquely mapping siRNAs appears to promote sequence deletions in TEs. Overall, our work indicates that siRNA–targeting of TEs may influence removal of sequences from the genome and hence evolution of gene expression in plants. PMID:23408902

  6. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  7. Gene Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus in Rats by Hepatic Expression of Insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodka, Tadeusz M.; Finegold, Milton; Moss, Larry; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1995-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by severe insulin deficiency secondary to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Patients need to be controlled by periodic insulin injections to prevent the development of ketoacidosis, which can be fatal. Sustained, low-level expression of the rat insulin 1 gene from the liver of severely diabetic rats was achieved by in vivo administration of a recombinant retroviral vector. Ketoacidosis was prevented and the treated animals exhibited normoglycemia during a 24-hr fast, with no evidence of hypoglycemia. Histopathological examination of the liver in the treated animals showed no apparent abnormalities. Thus, the liver is an excellent target organ for ectopic expression of the insulin gene as a potential treatment modality for type 1 diabetes mellitus by gene therapy.

  8. Nephron segment-specific gene expression using AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Asico, Laureano D; Cuevas, Santiago; Ma, Xiaobo; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines; Konkalmatt, Prasad R

    2018-02-26

    AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde infusion into the kidney via the ureter. We constructed AAV vectors carrying eGFP under the control of: kidney-specific cadherin (KSPC) gene promoter for expression in the entire nephron; Na + /glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) gene promoter for expression in the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule; sodium, potassium, 2 chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) gene promoter for expression in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH); E-cadherin (ECAD) gene promoter for expression in the collecting duct (CD); and cytomegalovirus (CMV) early promoter that provides expression in most of the mammalian cells, as control. We tested the specificity of the promoter constructs in vitro for cell type-specific expression in mouse kidney cells in primary culture, followed by retrograde infusion of the AAV vectors via the ureter in the mouse. Our data show that AAV9 vector, in combination with the segment-specific promoters administered by retrograde infusion via the ureter, provides renal nephron segment-specific gene expression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Up regulation of phenylacetate to glioma homeobox gene expression].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Yang, Chaohua; Zhao, Conghai

    2002-03-01

    Even though phenylacetate (PA) bas been shown to inhibit the growth and induce differentiation in rat C6 glioma cell line, its mechanisms are still poorly understood. This study is aimed to identify which Hox gene is related to glioma and to observe the change in expression on mRNA level as treated by phenylasetate. Twenty-two kinds of Hox gene were divided into 3 groups according to their primer sequence. Semiquantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to investigate the mRNA expression of Hox gene groups and some Hox gene in rat C6 glioma cell line following differentiation induced by PA. The level of Hox gene expression was expressed as ratio expression rate (RER) of Hox gene/beta-actin according to computer image analysis and the difference between C6 cells and PA treated C6 cells was analyzed by student t-test. It was found that Hox genes matching to primers P2 were mildly expressed in C6 cells and the expression of HoxB2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in PA treated C6 cells (P < 0.001). The weak expression of HoxB2 may be involved in glioma origin and the mechanisms of PA action are correlated with transcription process in the glioma cells.

  10. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  11. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, K E; Kline, R L; Konieczny, S F

    1989-01-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein gene has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, we have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene has been shown to rely primarily on an internal regulatory element to elicit transcriptional activation during myogenesis. The diversity of regulatory elements associated with the contractile protein genes suggests that the temporal expression of the genes may involve individual cis-trans regulatory components specific for each gene. Images PMID:2725509

  12. Soybean kinome: functional classification and gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyi; Chen, Nana; Grant, Joshua N.; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max); Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase (PK) gene family is one of the largest and most highly conserved gene families in plants and plays a role in nearly all biological functions. While a large number of genes have been predicted to encode PKs in soybean, a comprehensive functional classification and global analysis of expression patterns of this large gene family is lacking. In this study, we identified the entire soybean PK repertoire or kinome, which comprised 2166 putative PK genes, representing 4.67% of all soybean protein-coding genes. The soybean kinome was classified into 19 groups, 81 families, and 122 subfamilies. The receptor-like kinase (RLK) group was remarkably large, containing 1418 genes. Collinearity analysis indicated that whole-genome segmental duplication events may have played a key role in the expansion of the soybean kinome, whereas tandem duplications might have contributed to the expansion of specific subfamilies. Gene structure, subcellular localization prediction, and gene expression patterns indicated extensive functional divergence of PK subfamilies. Global gene expression analysis of soybean PK subfamilies revealed tissue- and stress-specific expression patterns, implying regulatory functions over a wide range of developmental and physiological processes. In addition, tissue and stress co-expression network analysis uncovered specific subfamilies with narrow or wide interconnected relationships, indicative of their association with particular or broad signalling pathways, respectively. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for further functional studies to reveal the biological and molecular functions of PKs in soybean. PMID:25614662

  13. An atlas of gene expression and gene co-regulation in the human retina.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Michele; Carissimo, Annamaria; Cutillo, Luisa; Lai, Ching-Hung; Mutarelli, Margherita; Moretti, Maria Nicoletta; Singh, Marwah Veer; Karali, Marianthi; Carrella, Diego; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Russo, Francesco; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Angelini, Claudia; Banfi, Sandro; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-07-08

    The human retina is a specialized tissue involved in light stimulus transduction. Despite its unique biology, an accurate reference transcriptome is still missing. Here, we performed gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of 50 retinal samples from non-visually impaired post-mortem donors. We identified novel transcripts with high confidence (Observed Transcriptome (ObsT)) and quantified the expression level of known transcripts (Reference Transcriptome (RefT)). The ObsT included 77 623 transcripts (23 960 genes) covering 137 Mb (35 Mb new transcribed genome). Most of the transcripts (92%) were multi-exonic: 81% with known isoforms, 16% with new isoforms and 3% belonging to new genes. The RefT included 13 792 genes across 94 521 known transcripts. Mitochondrial genes were among the most highly expressed, accounting for about 10% of the reads. Of all the protein-coding genes in Gencode, 65% are expressed in the retina. We exploited inter-individual variability in gene expression to infer a gene co-expression network and to identify genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. We experimentally validated the photoreceptors localization of three genes in human retina that had not been previously reported. RNA-seq data and the gene co-expression network are available online (http://retina.tigem.it). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Dynamic association rules for gene expression data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Cheng-Han; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-14

    The purpose of gene expression analysis is to look for the association between regulation of gene expression levels and phenotypic variations. This association based on gene expression profile has been used to determine whether the induction/repression of genes correspond to phenotypic variations including cell regulations, clinical diagnoses and drug development. Statistical analyses on microarray data have been developed to resolve gene selection issue. However, these methods do not inform us of causality between genes and phenotypes. In this paper, we propose the dynamic association rule algorithm (DAR algorithm) which helps ones to efficiently select a subset of significant genes for subsequent analysis. The DAR algorithm is based on association rules from market basket analysis in marketing. We first propose a statistical way, based on constructing a one-sided confidence interval and hypothesis testing, to determine if an association rule is meaningful. Based on the proposed statistical method, we then developed the DAR algorithm for gene expression data analysis. The method was applied to analyze four microarray datasets and one Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) dataset: the Mice Apo A1 dataset, the whole genome expression dataset of mouse embryonic stem cells, expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients, Microarray Quality Control (MAQC) data set and the RNA-seq dataset of a mouse genomic imprinting study. A comparison of the proposed method with the t-test on the expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients was conducted. We developed a statistical way, based on the concept of confidence interval, to determine the minimum support and minimum confidence for mining association relationships among items. With the minimum support and minimum confidence, one can find significant rules in one single step. The DAR algorithm was then developed for gene expression data analysis. Four gene expression datasets showed that the proposed

  15. Pre-gastrula expression of zebrafish extraembryonic genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many species form extraembryonic tissues during embryogenesis, such as the placenta of humans and other viviparous mammals. Extraembryonic tissues have various roles in protecting, nourishing and patterning embryos. Prior to gastrulation in zebrafish, the yolk syncytial layer - an extraembryonic nuclear syncytium - produces signals that induce mesoderm and endoderm formation. Mesoderm and endoderm precursor cells are situated in the embryonic margin, an external ring of cells along the embryo-yolk interface. The yolk syncytial layer initially forms below the margin, in a domain called the external yolk syncytial layer (E-YSL). Results We hypothesize that key components of the yolk syncytial layer's mesoderm and endoderm inducing activity are expressed as mRNAs in the E-YSL. To identify genes expressed in the E-YSL, we used microarrays to compare the transcription profiles of intact pre-gastrula embryos with pre-gastrula embryonic cells that we had separated from the yolk and yolk syncytial layer. This identified a cohort of genes with enriched expression in intact embryos. Here we describe our whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of sixty-eight of them. This includes ten genes with E-YSL expression (camsap1l1, gata3, znf503, hnf1ba, slc26a1, slc40a1, gata6, gpr137bb, otop1 and cebpa), four genes with expression in the enveloping layer (EVL), a superficial epithelium that protects the embryo (zgc:136817, zgc:152778, slc14a2 and elovl6l), three EVL genes whose expression is transiently confined to the animal pole (elovl6l, zgc:136359 and clica), and six genes with transient maternal expression (mtf1, wu:fj59f04, mospd2, rftn2, arrdc1a and pho). We also assessed the requirement of Nodal signaling for the expression of selected genes in the E-YSL, EVL and margin. Margin expression was Nodal dependent for all genes we tested, including the concentrated margin expression of an EVL gene: zgc:110712. All other instances of EVL and E-YSL expression that we

  16. Influence of cloning by chromatin transfer on placental gene expression at Day 45 of pregnancy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fernando S; Machado, Sergio A; Drnevich, Jenny; Borowicz, Pawel; Wang, Zhongde; Nowak, Romana A

    2013-01-30

    Poor success rates in somatic cell cloning are often attributed to abnormal early embryonic development as well as late abnormal fetal growth and placental development. Although promising results have been reported following chromatin transfer (CT), a novel cloning method that includes the remodeling of the donor nuclei in vitro prior to their transfer into enucleated oocytes, animals cloned by CT show placental abnormalities similar to those observed following conventional nuclear transfer. We hypothesized that the placental gene expression pattern from cloned fetuses was ontologically related to the frequently observed placental phenotype. The aim of the present study was to compare global gene expression by microarray analysis of Day 44-47 cattle placentas derived from CT cloned fetuses with those derived from in vitro fertilization (i.e. control), and confirm the altered mRNA and protein expression of selected molecules by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The differentially expressed genes identified in the present study are known to be involved in a range of activities associated with cell adhesion, cell cycle control, intracellular transport and proteolysis. Specifically, an imprinted gene, involved with cell proliferation and placentomegaly in humans (CDKN1C) and a peptidase that serves as a marker for non-invasive trophoblast cells in human placentas (DPP4), had mRNA and protein altered in CT placentas. It was concluded that the altered pattern of gene expression observed in CT samples may contribute to the abnormal placental development phenotypes commonly identified in cloned offspring, and that expression of imprinted as well as trophoblast invasiveness-related genes is altered in cattle cloned by CT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulatory systems for hypoxia-inducible gene expression in ischemic heart disease gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Minhyung

    2011-07-18

    Ischemic heart diseases are caused by narrowed coronary arteries that decrease the blood supply to the myocardium. In the ischemic myocardium, hypoxia-responsive genes are up-regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Gene therapy for ischemic heart diseases uses genes encoding angiogenic growth factors and anti-apoptotic proteins as therapeutic genes. These genes increase blood supply into the myocardium by angiogenesis and protect cardiomyocytes from cell death. However, non-specific expression of these genes in normal tissues may be harmful, since growth factors and anti-apoptotic proteins may induce tumor growth. Therefore, tight gene regulation is required to limit gene expression to ischemic tissues, to avoid unwanted side effects. For this purpose, various gene expression strategies have been developed for ischemic-specific gene expression. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulatory strategies have been developed and evaluated in ischemic heart disease animal models. The regulatory systems can limit therapeutic gene expression to ischemic tissues and increase the efficiency of gene therapy. In this review, recent progresses in ischemic-specific gene expression systems are presented, and their applications to ischemic heart diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying potential maternal genes of Bombyx mori using digital gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingzhen

    2018-01-01

    Maternal genes present in mature oocytes play a crucial role in the early development of silkworm. Although maternal genes have been widely studied in many other species, there has been limited research in Bombyx mori. High-throughput next generation sequencing provides a practical method for gene discovery on a genome-wide level. Herein, a transcriptome study was used to identify maternal-related genes from silkworm eggs. Unfertilized eggs from five different stages of early development were used to detect the changing situation of gene expression. The expressed genes showed different patterns over time. Seventy-six maternal genes were annotated according to homology analysis with Drosophila melanogaster. More than half of the differentially expressed maternal genes fell into four expression patterns, while the expression patterns showed a downward trend over time. The functional annotation of these material genes was mainly related to transcription factor activity, growth factor activity, nucleic acid binding, RNA binding, ATP binding, and ion binding. Additionally, twenty-two gene clusters including maternal genes were identified from 18 scaffolds. Altogether, we plotted a profile for the maternal genes of Bombyx mori using a digital gene expression profiling method. This will provide the basis for maternal-specific signature research and improve the understanding of the early development of silkworm. PMID:29462160

  19. Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhe; Cong, Peihua; Tian, Yi; Zhu, Yanmin

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple reference genes for other tissue types. Four methods, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate their stability in apple root tissues of various genotypes and under different experimental conditions. A small panel of stably expressed genes, MDP0000095375, MDP0000147424, MDP0000233640, MDP0000326399 and MDP0000173025 were recommended for normalizing quantitative gene expression data in apple roots under various abiotic or biotic stresses. When the most stable and least stable reference genes were used for data normalization, significant differences were observed on the expression patterns of two target genes, MdLecRLK5 (MDP0000228426, a gene encoding a lectin receptor like kinase) and MdMAPK3 (MDP0000187103, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase). Our data also indicated that for those carefully validated reference genes, a single reference gene is sufficient for reliable normalization of the quantitative gene expression. Depending on the experimental conditions, the most suitable reference genes can be specific to the sample of interest for more reliable RT-qPCR data normalization.

  20. Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhe; Cong, Peihua; Tian, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple reference genes for other tissue types. Four methods, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate their stability in apple root tissues of various genotypes and under different experimental conditions. A small panel of stably expressed genes, MDP0000095375, MDP0000147424, MDP0000233640, MDP0000326399 and MDP0000173025 were recommended for normalizing quantitative gene expression data in apple roots under various abiotic or biotic stresses. When the most stable and least stable reference genes were used for data normalization, significant differences were observed on the expression patterns of two target genes, MdLecRLK5 (MDP0000228426, a gene encoding a lectin receptor like kinase) and MdMAPK3 (MDP0000187103, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase). Our data also indicated that for those carefully validated reference genes, a single reference gene is sufficient for reliable normalization of the quantitative gene expression. Depending on the experimental conditions, the most suitable reference genes can be specific to the sample of interest for more reliable RT-qPCR data normalization. PMID:28934340

  1. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT GENES USING A DATABASE OF RAT LIVER AND KIDNEY BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray data from independent labs and studies can be compared to potentially identify toxicologically and biologically relevant genes. The Baseline Animal Database working group of HESI was formed to assess baseline gene expression from microarray data derived from control or...

  3. Germ-line mutations in the neurofibromatosis 2 gene: Correlations with disease severity and retinal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, D.M.; Kaiser-Kupfer, M.; Eldridge, R.

    Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) features bilateral vestibular schwannomas, other benign neural tumors, and cataracts. Patients in some families develop many tumors at an early age and have rapid clinical progression, whereas in other families, patients may not have symptoms until much later and vestibular schwannomas may be the only tumors. The NF2 gene has been cloned from chromosome 22q; most identified germ-line mutations result in a truncated protein and severe NF2. To look for additional mutations and clinical correlations, we used SSCP analysis to screen DNA from 32 unrelated patients. We identified 20 different mutations in 21 patients (66%): 10 nonsensemore » mutations, 2 frameshifts, 7 splice-site mutations, and 1 large in-frame deletion. Clinical information on 47 patients from the 21 families included ages at onset and at diagnosis, numbers of meningiomas, spinal and skin tumors, and presence of cataracts and retinal abnormalities. We compared clinical findings in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations to those with splice-site mutations. When each patient was considered as an independent random event, the two groups differed (P {le} .05) for nearly every variable. Patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations were younger at onset and at diagnosis and had a higher frequency and mean number of tumors, supporting the correlation between nonsense and frameshift mutations and severe NF2. When each family was considered as an independent random event, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed only for mean ages at onset and at diagnosis. A larger data set is needed to resolve these discrepancies. We observed retinal hamartomas and/or epiretinal membranes in nine patients from five families with four different nonsense mutations. This finding, which may represent a new genotype-phenotype correlation, merits further study. 58 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  4. Disruption of the mouse Jhy gene causes abnormal ciliary microtubule patterning and juvenile hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Appelbe, Oliver K.; Bollman, Bryan; Attarwala, Ali; Triebes, Lindy A.; Muniz-Talavera, Hilmarie; Curry, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital hydrocephalus, the accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, affects one of every 1,000 children born today, making it one of the most common human developmental disorders. Genetic causes of hydrocephalus are poorly understood in humans, but animal models suggest a broad genetic program underlying the regulation of CSF balance. In this study, the random integration of a transgene into the mouse genome led to the development of an early onset and rapidly progressive hydrocephalus. Juvenile hydrocephalus transgenic mice (JhylacZ) inherit communicating hydrocephalus in an autosomal recessive fashion with dilation of the lateral ventricles observed as early as postnatal day 1.5. Ventricular dilation increases in severity over time, becoming fatal at 4-8 weeks of age. The ependymal cilia lining the lateral ventricles are morphologically abnormal and reduced in number in JhylacZ/lacZ brains, and ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganization of the expected 9+2 microtubule pattern. Rather, the majority of JhylacZ/lacZ cilia develop axonemes with 9+0 or 8+2 microtubule structures. Disruption of an unstudied gene, 4931429I11Rik (now named Jhy) appears to underlie the hydrocephalus of JhylacZ/lacZ mice, and the Jhy transcript and protein are decreased in JhylacZ/lacZ mice. Partial phenotypic rescue was achieved in JhylacZ/lacZ mice by the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) carrying 60-70% of the JHY protein coding sequence. Jhy is evolutionarily conserved from humans to basal vertebrates, but the predicted JHY protein lacks identifiable functional domains. Ongoing studies are directed at uncovering the physiological function of JHY and its role in CSF homeostasis. PMID:23906841

  5. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-12-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle-regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. © 2015 Keren et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle–regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. PMID:26355006

  7. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sadangi, Chinmaya; Rosenow, Felix; Norwood, Braxton A

    2017-12-01

    To grasp the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) and epilepsy itself, it is important to understand the gene expression changes that occur during these phases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a technique that rapidly and accurately determines gene expression changes. It is crucial, however, that stable reference genes are selected for each experimental condition to ensure that accurate values are obtained for genes of interest. If reference genes are unstably expressed, this can lead to inaccurate data and erroneous conclusions. To date, epilepsy studies have used mostly single, nonvalidated reference genes. This is the first study to systematically evaluate reference genes in male Sprague-Dawley rat models of epilepsy. We assessed 15 potential reference genes in hippocampal tissue obtained from 2 different models during epileptogenesis, 1 model during chronic epilepsy, and a model of noninjurious seizures. Reference gene ranking varied between models and also differed between epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy time points. There was also some variance between the four mathematical models used to rank reference genes. Notably, we found novel reference genes to be more stably expressed than those most often used in experimental epilepsy studies. The consequence of these findings is that reference genes suitable for one epilepsy model may not be appropriate for others and that reference genes can change over time. It is, therefore, critically important to validate potential reference genes before using them as normalizing factors in expression analysis in order to ensure accurate, valid results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Integrated analysis of gene expression and methylation profiles of 48 candidate genes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibo; Heng, Jianfu; Yan, Jinhua; Guo, Xinwu; Tang, Lili; Chen, Ming; Peng, Limin; Wu, Yepeng; Wang, Shouman; Xiao, Zhi; Deng, Zhongping; Dai, Lizhong; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Gene-specific methylation and expression have shown biological and clinical importance for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Integrated analysis of gene methylation and gene expression may identify genes associated with biology mechanism and clinical outcome of breast cancer and aid in clinical management. Using high-throughput microfluidic quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression profiles of 48 candidate genes in 96 Chinese breast cancer patients and investigated their correlation with gene methylation and associations with breast cancer clinical parameters. Breast cancer-specific gene expression alternation was found in 25 genes with significant expression difference between paired tumor and normal tissues. A total of 9 genes (CCND2, EGFR, GSTP1, PGR, PTGS2, RECK, SOX17, TNFRSF10D, and WIF1) showed significant negative correlation between methylation and gene expression, which were validated in the TCGA database. Total 23 genes (ACADL, APC, BRCA2, CADM1, CAV1, CCND2, CST6, EGFR, ESR2, GSTP1, ICAM5, NPY, PGR, PTGS2, RECK, RUNX3, SFRP1, SOX17, SYK, TGFBR2, TNFRSF10D, WIF1, and WRN) annotated with potential TFBSs in the promoter regions showed negative correlation between methylation and expression. In logistics regression analysis, 31 of the 48 genes showed improved performance in disease prediction with combination of methylation and expression coefficient. Our results demonstrated the complex correlation and the possible regulatory mechanisms between DNA methylation and gene expression. Integration analysis of methylation and expression of candidate genes could improve performance in breast cancer prediction. These findings would contribute to molecular characterization and identification of biomarkers for potential clinical applications.

  9. Gene expression deficits in pontine locus coeruleus astrocytes in men with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chandley, Michelle J; Szebeni, Katalin; Szebeni, Attila; Crawford, Jessica; Stockmeier, Craig A; Turecki, Gustavo; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Ordway, Gregory A

    2013-07-01

    Norepinephrine and glutamate are among several neurotransmitters implicated in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Glia deficits have also been demonstrated in people with MDD, and glia are critical modulators of central glutamatergic transmission. We studied glia in men with MDD in the region of the brain (locus coeruleus; LC) where noradrenergic neuronal cell bodies reside and receive glutamatergic input. The expression of 3 glutamate-related genes (SLC1A3, SLC1A2, GLUL) concentrated in glia and a glia gene (GFAP) were measured in postmortem tissues from men with MDD and from paired psychiatrically healthy controls. Initial gene expression analysis of RNA isolated from homogenized tissue (n = 9-10 pairs) containing the LC were followed by detailed analysis of gene expressions in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (n = 6-7 pairs) laser captured from the LC region. We assessed protein changes in GFAP using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting (n = 7-14 pairs). Astrocytes, but not oligodendrocytes, demonstrated robust reductions in the expression of SLC1A3 and SLC1A2, whereas GLUL expression was unchanged. GFAP expression was lower in astrocytes, and we confirmed reduced GFAP protein in the LC using immunostaining methods. Reduced expression of protein products of SLC1A3 and SLC1A2 could not be confirmed because of insufficient amounts of LC tissue for these assays. Whether gene expression abnormalities were associated with only MDD and not with suicide could not be confirmed because most of the decedents who had MDD died by suicide. Major depressive disorder is associated with unhealthy astrocytes in the noradrenergic LC, characterized here by a reduction in astrocyte glutamate transporter expression. These findings suggest that increased glutamatergic activity in the LC occurs in men with MDD.

  10. Promoting gene expression in plants by permissive histone lysine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Tony; Finnegan, E Jean

    2009-01-01

    Plants utilize sophisticated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to coordinate changes in gene expression during development and in response to environmental stimuli. Epigenetics refers to the modification of DNA and chromatin associated proteins, which affect gene expression and cell function, without changing the DNA sequence. Such modifications are inherited through mitosis, and in rare instances through meiosis, although it can be reversible and thus regulatory. Epigenetic modifications are controlled by groups of proteins, such as the family of histone lysine methytransferases (HKMTs). The catalytic core known as the SET domain encodes HKMT activity and either promotes or represses gene expression. A large family of SET domain proteins is present in Arabidopsis where there is growing evidence that two classes of these genes are involved in promoting gene expression in a diverse range of developmental processes. This review will focus on the function of these two classes and the processes that they control, highlighting the huge potential this regulatory mechanism has in plants. PMID:19816124

  11. Adipose Gene Expression Profile Changes With Lung Allograft Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Joshua M; Arcasoy, Selim; McDonnough, Jamiela A; Sonett, Joshua R; Bacchetta, Matthew; D'Ovidio, Frank; Cantu, Edward; Bermudez, Christian A; McBurnie, Amika; Rushefski, Melanie; Kalman, Laurel H; Oyster, Michelle; D'Errico, Carly; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Giles, Jon T; Ferrante, Anthony; Lippel, Matthew; Singh, Gopal; Lederer, David J; Christie, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for primary graft dysfunction (PGD), a form of lung injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion after lung transplantation, but the impact of ischemia-reperfusion on adipose tissue is unknown. We evaluated differential gene expression in thoracic visceral adipose tissue (VAT) before and after lung reperfusion. Total RNA was isolated from thoracic VAT sampled from six subjects enrolled in the Lung Transplant Body Composition study before and after allograft reperfusion and quantified using the Human Gene 2.0 ST array. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in complement and coagulation cascades and Jak-STAT signaling pathways. Overall, 72 genes were upregulated and 56 genes were downregulated in the postreperfusion time compared with baseline. Long pentraxin-3, a gene and plasma protein previously associated with PGD, was the most upregulated gene (19.5-fold increase, p = 0.04). Fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein-3, a gene associated with cell adhesion and receptor signaling, was the most downregulated gene (4.3-fold decrease, p = 0.04). Ischemia-reperfusion has a demonstrable impact on gene expression in visceral adipose tissue in our pilot study of nonobese, non-PGD lung transplant recipients. Future evaluation will focus on differential adipose tissue gene expression and the development of PGD after transplant. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yutzey, K.E.; Kline, R.L.; Konieczmy, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein genemore » has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, the authors have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene has been shown to rely primarily on an internal regulatory element to elicit transcriptional activation during myogenesis. The diversity of regulatory elements associated with the contractile protein genes suggests that the temporal expression of the genes may involve individual cis-trans regulatory components specific for each gene.« less

  13. Interplay of bistable kinetics of gene expression during cellular growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2009-02-01

    In cells, the bistable kinetics of gene expression can be observed on the level of (i) one gene with positive feedback between protein and mRNA production, (ii) two genes with negative mutual feedback between protein and mRNA production, or (iii) in more complex cases. We analyse the interplay of two genes of type (ii) governed by a gene of type (i) during cellular growth. In particular, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we show that in the case where gene 1, operating in the bistable regime, regulates mutually inhibiting genes 2 and 3, also operating in the bistable regime, the latter genes may eventually be trapped either to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 2 and low activity of gene 3 or to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 3 and low activity of gene 2. The probability to get to one of these states depends on the values of the model parameters. If genes 2 and 3 are kinetically equivalent, the probability is equal to 0.5. Thus, our model illustrates how different intracellular states can be chosen at random with predetermined probabilities. This type of kinetics of gene expression may be behind complex processes occurring in cells, e.g., behind the choice of the fate by stem cells.

  14. Prediction of gene expression in embryonic structures of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, Anastasia A; Niranjan, Mahesan; Russell, Steven; Brazma, Alvis

    2007-07-01

    Understanding how sets of genes are coordinately regulated in space and time to generate the diversity of cell types that characterise complex metazoans is a major challenge in modern biology. The use of high-throughput approaches, such as large-scale in situ hybridisation and genome-wide expression profiling via DNA microarrays, is beginning to provide insights into the complexities of development. However, in many organisms the collection and annotation of comprehensive in situ localisation data is a difficult and time-consuming task. Here, we present a widely applicable computational approach, integrating developmental time-course microarray data with annotated in situ hybridisation studies, that facilitates the de novo prediction of tissue-specific expression for genes that have no in vivo gene expression localisation data available. Using a classification approach, trained with data from microarray and in situ hybridisation studies of gene expression during Drosophila embryonic development, we made a set of predictions on the tissue-specific expression of Drosophila genes that have not been systematically characterised by in situ hybridisation experiments. The reliability of our predictions is confirmed by literature-derived annotations in FlyBase, by overrepresentation of Gene Ontology biological process annotations, and, in a selected set, by detailed gene-specific studies from the literature. Our novel organism-independent method will be of considerable utility in enriching the annotation of gene function and expression in complex multicellular organisms.

  15. Prediction of Gene Expression in Embryonic Structures of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Samsonova, Anastasia A; Niranjan, Mahesan; Russell, Steven; Brazma, Alvis

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how sets of genes are coordinately regulated in space and time to generate the diversity of cell types that characterise complex metazoans is a major challenge in modern biology. The use of high-throughput approaches, such as large-scale in situ hybridisation and genome-wide expression profiling via DNA microarrays, is beginning to provide insights into the complexities of development. However, in many organisms the collection and annotation of comprehensive in situ localisation data is a difficult and time-consuming task. Here, we present a widely applicable computational approach, integrating developmental time-course microarray data with annotated in situ hybridisation studies, that facilitates the de novo prediction of tissue-specific expression for genes that have no in vivo gene expression localisation data available. Using a classification approach, trained with data from microarray and in situ hybridisation studies of gene expression during Drosophila embryonic development, we made a set of predictions on the tissue-specific expression of Drosophila genes that have not been systematically characterised by in situ hybridisation experiments. The reliability of our predictions is confirmed by literature-derived annotations in FlyBase, by overrepresentation of Gene Ontology biological process annotations, and, in a selected set, by detailed gene-specific studies from the literature. Our novel organism-independent method will be of considerable utility in enriching the annotation of gene function and expression in complex multicellular organisms. PMID:17658945

  16. Gene expression correlates of postinfective fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Barbara; Galbraith, Sally; Zhang, Yun; Davenport, Tracey; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Wakefield, Denis; Hickie, Ian; Dunsmuir, William; Whistler, Toni; Vernon, Suzanne; Reeves, William C; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2007-07-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) commonly triggers a protracted postinfective fatigue syndrome (PIFS) of unknown pathogenesis. Seven subjects with PIFS with 6 or more months of disabling symptoms and 8 matched control subjects who had recovered promptly from documented IM were studied. The expression of 30,000 genes was examined in the peripheral blood by microarray analysis in 65 longitudinally collected samples. Gene expression patterns associated with PIFS were sought by correlation with symptom factor scores. Differential expression of 733 genes was identified when samples collected early during the illness and at the late (recovered) time point were compared. Of these genes, 234 were found to be significantly correlated with the reported severity of the fatigue symptom factor, and 180 were found to be correlated with the musculoskeletal pain symptom factor. Validation by analysis of the longitudinal expression pattern revealed 35 genes for which changes in expression were consistent with the illness course. These genes included several that are involved in signal transduction pathways, metal ion binding, and ion channel activity. Gene expression correlates of the cardinal symptoms of PIFS after IM have been identified. Further studies of these gene products may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of PIFS.

  17. Computational gene expression profiling under salt stress reveals patterns of co-expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond differently to environmental conditions. Among various abiotic stresses, salt stress is a condition where excess salt in soil causes inhibition of plant growth. To understand the response of plants to the stress conditions, identification of the responsible genes is required. Clustering is a data mining technique used to group the genes with similar expression. The genes of a cluster show similar expression and function. We applied clustering algorithms on gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum showing differential expression in Capsicum annuum under salt stress. The clusters, which were common in multiple algorithms were taken further for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) further validated the findings of other cluster algorithms by visualizing their clusters in three-dimensional space. Functional annotation results revealed that most of the genes were involved in stress related responses. Our findings suggest that these algorithms may be helpful in the prediction of the function of co-expressed genes. PMID:26981411

  18. Regulated Expression of Adenoviral Vectors-Based Gene Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Muhammad, A. K. M.; Kroeger, Kurt; Mondkar, Sonali; Liu, Chunyan; Bondale, Niyati; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Regulatable promoter systems allow gene expression to be tightly controlled in vivo. This is highly desirable for the development of safe, efficacious adenoviral vectors that can be used to treat human diseases in the clinic. Ideally, regulatable cassettes should have minimal gene expression in the “OFF” state, and expression should quickly reach therapeutic levels in the “ON” state. In addition, the components of regulatable cassettes should be non-toxic at physiological concentrations and should not be immunogenic, especially when treating chronic illness that requires long-lasting gene expression. In this chapter, we will describe in detail protocols to develop and validate first generation (Ad) and high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors that express therapeutic genes under the control of the TetON regulatable system. Our laboratory has successfully used these protocols to regulate the expression of marker genes, immune stimulatory genes, and toxins for cancer gene therapeutics, i.e., glioma that is a deadly form of brain cancer. We have shown that this third generation TetON regulatable system, incorporating a doxycycline (DOX)-sensitive rtTA2S-M2 inducer and tTSKid silencer, is non-toxic, relatively non-immunogenic, and can tightly regulate reporter transgene expression downstream of a TRE promoter from adenoviral vectors in vitro and also in vivo. PMID:18470649

  19. Adult mouse brain gene expression patterns bear an embryologic imprint

    PubMed Central

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Hovatta, Iiris; Ellison, Julie A.; Wodicka, Lisa; Del Rio, Jo A.; Tennant, Richard; Tynan, Wendy; Broide, Ron S.; Helton, Rob; Stoveken, Barbara S.; Winrow, Christopher; Lockhart, Daniel J.; Reilly, John F.; Young, Warren G.; Bloom, Floyd E.; Lockhart, David J.; Barlow, Carrolee

    2005-01-01

    The current model to explain the organization of the mammalian nervous system is based on studies of anatomy, embryology, and evolution. To further investigate the molecular organization of the adult mammalian brain, we have built a gene expression-based brain map. We measured gene expression patterns for 24 neural tissues covering the mouse central nervous system and found, surprisingly, that the adult brain bears a transcriptional “imprint” consistent with both embryological origins and classic evolutionary relationships. Embryonic cellular position along the anterior–posterior axis of the neural tube was shown to be closely associated with, and possibly a determinant of, the gene expression patterns in adult structures. We also observed a significant number of embryonic patterning and homeobox genes with region-specific expression in the adult nervous system. The relationships between global expression patterns for different anatomical regions and the nature of the observed region-specific genes suggest that the adult brain retains a degree of overall gene expression established during embryogenesis that is important for regional specificity and the functional relationships between regions in the adult. The complete collection of extensively annotated gene expression data along with data mining and visualization tools have been made available on a publicly accessible web site (www.barlow-lockhart-brainmapnimhgrant.org). PMID:16002470

  20. Novel redox nanomedicine improves gene expression of polyion complex vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Kazuko; Yoshitomi, Toru; Ikeda, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    Gene therapy has generated worldwide attention as a new medical technology. While non-viral gene vectors are promising candidates as gene carriers, they have several issues such as toxicity and low transfection efficiency. We have hypothesized that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects gene expression in polyplex supported gene delivery systems. The effect of ROS on the gene expression of polyplex was evaluated using a nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) as an ROS scavenger. When polyethyleneimine (PEI)/pGL3 or PEI alone was added to the HeLa cells, ROS levels increased significantly. In contrast, when (PEI)/pGL3 or PEI was added with RNP, the ROS levels were suppressed. The luciferase expression was increased by the treatment with RNP in a dose-dependent manner and the cellular uptake of pDNA was also increased. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ROS generation in vivo. In particular, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α caused intracellular ROS generation in HeLa cells and decreased gene expression. RNP treatment suppressed ROS production even in the presence of TNF-α and increased gene expression. This anti-inflammatory property of RNP suggests that it may be used as an effective adjuvant for non-viral gene delivery systems.

  1. Identifying a gene expression signature of cluster headache in blood

    PubMed Central

    Eising, Else; Pelzer, Nadine; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Vries, Boukje de; Ferrari, Michel D.; ‘t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cluster headache is a relatively rare headache disorder, typically characterized by multiple daily, short-lasting attacks of excruciating, unilateral (peri-)orbital or temporal pain associated with autonomic symptoms and restlessness. To better understand the pathophysiology of cluster headache, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways in whole blood of patients with episodic (n = 19) or chronic (n = 20) cluster headache in comparison with headache-free controls (n = 20). Gene expression data were analysed by gene and by module of co-expressed genes with particular attention to previously implicated disease pathways including hypocretin dysregulation. Only moderate gene expression differences were identified and no associations were found with previously reported pathogenic mechanisms. At the level of functional gene sets, associations were observed for genes involved in several brain-related mechanisms such as GABA receptor function and voltage-gated channels. In addition, genes and modules of co-expressed genes showed a role for intracellular signalling cascades, mitochondria and inflammation. Although larger study samples may be required to identify the full range of involved pathways, these results indicate a role for mitochondria, intracellular signalling and inflammation in cluster headache. PMID:28074859

  2. The evolution of duplicate gene expression in mammalian organs

    PubMed Central

    Guschanski, Katerina; Warnefors, Maria; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplications generate genomic raw material that allows the emergence of novel functions, likely facilitating adaptive evolutionary innovations. However, global assessments of the functional and evolutionary relevance of duplicate genes in mammals were until recently limited by the lack of appropriate comparative data. Here, we report a large-scale study of the expression evolution of DNA-based functional gene duplicates in three major mammalian lineages (placental mammals, marsupials, egg-laying monotremes) and birds, on the basis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from nine species and eight organs. We observe dynamic changes in tissue expression preference of paralogs with different duplication ages, suggesting differential contribution of paralogs to specific organ functions during vertebrate evolution. Specifically, we show that paralogs that emerged in the common ancestor of bony vertebrates are enriched for genes with brain-specific expression and provide evidence for differential forces underlying the preferential emergence of young testis- and liver-specific expressed genes. Further analyses uncovered that the overall spatial expression profiles of gene families tend to be conserved, with several exceptions of pronounced tissue specificity shifts among lineage-specific gene family expansions. Finally, we trace new lineage-specific genes that may have contributed to the specific biology of mammalian organs, including the little-studied placenta. Overall, our study provides novel and taxonomically broad evidence for the differential contribution of duplicate genes to tissue-specific transcriptomes and for their importance for the phenotypic evolution of vertebrates. PMID:28743766

  3. Base composition and expression level of human genes.

    PubMed

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Auletta, Fabio; Torelli, Giuseppe; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2004-01-21

    It is well known that the gene distribution is non-uniform in the human genome, reaching the highest concentration in the GC-rich isochores. Also the amino acid frequencies, and the hydrophobicity, of the corresponding encoded proteins are affected by the high GC level of the genes localized in the GC-rich isochores. It was hypothesized that the gene expression level as well is higher in GC-rich compared to GC-poor isochores [Mol. Biol. Evol. 10 (1993) 186]. Several features of human genes and proteins, namely expression level, coding and non-coding lengths, and hydrophobicity were investigated in the present paper. The results support the hypothesis reported above, since all the parameters so far studied converge to the same conclusion, that the average expression level of the GC-rich genes is significantly higher than that of the GC-poor genes.

  4. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  5. Analysis of bHLH coding genes using gene co-expression network approach.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Swati; Sanchita; Singh, Garima; Singh, Noopur; Srivastava, Gaurava; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-07-01

    Network analysis provides a powerful framework for the interpretation of data. It uses novel reference network-based metrices for module evolution. These could be used to identify module of highly connected genes showing variation in co-expression network. In this study, a co-expression network-based approach was used for analyzing the genes from microarray data. Our approach consists of a simple but robust rank-based network construction. The publicly available gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum under cold and heat stresses were considered to create and analyze a gene co-expression network. The analysis provide highly co-expressed module of bHLH coding genes based on correlation values. Our approach was to analyze the variation of genes expression, according to the time period of stress through co-expression network approach. As the result, the seed genes were identified showing multiple connections with other genes in the same cluster. Seed genes were found to be vary in different time periods of stress. These analyzed seed genes may be utilized further as marker genes for developing the stress tolerant plant species.

  6. The gsdf gene locus harbors evolutionary conserved and clustered genes preferentially expressed in fish previtellogenic oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Aude; Le Gac, Florence; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    The gonadal soma-derived factor (GSDF) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is conserved in teleostean fish species. Gsdf is specifically expressed in the gonads, and gene expression is restricted to the granulosa and Sertoli cells in trout and medaka. The gsdf gene expression is correlated to early testis differentiation in medaka and was shown to stimulate primordial germ cell and spermatogonia proliferation in trout. In the present study, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment conserved among vertebrates although no gsdf-related gene is detected on the corresponding genomic region in tetrapods. We demonstrate using quantitative RT-PCR that most of the genes localized in the synteny are specifically expressed in medaka gonads. Gsdf is the only gene of the synteny with a much higher expression in the testis compared to the ovary. In contrast, gene expression pattern analysis of the gsdf surrounding genes (nup54, aff1, klhl8, sdad1, and ptpn13) indicates that these genes are preferentially expressed in the female gonads. The tissue distribution of these genes is highly similar in medaka and zebrafish, two teleostean species that have diverged more than 110 million years ago. The cellular localization of these genes was determined in medaka gonads using the whole-mount in situ hybridization technique. We confirm that gsdf gene expression is restricted to Sertoli and granulosa cells in contact with the premeiotic and meiotic cells. The nup54 gene is expressed in spermatocytes and previtellogenic oocytes. Transcripts corresponding to the ovary-specific genes (aff1, klhl8, and sdad1) are detected only in previtellogenic oocytes. No expression was detected in the gonocytes in 10 dpf embryos. In conclusion, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment harboring evolutionary conserved genes in vertebrates. These genes are preferentially expressed in previtelloogenic oocytes, and thus, they

  7. [Preliminary analysis of retinal gene expression profile of diabetic rat].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Zhou, Hong-ying; Xiang, Tao; Lu, You-guang; Li, Ai-dong; Tang, En-jie; Yang, Hui-jun

    2005-10-01

    Establishing the retinal gene expression profiles of non-diabetic rat and diabetic rat and comparing the profiles in order to analyze the possible genes related with diabetic retinopathy. The whole retinal transcriptional fragments of non-diabetic rat and 8-week diabetic rat were obtained by restriction fragments differential display-PCR (RFDD-PCR). Bioinformatic analysis of retinal gene expression was performed using soft wares, including Fragment Analysis. After comparison of the expression profiles, the related gene fragments of diabetic retinopathy were initially selected as the target gene of further approach. A total of 3639 significant fragments were obtained. By means of more than 3-fold contrast of fluorescent intensity as the differential expression standard, the authors got 840 differential fragments, accounting for 23.08% of the expressed numbers and including 5 visual related genes, 13 excitatory neruotransmitter genes and 3 inhibitory neurotransmitter genes. At the 8th week, the expression of Rhodopsin kinase, beta-arrestin, Phosducinìrod photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel and Rpe65 as well as iGlu R1-4 were down-regulated. mGluRs and GABA-Rs were all up-regulated, whereas the expression of GlyR was unchanged. These results prompt again that the changes in retinal nervous layer of rat have occurred at an early stage of diabetes. The genes expression pattern of visual related genes and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in rat diabetic retina have been involved in neuro-dysfunctions of diabetic retina.

  8. Plasticity-Related Gene Expression During Eszopiclone-Induced Sleep.

    PubMed

    Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and two miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice. Gene expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by the TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with sleep parameters. Eszopiclone reduced the latency to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased NREM sleep amounts. Eszopiclone had no effect on slow wave activity (SWA) during baseline conditions but reduced the SWA increase during recovery sleep (RS) after sleep deprivation. Gene expression analyses revealed three distinct patterns: (1) four genes had higher expression either in the cortex or hippocampus in the group of mice with increased amounts of wakefulness; (2) a large proportion of plasticity-related genes (7 out of 18 genes) had higher expression during RS in the cortex but not in the hippocampus; and (3) six genes and the two miRNAs showed no significant changes across conditions. Even at a relatively high dose (20 mg/kg), eszopiclone did not reduce the expression of plasticity-related genes during RS period in the cortex. These results indicate that gene expression associated with synaptic plasticity occurs in the cortex in the presence of a hypnotic medication. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Digital gene expression for non-model organisms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lewis Z.; Li, Jun; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Warren, Wesley C.; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies offer new approaches for global measurements of gene expression but are mostly limited to organisms for which a high-quality assembled reference genome sequence is available. We present a method for gene expression profiling called EDGE, or EcoP15I-tagged Digital Gene Expression, based on ultra-high-throughput sequencing of 27-bp cDNA fragments that uniquely tag the corresponding gene, thereby allowing direct quantification of transcript abundance. We show that EDGE is capable of assaying for expression in >99% of genes in the genome and achieves saturation after 6–8 million reads. EDGE exhibits very little technical noise, reveals a large (106) dynamic range of gene expression, and is particularly suited for quantification of transcript abundance in non-model organisms where a high-quality annotated genome is not available. In a direct comparison with RNA-seq, both methods provide similar assessments of relative transcript abundance, but EDGE does better at detecting gene expression differences for poorly expressed genes and does not exhibit transcript length bias. Applying EDGE to laboratory mice, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), recognized as a Mendelian determinant of yellow hair color in many different mammals, also causes reduced expression of genes involved in the interferon response. To illustrate the application of EDGE to a non-model organism, we examine skin biopsy samples from a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and identify genes likely to control differences in the color of spotted versus non-spotted regions. PMID:21844123

  10. Gene expression in obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Aliff, M; Muhammad Shazwan, S; Nur Fariha, M M; Hayati, A R; Nur Syahrina, A R; Maizatul Azma, M; Nazefah, A H; Jameela, S; Asral Wirda, A A

    2016-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disease that may present as venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Until today, heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanism fits well with various clinical manifestations. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that genes are differentially expressed between normal and in the disease state. Hence, this study systematically searched the literature on human gene expression that was differentially expressed in Obstetric APS. Electronic search was performed until 31st March 2015 through PubMed and Embase databases; where the following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms were used and they had been specified as the primary focus of the articles; gene, antiphospholipid, obstetric, and pregnancy in the title or abstract. From 502 studies retrieved from the search, only original publications that had performed gene expression analyses of human placental tissue that reported on differentially expressed gene in pregnancies with Obstetric APS were included. Two reviewers independently scrutinized the titles and the abstracts before examining the eligibility of studies that met the inclusion criteria. For each study; diagnostic criteria for APS, method for analysis, and the gene signature were extracted independently by two reviewers. The genes listed were further analysed with the DAVID and the KEGG pathways. Three eligible gene expression studies involving obstetric APS, comprising the datasets on gene expression, were identified. All three studies showed a reduction in transcript expression on PRL, STAT5, TF, DAF, ABCA1, and HBEGF in Obstetric APS. The high enrichment score for functionality in DAVID had been positive regulation of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, pertaining to the KEGG pathway, two pathways were associated with some of the listed genes, which were ErBb signalling pathway and JAK-STAT signalling pathway. Ultimately, studies on a genetic level

  11. Biased gene expression in early honeybee larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) develop into either queens or workers depending on nutrition. This nutritional stimulus triggers different developmental trajectories, resulting in adults that differ from each other in physiology, behaviour and life span. Results To understand how these trajectories are established we have generated a comprehensive atlas of gene expression throughout larval development. We found substantial differences in gene expression between worker and queen-destined larvae at 6 hours after hatching. Some of these early changes in gene expression are maintained throughout larval development, indicating that caste-specific developmental trajectories are established much earlier than previously thought. Within our gene expression data we identified processes that potentially underlie caste differentiation. Queen-destined larvae have higher expression of genes involved in transcription, translation and protein folding early in development with a later switch to genes involved in energy generation. Using RNA interference, we were able to demonstrate that one of these genes, hexamerin 70b, has a role in caste differentiation. Both queen and worker developmental trajectories are associated with the expression of genes that have alternative splice variants, although only a single variant of a gene tends to be differentially expressed in a given caste. Conclusions Our data, based on the biases in gene expression early in development together with published data, supports the idea that caste development in the honeybee consists of two phases; an initial biased phase of development, where larvae can still switch to the other caste by differential feeding, followed by commitment to a particular developmental trajectory. PMID:24350621

  12. Bovine mammary gene expression profiling during the onset of lactation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xueyan; Shi, Kerong; Yan, Zhengui; Wang, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE) on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (-35 d), day 7 before parturition (-7 d) and day 3 after parturition (+3 d)). Approximately 6.2 million (M), 5.8 million (M) and 6.1 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (-35 d, -7 d and +3 d), respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥ 2 or ≤-2 and a false discovery rate (FDR) of ≤ 0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at -7 d compared with -35 d (stage I). Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -7 d (stage II), and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation.

  13. Divergent and nonuniform gene expression patterns in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Morris, John A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Burnell, Josh J.; Byrnes, Emi J.; Copeland, Cathy; Desta, Tsega; Fischer, Shanna R.; Goldy, Jeff; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Kidney, Jolene M.; Lemon, Tracy; Orta, Geralyn J.; Parry, Sheana E.; Pathak, Sayan D.; Pearson, Owen C.; Reding, Melissa; Shapouri, Sheila; Smith, Kimberly A.; Soden, Chad; Solan, Beth M.; Weller, John; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding variations in gene sequence and expression level associated with phenotype, yet how genetic diversity translates into complex phenotypic differences remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the relationship between genetic background and spatial patterns of gene expression across seven strains of mice, providing the most extensive cellular-resolution comparative analysis of gene expression in the mammalian brain to date. Using comprehensive brainwide anatomic coverage (more than 200 brain regions), we applied in situ hybridization to analyze the spatial expression patterns of 49 genes encoding well-known pharmaceutical drug targets. Remarkably, over 50% of the genes examined showed interstrain expression variation. In addition, the variability was nonuniformly distributed across strain and neuroanatomic region, suggesting certain organizing principles. First, the degree of expression variance among strains mirrors genealogic relationships. Second, expression pattern differences were concentrated in higher-order brain regions such as the cortex and hippocampus. Divergence in gene expression patterns across the brain could contribute significantly to variations in behavior and responses to neuroactive drugs in laboratory mouse strains and may help to explain individual differences in human responsiveness to neuroactive drugs. PMID:20956311

  14. Anterior-posterior regionalized gene expression in the Ciona notochord

    PubMed Central

    Veeman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background In the simple ascidian chordate Ciona the signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks giving rise to initial notochord induction are largely understood and the mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis are being systematically elucidated. The notochord has generally been thought of as a non-compartmentalized or regionalized organ that is not finely patterned at the level of gene expression. Quantitative imaging methods have recently shown, however, that notochord cell size, shape and behavior vary consistently along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Results Here we screen candidate genes by whole mount in situ hybridization for potential AP asymmetry. We identify 4 genes that show non-uniform expression in the notochord. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) is expressed more strongly in the secondary notochord lineage than the primary. CTGF is expressed stochastically in a subset of notochord cells. A novel calmodulin-like gene (BCamL) is expressed more strongly at both the anterior and posterior tips of the notochord. A TGF-β ortholog is expressed in a gradient from posterior to anterior. The asymmetries in ERM, BCamL and TGF-β expression are evident even before the notochord cells have intercalated into a single-file column. Conclusions We conclude that the Ciona notochord is not a homogeneous tissue but instead shows distinct patterns of regionalized gene expression. PMID:24288133

  15. Anterior-posterior regionalized gene expression in the Ciona notochord.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Wendy; Thayer, Rachel; Veeman, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In the simple ascidian chordate Ciona, the signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks giving rise to initial notochord induction are largely understood and the mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis are being systematically elucidated. The notochord has generally been thought of as a non-compartmentalized or regionalized organ that is not finely patterned at the level of gene expression. Quantitative imaging methods have recently shown, however, that notochord cell size, shape, and behavior vary consistently along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Here we screen candidate genes by whole mount in situ hybridization for potential AP asymmetry. We identify 4 genes that show non-uniform expression in the notochord. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) is expressed more strongly in the secondary notochord lineage than the primary. CTGF is expressed stochastically in a subset of notochord cells. A novel calmodulin-like gene (BCamL) is expressed more strongly at both the anterior and posterior tips of the notochord. A TGF-β ortholog is expressed in a gradient from posterior to anterior. The asymmetries in ERM, BCamL, and TGF-β expression are evident even before the notochord cells have intercalated into a single-file column. We conclude that the Ciona notochord is not a homogeneous tissue but instead shows distinct patterns of regionalized gene expression. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A deep auto-encoder model for gene expression prediction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Wen, Jia; Quitadamo, Andrew; Cheng, Jianlin; Shi, Xinghua

    2017-11-17

    Gene expression is a key intermediate level that genotypes lead to a particular trait. Gene expression is affected by various factors including genotypes of genetic variants. With an aim of delineating the genetic impact on gene expression, we build a deep auto-encoder model to assess how good genetic variants will contribute to gene expression changes. This new deep learning model is a regression-based predictive model based on the MultiLayer Perceptron and Stacked Denoising Auto-encoder (MLP-SAE). The model is trained using a stacked denoising auto-encoder for feature selection and a multilayer perceptron framework for backpropagation. We further improve the model by introducing dropout to prevent overfitting and improve performance. To demonstrate the usage of this model, we apply MLP-SAE to a real genomic datasets with genotypes and gene expression profiles measured in yeast. Our results show that the MLP-SAE model with dropout outperforms other models including Lasso, Random Forests and the MLP-SAE model without dropout. Using the MLP-SAE model with dropout, we show that gene expression quantifications predicted by the model solely based on genotypes, align well with true gene expression patterns. We provide a deep auto-encoder model for predicting gene expression from SNP genotypes. This study demonstrates that deep learning is appropriate for tackling another genomic problem, i.e., building predictive models to understand genotypes' contribution to gene expression. With the emerging availability of richer genomic data, we anticipate that deep learning models play a bigger role in modeling and interpreting genomics.

  17. Identification and handling of artifactual gene expression profiles emerging in microarray hybridization experiments

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Leonid; Leontovich, Andrei; Shtutman, Michael; Feinstein, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical methods of analysis of microarray hybridizations deal with gene expression profiles as elementary units. However, some of these profiles do not reflect a biologically relevant transcriptional response, but rather stem from technical artifacts. Here, we describe two technically independent but rationally interconnected methods for identification of such artifactual profiles. Our diagnostics are based on detection of deviations from uniformity, which is assumed as the main underlying principle of microarray design. Method 1 is based on detection of non-uniformity of microarray distribution of printed genes that are clustered based on the similarity of their expression profiles. Method 2 is based on evaluation of the presence of gene-specific microarray spots within the slides’ areas characterized by an abnormal concentration of low/high differential expression values, which we define as ‘patterns of differentials’. Applying two novel algorithms, for nested clustering (method 1) and for pattern detection (method 2), we can make a dual estimation of the profile’s quality for almost every printed gene. Genes with artifactual profiles detected by method 1 may then be removed from further analysis. Suspicious differential expression values detected by method 2 may be either removed or weighted according to the probabilities of patterns that cover them, thus diminishing their input in any further data analysis. PMID:14999086

  18. Complexity of Gene Expression Evolution after Duplication: Protein Dosage Rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing debates about functional importance of gene duplications have been recently intensified by a heated discussion of the “ortholog conjecture” (OC). Under the OC, which is central to functional annotation of genomes, orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of gene ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared to orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. Subsequent studies suggested that the OC appears to be generally valid when applied to mammalian evolution but the complete picture of evolution of gene expression also has to incorporate lineage-specific aspects of paralogy. The observed complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication can be explained through selection for gene dosage effect combined with the duplication-degeneration-complementation model. This paper discusses expression divergence of recent duplications occurring before functional divergence of proteins encoded by duplicate genes. PMID:25197576

  19. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1): a multifunctional regulator of normal and abnormal physiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Emdad, Luni; Lee, Seok-Geun; Su, Zao-zhong; Santhekadur, Prasanna; Chen, Dong; Gredler, Rachel; Fisher, Paul B.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2011-01-01

    Since its initial identification and cloning in 2002, Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1), also known as metadherin (MTDH), 3D3 and LYsine-RIch CEACAM1 co-isolated (LYRIC), has emerged as an important oncogene that is overexpressed in all cancers analyzed so far. Examination of a large cohort of patient samples representing diverse cancer indications has revealed progressive increase in AEG-1 expression with stages and grades of the disease and an inverse relationship between AEG-1 expression level and patient prognosis. AEG-1 functions as a bona fide oncogene by promoting transformation. In addition, it plays a significant role in invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and chemoresistance, all important hallmarks of an aggressive cancer. AEG-1 is also implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, migraine and Huntington disease. AEG-1 is a highly basic protein with a transmembrane domain and multiple nuclear localization signals and it is present in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus and endoplasmic reticulum. In each location, AEG-1 interacts with specific proteins thereby modulating diverse intracellular processes the combination of which contributes to its pleiotrophic properties. The present review provides a snapshot of the current literature along with future perspectives on this unique molecule. PMID:21256156

  20. Pleiotropy in microdeletion syndromes: Neurologic and spermatogenic abnormalities in mice homozygous for the p{sup 6H} deletion are likely due to dysfunction of a single gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rinchik, E.M.; Carpenter, D.A.; Handel, M.A.

    1995-07-03

    Variability and complexity of phenotypes observed in microdeletion syndromes can be due to deletion of a single gene whose product participates in several aspects of development or can be due to the deletion of a number of tightly linked genes, each adding its own effect to the syndrome. The p{sup 6H} deletion in mouse chromosome 7 presents a good model with which to address this question of multigene vs. single-gene pleiotropy. Mice homozygous for the p{sup 6H} deletion are diluted in pigmentation, are smaller than their littermates, and manifest a nervous jerky-gait phenotype. Male homozygotes are sterile and exhibit profoundmore » abnormalities in spermiogenesis. By using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU) mutagenesis and a breeding protocol designed to recover recessive mutations expressed hemizygously opposite a large p-locus deletion, we have generated three noncomplementing mutations that map to the p{sup 6H} deletion. Each of these EtNU-induced mutations has adverse effects on the size, nervous behavior, and progression of spermiogenesis that characterize p{sup 6H} deletion homozygotes. Because etNU is thought to induce primarily intragenic (point) mutations in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia, we propose that the trio of phenotypes (runtiness, nervous jerky gait, and male sterility) expressed in p{sup 6H} deletion homozygotes is the result of deletion of a single highly pleiotropic gene. We also predict that a homologous single locus, quite possibly tightly linked and distal to the D15S12 (P) locus in human chromosome 15q11-q13, may be associated with similar developmental abnormalities in humans. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. Systematic identification of human housekeeping genes possibly useful as references in gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Maria; Piovesan, Allison; Antonaros, Francesca; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2017-09-01

    The ideal reference, or control, gene for the study of gene expression in a given organism should be expressed at a medium‑high level for easy detection, should be expressed at a constant/stable level throughout different cell types and within the same cell type undergoing different treatments, and should maintain these features through as many different tissues of the organism. From a biological point of view, these theoretical requirements of an ideal reference gene appear to be best suited to housekeeping (HK) genes. Recent advancements in the quality and completeness of human expression microarray data and in their statistical analysis may provide new clues toward the quantitative standardization of human gene expression studies in biology and medicine, both cross‑ and within‑tissue. The systematic approach used by the present study is based on the Transcriptome Mapper tool and exploits the automated reassignment of probes to corresponding genes, intra‑ and inter‑sample normalization, elaboration and representation of gene expression values in linear form within an indexed and searchable database with a graphical interface recording quantitative levels of expression, expression variability and cross‑tissue width of expression for more than 31,000 transcripts. The present study conducted a meta‑analysis of a pool of 646 expression profile data sets from 54 different human tissues and identified actin γ 1 as the HK gene that best fits the combination of all the traditional criteria to be used as a reference gene for general use; two ribosomal protein genes, RPS18 and RPS27, and one aquaporin gene, POM121 transmembrane nucleporin C, were also identified. The present study provided a list of tissue‑ and organ‑specific genes that may be most suited for the following individual tissues/organs: Adipose tissue, bone marrow, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, skeletal muscle and testis; and also provides in these cases a representative

  2. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in apomictic and sexual Cenchrus ciliaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apomixis is a naturally occurring asexual mode of seed reproduction resulting in offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Identifying differential gene expression patterns between apomictic and sexual plants is valuable to help deconstruct the trait. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a popular method for analyzing gene expression. Normalizing gene expression data using proper reference genes which show stable expression under investigated conditions is critical in qRT-PCR analysis. We used qRT-PCR to validate expression and stability of six potential reference genes (EF1alpha, EIF4A, UBCE, GAPDH, ACT2 and TUBA) in vegetative and reproductive tissues of B-2S and B-12-9 accessions of C. ciliaris. Findings Among tissue types evaluated, EF1alpha showed the highest level of expression while TUBA showed the lowest. When all tissue types were evaluated and compared between genotypes, EIF4A was the most stable reference gene. Gene expression stability for specific ovary stages of B-2S and B-12-9 was also determined. Except for TUBA, all other tested reference genes could be used for any stage-specific ovary tissue normalization, irrespective of the mode of reproduction. Conclusion Our gene expression stability assay using six reference genes, in sexual and apomictic accessions of C. ciliaris, suggests that EIF4A is the most stable gene across all tissue types analyzed. All other tested reference genes, with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation. PMID:24083672

  3. Integration of biological networks and gene expression data using Cytoscape

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Melissa S; Smoot, Michael; Cerami, Ethan; Kuchinsky, Allan; Landys, Nerius; Workman, Chris; Christmas, Rowan; Avila-Campilo, Iliana; Creech, Michael; Gross, Benjamin; Hanspers, Kristina; Isserlin, Ruth; Kelley, Ryan; Killcoyne, Sarah; Lotia, Samad; Maere, Steven; Morris, John; Ono, Keiichiro; Pavlovic, Vuk; Pico, Alexander R; Vailaya, Aditya; Wang, Peng-Liang; Adler, Annette; Conklin, Bruce R; Hood, Leroy; Kuiper, Martin; Sander, Chris; Schmulevich, Ilya; Schwikowski, Benno; Warner, Guy J; Ideker, Trey; Bader, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    Cytoscape is a free software package for visualizing, modeling and analyzing molecular and genetic interaction networks. This protocol explains how to use Cytoscape to analyze the results of mRNA expression profiling, and other functional genomics and proteomics experiments, in the context of an interaction network obtained for genes of interest. Five major steps are described: (i) obtaining a gene or protein network, (ii) displaying the network using layout algorithms, (iii) integrating with gene expression and other functional attributes, (iv) identifying putative complexes and functional modules and (v) identifying enriched Gene Ontology annotations in the network. These steps provide a broad sample of the types of analyses performed by Cytoscape. PMID:17947979

  4. Structure and expression of canary myc family genes.

    PubMed Central

    Collum, R G; Clayton, D F; Alt, F W

    1991-01-01

    We found that the canary N-myc gene is highly related to mammalian N-myc genes in both the protein-coding region and the long 3' untranslated region. Examined coding regions of the canary c-myc gene were also highly related to their mammalian counterparts, but in contrast to N-myc, the canary and mammalian c-myc genes were quite divergent in their 3' untranslated regions. We readily detected N-myc and c-myc expression in the adult canary brain and found N-myc expression both at sites of proliferating neuronal precursors and in mature neurons. Images PMID:1996121

  5. Uhrf1 is indispensable for normal limb growth by regulating chondrocyte differentiation through specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Michiko; Inoue, Kazuki; Saeki, Noritaka; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Yanagihara, Yuta; Sawada, Yuichiro; Sakakibara, Iori; Lee, Jiwon; Ichikawa, Koichi; Kamei, Yoshiaki; Iimura, Tadahiro; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Takada, Yasutsugu; Imai, Yuuki

    2018-01-08

    Transcriptional regulation can be tightly orchestrated by epigenetic regulators. Among these, ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (Uhrf1) is reported to have diverse epigenetic functions, including regulation of DNA methylation. However, the physiological functions of Uhrf1 in skeletal tissues remain unclear. Here, we show that limb mesenchymal cell-specific Uhrf1 conditional knockout mice ( Uhrf1 Δ Limb/ Δ Limb ) exhibit remarkably shortened long bones that have morphological deformities due to dysregulated chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation. RNA-seq performed on primary cultured chondrocytes obtained from Uhrf1 Δ Limb/ Δ Limb mice showed abnormal chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, integrative analyses using RNA-seq and MBD-seq revealed that Uhrf1 deficiency decreased genome-wide DNA methylation and increased gene expression through reduced DNA methylation in the promoter regions of 28 genes, including Hspb1 , which is reported to be an IL1-related gene and to affect chondrocyte differentiation. Hspb1 knockdown in cKO chondrocytes can normalize abnormal expression of genes involved in chondrocyte differentiation, such as Mmp13 These results indicate that Uhrf1 governs cell type-specific transcriptional regulation by controlling the genome-wide DNA methylation status and regulating consequent cell differentiation and skeletal maturation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  7. Stochastic and epigenetic changes of gene expression in Arabidopsis polyploids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlin; Tian, Lu; Madlung, Andreas; Lee, Hyeon-Se; Chen, Meng; Lee, Jinsuk J; Watson, Brian; Kagochi, Trevor; Comai, Luca; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2004-08-01

    Polyploidization is an abrupt speciation mechanism for eukaryotes and is especially common in plants. However, little is known about patterns and mechanisms of gene regulation during early stages of polyploid formation. Here we analyzed differential expression patterns of the progenitors' genes among successive selfing generations and independent lineages. The synthetic Arabidopsis allotetraploid lines were produced by a genetic cross between A. thaliana and A. arenosa autotetraploids. We found that some progenitors' genes are differentially expressed in early generations, whereas other genes are silenced in late generations or among different siblings within a selfing generation, suggesting that the silencing of progenitors' genes is rapidly and/or stochastically established. Moreover, a subset of genes is affected in autotetraploid and multiple independent allotetraploid lines and in A. suecica, a natural allotetraploid derived from A. thaliana and A. arenosa, indicating locus-specific susceptibility to ploidy-dependent gene regulation. The role of DNA methylation in silencing progenitors' genes is tested in DNA-hypomethylation transgenic lines of A. suecica using RNA interference (RNAi). Two silenced genes are reactivated in both ddm1- and met1-RNAi lines, consistent with the demethylation of centromeric repeats and gene-specific regions in the genome. A rapid and stochastic process of differential gene expression is reinforced by epigenetic regulation during polyploid formation and evolution. Copyright 2004 Genetics Society of America

  8. Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiling of Zebra Finch Immune Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; French, Lisa; Slate, Jon; Burke, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Genes of the immune system are generally considered to evolve rapidly due to host–parasite coevolution. They are therefore of great interest in evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. In this study, we manually annotated 144 avian immune genes from the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome and conducted evolutionary analyses of these by comparing them with their orthologs in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Genes classified as immune receptors showed elevated dN/dS ratios compared with other classes of immune genes. Immune genes in general also appear to be evolving more rapidly than other genes, as inferred from a higher dN/dS ratio compared with the rest of the genome. Furthermore, ten genes (of 27) for which sequence data were available from at least three bird species showed evidence of positive selection acting on specific codons. From transcriptome data of eight different tissues, we found evidence for expression of 106 of the studied immune genes, with primary expression of most of these in bursa, blood, and spleen. These immune-related genes showed a more tissue-specific expression pattern than other genes in the zebra finch genome. Several of the avian immune genes investigated here provide strong candidates for in-depth studies of molecular adaptation in birds. PMID:20884724

  9. Gene duplication, silencing and expression alteration govern the molecular evolution of PRC2 genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Hazuka Y; Suenaga, Kazuya; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2016-10-13

    PRC2 genes were analyzed for their number of gene duplications, d N /d S ratios and expression patterns among Brassicaceae and Gramineae species. Although both amino acid sequences and copy number of the PRC2 genes were generally well conserved in both Brassicaceae and Gramineae species, we observed that some rapidly evolving genes experienced duplications and expression pattern changes. After multiple duplication events, all but one or two of the duplicated copies tend to be silenced. Silenced copies were reactivated in the endosperm and showed ectopic expression in developing seeds. The results indicated that rapid evolution of some PRC2 genes is initially caused by a relaxation of selective constraint following the gene duplication events. Several loci could become maternally expressed imprinted genes and acquired functional roles in the endosperm.

  10. Gene expression studies of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR: an overview in insects.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rodriguez, Alicia; Tahir, Urfa Bin; Jin, Fengliang

    2018-02-01

    Whenever gene expression is being examined, it is essential that a normalization process is carried out to eliminate non-biological variations. The use of reference genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, actin, and ribosomal protein genes, is the usual method of choice for normalizing gene expression. Although reference genes are used to normalize target gene expression, a major problem is that the stability of these genes differs among tissues, developmental stages, species, and responses to abiotic factors. Therefore, the use and validation of multiple reference genes are required. This review discusses the reasons that why RT-qPCR has become the preferred method for validating results of gene expression profiles, the use of specific and non-specific dyes and the importance of use of primers and probes for qPCR as well as to discuss several statistical algorithms developed to help the validation of potential reference genes. The conflicts arising in the use of classical reference genes in gene normalization and their replacement with novel references are also discussed by citing the high stability and low stability of classical and novel reference genes under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions by employing various methods applied for the reference genes amplification.

  11. Expression of HES and HEY genes in infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omotinuwe; Wong, Alvin; Kitajewski, Alex; Tong, Karen; Boscolo, Elisa; Bischoff, Joyce; Kitajewski, Jan; Wu, June K

    2011-08-11

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumor of infancy, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. IHs are believed to originate from a progenitor cell, the hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Recent studies by our group showed that NOTCH proteins and NOTCH ligands are expressed in hemangiomas, indicating Notch signaling may be active in IHs. We sought to investigate downstream activation of Notch signaling in hemangioma cells by evaluating the expression of the basic HLH family proteins, HES/HEY, in IHs. HemSCs and hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) are isolated from freshly resected hemangioma specimens. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to probe for relative gene transcript levels (normalized to beta-actin). Immunofluorescence was performed to evaluate protein expression. Co-localization studies were performed with CD31 (endothelial cells) and NOTCH3 (peri-vascular, non-endothelial cells). HemSCs were treated with the gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) Compound E, and gene transcript levels were quantified with real-time PCR. HEY1, HEYL, and HES1 are highly expressed in HemSCs, while HEY2 is highly expressed in HemECs. Protein expression evaluation by immunofluorescence confirms that HEY2 is expressed by HemECs (CD31+ cells), while HEY1, HEYL, and HES1 are more widely expressed and mostly expressed by perivascular cells of hemangiomas. Inhibition of Notch signaling by addition of GSI resulted in down-regulation of HES/HEY genes. HES/HEY genes are expressed in IHs in cell type specific patterns; HEY2 is expressed in HemECs and HEY1, HEYL, HES1 are expressed in HemSCs. This pattern suggests that HEY/HES genes act downstream of Notch receptors that function in distinct cell types of IHs. HES/HEY gene transcripts are decreased with the addition of a gamma-secretase inhibitor, Compound E, demonstrating that Notch signaling is active in infantile hemangioma cells.

  12. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  13. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    PubMed Central

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  14. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  15. GESearch: An Interactive GUI Tool for Identifying Gene Expression Signature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ning; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Jingjing; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    The huge amount of gene expression data generated by microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies present challenges to exploit their biological meanings. When searching for the coexpression genes, the data mining process is largely affected by selection of algorithms. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide multiple options of algorithms in the user-friendly analytical toolkit to explore the gene expression signatures. For this purpose, we developed GESearch, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit, which is written in MATLAB and supports a variety of gene expression data files. This analytical toolkit provides four models, including the mean, the regression, the delegate, and the ensemble models, to identify the coexpression genes, and enables the users to filter data and to select gene expression patterns by browsing the display window or by importing knowledge-based genes. Subsequently, the utility of this analytical toolkit is demonstrated by analyzing two sets of real-life microarray datasets from cell-cycle experiments. Overall, we have developed an interactive GUI toolkit that allows for choosing multiple algorithms for analyzing the gene expression signatures.

  16. Transposon integration enhances expression of stress response genes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Leem, Young-Eun; Levin, Henry L

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements possess specific patterns of integration. The biological impact of these integration profiles is not well understood. Tf1, a long-terminal repeat retrotransposon in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, integrates into promoters with a preference for the promoters of stress response genes. To determine the biological significance of Tf1 integration, we took advantage of saturated maps of insertion activity and studied how integration at hot spots affected the expression of the adjacent genes. Our study revealed that Tf1 integration did not reduce gene expression. Importantly, the insertions activated the expression of 6 of 32 genes tested. We found that Tf1 increased gene expression by inserting enhancer activity. Interestingly, the enhancer activity of Tf1 could be limited by Abp1, a host surveillance factor that sequesters transposon sequences into structures containing histone deacetylases. We found the Tf1 promoter was activated by heat treatment and, remarkably, only genes that themselves were induced by heat could be activated by Tf1 integration, suggesting a synergy of Tf1 enhancer sequence with the stress response elements of target promoters. We propose that the integration preference of Tf1 for the promoters of stress response genes and the ability of Tf1 to enhance the expression of these genes co-evolved to promote the survival of cells under stress.

  17. Ion channel gene expression predicts survival in glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Gurguis, Christopher I.; Gu, Wanjun; Ko, Eun A; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Zhou, Tong; Ko, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are important regulators in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. The malfunction and/or aberrant expression of ion channels may disrupt these important biological processes and influence cancer progression. In this study, we investigate the expression pattern of ion channel genes in glioma. We designate 18 ion channel genes that are differentially expressed in high-grade glioma as a prognostic molecular signature. This ion channel gene expression based signature predicts glioma outcome in three independent validation cohorts. Interestingly, 16 of these 18 genes were down-regulated in high-grade glioma. This signature is independent of traditional clinical, molecular, and histological factors. Resampling tests indicate that the prognostic power of the signature outperforms random gene sets selected from human genome in all the validation cohorts. More importantly, this signature performs better than the random gene signatures selected from glioma-associated genes in two out of three validation datasets. This study implicates ion channels in brain cancer, thus expanding on knowledge of their roles in other cancers. Individualized profiling of ion channel gene expression serves as a superior and independent prognostic tool for glioma patients. PMID:26235283

  18. Transposon integration enhances expression of stress response genes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Leem, Young-Eun; Levin, Henry L.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements possess specific patterns of integration. The biological impact of these integration profiles is not well understood. Tf1, a long-terminal repeat retrotransposon in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, integrates into promoters with a preference for the promoters of stress response genes. To determine the biological significance of Tf1 integration, we took advantage of saturated maps of insertion activity and studied how integration at hot spots affected the expression of the adjacent genes. Our study revealed that Tf1 integration did not reduce gene expression. Importantly, the insertions activated the expression of 6 of 32 genes tested. We found that Tf1 increased gene expression by inserting enhancer activity. Interestingly, the enhancer activity of Tf1 could be limited by Abp1, a host surveillance factor that sequesters transposon sequences into structures containing histone deacetylases. We found the Tf1 promoter was activated by heat treatment and, remarkably, only genes that themselves were induced by heat could be activated by Tf1 integration, suggesting a synergy of Tf1 enhancer sequence with the stress response elements of target promoters. We propose that the integration preference of Tf1 for the promoters of stress response genes and the ability of Tf1 to enhance the expression of these genes co-evolved to promote the survival of cells under stress. PMID:23193295

  19. VH gene expression and regulation in the mutant Alicia rabbit. Rescue of VHa2 allotype expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Young-Cooper, G O; Mage, R G

    1993-04-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain, derived from rabbits expressing the VHa2 allotype, have a mutation in the H chain locus that has a cis effect upon the expression of VHa2 and VHa- genes. A small deletion at the most J-proximal (3') end of the VH locus leads to low expression of all the genes on the entire chromosome in heterozygous ali mutants and altered relative expression of VH genes in homozygotes. To study VH gene expression and regulation, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the VH genes expressed in spleens of young and adult wild-type and mutant Alicia rabbits. The cDNA from reverse transcription of splenic mRNA was amplified and polymerase chain reaction libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides from framework regions 1 and 3, as well as JH. Thirty-three VH-positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. We found that in mutant Alicia rabbits, products of the first functional VH gene (VH4a2), (or VH4a2-like genes) were expressed in 2- to 8-wk-olds. Expression of both the VHx and VHy types of VHa- genes was also elevated but the relative proportions of VHx and VHy, especially VHx, decreased whereas the relative levels of expression of VH4a2 or VH4a2-like genes increased with age. Our results suggest that the appearance of sequences resembling that of the VH1a2, which is deleted in the mutant ali rabbits, could be caused by alterations of the sequences of the rearranged VH4a2 genes by gene conversions and/or rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development.

  20. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex-Biased Gene Expression and Sexual Conflict throughout Development

    PubMed Central

    Ingleby, Fiona C.; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex-biased gene expression is likely to account for most sexually dimorphic traits because males and females share much of their genome. When fitness optima differ between sexes for a shared trait, sexual dimorphism can allow each sex to express their optimum trait phenotype, and in this way, the evolution of sex-biased gene expression is one mechanism that could help to resolve intralocus sexual conflict. Genome-wide patterns of sex-biased gene expression have been identified in a number of studies, which we review here. However, very little is known about how sex-biased gene expression relates to sex-specific fitness and about how sex-biased gene expression and conflict vary throughout development or across different genotypes, populations, and environments. We discuss the importance of these neglected areas of research and use data from a small-scale experiment on sex-specific expression of genes throughout development to highlight potentially interesting avenues for future research. PMID:25376837

  2. Gene expression distribution deconvolution in single-cell RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingshu; Huang, Mo; Torre, Eduardo; Dueck, Hannah; Shaffer, Sydney; Murray, John; Raj, Arjun; Li, Mingyao; Zhang, Nancy R

    2018-06-26

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) enables the quantification of each gene's expression distribution across cells, thus allowing the assessment of the dispersion, nonzero fraction, and other aspects of its distribution beyond the mean. These statistical characterizations of the gene expression distribution are critical for understanding expression variation and for selecting marker genes for population heterogeneity. However, scRNA-seq data are noisy, with each cell typically sequenced at low coverage, thus making it difficult to infer properties of the gene expression distribution from raw counts. Based on a reexamination of nine public datasets, we propose a simple technical noise model for scRNA-seq data with unique molecular identifiers (UMI). We develop deconvolution of single-cell expression distribution (DESCEND), a method that deconvolves the true cross-cell gene expression distribution from observed scRNA-seq counts, leading to improved estimates of properties of the distribution such as dispersion and nonzero fraction. DESCEND can adjust for cell-level covariates such as cell size, cell cycle, and batch effects. DESCEND's noise model and estimation accuracy are further evaluated through comparisons to RNA FISH data, through data splitting and simulations and through its effectiveness in removing known batch effects. We demonstrate how DESCEND can clarify and improve downstream analyses such as finding differentially expressed genes, identifying cell types, and selecting differentiation markers. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Targeting gene expression selectively in cancer cells by using the progression-elevated gene-3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhao-Zhong; Sarkar, Devanand; Emdad, Luni; Duigou, Gregory J; Young, Charles S H; Ware, Joy; Randolph, Aaron; Valerie, Kristoffer; Fisher, Paul B

    2005-01-25

    One impediment to effective cancer-specific gene therapy is the rarity of regulatory sequences targeting gene expression selectively in tumor cells. Although many tissue-specific promoters are recognized, few cancer-selective gene promoters are available. Progression-elevated gene-3 (PEG-3) is a rodent gene identified by subtraction hybridization that displays elevated expression as a function of transformation by diversely acting oncogenes, DNA damage, and cancer cell progression. The promoter of PEG-3, PEG-Prom, displays robust expression in a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines with marginal expression in normal cellular counterparts. Whereas GFP expression, when under the control of a CMV promoter, is detected in both normal and cancer cells, when GFP is expressed under the control of the PEG-Prom, cancer-selective expression is evident. Mutational analysis identifies the AP-1 and PEA-3 transcription factors as primary mediators of selective, cancer-specific expression of the PEG-Prom. Synthesis of apoptosis-inducing genes, under the control of the CMV promoter, inhibits the growth of both normal and cancer cells, whereas PEG-Prom-mediated expression of these genes kills only cancer cells and spares normal cells. The efficacy of the PEG-Prom as part of a cancer gene therapeutic regimen is further documented by in vivo experiments in which PEG-Prom-controlled expression of an apoptosis-inducing gene completely inhibited prostate cancer xenograft growth in nude mice. These compelling observations indicate that the PEG-Prom, with its cancer-specific expression, provides a means of selectively delivering genes to cancer cells, thereby providing a crucial component in developing effective cancer gene therapies.

  4. The human cumulus--oocyte complex gene-expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Assou, Said; Anahory, Tal; Pantesco, Véronique; Le Carrour, Tanguy; Pellestor, Franck; Klein, Bernard; Reyftmann, Lionel; Dechaud, Hervé; De Vos, John; Hamamah, Samir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The understanding of the mechanisms regulating human oocyte maturation is still rudimentary. We have identified transcripts differentially expressed between immature and mature oocytes, and cumulus cells. METHODS Using oligonucleotides microarrays, genome wide gene expression was studied in pooled immature and mature oocytes or cumulus cells from patients who underwent IVF. RESULTS In addition to known genes such as DAZL, BMP15 or GDF9, oocytes upregulated 1514 genes. We show that PTTG3 and AURKC are respectively the securin and the Aurora kinase preferentially expressed during oocyte meiosis. Strikingly, oocytes overexpressed previously unreported growth factors such as TNFSF13/APRIL, FGF9, FGF14, and IL4, and transcription factors including OTX2, SOX15 and SOX30. Conversely, cumulus cells, in addition to known genes such as LHCGR or BMPR2, overexpressed cell-tocell signaling genes including TNFSF11/RANKL, numerous complement components, semaphorins (SEMA3A, SEMA6A, SEMA6D) and CD genes such as CD200. We also identified 52 genes progressively increasing during oocyte maturation, comprising CDC25A and SOCS7. CONCLUSION The identification of genes up and down regulated during oocyte maturation greatly improves our understanding of oocyte biology and will provide new markers that signal viable and competent oocytes. Furthermore, genes found expressed in cumulus cells are potential markers of granulosa cell tumors. PMID:16571642

  5. Quantifying the Effect of DNA Packaging on Gene Expression Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Harold

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression, the process by which the genetic code comes alive in the form of proteins, is one of the most important biological processes in living cells, and begins when transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region upstream of a gene. The relationship between gene expression output and transcription factor input which is termed the gene regulation function is specific to each promoter, and predicting this gene regulation function from the locations of transcription factor binding sites is one of the challenges in biology. In eukaryotic organisms (for example, animals, plants, fungi etc), DNA is highly compacted into nucleosomes, 147-bp segments of DNA tightly wrapped around histone protein core, and therefore, the accessibility of transcription factor binding sites depends on their locations with respect to nucleosomes - sites inside nucleosomes are less accessible than those outside nucleosomes. To understand how transcription factor binding sites contribute to gene expression in a quantitative manner, we obtain gene regulation functions of promoters with various configurations of transcription factor binding sites by using fluorescent protein reporters to measure transcription factor input and gene expression output in single yeast cells. In this talk, I will show that the affinity of a transcription factor binding site inside and outside the nucleosome controls different aspects of the gene regulation function, and explain this finding based on a mass-action kinetic model that includes competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors.

  6. Genes Expressed During Fruiting Body Formation of Agrocybe cylindracea

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Mi; Kim, Sang Beom; Kim, Hey Young; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn; Im, Kyung Hoan

    2006-01-01

    Agrocybe cylindracea, an edible mushroom belonging to Bolbitiaceae, Agaricales, is widely used as invaluable medicinal material in the oriental countries. This study was initiated to find the genes expressed during the fruiting body formation of A. cylindracea. The cDNAs expressed differentially during fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were isolated through subtractive hybridization between vegetative mycelia and fruiting bodies. The cDNAs expressed in the fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were cloned and twenty genes were identified. Eleven were homologous to genes of known functions, three were homologous to genes in other organism without any function known. Six were completely novel genes specific to A. cylindracea so far examined. Some genes with known functions were a pleurotolysin, a self-assembling poreforming cytolysins; Aa-Pri1 and Pir2p, specifically induced genes during fruiting initiation of other mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita; an amino acid permease; a cytochrome P450; a MADS-box gene; a peptidylprolyl isomerase; and a serine proteinase. For other clones, no clear function was annotated so far. We believe the first report of the differentially expressed genes in fruiting process of A. cylindracea will be great helps for further research. PMID:24039501

  7. Mutation screening of HOXA7 and HOXA9 genes in Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinxia; Mu, Yulan; Li, Chunyan; Li, Guangyu; Zhao, Hui; Qin, Yingying; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    HOXA genes in groups 7-13 have been proven to play a role in determining positional identity along the genitalia axis. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between HOXA7 and HOXA9 mutations and Müllerian duct abnormalities (MDA). One hundred and ninety-two Chinese patients with MDA abnormalities and 192 healthy controls were recruited. All coding regions of HOXA7 and HOXA9 were amplified and sequenced directly. Rs2301721 and rs2301720 in HOXA7, rs35355140 and rs7810502 in HOXA9 were identified in patients with MDA and controls. One rare single nucleotide polymorphism rs189587233 in 3' UTR of HOXA9 gene was detected in one patient with didelphic uterus and absent in the 192 controls. This polymorphism, however, is known to exist in the normal Chinese population. Our results indicated that variants in the HOXA7 and HOXA9 genes were not common in Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Cole, Steven W.; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species’ high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. PMID:27189566

  9. Periodontal therapy alters gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Sedaghatfar, Michael H.; Demmer, Ryan T.; Wolf, Dana L.; Yang, Jun; Roth, Georg A.; Celenti, Romanita; Belusko, Paul B.; Lalla, Evanthia; Pavlidis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Aims We investigated the effects of periodontal therapy on gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes. Methods Fifteen patients with periodontitis gave blood samples at four time points: 1 week before periodontal treatment (#1), at treatment initiation (baseline, #2), 6-week (#3) and 10-week post-baseline (#4). At baseline and 10 weeks, periodontal status was recorded and subgingival plaque samples were obtained. Periodontal therapy (periodontal surgery and extractions without adjunctive antibiotics) was completed within 6 weeks. At each time point, serum concentrations of 19 biomarkers were determined. Peripheral blood monocytes were purified, RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labelled and hybridized with AffymetrixU133Plus2.0 chips. Expression profiles were analysed using linear random-effects models. Further analysis of gene ontology terms summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients. Results Treatment resulted in a substantial improvement in clinical periodontal status and reduction in the levels of several periodontal pathogens. Expression profiling over time revealed more than 11,000 probe sets differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of <0.05. Approximately 1/3 of the patients showed substantial changes in expression in genes relevant to innate immunity, apoptosis and cell signalling. Conclusions The data suggest that periodontal therapy may alter monocytic gene expression in a manner consistent with a systemic anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:17716309

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of Soft and Firm Atlantic Salmon Fillet

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Thomas; Mørkøre, Turid; Kolstad, Kari; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Afanasyev, Sergey; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Texture of salmon fillets is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance as well as for the suitability for processing. In the present work we measured fillet firmness in a population of farmed Atlantic salmon with known pedigree and investigated the relationship between this trait and gene expression. Transcriptomic analyses performed with a 21 K oligonucleotide microarray revealed strong correlations between firmness and a large number of genes. Highly similar expression profiles were observed in several functional groups. Positive regression was found between firmness and genes encoding proteasome components (41 genes) and mitochondrial proteins (129 genes), proteins involved in stress responses (12 genes), and lipid metabolism (30 genes). Coefficients of determination (R2) were in the range of 0.64–0.74. A weaker though highly significant negative regression was seen in sugar metabolism (26 genes, R2 = 0.66) and myofiber proteins (42 genes, R2 = 0.54). Among individual genes that showed a strong association with firmness, there were extracellular matrix proteins (negative correlation), immune genes, and intracellular proteases (positive correlation). Several genes can be regarded as candidate markers of flesh quality (coiled-coil transcriptional coactivator b, AMP deaminase 3, and oligopeptide transporter 15) though their functional roles are unclear. To conclude, fillet firmness of Atlantic salmon depends largely on metabolic properties of the skeletal muscle; where aerobic metabolism using lipids as fuel, and the rapid removal of damaged proteins, appear to play a major role. PMID:22745718

  11. Gene expression profiling of soft and firm Atlantic salmon fillet.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Thomas; Mørkøre, Turid; Kolstad, Kari; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Afanasyev, Sergey; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Texture of salmon fillets is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance as well as for the suitability for processing. In the present work we measured fillet firmness in a population of farmed Atlantic salmon with known pedigree and investigated the relationship between this trait and gene expression. Transcriptomic analyses performed with a 21 K oligonucleotide microarray revealed strong correlations between firmness and a large number of genes. Highly similar expression profiles were observed in several functional groups. Positive regression was found between firmness and genes encoding proteasome components (41 genes) and mitochondrial proteins (129 genes), proteins involved in stress responses (12 genes), and lipid metabolism (30 genes). Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were in the range of 0.64-0.74. A weaker though highly significant negative regression was seen in sugar metabolism (26 genes, R(2) = 0.66) and myofiber proteins (42 genes, R(2) = 0.54). Among individual genes that showed a strong association with firmness, there were extracellular matrix proteins (negative correlation), immune genes, and intracellular proteases (positive correlation). Several genes can be regarded as candidate markers of flesh quality (coiled-coil transcriptional coactivator b, AMP deaminase 3, and oligopeptide transporter 15) though their functional roles are unclear. To conclude, fillet firmness of Atlantic salmon depends largely on metabolic properties of the skeletal muscle; where aerobic metabolism using lipids as fuel, and the rapid removal of damaged proteins, appear to play a major role.

  12. Inactivation of the mouse Magel2 gene results in growth abnormalities similar to Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Jocelyn M; Stewart, Colin L; Wevrick, Rachel

    2007-11-15

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an imprinted genetic obesity disorder characterized by abnormalities of growth and metabolism. Multiple mouse models with deficiency of one or more PWS candidate genes have partially correlated individual genes with aspects of the PWS phenotype, although the genetic origin of defects in growth and metabolism has not been elucidated. Gene-targeted mutation of the PWS candidate gene Magel2 in mice causes altered circadian rhythm output and reduced motor activity. We now report that Magel2-null mice exhibit neonatal growth retardation, excessive weight gain after weaning, and increased adiposity with altered metabolism in adulthood, recapitulating fundamental aspects of the PWS phenotype. Magel2-null mice provide an important opportunity to examine the physiological basis for PWS neonatal failure to thrive and post-weaning weight gain and for the relationships among circadian rhythm, feeding behavior, and metabolism.

  13. Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gene co-expression network analysis has been shown effective in identifying functional co-expressed gene modules associated with complex human diseases. However, existing techniques to construct co-expression networks require some critical prior information such as predefined number of clusters, numerical thresholds for defining co-expression/interaction, or do not naturally reproduce the hallmarks of complex systems such as the scale-free degree distribution of small-worldness. Previously, a graph filtering technique called Planar Maximally Filtered Graph (PMFG) has been applied to many real-world data sets such as financial stock prices and gene expression to extract meaningful and relevant interactions. However, PMFG is not suitable for large-scale genomic data due to several drawbacks, such as the high computation complexity O(|V|3), the presence of false-positives due to the maximal planarity constraint, and the inadequacy of the clustering framework. Here, we developed a new co-expression network analysis framework called Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (MEGENA) by: i) introducing quality control of co-expression similarities, ii) parallelizing embedded network construction, and iii) developing a novel clustering technique to identify multi-scale clustering structures in Planar Filtered Networks (PFNs). We applied MEGENA to a series of simulated data and the gene expression data in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MEGENA showed improved performance over well-established clustering methods and co-expression network construction approaches. MEGENA revealed not only meaningful multi-scale organizations of co-expressed gene clusters but also novel targets in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26618778

  14. Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Gene co-expression network analysis has been shown effective in identifying functional co-expressed gene modules associated with complex human diseases. However, existing techniques to construct co-expression networks require some critical prior information such as predefined number of clusters, numerical thresholds for defining co-expression/interaction, or do not naturally reproduce the hallmarks of complex systems such as the scale-free degree distribution of small-worldness. Previously, a graph filtering technique called Planar Maximally Filtered Graph (PMFG) has been applied to many real-world data sets such as financial stock prices and gene expression to extract meaningful and relevant interactions. However, PMFG is not suitable for large-scale genomic data due to several drawbacks, such as the high computation complexity O(|V|3), the presence of false-positives due to the maximal planarity constraint, and the inadequacy of the clustering framework. Here, we developed a new co-expression network analysis framework called Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (MEGENA) by: i) introducing quality control of co-expression similarities, ii) parallelizing embedded network construction, and iii) developing a novel clustering technique to identify multi-scale clustering structures in Planar Filtered Networks (PFNs). We applied MEGENA to a series of simulated data and the gene expression data in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MEGENA showed improved performance over well-established clustering methods and co-expression network construction approaches. MEGENA revealed not only meaningful multi-scale organizations of co-expressed gene clusters but also novel targets in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

  15. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  16. Human Endometrial DNA Methylome Is Cycle-Dependent and Is Associated With Gene Expression Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Houshdaran, Sahar; Zelenko, Zara; Irwin, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium undergoes major gene expression changes, resulting in altered cellular functions in response to cyclic variations in circulating estradiol and progesterone, largely mediated by transcription factors and nuclear receptors. In addition to classic modulators, epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression during development in response to environmental factors and in some diseases and have roles in steroid hormone action. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation plays a role in gene expression regulation in human endometrium in different hormonal milieux. High throughput, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of endometrial samples in proliferative, early secretory, and midsecretory phases revealed dynamic DNA methylation patterns with segregation of proliferative from secretory phase samples by unsupervised cluster analysis of differentially methylated genes. Changes involved different frequencies of gain and loss of methylation within or outside CpG islands. Comparison of changes in transcriptomes and corresponding DNA methylomes from the same samples revealed association of DNA methylation and gene expression in a number of loci, some important in endometrial biology. Human endometrial stromal fibroblasts treated in vitro with estradiol and progesterone exhibited DNA methylation changes in several genes observed in proliferative and secretory phase tissues, respectively. Taken together, the data support the observation that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in gene expression regulation in human endometrium in different hormonal milieux, adding endometrium to a small number of normal adult tissues exhibiting dynamic DNA methylation. The data also raise the possibility that the interplay between steroid hormone and methylome dynamics regulates normal endometrial functions and, if abnormal, may result in endometrial dysfunction and associated disorders. PMID:24877562

  17. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Shen, Fengxian; Li, Juan; Xie, Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Methods Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism. Results Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (p< 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in Nrf2 mRNA expression levels between the adenomyosis and control groups. Using an agonist and Nrf2 siRNA, we regulated the Nrf2 protein levels of primary cultured endometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Conclusions Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis. PMID:28817677

  18. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to hydroxyl-radicals.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Noa; Mamane, Hadas; Biran, Dvora; Lakretz, Anat; Ron, Eliora Z

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have shown the efficiency of hydroxyl radicals generated via ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) combined with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) as a treatment process in water. The effects of AOP treatments on bacterial gene expression was examined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as a model-organism bacterium. Many bacterial genes are not expressed all the time, but their expression is regulated. The regulation is at the beginning of the gene, in a genetic region called "promoter" and affects the level of transcription (synthesis of messenger RNA) and translation (synthesis of protein). The level of expression of the regulated genes can change as a function of environmental conditions, and they can be expressed more (induced, upregulated) or less (downregulated). Exposure of strain PAO1 to UV/H 2 O 2 treatment resulted in a major change in gene expression, including elevated expression of several genes. One interesting gene is PA3237, which was significantly upregulated under UV/H 2 O 2 as compared to UV or H 2 O 2 treatments alone. The induction of this gene is probably due to formation of radicals, as it is abolished in the presence of the radical scavenger tert-butanol (TBA) and is seen even when the bacteria are added after the treatment (post-treatment exposure). Upregulation of the PA3237 promoter could also be detected using a reporter gene, suggesting the use of such genetic constructs to develop biosensors for monitoring AOPs in water-treatment plants. Currently biosensors for AOPs do not exist, consequently impairing the ability to monitor these processes on-line according to radical exposure in natural waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Expression Profiling in the Hibernating Primate, Cheirogaleus Medius

    PubMed Central

    Faherty, Sheena L.; Villanueva-Cañas, José Luis; Klopfer, Peter H.; Albà, M. Mar; Yoder, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a complex physiological response that some mammalian species employ to evade energetic demands. Previous work in mammalian hibernators suggests that hibernation is activated not by a set of genes unique to hibernators, but by differential expression of genes that are present in all mammals. This question of universal genetic mechanisms requires further investigation and can only be tested through additional investigations of phylogenetically dispersed species. To explore this question, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression dynamics as they relate to the varying physiological states experienced throughout the year in a group of primate hibernators—Madagascar’s dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus). In a novel experimental approach, we use longitudinal sampling of biological tissues as a method for capturing gene expression profiles from the same individuals throughout their annual hibernation cycle. We identify 90 candidate genes that have variable expression patterns when comparing two active states (Active 1 and Active 2) with a torpor state. These include genes that are involved in metabolic pathways, feeding behavior, and circadian rhythms, as might be expected to correlate with seasonal physiological state changes. The identified genes appear to be critical for maintaining the health of an animal that undergoes prolonged periods of metabolic depression concurrent with the hibernation phenotype. By focusing on these differentially expressed genes in dwarf lemurs, we compare gene expression patterns in previously studied mammalian hibernators. Additionally, by employing evolutionary rate analysis, we find that hibernation-related genes do not evolve under positive selection in hibernating species relative to nonhibernators. PMID:27412611

  20. Quantification of multiple gene expression in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, António; Monteiro, Marta; Rocha, Benedita; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2004-10-01

    Quantitative gene expression analysis aims to define the gene expression patterns determining cell behavior. So far, these assessments can only be performed at the population level. Therefore, they determine the average gene expression within a population, overlooking possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity that could lead to different cell behaviors/cell fates. Understanding individual cell behavior requires multiple gene expression analyses of single cells, and may be fundamental for the understanding of all types of biological events and/or differentiation processes. We here describe a new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach allowing the simultaneous quantification of the expression of 20 genes in the same single cell. This method has broad application, in different species and any type of gene combination. RT efficiency is evaluated. Uniform and maximized amplification conditions for all genes are provided. Abundance relationships are maintained, allowing the precise quantification of the absolute number of mRNA molecules per cell, ranging from 2 to 1.28 x 10(9) for each individual gene. We evaluated the impact of this approach on functional genetic read-outs by studying an apparently homogeneous population (monoclonal T cells recovered 4 d after antigen stimulation), using either this method or conventional real-time RT-PCR. Single-cell studies revealed considerable cell-to-cell variation: All T cells did not express all individual genes. Gene coexpression patterns were very heterogeneous. mRNA copy numbers varied between different transcripts and in different cells. As a consequence, this single-cell assay introduces new and fundamental information regarding functional genomic read-outs. By comparison, we also show that conventional quantitative assays determining population averages supply insufficient information, and may even be highly misleading.

  1. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  2. The Regulation of Gene Expression in Cnidarian-Algal Associations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-13

    symbiotic cnidarians , Aiptasia pallida, Anthopleura eligantissima, synbiosis-specific proteins, cDNA libraries, O. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OP REPORT...gene expression in cnidarian -algal associations Award Period: 1 July 1995-30 June 1998 Objectives: A. To identify and characterize heat shock...Exploring Symbiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Cnidarian /Algal Associations. In: Molecular Approaches to the Study of the Ocean.. Ed. K. Cooksey, Chapman

  3. On the robustness of complex heterogeneous gene expression networks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Moreno, Yamir; Floría, Luis M

    2005-04-01

    We analyze a continuous gene expression model on the underlying topology of a complex heterogeneous network. Numerical simulations aimed at studying the chaotic and periodic dynamics of the model are performed. The results clearly indicate that there is a region in which the dynamical and structural complexity of the system avoid chaotic attractors. However, contrary to what has been reported for Random Boolean Networks, the chaotic phase cannot be completely suppressed, which has important bearings on network robustness and gene expression modeling.

  4. Global Gene Expression Patterns and Somatic Mutations in Sporadic Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhili; Tan, Haibin; Shi, Yi; Huang, Guangfu; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Ling; Yin, Cheng; Wang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies can expand our understanding of the pathologic basis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Our study was aimed to decipher the gene expression signature and genetic factors associated with IAs. We determined the gene expression levels of 3 cases of IAs by RNA sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and uncover their biological function. In addition, whole genome sequencing was performed on an additional 6 cases of IAs to detect the potential somatic alterations in DEGs. Compared with the normal arterial tissue, 1709 genes were differentially expressed in IAs arterial tissue. The most significantly up-regulated gene and down-regulated gene, H19 and HIST1H3J, may be essential for tumorigenesis of IAs. Hub protein of IKBKG in protein-protein interaction network was probably involved in the inflammation process in aneurysms. Another 2 hub proteins, ACTB and MKI67IP, as well as up-regulated genes, might be abnormally activated in aneurysms and involved in the pathogenesis of IAs. Further whole genome sequencing and filtering yielded 4 candidate somatic single nucleotide variants including MUC3B, and BLM may be involved in the pathogenesis of IAs. Even though, our results do not support the hypothesis of somatic mutations occurred in the DEGs. Two-dimensional genomic data from transcriptome and whole genome sequencing indicated that no somatic mutations occurred in DEGs. In addition, 3 DEGs (IKBKG, ACTB, and MKI67IP) and 2 mutant genes (MUC3B and BLM) were essential in IAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sárvári, Anitta K., E-mail: anittasarvari@med.unideb.hu; Veréb, Zoltán, E-mail: jzvereb@gmail.com; Uray, Iván P., E-mail: ipuray@mdanderson.org

    Highlights: • Antipsychotics modulate the expression of adipogenic genes in human adipocytes. • Secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL8 and MCP-1 is induced by antipsychotics. • Adipocyte-dependent inflammatory abnormality could develop during chronic treatment. • Infiltrated macrophages would further enhance proinflammatory cytokine production. - Abstract: Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism andmore » proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones

  6. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Structure and expression of the attacin genes in Hyalophora cecropia.

    PubMed

    Sun, S C; Lindström, I; Lee, J Y; Faye, I

    1991-02-26

    To study the regulation of the immune genes in insects, we have cloned and sequenced the attacin gene locus of the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia. The locus contains one acidic and one basic attacin gene as well as two pseudogenes, which are remnants of basic attacin genes. A small insertion element was found within the locus. The two functional attacin genes are transcribed in opposite directions and have two introns inserted at homologous positions. A common sequence, GGGGATTCCT, is found at nucleotide position -48 in the acidic gene and at nucleotide position -58 in the basic gene. Interestingly, this decanucleotide is similar to the consensus of the NF-k B-binding site. Expression studies revealed that both attacins are strongly induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, lipopolysaccharide and bacteria. However, only the acidic attacin gene showed a clear response to injury.

  8. Maternal residential air pollution and placental imprinted gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Deyssenroth, Maya A; Kelsey, Karl T; Awad, Yara Abu; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel D; Lambertini, Luca; Chen, Jia; Marsit, Carmen J; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-11-01

    Maternal exposure to air pollution is associated with reduced fetal growth, but its relationship with expression of placental imprinted genes (important regulators of fetal growth) has not yet been studied. To examine relationships between maternal residential air pollution and expression of placental imprinted genes in the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS). Women-infant pairs were enrolled following delivery between 2009 and 2013. We geocoded maternal residential addresses at delivery, estimated daily levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ; n=355) and black carbon (BC; n=336) using spatial-temporal models, and estimated residential distance to nearest major roadway (n=355). Using linear regression models we investigated the associations between each exposure metric and expression of nine candidate genes previously associated with infant birthweight in RICHS, with secondary analyses of a panel of 108 imprinted genes expressed in the placenta. We also explored effect measure modification by infant sex. PM 2.5 and BC were associated with altered expression for seven and one candidate genes, respectively, previously linked with birthweight in this cohort. Adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that PM 2.5 and BC were associated with changes in expression of 41 and 12 of 108 placental imprinted genes, respectively. Infant sex modified the association between PM 2.5 and expression of CHD7 and between proximity to major roadways and expression of ZDBF2. We found that maternal exposure to residential PM 2.5 and BC was associated with changes in placental imprinted gene expression, which suggests a plausible line of investigation of how air pollution affects fetal growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression disorders of innate antibacterial signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer patients: implications for leukocyte dysfunction and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Lech, Gustaw; Słodkowski, Maciej; Słotwińska, Sylwia M.

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate changes in gene expression of innate antibacterial signaling pathways in patients with pancreatic cancer. Expression of the following genes was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 55 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR): TLR4, NOD1, MyD88, TRAF6 and HMGB1. The levels of expression of TLR4, NOD1 and TRAF6 genes were significantly elevated (p = 0.007; p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively), while MyD88 expression was markedly reduced (p = 0.0002), as compared to controls. Expression of TLR4 and NOD1 exceeded the normal level more than 3.5-fold and there was a significant correlation found between the expression of these genes (r = 0.558, p < 0.001). TLR4, NOD1 and MyD88 genes were expressed at a similar level both before and after surgery. No significant changes in the expression of HMGB1 gene were observed. The results of the study clearly indicate abnormal expression of genes belonging to innate antibacterial signaling pathways in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with pancreatic cancer, which may lead to leukocyte dysfunction. Overexpression of TLR4, NOD1 and TRAF6 genes, and decreased MyD88 gene expression may contribute to chronic inflammation and tumor progression by up-regulation of the innate antibacterial response. The parameters tested are useful for monitoring innate immunity gene disorders and pancreatic cancer progression. PMID:26155170

  10. Gene expression profile of isolated rat adipocytes treated with anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Takanori; Ueno, Yuki; Kojo, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2005-04-15

    Adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. It is accepted that the regulation of adipocytokine secretion or the adipocyte specific gene expression is one of the most important targets for the prevention of obesity and amelioration of insulin sensitivity. Recently, we demonstrated that anthocyanins, which are pigments widespread in the plant kingdom, have the potency of anti-obesity in mice and the enhancement adipocytokine secretion and adipocyte gene expression in adipocytes. In this study, we have shown for the first time the gene expression profile in isolated rat adipocytes treated with anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside; C3G or cyanidin; Cy). The rat adipocytes were treated with 100 muM C3G, Cy or vehicle for 24 h. The total RNA from the adipocytes was isolated and carried out GeneChip microarray analysis. A total of 633 or 427 genes was up-regulated (>1.5-fold) by the treatment of adipocytes with C3G or Cy, respectively. The up-regulated genes include lipid metabolism and signal transduction-related genes, however, the altered genes were partly different between the C3G- and Cy-treated groups. Based on the gene expression profile, we demonstrated the up-regulation of hormone sensitive lipase and enhancement of the lipolytic activity by the treatment of adipocytes with C3G or Cy. These data have provided an overview of the gene expression profiles in adipocytes treated with anthocyanins and identified new responsive genes with potentially important functions in adipocytes related with obesity and diabetes that merit further investigation.

  11. Gene expression profiling in melasma in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Young; Noh, Tai Kyung; Yang, Sang Hwa; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Mi Woo; Yoon, Tae Jin; Chang, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of data about the difference in gene expression between melasma lesional skin and normal adjacent one. Our aim was to identify novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of melasma. We performed a microarray analysis and confirmed the results on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Korean women with melasma. There were 334 genes whose degree of expression showed a significant difference between melasma lesional skin and normal adjacent one. Of these, five were confirmed on qRT-PCR. In melasma lesional skin, there were down-regulation of genes involved in the PPAR signaling pathway and up-regulation of genes involved in neuronal component and the functions of stratum corneum barrier. This result suggests that the pathogenesis of melasma might be associated with novel genes involved in the above signaling pathway in Korean women.

  12. Blood gene expression profiling of an early acetaminophen response.

    PubMed

    Bushel, P R; Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2017-06-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4 g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing, and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 h. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure, and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration.

  13. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of an Early Acetaminophen Response

    PubMed Central

    Bushel, Pierre R.; Fannin, Rick D.; Gerrish, Kevin; Watkins, Paul B.; Paules, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 hrs. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration. PMID:26927286

  14. Ebola virus infection induces irregular dendritic cell gene expression.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Kalina, Warren V; Williams, Priscilla

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses subvert the human immune system in part by infecting and replicating in dendritic cells (DCs). Using gene arrays, a phenotypic profile of filovirus infection in human monocyte-derived DCs was assessed. Monocytes from human donors were cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 and were infected with Ebola virus Kikwit variant for up to 48 h. Extracted DC RNA was analyzed on SuperArray's Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell Oligo GEArray and compared to uninfected controls. Infected DCs exhibited increased expression of cytokine, chemokine, antiviral, and anti-apoptotic genes not seen in uninfected controls. Significant increases of intracellular antiviral and MHC I and II genes were also noted in EBOV-infected DCs. However, infected DCs failed to show any significant difference in co-stimulatory T-cell gene expression from uninfected DCs. Moreover, several chemokine genes were activated, but there was sparse expression of chemokine receptors that enabled activated DCs to home to lymph nodes. Overall, statistically significant expression of several intracellular antiviral genes was noted, which may limit viral load but fails to stop replication. EBOV gene expression profiling is of vital importance in understanding pathogenesis and devising novel therapeutic treatments such as small-molecule inhibitors.

  15. Analytical workflow profiling gene expression in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Scott E.; González-Peña, Dianelys; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; O’Connor, Jason C.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of all genes in a biological sample is a capability of RNA-Seq technology. Analysis of the entire transcriptome benefits from summarization of genes at the functional level. As a cellular response of interest not previously explored with RNA-Seq, peritoneal macrophages from mice under two conditions (control and immunologically challenged) were analyzed for gene expression differences. Quantification of individual transcripts modeled RNA-Seq read distribution and uncertainty (using a Beta Negative Binomial distribution), then tested for differential transcript expression (False Discovery Rate-adjusted p-value < 0.05). Enrichment of functional categories utilized the list of differentially expressed genes. A total of 2079 differentially expressed transcripts representing 1884 genes were detected. Enrichment of 92 categories from Gene Ontology Biological Processes and Molecular Functions, and KEGG pathways were grouped into 6 clusters. Clusters included defense and inflammatory response (Enrichment Score = 11.24) and ribosomal activity (Enrichment Score = 17.89). Our work provides a context to the fine detail of individual gene expression differences in murine peritoneal macrophages during immunological challenge with high throughput RNA-Seq. PMID:25708305

  16. Constrained clusters of gene expression profiles with pathological features.

    PubMed

    Sese, Jun; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Monden, Morito; Kato, Kikuya; Morishita, Shinichi

    2004-11-22

    Gene expression profiles should be useful in distinguishing variations in disease, since they reflect accurately the status of cells. The primary clustering of gene expression reveals the genotypes that are responsible for the proximity of members within each cluster, while further clustering elucidates the pathological features of the individual members of each cluster. However, since the first clustering process and the second classification step, in which the features are associated with clusters, are performed independently, the initial set of clusters may omit genes that are associated with pathologically meaningful features. Therefore, it is important to devise a way of identifying gene expression clusters that are associated with pathological features. We present the novel technique of 'itemset constrained clustering' (IC-Clustering), which computes the optimal cluster that maximizes the interclass variance of gene expression between groups, which are divided according to the restriction that only divisions that can be expressed using common features are allowed. This constraint automatically labels each cluster with a set of pathological features which characterize that cluster. When applied to liver cancer datasets, IC-Clustering revealed informative gene expression clusters, which could be annotated with various pathological features, such as 'tumor' and 'man', or 'except tumor' and 'normal liver function'. In contrast, the k-means method overlooked these clusters.

  17. Construction of two vectors for gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dandan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    We report the construction of two filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei expression vectors, pWEF31 and pWEF32. Both vectors possess the hygromycin phosphotransferase B gene expression cassette and the strong promoter and terminator of the cellobiohydrolase 1 gene (cbh1) from T. reesei. The two newly constructed vectors can be efficiently transformed into T. reesei with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The difference between pWEF31 and pWEF32 is that pWEF32 has two longer homologous arms. As a result, pWEF32 easily undergoes homologous recombination. On the other hand, pWEF31 undergoes random recombination. The applicability of both vectors was tested by first generating the expression vectors pWEF31-red and pWEF32-red and then detecting the expression of the DsRed2 gene in T. reesei Rut C30. Additionally, we measured the exo-1,4-β-glucanase activity of the recombinant cells. Our work provides an effective transformation system for homologous and heterologous gene expression and gene knockout in T. reesei. It also provides a method for recombination at a specific chromosomal location. Finally, both vectors will be useful for the large-scale gene expression industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulatory states in the developmental control of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Peter, Isabelle S

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gene expression in multicellular organisms is controlled by the combinatorial function of multiple transcription factors. This indicates that not the individual transcription factors or signaling molecules, but the combination of expressed regulatory molecules, the regulatory state, should be viewed as the functional unit in gene regulation. Here, I discuss the concept of the regulatory state and its proposed role in the genome-wide control of gene expression. Recent analyses of regulatory gene expression in sea urchin embryos have been instrumental for solving the genomic control of cell fate specification in this system. Some of the approaches that were used to determine the expression of regulatory states during sea urchin embryogenesis are reviewed. Significant developmental changes in regulatory state expression leading to the distinct specification of cell fates are regulated by gene regulatory network circuits. How these regulatory state transitions are encoded in the genome is illuminated using the sea urchin endoderm-mesoderms cell fate decision circuit as an example. These observations highlight the importance of considering developmental gene regulation, and the function of individual transcription factors, in the context of regulatory states. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Signaling coupled epigenomic regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Deivendran, S; Santhoshkumar, T R; Pillai, M R

    2017-10-26

    Inheritance of genomic information independent of the DNA sequence, the epigenetics, as well as gene transcription are profoundly shaped by serine/threonine and tyrosine signaling kinases and components of the chromatin remodeling complexes. To precisely respond to a changing external milieu, human cells efficiently translate upstream signals into post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones and coregulators such as corepressors, coactivators, DNA-binding factors and PTM modifying enzymes. Because a protein with multiple residues for putative PTMs is expected to undergo more than one PTM in cells stimulated with growth factors, the outcome of combinational PTM codes on histones and coregulators is profoundly shaped by regulatory interplays between PTMs. The genomic functions of signaling kinases in cancer cells are manifested by the downstream effectors of cytoplasmic signaling cascades as well as translocation of the cytoplasmic signaling kinases to the nucleus. Signaling-mediated phosphorylation of histones serves as a regulatory switch for other PTMs, and connects chromatin remodeling complexes into gene transcription and gene activity. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in signaling-dependent epigenomic regulation of gene transcription using a few representative cancer-relevant serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases and their interplay with chromatin remodeling factors in cancer cells.

  20. Identifying osteosarcoma metastasis associated genes by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA).

    PubMed

    Tian, Honglai; Guan, Donghui; Li, Jianmin

    2018-06-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common malignant bone tumor, accounts for the heavy healthy threat in the period of children and adolescents. OS occurrence usually correlates with early metastasis and high death rate. This study aimed to better understand the mechanism of OS metastasis.Based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we downloaded 4 expression profile data sets associated with OS metastasis, and selected differential expressed genes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) approach allowed us to investigate the most OS metastasis-correlated module. Gene Ontology functional and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were used to give annotation of selected OS metastasis-associated genes.We select 897 differential expressed genes from OS metastasis and OS non-metastasis groups. Based on these selected genes, WGCNA further explored 142 genes included in the most OS metastasis-correlated module. Gene Ontology functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that significantly OS metastasis-associated genes were involved in pathway correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding.Our research figured out several potential molecules participating in metastasis process and factors acting as biomarker. With this study, we could better explore the mechanism of OS metastasis and further discover more therapy targets.

  1. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  2. Identification of Common Differentially Expressed Genes in Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Lambrou, George I.; Boulalas, Ioannis; Delakas, Dimitris; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Current diagnosis and treatment of urinary bladder cancer (BC) has shown great progress with the utilization of microarrays. Purpose Our goal was to identify common differentially expressed (DE) genes among clinically relevant subclasses of BC using microarrays. Methodology/Principal Findings BC samples and controls, both experimental and publicly available datasets, were analyzed by whole genome microarrays. We grouped the samples according to their histology and defined the DE genes in each sample individually, as well as in each tumor group. A dual analysis strategy was followed. First, experimental samples were analyzed and conclusions were formulated; and second, experimental sets were combined with publicly available microarray datasets and were further analyzed in search of common DE genes. The experimental dataset identified 831 genes that were DE in all tumor samples, simultaneously. Moreover, 33 genes were up-regulated and 85 genes were down-regulated in all 10 BC samples compared to the 5 normal tissues, simultaneously. Hierarchical clustering partitioned tumor groups in accordance to their histology. K-means clustering of all genes and all samples, as well as clustering of tumor groups, presented 49 clusters. K-means clustering of common DE genes in all samples revealed 24 clusters. Genes manifested various differential patterns of expression, based on PCA. YY1 and NFκB were among the most common transcription factors that regulated the expression of the identified DE genes. Chromosome 1 contained 32 DE genes, followed by chromosomes 2 and 11, which contained 25 and 23 DE genes, respectively. Chromosome 21 had the least number of DE genes. GO analysis revealed the prevalence of transport and binding genes in the common down-regulated DE genes; the prevalence of RNA metabolism and processing genes in the up-regulated DE genes; as well as the prevalence of genes responsible for cell communication and signal transduction in the DE genes that

  3. GSNFS: Gene subnetwork biomarker identification of lung cancer expression data.

    PubMed

    Doungpan, Narumol; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan H; Meechai, Asawin

    2016-12-05

    Gene expression has been used to identify disease gene biomarkers, but there are ongoing challenges. Single gene or gene-set biomarkers are inadequate to provide sufficient understanding of complex disease mechanisms and the relationship among those genes. Network-based methods have thus been considered for inferring the interaction within a group of genes to further study the disease mechanism. Recently, the Gene-Network-based Feature Set (GNFS), which is capable of handling case-control and multiclass expression for gene biomarker identification, has been proposed, partly taking into account of network topology. However, its performance relies on a greedy search for building subnetworks and thus requires further improvement. In this work, we establish a new approach named Gene Sub-Network-based Feature Selection (GSNFS) by implementing the GNFS framework with two proposed searching and scoring algorithms, namely gene-set-based (GS) search and parent-node-based (PN) search, to identify subnetworks. An additional dataset is used to validate the results. The two proposed searching algorithms of the GSNFS method for subnetwork expansion are concerned with the degree of connectivity and the scoring scheme for building subnetworks and their topology. For each iteration of expansion, the neighbour genes of a current subnetwork, whose expression data improved the overall subnetwork score, is recruited. While the GS search calculated the subnetwork score using an activity score of a current subnetwork and the gene expression values of its neighbours, the PN search uses the expression value of the corresponding parent of each neighbour gene. Four lung cancer expression datasets were used for subnetwork identification. In addition, using pathway data and protein-protein interaction as network data in order to consider the interaction among significant genes were discussed. Classification was performed to compare the performance of the identified gene subnetworks with three

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits the expression of clock genes.

    PubMed

    Gast, Heidemarie; Gordic, Sonja; Petrzilka, Saskia; Lopez, Martin; Müller, Andreas; Gietl, Anton; Hock, Christoph; Birchler, Thomas; Fontana, Adriano

    2012-07-01

    Disturbances of sleep-wake rhythms are an important problem in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Circadian rhythms are regulated by clock genes. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is overexpressed in neurons in AD and is the only cytokine that is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our data show that TGF-β2 inhibits the expression of the clock genes Period (Per)1, Per2, and Rev-erbα, and of the clock-controlled genes D-site albumin promoter binding protein (Dbp) and thyrotroph embryonic factor (Tef). However, our results showed that TGF-β2 did not alter the expression of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1). The concentrations of TGF-β2 in the CSF of 2 of 16 AD patients and of 1 of 7 patients with mild cognitive impairment were in the dose range required to suppress the expression of clock genes. TGF-β2-induced dysregulation of clock genes may alter neuronal pathways, which may be causally related to abnormal sleep-wake rhythms in AD patients. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. DNA Methylation of Gene Expression in Acanthamoeba castellanii Encystation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2017-04-01

    Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of Acanthamoeba castellanii is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of Acanthamoeba . To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression. A 2,878 bp of promoter sequence of CSCP gene was amplified by PCR. Three CpG islands (island 1-3) were detected in this sequence using bioinformatics tools. Methylation of CpG island in trophozoites and cysts was measured by bisulfite sequence PCR. CSCP promoter methylation of CpG island 1 (1,633 bp) was found in 8.2% of trophozoites and 7.3% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 2 (625 bp) was observed in 4.2% of trophozoites and 5.8% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 3 (367 bp) in trophozoites and cysts was both 3.6%. These results suggest that DNA methylation system is present in CSCP gene expression of Acanthamoeba . In addition, the expression of encystation mediating CSCP is correlated with promoter CpG island 1 hypomethylation.

  6. Stochastic model of transcription factor-regulated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Rajesh; Bose, Indrani

    2006-09-01

    We consider a stochastic model of transcription factor (TF)-regulated gene expression. The model describes two genes, gene A and gene B, which synthesize the TFs and the target gene proteins, respectively. We show through analytic calculations that the TF fluctuations have a significant effect on the distribution of the target gene protein levels when the mean TF level falls in the highest sensitive region of the dose-response curve. We further study the effect of reducing the copy number of gene A from two to one. The enhanced TF fluctuations yield results different from those in the deterministic case. The probability that the target gene protein level exceeds a threshold value is calculated with the knowledge of the probability density functions associated with the TF and target gene protein levels. Numerical simulation results for a more detailed stochastic model are shown to be in agreement with those obtained through analytic calculations. The relevance of these results in the context of the genetic disorder haploinsufficiency is pointed out. Some experimental observations on the haploinsufficiency of the tumour suppressor gene, Nkx 3.1, are explained with the help of the stochastic model of TF-regulated gene expression.

  7. Altered Global Gene Expression in First Trimester Placentas of Women Destined to Develop Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Founds, Sandra A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Lyons-Weiler, James F.; Jeyabalan, Arun; Hogge, W. Allen; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that remains a leading cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is associated with risk for future cardiovascular disease. There are no reliable predictors, specific preventative measures or treatments other than delivery. A widely-held view is that the antecedents of preeclampsia lie with impaired placentation in early pregnancy. Accordingly, we hypothesized dysregulation of global gene expression in first trimester placentas of women who later manifested preeclampsia. Methods Surplus chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tissues were collected at 10–12 weeks gestation in 160 patients with singleton fetuses. Four patients developed preeclampsia, and their banked CVS specimens were matched to 8 control samples from patients with unaffected pregnancies. Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips were utilized for microarray analysis. Naïve Bayes prediction modeling and pathway analysis were conducted. qRT-PCR examined three of the dysregulated genes. Results Thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified in the preeclampsia placentas. qRT-PCR verified the microarray analysis. Thirty-one genes were down-regulated. Many were related to inflammation/immunoregulation and cell motility. Decidual gene dysregulation was prominent. No evidence was found for alterations in hypoxia and oxidative stress regulated genes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show dysregulation of gene expression in the early placentas of women ~6 months before developing preeclampsia, thereby reinforcing a placental origin of the disorder. We hypothesize that placentation in preeclampsia is compromised in the first trimester by maternal and fetal immune dysregulation, abnormal decidualization, or both, thereby impairing trophoblast invasion. Several of the genes provide potential targets for the development of clinical biomarkers in maternal blood during the first trimester. Supplementary

  8. GeneSigDB: a manually curated database and resource for analysis of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schröder, Markus S.; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Shaita C.; Martinelli, Enzo N.; Kelly, Caroline; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Kapushesky, Misha; St Pierre, Anne-Alyssa; Flahive, William; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Papenhausen, Gerald; O'Connor, Niall; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2012-01-01

    GeneSigDB (http://www.genesigdb.org or http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb/) is a database of gene signatures that have been extracted and manually curated from the published literature. It provides a standardized resource of published prognostic, diagnostic and other gene signatures of cancer and related disease to the community so they can compare the predictive power of gene signatures or use these in gene set enrichment analysis. Since GeneSigDB release 1.0, we have expanded from 575 to 3515 gene signatures, which were collected and transcribed from 1604 published articles largely focused on gene expression in cancer, stem cells, immune cells, development and lung disease. We have made substantial upgrades to the GeneSigDB website to improve accessibility and usability, including adding a tag cloud browse function, facetted navigation and a ‘basket’ feature to store genes or gene signatures of interest. Users can analyze GeneSigDB gene signatures, or upload their own gene list, to identify gene signatures with significant gene overlap and results can be viewed on a dynamic editable heatmap that can be downloaded as a publication quality image. All data in GeneSigDB can be downloaded in numerous formats including .gmt file format for gene set enrichment analysis or as a R/Bioconductor data file. GeneSigDB is available from http://www.genesigdb.org. PMID:22110038

  9. Random forests-based differential analysis of gene sets for gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Huey-Miin; Zhou, Da-Wei; Tsai, Chen-An

    2013-04-10

    In DNA microarray studies, gene-set analysis (GSA) has become the focus of gene expression data analysis. GSA utilizes the gene expression profiles of functionally related gene sets in Gene Ontology (GO) categories or priori-defined biological classes to assess the significance of gene sets associated with clinical outcomes or phenotypes. Many statistical approaches have been proposed to determine whether such functionally related gene sets express differentially (enrichment and/or deletion) in variations of phenotypes. However, little attention has been given to the discriminatory power of gene sets and classification of patients. In this study, we propose a method of gene set analysis, in which gene sets are used to develop classifications of patients based on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The corresponding empirical p-value of an observed out-of-bag (OOB) error rate of the classifier is introduced to identify differentially expressed gene sets using an adequate resampling method. In addition, we discuss the impacts and correlations of genes within each gene set based on the measures of variable importance in the RF algorithm. Significant classifications are reported and visualized together with the underlying gene sets and their contribution to the phenotypes of interest. Numerical studies using both synthesized data and a series of publicly available gene expression data sets are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Compared with other hypothesis testing approaches, our proposed methods are reliable and successful in identifying enriched gene sets and in discovering the contributions of genes within a gene set. The classification results of identified gene sets can provide an valuable alternative to gene set testing to reveal the unknown, biologically relevant classes of samples or patients. In summary, our proposed method allows one to simultaneously assess the discriminatory ability of gene sets and the importance of genes for

  10. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  11. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common tool for quantifying mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a reference gene is mandatory. Aphis glycines is a significant soybean pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable reference genes. We evalu...

  12. Global Expression Profiling in Atopic Eczema Reveals Reciprocal Expression of Inflammatory and Lipid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sääf, Annika M.; Tengvall-Linder, Maria; Chang, Howard Y.; Adler, Adam S.; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Scheynius, Annika; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Bradley, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Atopic eczema (AE) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder. In order to dissect the genetic background several linkage and genetic association studies have been performed. Yet very little is known about specific genes involved in this complex skin disease, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Methodology/Findings We used human DNA microarrays to identify a molecular picture of the programmed responses of the human genome to AE. The transcriptional program was analyzed in skin biopsy samples from lesional and patch-tested skin from AE patients sensitized to Malassezia sympodialis (M. sympodialis), and corresponding biopsies from healthy individuals. The most notable feature of the global gene-expression pattern observed in AE skin was a reciprocal expression of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes. The overall transcriptional response in M. sympodialis patch-tested AE skin was similar to the gene-expression signature identified in lesional AE skin. In the constellation of genes differentially expressed in AE skin compared to healthy control skin, we have identified several potential susceptibility genes that may play a critical role in the pathological condition of AE. Many of these genes, including genes with a role in immune responses, lipid homeostasis, and epidermal differentiation, are localized on chromosomal regions previously linked to AE. Conclusions/Significance Through genome-wide expression profiling, we were able to discover a distinct reciprocal expression pattern of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes in skin from AE patients. We found a significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in AE with cytobands associated to the disease, and furthermore new chromosomal regions were found that could potentially guide future region-specific linkage mapping in AE. The full data set is available at http://microarray-pubs.stanford.edu/eczema. PMID

  13. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Prokopyeva, Elena A.

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in amore » mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation. - Highlights: • CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of cMyc. • CAR activation increased the expression of glycolytic genes in mouse livers. • CAR activation increased the level of Pkm2 in mouse livers.« less

  14. Vaginal Gene Expression During Treatment With Aromatase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Nilsson, Kerstin; Åkerud, Helena; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment suppresses estrogen biosynthesis and causes genitourinary symptoms of menopause such as vaginal symptoms, ultimately affecting the quality of life for many postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine vaginal gene expression in women during treatment with AIs compared with estrogen-treated women. The secondary aim was to study the presence and localization of vaginal aromatase. Vaginal biopsies were collected from postmenopausal women treated with AIs and from age-matched control women treated with vaginal estrogen therapy. Differential gene expression was studied with the Affymetrix Gene Chip Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix Inc, Santa Clara, CA) system, Ingenuity pathway analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The expression of 279 genes differed between the 2 groups; AI-treated women had low expression of genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion. Some differentially expressed genes were found to interact indirectly with the estrogen receptor alpha. In addition, aromatase protein staining was evident in the basal and the intermediate vaginal epithelium layers, and also in stromal cells with a slightly stronger staining intensity found in AI-treated women. In this study, we demonstrated that genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion are differentially expressed in AI-treated women. The expression of vaginal aromatase suggests that this could be the result of local and systemic inhibition of aromatase. Our results emphasize the role of estrogen for vaginal cell differentiation and proliferation and future drug candidates should be aimed at improving cell differentiation and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression

  16. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2007-09-12

    Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFN gamma and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling Predicts the Development of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saintigny, Pierre; Zhang, Li; Fan, You-Hong; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Feng, Lei; Lee, J. Jack; Kim, Edward S.; Hong, Waun Ki; Mao, Li

    2011-01-01

    Patients with oral preneoplastic lesion (OPL) have high risk of developing oral cancer. Although certain risk factors such as smoking status and histology are known, our ability to predict oral cancer risk remains poor. The study objective was to determine the value of gene expression profiling in predicting oral cancer development. Gene expression profile was measured in 86 of 162 OPL patients who were enrolled in a clinical chemoprevention trial that used the incidence of oral cancer development as a prespecified endpoint. The median follow-up time was 6.08 years and 35 of the 86 patients developed oral cancer over the course. Gene expression profiles were associated with oral cancer-free survival and used to develope multivariate predictive models for oral cancer prediction. We developed a 29-transcript predictive model which showed marked improvement in terms of prediction accuracy (with 8% predicting error rate) over the models using previously known clinico-pathological risk factors. Based on the gene expression profile data, we also identified 2182 transcripts significantly associated with oral cancer risk associated genes (P-value<0.01, single variate Cox proportional hazards model). Functional pathway analysis revealed proteasome machinery, MYC, and ribosomes components as the top gene sets associated with oral cancer risk. In multiple independent datasets, the expression profiles of the genes can differentiate head and neck cancer from normal mucosa. Our results show that gene expression profiles may improve the prediction of oral cancer risk in OPL patients and the significant genes identified may serve as potential targets for oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:21292635

  18. Hypergravity-induced changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.; Hoson, T.

    2003-05-01

    Under hypergravity conditions, the cell wall of stem organs becomes mechanically rigid and elongation growth is suppressed, which can be recognized as the mechanism for plants to resist gravitational force. The changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method, for identifying genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression. Sixty-two cDNA clones were expressed differentially between the control and 300 g conditions: the expression levels of 39 clones increased, whereas those of 23 clones decreased under hypergravity conditions. Sequence analysis and database searching revealed that 12 clones, 9 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated, have homology to known proteins. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. Finally, six genes were confirmed to be up-regulated by hypergravity. One of such genes encoded 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor ofterpenoids such as membrane sterols and several types of hormones. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of genes encoding CCR1 and ERD15, which were shown to take part in the signaling pathway of environmental stimuli such as temperature and water, and those of the α-tubulin gene. These genes may be involved in a series of cellular events leading to growth suppression of stem organs under hypergravity conditions.

  19. Analysis of lamprey clustered Fox genes: insight into Fox gene evolution and expression in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karl R; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2011-12-01

    In the human genome, members of the FoxC, FoxF, FoxL1, and FoxQ1 gene families are found in two paralagous clusters. One cluster contains the genes FOXQ1, FOXF2, FOXC1 and the second consists of FOXF1, FOXC2, and FOXL1. In jawed vertebrates these genes are known to be expressed in different pharyngeal tissues and all, except FoxQ1, are involved in patterning the early embryonic mesoderm. We have previously traced the evolution of this cluster in the bony vertebrates, and the gene content is identical in the dogfish, a member of the most basally branching lineage of the jawed vertebrates. Here we extend these analyses to jawless vertebrates. Using genomic searches and molecular approaches we have identified homologues of these genes from lampreys. We identify two FoxC genes, two FoxF genes, two FoxQ1 genes and single FoxL1 gene. We examine the embryonic expression of one predominantly mesodermally expressed gene family, FoxC, and the endodermally expressed member of the cluster, FoxQ1. We identified FoxQ1 transcripts in the pharyngeal endoderm, while the two FoxC genes are differentially expressed in the pharyngeal mesenchyme and ectoderm. Furthermore we identify conserved expression of lamprey FoxC genes in the paraxial and intermediate mesoderms. We interpret our results through a chordate-wide comparison of expression patterns and discuss gene content in the context of theories on the evolution of the vertebrate genome. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geometry of the Gene Expression Space of Individual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korem, Yael; Szekely, Pablo; Hart, Yuval; Sheftel, Hila; Hausser, Jean; Mayo, Avi; Rothenberg, Michael E.; Kalisky, Tomer; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    There is a revolution in the ability to analyze gene expression of single cells in a tissue. To understand this data we must comprehend how cells are distributed in a high-dimensional gene expression space. One open question is whether cell types form discrete clusters or whether gene expression forms a continuum of states. If such a continuum exists, what is its geometry? Recent theory on evolutionary trade-offs suggests that cells that need to perform multiple tasks are arranged in a polygon or polyhedron (line, triangle, tetrahedron and so on, generally called polytopes) in gene expression space, whose vertices are the expression profiles optimal for each task. Here, we analyze single-cell data from human and mouse tissues profiled using a variety of single-cell technologies. We fit the data to shapes with different numbers of vertices, compute their statistical significance, and infer their tasks. We find cases in which single cells fill out a continuum of expression states within a polyhedron. This occurs in intestinal progenitor cells, which fill out a tetrahedron in gene expression space. The four vertices of this tetrahedron are each enriched with genes for a specific task related to stemness and early differentiation. A polyhedral continuum of states is also found in spleen dendritic cells, known to perform multiple immune tasks: cells fill out a tetrahedron whose vertices correspond to key tasks related to maturation, pathogen sensing and communication with lymphocytes. A mixture of continuum-like distributions and discrete clusters is found in other cell types, including bone marrow and differentiated intestinal crypt cells. This approach can be used to understand the geometry and biological tasks of a wide range of single-cell datasets. The present results suggest that the concept of cell type may be expanded. In addition to discreet clusters in gene-expression space, we suggest a new possibility: a continuum of states within a polyhedron, in which the

  1. Mucin gene expression in human male urogenital tract epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cindy Leigh; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Tisdale, Ann; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mucins are large, hydrophilic glycoproteins that protect wet-surfaced epithelia from pathogen invasion as well as provide lubrication. At least 17 mucin genes have been cloned to date. This study sought to determine the mucin gene expression profile of the human male urogenital tract epithelia, to determine if mucins are present in seminal fluid, and to assess the effect of androgens on mucin expression. METHODS AND RESULTS Testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, bladder, urethra and foreskin were assessed for mucin expression by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Epithelia of the vas deferens, prostate and urethra expressed the greatest number of mucins, each expressing 5–8 mucins. Messenger RNA of MUC1 and MUC20, both membrane-associated mucins, were detected in most tissues analyzed. Conversely, MUC6 was predominantly detected in seminal vesicle. MUC1, MUC5B and MUC6 were detected in seminal fluid samples by immunoblot analysis. Androgens had no effect on mucin expression by cultured human prostatic epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Each region of urogenital tract epithelium expressed a unique mucin gene repertoire. Secretory mucins are present in seminal fluid, and androgens do not appear to regulate mucin gene expression. PMID:16997931

  2. PLEXdb: Gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facili...

  3. Sodium butyrate improves the cloned yak embryo viability and corrects gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xian-rong; Lan, Dao-liang; Li, Jian; Wang, Yong; Zhong, Jin-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT), a powerful tool in basic scientific research, has been used widely to increase and preserve the population of endangered species. Yak (Bos grunniens) is one of these species. Development to term of interspecies cloned yak embryos has not been achieved, possibly due to abnormal epigenetic reprogramming. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of intraspecies cloned embryos with (NaBu) significantly improves nuclear-cytoplasmic reprogramming and viability in vitro. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of optimal NaBu concentration and exposure time on preimplantation development of yak iSCNT embryos and on the expression patterns of developmentally important genes. The results showed that 8-cell rate, blastocyst formation rate and total cell number increased significantly compared with their untreated counterparts when yak iSCNT embryos were treated with 5 nM NaBu for 12 h after activation, but that the 2-cell stage embryo rate was not significantly different. The treatment of NaBu also increased significantly the expression levels of Oct-4 and decreased the expression levels of HDAC-2, Dnmt-1 and IGF-1; the expression patterns of these genes were more similar to that of their bovine-yak in vitro fertilization (BY-IVF) counterparts. The results described above indicated that NaBu treatment improved developmental competence in vitro and 'corrected' the gene expression patterns of yak iSCNT embryos.

  4. Finding Groups in Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The vast potential of the genomic insight offered by microarray technologies has led to their widespread use since they were introduced a decade ago. Application areas include gene function discovery, disease diagnosis, and inferring regulatory networks. Microarray experiments enable large-scale, high-throughput investigations of gene activity and have thus provided the data analyst with a distinctive, high-dimensional field of study. Many questions in this field relate to finding subgroups of data profiles which are very similar. A popular type of exploratory tool for finding subgroups is cluster analysis, and many different flavors of algorithms have been used and indeed tailored for microarray data. Cluster analysis, however, implies a partitioning of the entire data set, and this does not always match the objective. Sometimes pattern discovery or bump hunting tools are more appropriate. This paper reviews these various tools for finding interesting subgroups. PMID:16046827

  5. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  6. Redox regulation, gene expression and longevity.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoko; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2010-07-01

    Lifespan can be lengthened by genetic and environmental modifications. Study of these might provide valuable insights into the mechanism of aging. Low doses of radiation and short-term exposure to heat and high concentrations of oxygen prolong the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These might be caused by adaptive responses to harmful environmental conditions. Single-gene mutations have been found to extend lifespan in C. elegans, Drosophila and mice. So far, the best-characterized system is the C. elegans mutant in the daf-2, insulin/IGF-I receptor gene that is the component of the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway. The mutant animals live twice as long as the wild type. The insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway regulates the activity of DAF-16, a FOXO transcription factor. However, the unified explanation for the function of DAF-16 transcription targets in the lifespan extension is not yet fully established. As both of the Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) isoforms (sod-2 and sod-3) are found to be targets of DAF-16, we attempted to assess their functions in regulating lifespan and oxidative stress responsivity. We show that the double deletions of sod-2 and sod-3 genes induced oxidative-stress sensitivity but do not shorten lifespan in the daf-2 mutant background, indicating that oxidative stress is not necessarily a limiting factor for longevity. Furthermore, the deletion in the sod-3 gene lengthens lifespan in the daf-2 mutant. We conclude that the MnSOD systems in C. elegans fine-tune the insulin/IGF-I-signaling based regulation of longevity by acting not as anti-oxidants but as physiological-redox-signaling modulators.

  7. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic cell lines reveals genes overexpressed in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, Ingo; Dittert, Dag; Peiper, Matthias; Fusco, Alberto; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Staub, Eike; Lohr, Matthias; Jesnowski, Ralf; Baretton, Gustavo; Ockert, Detlef; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Using DNA gene expression analysis based on a custom made Affymetrix cancer array, we investigated the expression pattern of both primary and established pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. We analyzed the gene expression of 5 established pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2 and HPAF II) and 5 primary isolates, 1 of them derived from benign pancreatic duct cells. Out of 1,540 genes which were expressed in at least 3 experiments, we found 122 genes upregulated and 18 downregulated in tumor cell lines compared to benign cells with a fold change >3. Several of the upregulated genes (like Prefoldin 5, ADAM9 and E-cadherin) have been associated with pancreatic cancer before. The other differentially regulated genes, however, play a so far unknown role in the course of human pancreatic carcinoma. By means of immunohistochemistry we could show that thymosin beta-10 (TMSB10), upregulated in tumor cell lines, is expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma, but not in non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, suggesting a role for TMSB10 in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Using gene expression profiling of pancreatic cell lines we were able to identify genes differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which might contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in heart failure for left and right ventricles.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Rao, Man; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Jianye; Song, Jiangping

    2017-07-15

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a feasible tool for determining gene expression profiles, but the accuracy and reliability of the results depends on the stable expression of selected housekeeping genes in different samples. By far, researches on stable housekeeping genes in human heart failure samples are rare. Moreover the effect of heart failure on the expression of housekeeping genes in right and left ventricles is yet to be studied. Therefore we aim to provide stable housekeeping genes for both ventricles in heart failure and normal heart samples. In this study, we selected seven commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. By using the qRT-PCR, the expression levels of ACTB, RAB7A, GAPDH, REEP5, RPL5, PSMB4 and VCP in eight heart failure and four normal heart samples were assessed. The stability of candidate housekeeping genes was evaluated by geNorm and Normfinder softwares. GAPDH showed the least variation in all heart samples. Results also indicated the difference of gene expression existed in heart failure left and right ventricles. GAPDH had the highest expression stability in both heart failure and normal heart samples. We also propose using different sets of housekeeping genes for left and right ventricles respectively. The combination of RPL5, GAPDH and PSMB4 is suitable for the right ventricle and the combination of GAPDH, REEP5 and RAB7A is suitable for the left ventricle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Puttini, Stefania; Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Mermod, Nicolas; Renaud, Susanne; Steck, Andreas J; Kuntzer, Thierry

    2014-05-15

    Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease with no known biomarkers for diagnosing the disease or assessing its prognosis. We performed transcriptional profiling microarray analysis on skin punch biopsies from 20 CIDP patients and 17 healthy controls to identify disease-associated gene expression changes. We demonstrate changes in expression of genes involved in immune and chemokine regulation, growth and repair. We also found a combination of two upregulated genes that can be proposed as a novel biomarker of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  11. Reversal of Phenotypic Abnormalities by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Correction in Huntington Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohong; Tay, Yilin; Sim, Bernice; Yoon, Su-In; Huang, Yihui; Ooi, Jolene; Utami, Kagistia Hana; Ziaei, Amin; Ng, Bryan; Radulescu, Carola; Low, Donovan; Ng, Alvin Yu Jin; Loh, Marie; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ginhoux, Florent; Augustine, George J; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2017-03-14

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in HTT. Here we report correction of HD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using a CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac transposon-based approach. We show that both HD and corrected isogenic hiPSCs can be differentiated into excitable, synaptically active forebrain neurons. We further demonstrate that phenotypic abnormalities in HD hiPSC-derived neural cells, including impaired neural rosette formation, increased susceptibility to growth factor withdrawal, and deficits in mitochondrial respiration, are rescued in isogenic controls. Importantly, using genome-wide expression analysis, we show that a number of apparent gene expression differences detected between HD and non-related healthy control lines are absent between HD and corrected lines, suggesting that these differences are likely related to genetic background rather than HD-specific effects. Our study demonstrates correction of HD hiPSCs and associated phenotypic abnormalities, and the importance of isogenic controls for disease modeling using hiPSCs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel gene sets improve set-level classification of prokaryotic gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Holec, Matěj; Kuželka, Ondřej; Železný, Filip

    2015-10-28

    Set-level classification of gene expression data has received significant attention recently. In this setting, high-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to genes are converted into lower-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to biologically interpretable gene sets. The dimensionality reduction brings the promise of a decreased risk of overfitting, potentially resulting in improved accuracy of the learned classifiers. However, recent empirical research has not confirmed this expectation. Here we hypothesize that the reported unfavorable classification results in the set-level framework were due to the adoption of unsuitable gene sets defined typically on the basis of the Gene ontology and the KEGG database of metabolic networks. We explore an alternative approach to defining gene sets, based on regulatory interactions, which we expect to collect genes with more correlated expression. We hypothesize that such more correlated gene sets will enable to learn more accurate classifiers. We define two families of gene sets using information on regulatory interactions, and evaluate them on phenotype-classification tasks using public prokaryotic gene expression data sets. From each of the two gene-set families, we first select the best-performing subtype. The two selected subtypes are then evaluated on independent (testing) data sets against state-of-the-art gene sets and against the conventional gene-level approach. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. Novel gene sets defined on the basis of regulatory interactions improve set-level classification of gene expression data. The experimental scripts and other material needed to reproduce the experiments are available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/novelgenesets.tar.gz.

  13. Expression profile of doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 during gonadal sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Horiguchi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    Sex change in fish involves a dramatic transformation of gonadal tissue and a switch in gametogenesis. Doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 (DMRT1), encoded by the DMRT1 gene, is involved in testicular differentiation in a wide range of vertebrates as well as in sexual differentiation and gonadal sex change. In the present study, we investigated changes in the expression of dmrt1 during artificial gonadal sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization, using an anti-wrasse-Dmrt1 antibody that we prepared. We found that dmrt1 expression was predominantly observed in the testes, and that Dmrt1 was expressed in Sertoli cells of testes and a few granulosa cells surrounding vitellogenic oocytes of the ovary. Additionally, the upregulation of dmrt1 expression was consistent with an increase in spermatogenic cyst quantity rather than proliferation of presumptive spermatogonia, suggesting that dmrt1 is involved in the progression of spermatogenesis during sex change. Changes in the localization of Dmrt1 during gonadal sex change further implied that Sertoli cells originate from somatic cells adjacent to gonial germ cells during testicular formation in the three-spot wrasse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Copper induces expression and methylation changes of early development genes in Crassostrea gigas embryos.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Lebreton, Morgane; Rouxel, Julien; Akcha, Farida; Rivière, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development. For that purpose, oyster embryos were exposed to 4 nominal copper concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20 μg L -1 Cu 2+ ) during early development assays. Embryotoxicity was monitored through the oyster embryo-larval bioassay at the D-larva stage 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and genotoxicity at gastrulation 7 hpf. In parallel, the relative expression of 15 genes encoding putative homeotic, biomineralization and DNA methylation proteins was measured at three developmental stages (3 hpf morula stage, 7 hpf gastrula stage, 24 hpf D-larvae stage) using RT-qPCR. Global DNA content in methylcytosine and hydroxymethylcytosine were measured by HPLC and gene-specific DNA methylation levels were monitored using MeDIP-qPCR. A significant increase in larval abnormalities was observed from copper concentrations of 10 μg L -1 , while significant genotoxic effects were detected at 1 μg L -1 and above. All the selected genes presented a stage-dependent expression pattern, which was impaired for some homeobox and DNA methylation genes (Notochord, HOXA1, HOX2, Lox5, DNMT3b and CXXC-1) after copper exposure. While global DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) at gastrula stage didn't show significant changes between experimental conditions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, its degradation product, decreased upon copper treatment. The DNA methylation of exons and the transcript levels were correlated in control samples for HOXA1 but such

  15. Gene expression profiling of long-lived dwarf mice: longevity-associated genes and relationships with diet, gender and aging

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R

    2007-01-01

    Background Long-lived strains of dwarf mice carry mutations that suppress growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling. The downstream effects of these endocrine abnormalities, however, are not well understood and it is unclear how these processes interact with aging mechanisms. This study presents a comparative analysis of microarray experiments that have measured hepatic gene expression levels in long-lived strains carrying one of four mutations (Prop1df/df, Pit1dw/dw, Ghrhrlit/lit, GHR-KO) and describes how the effects of these mutations relate to one another at the transcriptional level. Points of overlap with the effects of calorie restriction (CR), CR mimetic compounds, low fat diets, gender dimorphism and aging were also examined. Results All dwarf mutations had larger and more consistent effects on IGF-I expression than dietary treatments. In comparison to dwarf mutations, however, the transcriptional effects of CR (and some CR mimetics) overlapped more strongly with those of aging. Surprisingly, the Ghrhrlit/lit mutation had much larger effects on gene expression than the GHR-KO mutation, even though both mutations affect the same endocrine pathway. Several genes potentially regulated or co-regulated with the IGF-I transcript in liver tissue were identified, including a DNA repair gene (Snm1) that is upregulated in proportion to IGF-I inhibition. A total of 13 genes exhibiting parallel differential expression patterns among all four strains of long-lived dwarf mice were identified, in addition to 30 genes with matching differential expression patterns in multiple long-lived dwarf strains and under CR. Conclusion Comparative analysis of microarray datasets can identify patterns and consistencies not discernable from any one dataset individually. This study implements new analytical approaches to provide a detailed comparison among the effects of life-extending mutations, dietary treatments, gender and aging. This comparison

  16. Moraxella osloensis gene expression in the slug host Deroceras reticulatum.

    PubMed

    An, Ruisheng; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2008-01-28

    The bacterium Moraxella osloensis is a mutualistic symbiont of the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. In nature, P. hermaphrodita vectors M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug host Deroceras reticulatum in which the bacteria multiply and kill the slug. As M. osloensis is the main killing agent, genes expressed by M. osloensis in the slug are likely to play important roles in virulence. Studies on pathogenic interactions between bacteria and lower order hosts are few, but such studies have the potential to shed light on the evolution of bacterial virulence. Therefore, we investigated such an interaction by determining gene expression of M. osloensis in its slug host D. reticulatum by selectively capturing transcribed sequences. Thirteen M. osloensis genes were identified to be up-regulated post infection in D. reticulatum. Compared to the in vitro expressed genes in the stationary phase, we found that genes of ubiquinone synthetase (ubiS) and acyl-coA synthetase (acs) were up-regulated in both D. reticulatum and stationary phase in vitro cultures, but the remaining 11 genes were exclusively expressed in D. reticulatum and are hence infection specific. Mutational analysis on genes of protein-disulfide isomerase (dsbC) and ubiS showed that the virulence of both mutants to slugs was markedly reduced and could be complemented. Further, compared to the growth rate of wild-type M. osloensis, the dsbC and ubiS mutants showed normal and reduced growth rate in vitro, respectively. We conclude that 11 out of the 13 up-regulated M. osloensis genes are infection specific. Distribution of these identified genes in various bacterial pathogens indicates that the virulence genes are conserved among different pathogen-host interactions. Mutagenesis, growth rate and virulence bioassays further confirmed that ubiS and dsbC genes play important roles in M. osloensis survival and virulence, respectively in D. reticulatum.

  17. Moraxella osloensis Gene Expression in the Slug Host Deroceras reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruisheng; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2008-01-01

    Background The bacterium Moraxella osloensis is a mutualistic symbiont of the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. In nature, P. hermaphrodita vectors M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug host Deroceras reticulatum in which the bacteria multiply and kill the slug. As M. osloensis is the main killing agent, genes expressed by M. osloensis in the slug are likely to play important roles in virulence. Studies on pathogenic interactions between bacteria and lower order hosts are few, but such studies have the potential to shed light on the evolution of bacterial virulence. Therefore, we investigated such an interaction by determining gene expression of M. osloensis in its slug host D. reticulatum by selectively capturing transcribed sequences. Results Thirteen M. osloensis genes were identified to be up-regulated post infection in D. reticulatum. Compared to the in vitro expressed genes in the stationary phase, we found that genes of ubiquinone synthetase (ubiS) and acyl-coA synthetase (acs) were up-regulated in both D. reticulatum and stationary phase in vitro cultures, but the remaining 11 genes were exclusively expressed in D. reticulatum and are hence infection specific. Mutational analysis on genes of protein-disulfide isomerase (dsbC) and ubiS showed that the virulence of both mutants to slugs was markedly reduced and could be complemented. Further, compared to the growth rate of wild-type M. osloensis, the dsbC and ubiS mutants showed normal and reduced growth rate in vitro, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that 11 out of the 13 up-regulated M. osloensis genes are infection specific. Distribution of these identified genes in various bacterial pathogens indicates that the virulence genes are conserved among different pathogen-host interactions. Mutagenesis, growth rate and virulence bioassays further confirmed that ubiS and dsbC genes play important roles in M. osloensis survival and virulence, respectively in D. reticulatum. PMID

  18. Microarray expression profiling identifies genes with altered expression in HDL-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Dudoit, Sandrine; Gong, Elaine L.

    2000-05-05

    Based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in HDL metabolism may affect the expression of other genes we screened an array of over 5000 mouse expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for altered gene expression in the livers of two lines of mice with dramatic decreases in HDL plasma concentrations. Labeled cDNA from livers of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) knockout mice, Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) transgenic mice and control mice were co-hybridized to microarrays. Two-sample t-statistics were used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout or transgenic mice compared withmore » the control mice. In the SR-BI group we found 9 array elements representing at least 5 genes to be significantly altered on the basis of an adjusted p value of less than 0.05. In the apo AI knockout group 8 array elements representing 4 genes were altered compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Several of the genes identified in the SR-BI transgenic suggest altered sterol metabolism and oxidative processes. These studies illustrate the use of multiple-testing methods for the identification of genes with altered expression in replicated microarray experiments of apo AI knockout and SR-BI transgenic mice.« less

  19. Gene expression characterizes different nutritional strategies among three mixotrophic protists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Campbell, Victoria; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2016-07-01

    Mixotrophic protists, i.e. protists that can carry out both phototrophy and heterotrophy, are a group of organisms with a wide range of nutritional strategies. The ecological and biogeochemical importance of these species has recently been recognized. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression of three mixotrophic protists, Prymnesium parvum, Dinobyron sp. and Ochromonas sp. under light and dark conditions in the presence of prey using RNA-Seq. Gene expression of the obligately phototrophic P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. changed significantly between light and dark treatments, while that of primarily heterotrophic Ochromonas sp. was largely unchanged. Gene expression of P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. shared many similarities, especially in the expression patterns of genes related to reproduction. However, key genes involved in central carbon metabolism and phagotrophy had different expression patterns between these two species, suggesting differences in prey consumption and heterotrophic nutrition in the dark. Transcriptomic data also offered clues to other physiological traits of these organisms such as preference of nitrogen sources and photo-oxidative stress. These results provide potential target genes for further exploration of the mechanisms of mixotrophic physiology and demonstrate the potential usefulness of molecular approaches in characterizing the nutritional modes of mixotrophic protists. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Origins of extrinsic variability in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volfson, Dmitri; Marciniak, Jennifer; Blake, William J.; Ostroff, Natalie; Tsimring, Lev S.; Hasty, Jeff

    2006-02-01

    Variable gene expression within a clonal population of cells has been implicated in a number of important processes including mutation and evolution, determination of cell fates and the development of genetic disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant component of expression variability arises from extrinsic factors thought to influence multiple genes simultaneously, yet the biological origins of this extrinsic variability have received little attention. Here we combine computational modelling with fluorescence data generated from multiple promoter-gene inserts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify two major sources of extrinsic variability. One unavoidable source arising from the coupling of gene expression with population dynamics leads to a ubiquitous lower limit for expression variability. A second source, which is modelled as originating from a common upstream transcription factor, exemplifies how regulatory networks can convert noise in upstream regulator expression into extrinsic noise at the output of a target gene. Our results highlight the importance of the interplay of gene regulatory networks with population heterogeneity for understanding the origins of cellular diversity.

  1. Origins of extrinsic variability in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volfson, Dmitri; Marciniak, Jennifer; Blake, William J.; Ostroff, Natalie; Tsimring, Lev S.; Hasty, Jeff

    2006-03-01

    Variable gene expression within a clonal population of cells has been implicated in a number of important processes including mutation and evolution, determination of cell fates and the development of genetic disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant component of expression variability arises from extrinsic factors thought to influence multiple genes in concert, yet the biological origins of this extrinsic variability have received little attention. Here we combine computational modeling with fluorescence data generated from multiple promoter-gene inserts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify two major sources of extrinsic variability. One unavoidable source arising from the coupling of gene expression with population dynamics leads to a ubiquitous noise floor in expression variability. A second source which is modeled as originating from a common upstream transcription factor exemplifies how regulatory networks can convert noise in upstream regulator expression into extrinsic noise at the output of a target gene. Our results highlight the importance of the interplay of gene regulatory networks with population heterogeneity for understanding the origins of cellular diversity.

  2. Novel expression of the stanniocalcin gene in fish.

    PubMed

    McCudden, C R; Kogon, M R; DiMattia, G E; Wagner, G F

    2001-10-01

    It is currently accepted that the fish stanniocalcin (STC) gene is expressed exclusively in the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), unique endocrine glands on the kidneys of bony fishes. In this study, we have re-examined the pattern of fish STC gene expression in the light of the recent evidence for widespread expression of the gene in mammals. Surprisingly, we found by Northern blotting that the fish gene was also expressed in the kidneys and gonads, in addition to the CS glands. Moreover, Southern blotting of RT-PCR products revealed STC mRNA transcripts in all tissues assayed, including brain, heart, gill, muscle and intestine. In situ hybridization studies using digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes localized STC mRNA to chondrocytes, and both mature and developing nephritic tubules. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that the STC protein was widespread in cells of the gill, kidney, brain, eye, pseudobranch and skin. We also characterized the salmon STC gene, establishing that it was comprised of five exons as opposed to four in mammals. A single transcription start site was identified by primer extension 99 bp upstream of the start codon. This is the first evidence of STC gene expression in fish tissues other than the CS glands and suggests that, as in mammals, fish STC operates via both local and endocrine pathways.

  3. Comparative modular analysis of gene expression in vertebrate organs.

    PubMed

    Piasecka, Barbara; Kutalik, Zoltán; Roux, Julien; Bergmann, Sven; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2012-03-29

    The degree of conservation of gene expression between homologous organs largely remains an open question. Several recent studies reported some evidence in favor of such conservation. Most studies compute organs' similarity across all orthologous genes, whereas the expression level of many genes are not informative about organ specificity. Here, we use a modularization algorithm to overcome this limitation through the identification of inter-species co-modules of organs and genes. We identify such co-modules using mouse and human microarray expression data. They are functionally coherent both in terms of genes and of organs from both organisms. We show that a large proportion of genes belonging to the same co-module are orthologous between mouse and human. Moreover, their zebrafish orthologs also tend to be expressed in the corresponding homologous organs. Notable exceptions to the general pattern of conservation are the testis and the olfactory bulb. Interestingly, some co-modules consist of single organs, while others combine several functionally related organs. For instance, amygdala, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and spinal cord form a clearly discernible unit of expression, both in mouse and human. Our study provides a new framework for comparative analysis which will be applicable also to other sets of large-scale phenotypic data collected across different species.

  4. Expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y X; Chen, H R; Wu, A Z; Cai, R; Pan, J S

    2015-05-12

    Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes from Rosa chinensis (Asn type) and Calibrachoa hybrida (Asp type), driven by a CaMV 35S promoter, were integrated into the petunia (Petunia hybrida) cultivar 9702. Exogenous DFR gene expression characteristics were similar to flower-color changes, and effects on anthocyanin concentration were observed in both types of DFR gene transformants. Expression analysis showed that exogenous DFR genes were expressed in all of the tissues, but the expression levels were significantly different. However, both of them exhibited a high expression level in petals that were starting to open. The introgression of DFR genes may significantly change DFR enzyme activity. Anthocyanin ultra-performance liquid chromatography results showed that anthocyanin concentrations changed according to DFR enzyme activity. Therefore, the change in flower color was probably the result of a DFR enzyme change. Pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside was found in two different transgenic petunias, indicating that both CaDFR and RoDFR could catalyze dihydrokaempferol. Our results also suggest that transgenic petunias with DFR gene of Asp type could biosynthesize pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside.

  5. Low-rank regularization for learning gene expression programs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guibo; Tang, Mengfan; Cai, Jian-Feng; Nie, Qing; Xie, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Learning gene expression programs directly from a set of observations is challenging due to the complexity of gene regulation, high noise of experimental measurements, and insufficient number of experimental measurements. Imposing additional constraints with strong and biologically motivated regularizations is critical in developing reliable and effective algorithms for inferring gene expression programs. Here we propose a new form of regulation that constrains the number of independent connectivity patterns between regulators and targets, motivated by the modular design of gene regulatory programs and the belief that the total number of independent regulatory modules should be small. We formulate a multi-target linear regression framework to incorporate this type of regulation, in which the number of independent connectivity patterns is expressed as the rank of the connectivity matrix between regulators and targets. We then generalize the linear framework to nonlinear cases, and prove that the generalized low-rank regularization model is still convex. Efficient algorithms are derived to solve both the linear and nonlinear low-rank regularized problems. Finally, we test the algorithms on three gene expression datasets, and show that the low-rank regularization improves the accuracy of gene expression prediction in these three datasets.

  6. [Expression of acylamidase gene in Rhodococcus erythropolis strains].

    PubMed

    Lavrov, K V; Novikov, A D; Riabchenko, L E; Ianenko, A S

    2014-09-01

    The expression of a new acylamidase gene from R. erythropolis 37 was studied in Rhodococcus erythropolis strains. This acylamidase, as a result of its unique substrate specificity, can hydrolyse N-substituted amides (4'-nitroacetanilide, N-isopropylacrylamide, N'N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide). A new expression system based on the use of the promoter region of nitrilhydratase genes from R. rhodochrous M8 was created to achieve constitutive synthesis of acylamidase in R. erythropolis cells. A fourfold improvement in the acylamidase activity of recombinant R. erythropolis cells as compared with the parent wild-type strain was obtained through the use of the new expression system.

  7. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-02-25

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substant