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Sample records for abnormally high activity

  1. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  2. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  3. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  4. Chromosome abnormalities in chronic active hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Stefanescu, D. T.; Moanga, M.; Teodorescu, M.; Brucher, J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation on human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomes in chronic active hepatitis was carried out. A higher percentage of chromatid and chromosome lesions was recorded in all patients studied as compared with control groups—normal individuals, healthy subjects who had suffered from acute viral hepatitis, patients with alcoholic liver disease, and patients with mechanical jaundice due to cancer. The possible origin of these abnormalities is discussed. PMID:5076805

  5. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  6. Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tulu, Ketema Tafess; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Wubante, Amarech Asratie

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART naïve patients (P = 0.002). Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87–19.39), opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04–8.19), current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06–4.39), and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001–3.33) were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting. PMID:27493798

  7. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  8. Abnormally high expression of proteasomes in human leukemic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kumatori, A; Tanaka, K; Inamura, N; Sone, S; Ogura, T; Matsumoto, T; Tachikawa, T; Shin, S; Ichihara, A

    1990-01-01

    Proteasomes are eukaryotic ring-shaped or cylindrical particles with multicatalytic protease activities. To clarify the involvement of proteasomes in tumorigenesis of human blood cells, we compared their expression in human hematopoietic malignant tumor cells with that in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed considerably increased concentrations of proteasomes in leukemic cells from the bone marrow of patients with various types of leukemia and the predominant localization of these proteasomes in the nuclei. Moreover, enzyme immunoassay and Northern blot analysis indicated that the concentrations of proteasomes and their mRNA levels were consistently much higher in a variety of malignant human hematopoietic cell lines than in resting peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes from healthy adults. Proteasome expression was also greatly increased in normal blood mononuclear cells during blastogenic transformation induced by phytohemagglutinin; their expression increased in parallel with induction of DNA synthesis and returned to the basal level with progress of the cell cycle. Thus, abnormally high expression of proteasomes may play an important role in transformation and proliferation of blood cells and in specific functions of hematopoietic tumor cells. Images PMID:2205851

  9. Abnormal patterns of displacement activities: a review and reinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-1970 about displacement activities -- those 'out-of-context' actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing really new has appeared thereafter. Although the models address different issues, such as causal factors of displacement, it appears obvious that they do not provide a unified (coherent) approach; they often explain the same phenomena using very different means and turn out to be contradictory on several points. In addition, some problems currently remain unsolved, especially concerning the fact that displacement activities exhibit 'abnormalities' of expression in comparison with the same activities performed in usual context. Each model is here described and criticized in order to evaluate its explanatory power and allow the identification of specific limits. A new, integrative model -- the Anticipatory Dynamics Model (or ADM) -- then attempts to overcome the failures of previous models. The ADM suggests that abnormal patterns of displacement activities result from attentional interference caused by a thwarting experience or conflicting motivations. At least one theoretical prediction of the ADM can be differentiated from that of any other model. PMID:18554824

  10. Memory activation reveals abnormal EEG in preclinical Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, Karin; Jurgens, Caroline K; Vein, Alla A; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noëlle W; Roos, Raymund A C; van Dijk, Gert; Middelkoop, Huub A M

    2007-04-15

    The EEG is potentially useful as a marker of early Huntington's disease (HD). In dementia, the EEG during a memory activation challenge showed abnormalities where the resting EEG did not. We investigated whether memory activation also reveals EEG abnormalities in preclinical HD. Sixteen mutation carriers for HD and 13 nonmutation carriers underwent neurological, neuropsychological, MRI and EEG investigations. The EEG was registered during a rest condition, i.e. eyes closed, and a working memory task. In each condition we determined absolute power in the theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) bands and subsequently calculated relative alpha power. The EEG during eyes closed did not differ between groups. The EEG during memory activation showed less relative alpha power in mutation carriers as compared to nonmutation carriers, even though memory performance was similar [F (1,27) = 10.87; P = 0.003]. Absolute powers also showed less alpha power [F (1,27) = 7.02; P = 0.013] but similar theta power. No correlations were found between absolute and relative alpha power on the one hand and neuropsychological scores, motor scores or number of CAG repeats on the other. In conclusion, memory activation reveals functional brain changes in Huntington's disease before clinical signs become overt. PMID:17266047

  11. Abnormally high digestive enzyme activity and gene expression explain the contemporary evolution of a Diabrotica biotype able to feed on soybeans.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Spencer, Joseph L; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2012-08-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) (WCR) depends on the continuous availability of corn. Broad adoption of annual crop rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) exploited WCR biology to provide excellent WCR control, but this practice dramatically reduced landscape heterogeneity in East-central Illinois and imposed intense selection pressure. This selection resulted in behavioral changes and "rotation-resistant" (RR) WCR adults. Although soybeans are well defended against Coleopteran insects by cysteine protease inhibitors, RR-WCR feed on soybean foliage and remain long enough to deposit eggs that will hatch the following spring and larvae will feed on roots of planted corn. Other than documenting changes in insect mobility and egg laying behavior, 15 years of research have failed to identify any diagnostic differences between wild-type (WT)- and RR-WCR or a mechanism that allows for prolonged RR-WCR feeding and survival in soybean fields. We documented differences in behavior, physiology, digestive protease activity (threefold to fourfold increases), and protease gene expression in the gut of RR-WCR adults. Our data suggest that higher constitutive activity levels of cathepsin L are part of the mechanism that enables populations of WCR to circumvent soybean defenses, and thus, crop rotation. These new insights into the mechanism of WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory transcend the issue of RR-WCR diagnostics and management to link changes in insect gut proteolytic activity and behavior with landscape heterogeneity. The RR-WCR illustrates how agro-ecological factors can affect the evolution of insects in human-altered ecosystems. PMID:22957201

  12. High incidence of MYC and BCL2 abnormalities in mantle cell lymphoma, although only MYC abnormality predicts poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengwen; Zhong, Shizhen; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zengjun; Xiong, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Liu, Enbin; Cui, Rui; Ru, Kun; Zhang, Peihong; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Lv, Rui; Qi, Junyuan; Wang, Jianxiang; Cheng, Tao; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prognostic role of MYC and BCL2 rearrangements in mature B-cell lymphomas have been extensively studied, except the infrequent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we analyzed the MYC and BCL2 abnormalities and other cytogenetic aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 50 MCL patients with bone marrow involvement. Eighteen patients (36.0%) had MYC gains and/or amplifications, and twelve patients (24.0%) had BCL2 gains and/or amplifications. Among the 18 patients with MYC abnormality, four had simultaneous MYC translocations, but no BCL2 translocation was detected among patients with BCL2 abnormality. Only two patients (4.0%) had both MYC and BCL2 abnormalities. The patients with a MYC abnormality had a significantly higher tumor burden, a higher percentage of medium/high risk MIPI group and genomic instability compared to those without this abnormality. However, no significant difference was observed between patients with or without a BCL2 abnormality in terms of clinical and cytogenetic factors. Patients with a MYC abnormality had poorer progress-free survival (PFS) (9.0 vs. 48.0 months, p = .000) and overall survival (OS) (12.0 vs. 94.5 months, p = .000), but the presence of a BCL2 abnormality did not significantly influence either PFS or OS. In multivariate analysis, the MYC abnormality was the independent adverse factor for both PFS and OS, and intensive chemotherapy did not improve the outcome of these patients. Thus, the presence of a MYC but not BCL2 abnormality predicted the poor survival of MCL patients, and a new treatment strategy should be developed for these patients. PMID:26517511

  13. Quantitative observation and study on rhythmic abnormalities of activities in animals prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chungao; Jiang, Jinchang

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the normal daily activities and abnormal activities related to earthquake premonitory information are given by a quantitative observation and analysis of activities in the sparrow (SR, Passer montanus), budgerigar (BG, Melopsittacus undulatus) and rat (RT, Rattus norvegicus). The results show that the quantitative observation of habitual abnormalities in animals may provide some cues for the short-term earthquake prediction. The normal activity rhythms for the SR and BG are similar, and both present M mode. The high activities occurs during 07h 10h and 15h 16h, respectively, the low activities occurs during 12h 13h, and at night both birds are basically silent. For the RT, the normal rhythmic activity has the middle magnitude during 07h 10h and 17h 18h, the low and high magnitudes occur during 11h 16h and from 19h to 06h at the next day. For the SR, BG and RT, observable abnormal changes of the normal activity rhythm were found before earthquakes. The night activities of the SR and BG were increased noticeably. For the RT the activities during the low magnitude of activities at the day time were also increased. They both are about 300 times greater than the normal activity value. Moreover, the total activity values per day were increased, and were about 2 times of the normal value. The x 2-test shows that the abnormalities of the daily activity rhythm and following increase of the daily activity events are significantly correlated with earthquakes of magnitude over 4.3 in Tangshan seismic area within the region of 200 km distance from the observation station.

  14. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it "functional demyelination", a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP. PMID:27583434

  15. Abnormal fast activity in infancy with paroxysmal downwards gaze.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Harumi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endo, Fumika; Ishizaki, Yumiko; Wakai, Mari; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2009-06-01

    We report here on 8 infants who showed paroxysmal downwards gaze (PDG). The time of initial appearance of PDG ranged from one month to five months (mean: 2.7 months) of corrected age. Seven out of eight patients showed interictal spikes in EEG, so they were started on prophylactic therapy with antiepileptic drugs. In five of the eight patients, PDG ceased, either spontaneously or with antiepileptic drug treatment, by four to eight months of corrected age. Six out of eight patients showed localized spikes and peculiar abnormal fast activity (AFA) in the occipital area and five of these patients later developed West syndrome. These AFA were observed on EEGs recorded at the time of initial PDG appearance, before hypsarrhythmia was observed and before tonic spasms appeared. We were able to exclude the possibility that PDG was a subtle epileptic seizure by confirming the temporal discordance between individual episodes of PDG and AFA with video-EEG monitoring. Yet topographic data showed that AFA in these patients was characteristically located in the occipital area, with a distribution similar to that of the fast activity which accompanied the tonic spasms that later developed in these patients. As a risk factor for developing WS, we propose the clinical symptom of PDG with characteristic occipital AFA visible in the EEG, both of which represent damage to the occipital region including the optic radiation. PMID:18804928

  16. Maternal immune activation and abnormal brain development across CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Irene; Chicha, Laurie; Britschgi, Markus; Schobel, Scott A; Bodmer, Michael; Hellings, Jessica A; Toovey, Stephen; Prinssen, Eric P

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between maternal infection and schizophrenia or autism in the progeny. Animal models have revealed maternal immune activation (mIA) to be a profound risk factor for neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. Microglial priming has been proposed as a major consequence of mIA, and represents a critical link in a causal chain that leads to the wide spectrum of neuronal dysfunctions and behavioural phenotypes observed in the juvenile, adult or aged offspring. Such diversity of phenotypic outcomes in the mIA model are mirrored by recent clinical evidence suggesting that infectious exposure during pregnancy is also associated with epilepsy and, to a lesser extent, cerebral palsy in children. Preclinical research also suggests that mIA might precipitate the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Here, we summarize and critically review the emerging evidence that mIA is a shared environmental risk factor across CNS disorders that varies as a function of interactions between genetic and additional environmental factors. We also review ongoing clinical trials targeting immune pathways affected by mIA that may play a part in disease manifestation. In addition, future directions and outstanding questions are discussed, including potential symptomatic, disease-modifying and preventive treatment strategies. PMID:25311587

  17. How Can We Identify Ictal and Interictal Abnormal Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Robert S.; Scharfman, Helen E.; deCurtis, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined a seizure as “a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.” This definition has been used since the era of Hughlings Jackson, and does not take into account subsequent advances made in epilepsy and neuroscience research. The clinical diagnosis of a seizure is empirical, based upon constellations of certain signs and symptoms, while simultaneously ruling out a list of potential imitators of seizures. Seizures should be delimited in time, but the borders of ictal (during a seizure), interictal (between seizures) and postictal (after a seizure) often are indistinct. EEG recording is potentially very helpful for confirmation, classification and localization. About a half-dozen common EEG patterns are encountered during seizures. Clinicians rely on researchers to answer such questions as why seizures start, spread and stop, whether seizures involve increased synchrony, the extent to which extra-cortical structures are involved, and how to identify the seizure network and at what points interventions are likely to be helpful. Basic scientists have different challenges in use of the word ‘seizure,’ such as distinguishing seizures from normal behavior, which would seem easy but can be very difficult because some rodents have EEG activity during normal behavior that resembles spike-wave discharge or bursts of rhythmic spiking. It is also important to define when a seizure begins and stops so that seizures can be quantified accurately for pre-clinical studies. When asking what causes seizures, the transition to a seizure and differentiating the pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal state is also important because what occurs before a seizure could be causal and may warrant further investigation for that reason. These and other issues are discussed by three epilepsy researchers with clinical and basic science expertise. PMID:25012363

  18. Relationship between paravascular abnormalities and foveoschisis in highly myopic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamal-Salah, R; Morillo-Sanchez, M J; Rius-Diaz, F; Garcia-Campos, J M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of paravascular abnormalities in highly myopic patients and its relationship with myopic foveoschisis (MF). Methods Cross-sectional study of 250 highly myopic eyes. All of the patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination that included optical coherence tomography . Results Optical coherence tomography images showed 170 eyes (68%) with paravascular microfolds (PM), 121 eyes (48.4%) presented paravascular retinal cysts (PC), and 35 eyes (14%) with paravascular lamellar holes . All the eyes with PCs had PMs. Out of the 250 eyes, 48 (19.2%) had paravascular retinoschisis (PR). All the eyes (100%) with PR had paravascular cysts and PMs. Sixteen eyes (6.4%) had foveoschis. The spherical equivalent (P<0.00), PR (P=0.01), and the presence of tractional structures (P<0.00) were associated with increased risk for foveoschsis in the multivariate study. Conclusions PMs were the lesions most often observed in the paravascular area in highly myopic eyes. MF would be a result of the action of different forces (intra- and extra-ocular forces), specially tractional structures, on precursor lesions (paravascular cyst and paravascular restinoschisis). Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25359287

  19. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature.

  20. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  1. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  2. Oseltamivir reduces hippocampal abnormal EEG activities after a virus infection (influenza) in isoflurane-anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, Youssouf; Inoue, Isao; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Oseltamivir phosphate (OP, Tamiflu®) is a widely used drug in the treatment of influenza with fever. However, case reports have associated OP intake with sudden abnormal behaviors. In rats infected by the influenza A virus (IAV), the electroencephalogram (EEG) displayed abnormal high-voltage amplitudes with spikes and theta oscillations at a core temperature of 39.9°C to 41°C. Until now, there has been no information describing the effect of OP on intact brain hippocampal activity of IAV-infected animals during hyperthermia. Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of OP on abnormal EEG activities in the hippocampus using the rat model of influenza-associated encephalopathy. Methods Male Wistar rats aged 3 to 4 weeks were used for the study. Influenza A/WSN/33 strain (1 × 105 plaque forming unit in PBS, 60 µL) was applied intranasally to the rats. To characterize OP effects on the IAV-infected rats, EEG activity was studied more particularly in isoflurane-anesthetized IAV-infected rats during hyperthermia. Results We found that the hippocampal EEG of the OP-administered (10 mg/kg) IAV-infected rats showed significant reduction of the high-voltage amplitudes and spikes, but the theta oscillations, which had been observed only at >40°C in OP non-administered rats, appeared at 38°C core temperature. Atropine (30 mg/kg) blocked the theta oscillations. Conclusion Our data suggest that OP efficiently reduces the abnormal EEG activities after IAV infection during hyperthermia. However, OP administration may stimulate ACh release in rats at normal core temperature.

  3. Abnormal fusiform activation during emotional-face encoding assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Adleman, Nancy E; Kayser, Reilly R; Olsavsky, Aviva K; Bones, Brian L; Muhrer, Eli J; Fromm, Stephen J; Pine, Daniel S; Zarate, Carlos; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A

    2013-05-30

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study shows that children and adults with bipolar disorder (BD), compared with healthy subjects, exhibit impaired memory for emotional faces and abnormal fusiform activation during encoding. Fusiform activation abnormalities in BD were correlated with mania severity and may therefore represent a trait and state BD biomarker. PMID:23541333

  4. Abnormal fusiform activation during emotional-face encoding in children and adults with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kayser, Reilly R.; Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Bones, Brian L.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Zarate, Carlos; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    This fMRI study shows that, compared to healthy subjects, children and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) exhibit impaired memory for emotional faces and abnormal fusiform activation during encoding. Fusiform activation abnormalities in BD were correlated with mania severity and may therefore represent a trait and state BD biomarker. PMID:23541333

  5. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720

  6. Nicotine in Combination With a High-Fat Diet Causes Intramyocellular Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C.; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lee, Desean; Ivey, Rasheed

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be exaggerated by obesity. We hypothesize that nicotine when combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) can also cause ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, similar to recently observed hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice-daily ip injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight) or saline for 10 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy of the gastrocnemius muscle revealed substantial intramyocellular lipid accumulation in close association with intramyofibrillar mitochondria along with intramyofibrillar mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization in nicotine-treated mice on an HFD compared with mice on an HFD treated with saline. These abnormalities were reversed by acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis. Mechanistically, the detrimental effect of nicotine plus HFD on skeletal muscle was associated with significantly increased oxidative stress, plasma free fatty acid, and muscle triglyceride levels coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase and activation of its downstream target, acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. We conclude that 1) greater oxidative stress together with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediates the effect of nicotine on skeletal muscle abnormalities in diet-induced obesity and 2) adipose tissue lipolysis is an important contributor of muscle steatosis and mitochondrial abnormalities. PMID:24424058

  7. Abnormal frontostriatal activity in recently abstinent cocaine users during implicit moral processing.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brendan M; Harenski, Carla L; Harenski, Keith A; Fede, Samantha J; Steele, Vaughn R; Koenigs, Michael R; Kiehl, Kent A

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the neurobiology of moral cognition are often done by examining clinical populations characterized by diminished moral emotions and a proclivity toward immoral behavior. Psychopathy is the most common disorder studied for this purpose. Although cocaine abuse is highly co-morbid with psychopathy and cocaine-dependent individuals exhibit many of the same abnormalities in socio-affective processing as psychopaths, this population has received relatively little attention in moral psychology. To address this issue, the authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 306 incarcerated male adults, stratified into regular cocaine users (n = 87) and a matched sample of non-cocaine users (n = 87), while viewing pictures that did or did not depict immoral actions and determining whether each depicted scenario occurred indoors or outdoors. Consistent with expectations, cocaine users showed abnormal neural activity in several frontostriatial regions during implicit moral picture processing compared to their non-cocaine using peers. This included reduced moral/non-moral picture discrimination in the vACC, vmPFC, lOFC, and left vSTR. Additionally, psychopathy was negatively correlated with activity in an overlapping region of the ACC and right lateralized vSTR. These results suggest that regular cocaine abuse may be associated with affective deficits which can impact relatively high-level processes like moral cognition. PMID:26528169

  8. Abnormal frontostriatal activity in recently abstinent cocaine users during implicit moral processing

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Brendan M.; Harenski, Carla L.; Harenski, Keith A.; Fede, Samantha J.; Steele, Vaughn R.; Koenigs, Michael R.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the neurobiology of moral cognition are often done by examining clinical populations characterized by diminished moral emotions and a proclivity toward immoral behavior. Psychopathy is the most common disorder studied for this purpose. Although cocaine abuse is highly co-morbid with psychopathy and cocaine-dependent individuals exhibit many of the same abnormalities in socio-affective processing as psychopaths, this population has received relatively little attention in moral psychology. To address this issue, the authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 306 incarcerated male adults, stratified into regular cocaine users (n = 87) and a matched sample of non-cocaine users (n = 87), while viewing pictures that did or did not depict immoral actions and determining whether each depicted scenario occurred indoors or outdoors. Consistent with expectations, cocaine users showed abnormal neural activity in several frontostriatial regions during implicit moral picture processing compared to their non-cocaine using peers. This included reduced moral/non-moral picture discrimination in the vACC, vmPFC, lOFC, and left vSTR. Additionally, psychopathy was negatively correlated with activity in an overlapping region of the ACC and right lateralized vSTR. These results suggest that regular cocaine abuse may be associated with affective deficits which can impact relatively high-level processes like moral cognition. PMID:26528169

  9. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  10. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  11. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  12. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  13. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  14. Network Mechanisms Generating Abnormal and Normal Hippocampal High-Frequency Oscillations: A Computational Analysis1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gliske, Stephen; Catoni, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are an intriguing potential biomarker for epilepsy, typically categorized according to peak frequency as either ripples (100–250 Hz) or fast ripples (>250 Hz). In the hippocampus, fast ripples were originally thought to be more specific to epileptic tissue, but it is still very difficult to distinguish which HFOs are caused by normal versus pathological brain activity. In this study, we use a computational model of hippocampus to investigate possible network mechanisms underpinning normal ripples, pathological ripples, and fast ripples. Our results unify several prior findings regarding HFO mechanisms, and also make several new predictions regarding abnormal HFOs. We show that HFOs are generic, emergent phenomena whose characteristics reflect a wide range of connectivity and network input. Although produced by different mechanisms, both normal and abnormal HFOs generate similar ripple frequencies, underscoring that peak frequency is unable to distinguish the two. Abnormal ripples are generic phenomena that arise when input to pyramidal cells overcomes network inhibition, resulting in high-frequency, uncoordinated firing. In addition, fast ripples transiently and sporadically arise from the precise conditions that produce abnormal ripples. Lastly, we show that such abnormal conditions do not require any specific network structure to produce coherent HFOs, as even completely asynchronous activity is capable of producing abnormal ripples and fast ripples in this manner. These results provide a generic, network-based explanation for the link between pathological ripples and fast ripples, and a unifying description for the entire spectrum from normal ripples to pathological fast ripples. PMID:26146658

  15. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  16. Cardiac repolarization abnormalities and increased sympathetic activity in scleroderma.

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Orcun; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Akdogan, Ali; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Sahiner, Levent; Deniz, Ali; Ureten, Kemal; Kizilca, Guler; Calguneri, Meral; Oto, Ali

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement in scleroderma is a poor prognostic sign and is usually underdiagnosed, particularly in asymptomatic patient. This paper focuses on QT dynamicity and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with scleroderma and controls in an attempt to investigate the cardiac autonomic system and ventricular repolarization. METHODS: Sixty patients with scleroderma and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had no cardiovascular risk factors were included in this study. All patients and the controls underwent a 24-hour holter recording as well as a transthoracic echocardiography. HRV and QT dynamicity parameters were calculated. RESULTS: In HRV analysis, autonomic balance was changed in favor of the sympathetic system in patients with diffuse scleroderma. In QT dynamicity analysis, QT/RR slopes were significantly steeper in patients with diffuse scleroderma compared to patients with limited scleroderma and controls (QTapex/RR: 0.24 +/- 0.16, 0.15 +/- 0.03, 0.14 +/- 0.03 respectively p < 0.001; QTend/RR: 0.26 +/- 0.17, 0.14 +/- 0.04, 0.13 +/- 0.05, respectively p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diffuse scleroderma may have asymptomatic cardiac repolarization abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction. Our results may indicate that QT dynamicity and HRV can be useful noninvasive methods that may detect impaired state of autonomic balance and cardiac repolarization in patients with diffuse scleroderma. PMID:17393947

  17. Memory activation enhances EEG abnormality in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, K; Vein, A A; Kramer, C G S; Reijntjes, R H A M; van Buchem, M A; Westendorp, R G J; Bollen, E L E M; van Dijk, J G; Middelkoop, H A M

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated EEG power changes during memory activation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve MCI patients and 16 age-matched controls underwent EEG registration during two conventional EEG conditions ('eyes closed' and 'eyes open') and three memory conditions ('word memory', 'picture memory' and 'animal fluency'). For all conditions, EEG power in the theta (4-8 Hz), lower alpha (8-10.5 Hz) and upper alpha (10.5-13 Hz) bands were expressed as percentile changes compared to 'eyes closed'. MCI patients showed significantly less decrease in the lower alpha band than controls (p=0.04) during picture memory activation. The word memory task showed a trend towards a similar effect (p=0.09). This study suggests that memory activation reveals EEG differences between MCI patients and controls while conventional EEG conditions do not. PMID:16406153

  18. The MEG topography and the source model of abnormal neural activities associated with brain lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, S.; Iramina, K.; Ozaki, H.; Harada, K.

    1986-09-01

    A source model is proposed to simulate spatial distributions of abnormal MEG and EEG activities generated by abnormal neural activities such as the delta activity associated with brain tumors. Brain tumor itself is electrically silent and the spherical shell around the tumor might generate abnormal neural activities. The sources of these neural activities are represented by combinations of multiple current dipoles. The head is assumed to be a spherical volume conductor. Electrical potentials and magnetic fields over the surface of the spheres are calculated. The computer simulation shows that the MEG topography and EEG topography vary variously with combinations of location and orientation of the dipoles. In a special case, however, that the dipoles orient in the same direction or orient radially, the spatial patterns of the MEGs and EEGs generated by numerous dipoles are analogous to those generated by single dipoles.

  19. Abnormal effective connectivity and psychopathological symptoms in the psychosis high-risk state

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Smieskova, Renata; Simon, Andor; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; McGuire, Philip K.; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Aston, Jacqueline; Lang, Undine E.; Walter, Marc; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has revealed abnormal functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing in patients with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, it still remains unclear whether abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in the psychosis high-risk state and whether the connection strengths are related to psychopathological outcomes. Methods Healthy controls and antipsychotic-naive individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) performed an n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Effective connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing were characterized using dynamic causal modelling. Results Our study included 19 controls and 27 individuals with an ARMS. In individuals with an ARMS, we found significantly lower task performances and reduced activity in the right superior parietal lobule and middle frontal gyrus than in controls. Furthermore, the working memory–induced modulation of the connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right superior parietal lobule was significantly reduced in individuals with an ARMS, while the extent of this connectivity was negatively related to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score. Limitations The modest sample size precludes a meaningful subgroup analysis for participants with a later transition to psychosis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in individuals with an ARMS and is related to psychiatric symptoms. Thus, our results provide further insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the psychosis high-risk state by linking functional brain imaging, computational modelling and psychopathology. PMID:24506946

  20. Method of curved surface abnormal holes vision measurement based on high precision turntable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Laipeng; Bi, Chao; Fang, Jianguo; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    For solving the difficult problem that there is no effective way to measure abnormal holes located at blade erection loop of aero-engine case, an image measurement system based on high precision air-bearing turntable is established in this paper. The issue that monocular vision can't measure curved surface has overcome by using high precision turntable to make sure high positioning accuracy of the surface abnormal holes and high-resolution microscope lens which is used to image local tiny features. Besides, an algorithm of determining the boundary points of a trailing edge on the contour of abnormal hole is proposed to achieve a rapid fitting and accuracy. After experiments and analysis, results show that the system can be used to measure local tiny features on curved surfaces validly and efficiently.

  1. Values-Oriented Public Policy Forums: Active Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevern, Vincent W.

    Students in an undergraduate course in abnormal psychology annually employ a cooperative active learning model to conduct a 4- to 6-day, values-oriented public policy forum (PPF) within the class itself on a general topic of concern to the field of mental health. A comprehensive and structured five-phase model for a PPF is detailed for course…

  2. Abnormal Neural Activation to Faces in the Parents of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Yucel, G H; Belger, A; Bizzell, J; Parlier, M; Adolphs, R; Piven, J

    2015-12-01

    Parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show subtle deficits in aspects of social behavior and face processing, which resemble those seen in ASD, referred to as the "Broad Autism Phenotype " (BAP). While abnormal activation in ASD has been reported in several brain structures linked to social cognition, little is known regarding patterns in the BAP. We compared autism parents with control parents with no family history of ASD using 2 well-validated face-processing tasks. Results indicated increased activation in the autism parents to faces in the amygdala (AMY) and the fusiform gyrus (FG), 2 core face-processing regions. Exploratory analyses revealed hyper-activation of lateral occipital cortex (LOC) bilaterally in autism parents with aloof personality ("BAP+"). Findings suggest that abnormalities of the AMY and FG are related to underlying genetic liability for ASD, whereas abnormalities in the LOC and right FG are more specific to behavioral features of the BAP. Results extend our knowledge of neural circuitry underlying abnormal face processing beyond those previously reported in ASD to individuals with shared genetic liability for autism and a subset of genetically related individuals with the BAP. PMID:25056573

  3. Solar activity cycle and the incidence of foetal chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai

    1995-06-01

    We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.

  4. Telomerase Activity as a Potential Diagnostic Marker for Triage of Abnormal Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Ault, Kevin A.; Allen, Heather K.; Phillips, Stacia L.; Bridget Zimmerman, M.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is an association between high levels of telomerase and premalignant cervical disease and to provide a preliminary analysis of telomerase activity as a potential triage strategy. Materials and Methods Premenopausal women were invited to participate in the study during routine gynecologic visits as well as visits where colposcopy was performed. Samples were taken from the cervix using a broom device and placed in cold phosphate-buffered saline. A total of 92 samples were evaluated. Cells were counted and lysed, and a semi-quantitative measure of telomerase activity was determined using a commercially available telomerase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 was assessed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for the association of telomerase activity with cytology, HPV type 16 or 18 status, and colposcopy and/or biopsy findings. Results When telomerase levels were analyzed according to Pap smear results, there were no differences among four groups of cytology findings (normal, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). When colposcopy and/or biopsy results were considered, significantly higher levels of telomerase were detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2,3 samples than in normal Pap smear samples and CIN 1 samples (p = .035). There was no significant difference in telomerase levels between samples that tested positive for HPV type 16 or 18 and those that did not (p = .111). Conclusions Telomerase levels were significantly higher in cytologic samples from women with biopsy-proven CIN 2,3 than in samples from women with normal cytology results or CIN 1. These results warrant larger studies to determine whether telomerase activity may be a useful triage tool for abnormal cytologic findings. PMID:15870530

  5. The neurological significance of abnormal natural killer cell activity in chronic toxigenic mold exposures.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew W; Jones, Joseph; Ehiri, John E; Akpan, Akpan I

    2003-11-13

    Toxigenic mold activities produce metabolites that are either broad-spectrum antibiotics or mycotoxins that are cytotoxic. Indoor environmental exposure to these toxigenic molds leads to adverse health conditions with the main outcome measure of frequent neuroimmunologic and behavioral consequences. One of the immune system disorders found in patients presenting with toxigenic mold exposure is an abnormal natural killer cell activity. This paper presents an overview of the neurological significance of abnormal natural killer cell (NKC) activity in chronic toxigenic mold exposure. A comprehensive review of the literature was carried out to evaluate and assess the conditions under which the immune system could be dysfunctionally interfered with leading to abnormal NKC activity and the involvement of mycotoxins in these processes. The functions, mechanism, the factors that influence NKC activities, and the roles of mycotoxins in NKCs were cited wherever necessary. The major presentations are headache, general debilitating pains, nose bleeding, fevers with body temperatures up to 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), cough, memory loss, depression, mood swings, sleep disturbances, anxiety, chronic fatigue, vertigo/dizziness, and in some cases, seizures. Although sleep is commonly considered a restorative process that is important for the proper functioning of the immune system, it could be disturbed by mycotoxins. Most likely, mycotoxins exert some rigorous effects on the circadian rhythmic processes resulting in sleep deprivation to which an acute and transient increase in NKC activity is observed. Depression, psychological stress, tissue injuries, malignancies, carcinogenesis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis could be induced at very low physiological concentrations by mycotoxin-induced NKC activity. In the light of this review, it is concluded that chronic exposures to toxigenic mold could lead to abnormal NKC activity with a wide range

  6. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  7. An Algorithm for the Segmentation of Highly Abnormal Hearts Using a Generic Statistical Shape Model.

    PubMed

    Alba, Xenia; Pereanez, Marco; Hoogendoorn, Corne; Swift, Andrew J; Wild, Jim M; Frangi, Alejandro F; Lekadir, Karim

    2016-03-01

    Statistical shape models (SSMs) have been widely employed in cardiac image segmentation. However, in conditions that induce severe shape abnormality and remodeling, such as in the case of pulmonary hypertension (PH) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a single SSM is rarely capable of capturing the anatomical variability in the extremes of the distribution. This work presents a new algorithm for the segmentation of severely abnormal hearts. The algorithm is highly flexible, as it does not require a priori knowledge of the involved pathology or any specific parameter tuning to be applied to the cardiac image under analysis. The fundamental idea is to approximate the gross effect of the abnormality with a virtual remodeling transformation between the patient-specific geometry and the average shape of the reference model (e.g., average normal morphology). To define this mapping, a set of landmark points are automatically identified during boundary point search, by estimating the reliability of the candidate points. With the obtained transformation, the feature points extracted from the patient image volume are then projected onto the space of the reference SSM, where the model is used to effectively constrain and guide the segmentation process. The extracted shape in the reference space is finally propagated back to the original image of the abnormal heart to obtain the final segmentation. Detailed validation with patients diagnosed with PH and HCM shows the robustness and flexibility of the technique for the segmentation of highly abnormal hearts of different pathologies. PMID:26552082

  8. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  9. Erythrocyte echinocytosis in liver disease. Role of abnormal plasma high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, J S; Brown, D J; Harry, D S; McIntyre, N; Beaven, G H; Isenberg, H; Gratzer, W B

    1985-01-01

    Echinocytes were frequently found in patients with liver disease when their blood was examined in wet films, but rarely detected in dried, stained smears. When normal erythrocytes (discocytes) were incubated with physiologic concentrations of the abnormal high density lipoproteins (HDL) from some jaundiced patients, echinocytosis developed within seconds. Other plasma fractions were not echinocytogenic. There was a close correlation between the number of echinocytes found in vivo and the ability of the corresponding HDL to induce discocyte-echinocyte transformation. On incubation with normal HDL, echinocytes generated in vitro rapidly reverted to a normal shape, and echinocytes from patients showed a similar trend. Echinocytosis occurred without change in membrane cholesterol content, as did its reversal, and was not caused by membrane uptake of lysolecithin or bile acids. Abnormal, echinocytogenic HDL showed saturable binding to approximately 5,000 sites per normal erythrocyte with an association constant of 10(8) M-1. Nonechinocytogenic patient HDL and normal HDL showed only nonsaturable binding. Several minor components of electrophoretically separated erythrocyte membrane proteins bound the abnormal HDL; pretreatment of the cells with trypsin or pronase reduced or eliminated binding. Echinocytosis by abnormal HDL required receptor occupancy, rather than transfer of constituents to or from the membrane, because cells reversibly prefixed in the discoid shape by wheat germ agglutinin, and then exposed to abnormal HDL, did not become echinocytes when the HDL and lectin were successively removed. Binding did not cause dephosphorylation of spectrin. We conclude that the echinocytes of liver disease are generated from discocytes by abnormal HDL, and we infer that the shape change is mediated by cell-surface receptors for abnormal HDL molecules. Images PMID:4077979

  10. Inversion of the western Pacific subtropical high dynamic model and analysis of dynamic characteristics for its abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Zhang, R.; Li, J. X.; Ge, J. J.; Liu, K. F.

    2013-02-01

    Based on time series data of 500 hPa potential field from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Forecast of American/National Center for Atmospheric Research), a novel consideration of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) time-space separation and dynamic system reconstruction for time series is introduced. This method consists of two parts: first, the dynamical model inversion and model parameter optimization are carried out on the EOF time coefficient series using the genetic algorithm (GA), and, second, a nonlinear dynamic model representing the subtropical high (SH) activity and its abnormality is established. The SH activity and its abnormal mechanism is studied using the developed dynamical model. Results show that the configuration and diversification of the SH equilibriums have good correspondence with the actual short-medium term abnormal activity of the SH. Change of SH potential field brought by the combination of equilibriums is more complex than that by mutation, and their exhibition patterns are different. The mutation behavior from high-value to low-value equilibriums of the SH in summer corresponds with the southward drop of the SH in the observed weather process. The combination behavior of the two steady equilibriums corresponds with disappearance of the "double-ridge" phenomenon of the SH. Dynamical mechanisms of these phenomena are explained.

  11. Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ≥65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

  12. Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca Maria; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Mohammed, Saira Saddia; Fung, Lillia Yan; Jalali, Pegah; Salit, Irving Elliot; Allard, Johane Pierette

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV and metabolic abnormalities and to compare the data to Canadian recommendations. Sixty-five HIV-infected men with at least one feature associated with the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, or lipodystrophy) were enrolled. Results from 7-day food records and activity logs were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and recommendations of Canada's Physical Activity Guide, respectively. Anthropometric data were also measured. Fifty-two percent of the subjects were overweight, another 15% were obese. However, energy intake (mean+/-SEM) (2153+/-99 kcal/d) was lower than the estimated requirement (2854+/-62 kcal/d; p<0.0001), and 84.5% of the patients reached the recommended minimum of 60 min of mild or 30 min of moderate daily exercise. Intake was adequate for protein, but high for fat and cholesterol in 40% of patients. No patient reached the recommendation for fiber. Intake from diet alone was suboptimal for most micronutrients. Prevalence was highest for low vitamin E (91% of patients) and magnesium (68%) intake, and high sodium intake (72%). In summary, a large proportion of HIV patients with metabolic abnormalities were overweight or obese. However, this was not associated with high energy intake, or reduced physical activity. High fat, low fiber and inadequate micronutrient intakes were prevalent. PMID:18288980

  13. Causality-weighted active learning for abnormal event identification based on the topic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yawen; Zheng, Shibao; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Chongyang; Su, Hang

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal event identification in crowded scenes is a fundamental task for video surveillance. However, it is still challenging for most current approaches because of the general insufficiency of labeled data for training, particularly for abnormal data. We propose a novel active-supervised joint topic model for learning activity and training sample collection. First, a multi-class topic model is constructed based on the initial training data. Then the remaining unlabeled data stream is surveyed. The system actively decides whether it can label a new sample by itself or if it has to ask a human annotator. After each query, the current model is incrementally updated. To alleviate class imbalance, causality-weighted method is applied to both likelihood and uncertainty sampling for active learning. Furthermore, a combination of a new measure termed query entropy and the overall classification accuracy is used for assessing the model performance. Experimental results on two real-world traffic videos for abnormal event identification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Neural activation abnormalities during self-referential processing in schizophrenia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiacheng; Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce Edward

    2014-06-30

    Impairments in self-awareness contribute to disability in schizophrenia. Studies have revealed activation abnormalities in schizophrenia in cortical midline structures associated with self-reference. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare activation throughout the brain in people with schizophrenia and healthy controls (Kelly et al., 2002) while they indicated whether trait adjectives described attributes of themselves, their mother or a former president of the United States. Blood oxygenation level dependent signal in each condition was compared to resting fixation. Patients were less likely and slower to endorse positive self-attributes, and more likely and quicker to endorse negative self-attributes than controls. Activation abnormalities reported previously in cortical midline structures were again noted. In addition, patients showed greater signal increases in frontal, temporal gyri and insula, and smaller signal decreases in posterior regions than healthy controls when thinking about themselves. Group differences were less evident when subjects were thinking about their mothers and tended to go in the opposite direction when thinking about a president. Many of the areas showing abnormality have been shown in other studies to differ between patients and controls in structure and with other activation paradigms. We suggest that general neuropathology in schizophrenia alters the neural system configurations associated with self-representation. PMID:24795158

  15. Abnormal autonomic and associated brain activities during rest in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Xu, Pengfei; Cao, Miao; Gu, Xiaosi; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Park, Yunsoo; Siller, Michael; He, Yong; Hof, Patrick R; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are associated with social and emotional deficits, the aetiology of which are not well understood. A growing consensus is that the autonomic nervous system serves a key role in emotional processes, by providing physiological signals essential to subjective states. We hypothesized that altered autonomic processing is related to the socio-emotional deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated the relationship between non-specific skin conductance response, an objective index of sympathetic neural activity, and brain fluctuations during rest in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder relative to neurotypical controls. Compared with control participants, individuals with autism spectrum disorder showed less skin conductance responses overall. They also showed weaker correlations between skin conductance responses and frontal brain regions, including the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices. Additionally, skin conductance responses were found to have less contribution to default mode network connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders relative to controls. These results suggest that autonomic processing is altered in autism spectrum disorders, which may be related to the abnormal socio-emotional behaviours that characterize this condition. PMID:24424916

  16. Abnormal autonomic and associated brain activities during rest in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Xu, Pengfei; Cao, Miao; Gu, Xiaosi; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Park, Yunsoo; Siller, Michael; He, Yong; Hof, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are associated with social and emotional deficits, the aetiology of which are not well understood. A growing consensus is that the autonomic nervous system serves a key role in emotional processes, by providing physiological signals essential to subjective states. We hypothesized that altered autonomic processing is related to the socio-emotional deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated the relationship between non-specific skin conductance response, an objective index of sympathetic neural activity, and brain fluctuations during rest in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder relative to neurotypical controls. Compared with control participants, individuals with autism spectrum disorder showed less skin conductance responses overall. They also showed weaker correlations between skin conductance responses and frontal brain regions, including the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices. Additionally, skin conductance responses were found to have less contribution to default mode network connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders relative to controls. These results suggest that autonomic processing is altered in autism spectrum disorders, which may be related to the abnormal socio-emotional behaviours that characterize this condition. PMID:24424916

  17. Abnormal endothelial tight junctions in active lesions and normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Jonnie; McQuaid, Stephen; Mirakhur, Meenakshi; Kirk, John

    2002-04-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, demonstrable in vivo by enhanced MRI is characteristic of new and expanding inflammatory lesions in relapsing-remitting and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtle leakage may also occur in primary progressive MS. However, the anatomical route(s) of BBB leakage have not been demonstrated. We investigated the possible involvement of interendothelial tight junctions (TJ) by examining the expression of TJ proteins (occludin and ZO-1 ) in blood vessels in active MS lesions from 8 cases of MS and in normal-appearing white (NAWM) matter from 6 cases. Blood vessels (10-50 per frozen section) were scanned using confocal laser scanning microscopy to acquire datasets for analysis. TJ abnormalities manifested as beading, interruption, absence or diffuse cytoplasmic localization of fluorescence, or separation of junctions (putative opening) were frequent (affecting 40% of vessels) in oil-red-O-positive active plaques but less frequent in NAWM (15%), and in normal (< 2%) and neurological controls (6%). Putatively "open" junctions were seen in vessels in active lesions and in microscopically inflamed vessels in NAWM. Dual fluorescence revealed abnormal TJs in vessels with pre-mortem serum protein leakage. Abnormal or open TJs, associated with inflammation may contribute to BBB leakage in enhancing MRI lesions and may also be involved in subtle leakage in non-enhancing focal and diffuse lesions in NAWM. BBB disruption due to tight junctional pathology should be regarded as a significant form of tissue injury in MS, alongside demyelination and axonopathy. PMID:11958369

  18. Working Memory Encoding and Maintenance Deficits in Schizophrenia: Neural Evidence for Activation and Deactivation Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence implicates working memory (WM) as a core deficit in schizophrenia (SCZ), purportedly due to primary deficits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functioning. Recent findings suggest that SCZ is also associated with abnormalities in suppression of certain regions during cognitive engagement—namely the default mode system—that may further contribute to WM pathology. However, no study has systematically examined activation and suppression abnormalities across both encoding and maintenance phases of WM in SCZ. Twenty-eight patients and 24 demographically matched healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while performing a delayed match-to-sample WM task. Groups were accuracy matched to rule out performance effects. Encoding load was identical across subjects to facilitate comparisons across WM phases. We examined activation differences using an assumed model approach at the whole-brain level and within meta-analytically defined WM areas. Despite matched performance, we found regions showing less recruitment during encoding and maintenance for SCZ subjects. Furthermore, we identified 2 areas closely matching the default system, which SCZ subjects failed to deactivate across WM phases. Lastly, activation in prefrontal regions predicted the degree of deactivation for healthy but not SCZ subjects. Current results replicate and extend prefrontal recruitment abnormalities across WM phases in SCZ. Results also indicate deactivation abnormalities across WM phases, possibly due to inefficient prefrontal recruitment. Such regional deactivation may be critical for suppressing sources of interference during WM trace formation. Thus, deactivation deficits may constitute an additional source of impairments, which needs to be further characterized for a complete understanding of WM pathology in SCZ. PMID:21914644

  19. Meclozine Facilitates Proliferation and Differentiation of Chondrocytes by Attenuating Abnormally Activated FGFR3 Signaling in Achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:24324705

  20. Meclozine facilitates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes by attenuating abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:24324705

  1. Abnormal Adrenal Responsiveness and Angiotensin II Dependency in High Renin Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dluhy, Robert G.; Bavli, Sam Z.; Leung, Frank K.; Solomon, Harold S.; Moore, Thomas J.; Hollenberg, Norman K.; Williams, Gordon H.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin II (AII) and the diastolic blood pressure responses to saralasin were studied in 19 patients with high renin essential hypertension (HREH) on a 10-meq Na+/100 meq K+ diet. The increment in plasma renin activity (PRA) between supine and upright positions was used as an estimate of the acute stimulation of the adrenal gland by endogenous AII; the normal increment in plasma aldosterone divided by the increment in PRA was >3.8. 7 of 19 had abnormal upright posture responses with significantly greater mean PRA increments (24±6 ng/ml per h) and significantly smaller plasma aldosterone increments 47 ± 16 ng/dl) (P < 0.036) compared to the increments observed in HREH patients with normal adrenal responsiveness (PRA = 15 ± 1 ng/ml per h; plasma aldosterone = 87 ± 17 ng/dl). When AII was infused at doses of 0.1-3 ng/kg per min, only patients with normal posture responses had normal plasma aldosterone increments; plasma aldosterone levels failed to significantly increase even at the highest infusion rate in the patients with the abnormal upright posture responses. The AII competitive inhibitor, saralasin (0.3-30 μg/kg per min) was then infused to study the occurrence of angiotensinogenic hypertension in both HREH subgroups. The mean decline in diastolic blood pressure to saralasin in the subnormal adrenal responsive patients (−15 ± 3 mm Hg) was significantly greater than in the normal adrenal responsive group (−3 ± 2 mm Hg) (P < 0.02). It is concluded that patients with HREH are not a homogeneous population; approximately one-third have AII-dependent hypertension. In these patients, the mechanism responsible for the elevated renin and blood pressure could be a compensatory increase secondary to decreased adrenal responsiveness to AII. In the remainder, the high PRA levels have little, if any, causal role in the pathogenesis of the hypertension but could reflect a marker of other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:500810

  2. Abnormal auditory cortical activation in dyslexia 100 msec after speech onset.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Päivi; Salmelin, Riitta; Richardson, Ulla; Leinonen, Seija; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2002-05-15

    Reading difficulties are associated with problems in processing and manipulating speech sounds. Dyslexic individuals seem to have, for instance, difficulties in perceiving the length and identity of consonants. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we characterized the spatio-temporal pattern of auditory cortical activation in dyslexia evoked by three types of natural bisyllabic pseudowords (/ata/, /atta/, and /a a/), complex nonspeech sound pairs (corresponding to /atta/ and /a a/) and simple 1-kHz tones. The most robust difference between dyslexic and non-reading-impaired adults was seen in the left supratemporal auditory cortex 100 msec after the onset of the vowel /a/. This N100m response was abnormally strong in dyslexic individuals. For the complex nonspeech sounds and tone, the N100m response amplitudes were similar in dyslexic and nonimpaired individuals. The responses evoked by syllable /ta/ of the pseudoword /atta/ also showed modest latency differences between the two subject groups. The responses evoked by the corresponding nonspeech sounds did not differ between the two subject groups. Further, when the initial formant transition, that is, the consonant, was removed from the syllable /ta/, the N100m latency was normal in dyslexic individuals. Thus, it appears that dyslexia is reflected as abnormal activation of the auditory cortex already 100 msec after speech onset, manifested as abnormal response strengths for natural speech and as delays for speech sounds containing rapid frequency transition. These differences between the dyslexic and nonimpaired individuals also imply that the N100m response codes stimulus-specific features likely to be critical for speech perception. Which features of speech (or nonspeech stimuli) are critical in eliciting the abnormally strong N100m response in dyslexic individuals should be resolved in future studies. PMID:12126501

  3. Abnormal brain activation during directed forgetting of negative memory in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Liu, Peiduo; Cheng, Hongsheng; Cui, Qian; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-15

    The frequent occurrence of uncontrollable negative thoughts and memories is a troubling aspect of depression. Thus, knowledge on the mechanism underlying intentional forgetting of these thoughts and memories is crucial to develop an effective emotion regulation strategy for depressed individuals. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that depressed participants cannot intentionally forget negative memories. However, the neural mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, participants completed the directed forgetting task in which they were instructed to remember or forget neutral or negative words. Standard univariate analysis based on the General Linear Model showed that the depressed participants have higher activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) than the healthy individuals. The results indicated that depressed participants recruited more frontal and parietal inhibitory control resources to inhibit the TBF items, but the attempt still failed because of negative bias. We also used the Support Vector Machine to perform multivariate pattern classification based on the brain activation during directed forgetting. The pattern of brain activity in directed forgetting of negative words allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 75% (P=0.012). The brain regions which are critical for this discrimination showed abnormal activation when depressed participants were attempting to forget negative words. These results indicated that the abnormal neural circuitry when depressed individuals tried to forget the negative words might provide neurobiological markers for depression. PMID:26639452

  4. Abnormal neuronal activity in Tourette syndrome and its modulation using deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Israelashvili, Michal; Loewenstern, Yocheved

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common childhood-onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics that are typically accompanied by a multitude of comorbid symptoms. Pharmacological treatment options are limited, which has led to the exploration of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a possible treatment for severe cases. Multiple lines of evidence have linked TS with abnormalities in the motor and limbic cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) pathways. Neurophysiological data have only recently started to slowly accumulate from multiple sources: noninvasive imaging and electrophysiological techniques, invasive electrophysiological recordings in TS patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery, and animal models of the disorder. These converging sources point to system-level physiological changes throughout the CBG pathway, including both general altered baseline neuronal activity patterns and specific tic-related activity. DBS has been applied to different regions along the motor and limbic pathways, primarily to the globus pallidus internus, thalamic nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. In line with the findings that also draw on the more abundant application of DBS to Parkinson's disease, this stimulation is assumed to result in changes in the neuronal firing patterns and the passage of information through the stimulated nuclei. We present an overview of recent experimental findings on abnormal neuronal activity associated with TS and the changes in this activity following DBS. These findings are then discussed in the context of current models of CBG function in the normal state, during TS, and finally in the wider context of DBS in CBG-related disorders. PMID:25925326

  5. Sources of abnormal EEG activity in the presence of brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bouzas, A; Harmony, T; Bosch, J; Aubert, E; Fernández, T; Valdés, P; Silva, J; Marosi, E; Martínez-López, M; Casián, G

    1999-04-01

    In routine clinical EEG, a common origin is assumed for delta and theta rhythms produced by brain lesions. In previous papers, we have provided some experimental support, based on High Resolution qEEG and dipole fitting in the frequency domain, for the hypothesis that delta and theta spectral power have independent origins related to lesion and edema respectively. This paper describes the results obtained with Frequency Domain VARETA (FD-VARETA) in a group of 13 patients with cortical space-occupying lesions, in order to: 1) Test the accuracy of FD-VARETA for the localization of brain lesions, and 2) To provide further support for the independent origin of delta and theta components. FD VARETA is a distributed inverse solution, constrained by the Montreal Neurological Institute probabilistic atlas that estimates the spectra of EEG sources. In all patients, logarithmic transformed source spectra were compared with age-matched normative values, defining the Z source spectrum. Maximum Z values were found in 10 patients within the delta band (1.56 to 3.12 Hz); the spatial extent of these sources in the atlas corresponded with the location of the tumors in the CT. In 2 patients with small metastases and large volumes of edema and in a patient showing only edema, maximum Z values were found between 4.29 and 5.12 Hz. The spatial extent of the sources at these frequencies was within the volume of the edema in the CT. These results provided strong support to the hypothesis that both delta and theta abnormal EEG activities are the counterparts of two different pathophysiological processes. PMID:10358783

  6. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F; Charbonneau, Noe L; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2015-06-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  7. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  8. Assisting people with multiple disabilities actively correct abnormal standing posture with a Nintendo Wii balance board through controlling environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board functionality for standing posture correction (i.e., actively adjust abnormal standing posture) to assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to actively correct their standing posture by controlling their favorite stimulation on/off using a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture correcting program (SPCP). The study was performed according to an ABAB design, in which A represented baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that both participants significantly increased time duration of maintaining correct standing posture (TDMCSP) to activate the control system to produce environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:20381997

  9. Abnormal Brain Activity in Social Reward Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Uk-Su; Kim, Sun-Young; Sim, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Seo-Young; Park, Sung-Yeon; Jeong, Joon-Sup; Seol, Kyeong In; Yoon, Hyo-Woon; Jhung, Kyungun; Park, Jee-In

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) would show neural abnormality of the social reward system using functional MRI (fMRI). Materials and Methods 27 ASDs and 12 typically developing controls (TDCs) participated in this study. The social reward task was developed, and all participants performed the task during fMRI scanning. Results ASDs and TDCs with a social reward learning effect were selected on the basis of behavior data. We found significant differences in brain activation between the ASDs and TDCs showing a social reward learning effect. Compared with the TDCs, the ASDs showed reduced activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, right parietal lobe, and occipital lobe; however, they showed increased activity in the right parahippocampal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. Conclusion These findings suggest that there might be neural abnormality of the social reward learning system of ASDs. Although this study has several potential limitations, it presents novel findings in the different neural mechanisms of social reward learning in children with ASD and a possible useful biomarker of high-functioning ASDs. PMID:25837176

  10. Abnormal spontaneous brain activity in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: resting-state fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei-Jia; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Zhao, Jian-Nong; Wu, Wei; Guo, Da-Jing

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the abnormality of baseline spontaneous brain activity in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fraction ALFF (fALFF). METHODS A total of 14 MHE patients and 14 healthy controls were included in our study. Both ALFF and fALFF of functional magnetic resonance imaging were calculated for statistical analysis. RESULTS Compared with healthy controls, patients with MHE had significantly decreased ALFF in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), left superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, left gyrus rectus, bilateral precuneus, and the posterior lobe of right cerebellum; and they had significantly decreased fALFF in the bilateral MPFC, right middle frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and the posterior lobe of left cerebellum. CONCLUSION ALFF and fALFF changes in many brain regions demonstrate abnormality of the spontaneous neuronal activity in MHE. Especially the impairment of right precuneus and left MPFC may play a critical role in manifestation of MHE. Changes of ALFF and fALFF in the precuneus and the MPFC can be used as a potential marker for MHE. PMID:26742646

  11. Normal protein content but abnormally inhibited enzyme activity in muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Zierz, Stephan

    2014-04-15

    The biochemical consequences of the disease causing mutations of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency are still enigmatic. Therefore, CPT II was characterized in muscle biopsies of nine patients with genetically proven muscle CPT II deficiency. Total CPT activity (CPT I+CPT II) of patients was not significantly different from that of controls. Remaining activities upon inhibition by malonyl-CoA and Triton X-100 were significantly reduced in patients. Immunohistochemically CPT II protein was predominantly expressed in type-I-fibers with the same intensity in patients as in controls. Western blot showed the same CPT II staining intensity ratio in patients and controls. CPT I and CPT II protein concentrations estimated by ELISA were not significantly different in patients and in controls. Citrate synthase activity in patients was significantly increased. Total CPT activity significantly correlated with both CPT I and CPT II protein concentrations in patients and controls. This implies (i) that normal total CPT activity in patients with muscle CPT II deficiency is not due to compensatory increase of CPT I activity and that (ii) the mutant CPT II is enzymatically active. The data further support the notion that in muscle CPT II deficiency enzyme activity and protein content are not reduced, but rather abnormally inhibited when fatty acid metabolism is stressed. PMID:24602495

  12. Diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities are associated with an altered lipid pattern: protective effects of LXR activation[S

    PubMed Central

    Cermenati, Gaia; Abbiati, Federico; Cermenati, Solei; Brioschi, Elisabetta; Volonterio, Alessandro; Cavaletti, Guido; Saez, Enrique; De Fabiani, Emma; Crestani, Maurizio; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Caruso, Donatella; Mitro, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is characterized by myelin abnormalities; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying such deficits remain obscure. To uncover the effects of diabetes on myelin alterations, we have analyzed myelin composition. In a streptozotocin-treated rat model of diabetic neuropathy, analysis of sciatic nerve myelin lipids revealed that diabetes alters myelin's phospholipid, FA, and cholesterol content in a pattern that can modify membrane fluidity. Reduced expression of relevant genes in the FA biosynthetic pathway and decreased levels of the transcriptionally active form of the lipogenic factor sterol-regulatory element binding factor-1c (SREBF-1c) were found in diabetic sciatic nerve. Expression of myelin's major protein, myelin protein zero (P0), was also suppressed by diabetes. In addition, we confirmed that diabetes induces sciatic nerve myelin abnormalities, primarily infoldings that have previously been associated with altered membrane fluidity. In a diabetic setting, synthetic activator of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) increased SREBF-1c function and restored myelin lipid species and P0 expression levels to normal. These LXR-modulated improvements were associated with restored myelin structure in sciatic nerve and enhanced performance in functional tests such as thermal nociceptive threshold and nerve conduction velocity. These findings demonstrate an important role for the LXR-SREBF-1c axis in protection from diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities. PMID:22158827

  13. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system. PMID:26195163

  14. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  15. Different effects of abnormal activation and myocardial disease on left ventricular ejection and filling times

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Q; Henein, M; Coats, A; Gibson, D

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Ventricular activation is often abnormal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, but its specific effects on timing remain undetermined.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the use of the ratio of the sum of left ventricular ejection and filling times to the total RR interval (Z ratio) to dissociate the effects of abnormal activation from those of cavity dilatation.
METHODS—Subjects were 20 normal individuals, 11 patients with isolated left bundle branch block (LBBB, QRS duration > 120 ms), 17 with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal activation, and 23 with dilated cardiomyopathy and LBBB. An additional 30 patients (nine with normal ventricular systolic function and 21 with dilated cardiomyopathy) were studied before and after right ventricular pacing. Left ventricular ejection and filling times were measured by pulsed wave Doppler and cavity size by M mode echocardiography.
RESULTS—Z ratio was independent of RR interval in all groups. Mean (SD) Z ratio was 82 (10)% for normal subjects, 66 (10)% for isolated LBBB (p < 0.01 v normal), 77 (7)% for dilated cardiomyopathy without LBBB (NS v normal), and 61 (7)% for dilated cardiomyopathy with LBBB (p < 0.01 v normal). In the nine patients with normal left ventricular size and QRS duration, Z ratio fell from 88 (6)% in sinus rhythm to 77 (10)% with right ventricular pacing (p = 0.26). In the 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and LBBB, Z ratio rose from 59 (10)% in sinus rhythm to 74 (9)% with right ventricular DDD pacing (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—Z ratio dissociates the effects of abnormal ventricular activation and systolic disease. It also clearly differentiates right ventricular pacing from LBBB. It may thus be useful in comparing the haemodynamic effects of different pacing modes in patients with or without left ventricular disease.


Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy; pacemaker; left bundle branch block; echocardiography. PMID:10956289

  16. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  17. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  18. Abnormal Frontostriatal Activity During Unexpected Reward Receipt in Depression and Schizophrenia: Relationship to Anhedonia

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Nuria; Metastasio, Antonio; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Spencer, Jennifer; Reinders, Niels R; Dudas, Robert B; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Robbins, Trevor W; Clark, Luke; Fletcher, Paul C; Murray, Graham K

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in reward processes may underlie motivational and anhedonic symptoms in depression and schizophrenia. However it remains unclear whether these alterations are disorder-specific or shared, and whether they clearly relate to symptom generation or not. We studied brain responses to unexpected rewards during a simulated slot-machine game in 24 patients with depression, 21 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated relationships between brain activation, task-related motivation, and questionnaire rated anhedonia. There was reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, inferior temporal gyrus, and occipital cortex in both depression and schizophrenia in comparison with healthy participants during receipt of unexpected reward. In the medial prefrontal cortex both patient groups showed reduced activation, with activation significantly more abnormal in schizophrenia than depression. Anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortical activation predicted task-related motivation, which in turn predicted anhedonia severity in schizophrenia. Our findings provide evidence for overlapping hypofunction in ventral striatal and orbitofrontal regions in depression and schizophrenia during unexpected reward receipt, and for a relationship between unexpected reward processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the generation of motivational states. PMID:26708106

  19. Abnormal Frontostriatal Activity During Unexpected Reward Receipt in Depression and Schizophrenia: Relationship to Anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Nuria; Metastasio, Antonio; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Spencer, Jennifer; Reinders, Niels R; Dudas, Robert B; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Robbins, Trevor W; Clark, Luke; Fletcher, Paul C; Murray, Graham K

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in reward processes may underlie motivational and anhedonic symptoms in depression and schizophrenia. However it remains unclear whether these alterations are disorder-specific or shared, and whether they clearly relate to symptom generation or not. We studied brain responses to unexpected rewards during a simulated slot-machine game in 24 patients with depression, 21 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated relationships between brain activation, task-related motivation, and questionnaire rated anhedonia. There was reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, inferior temporal gyrus, and occipital cortex in both depression and schizophrenia in comparison with healthy participants during receipt of unexpected reward. In the medial prefrontal cortex both patient groups showed reduced activation, with activation significantly more abnormal in schizophrenia than depression. Anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortical activation predicted task-related motivation, which in turn predicted anhedonia severity in schizophrenia. Our findings provide evidence for overlapping hypofunction in ventral striatal and orbitofrontal regions in depression and schizophrenia during unexpected reward receipt, and for a relationship between unexpected reward processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the generation of motivational states. PMID:26708106

  20. Abnormal dynamics of activation of object use information in apraxia: evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Mirman, Daniel; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Action representations associated with object use may be incidentally activated during visual object processing, and the time course of such activations may be influenced by lexical-semantic context (e.g., Lee, Middleton, Mirman, Kalénine, & Buxbaum, 2012). In this study we used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm to examine whether a deficit in producing skilled object-use actions (apraxia) is associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information, and assessed the neuroanatomical substrates of any such deficits. Twenty left hemisphere stroke patients, ten of whom were apraxic, performed a task requiring identification of a named object in a visual display containing manipulation-related and unrelated distractor objects. Manipulation relationships among objects were not relevant to the identification task. Objects were cued with neutral (“S/he saw the….”), or action-relevant (“S/he used the….”) sentences. Non-apraxic participants looked at use-related non-target objects significantly more than at unrelated non-target objects when cued both by neutral and action-relevant sentences, indicating that action information is incidentally activated. In contrast, apraxic participants showed delayed activation of manipulation-based action information during object identification when cued by neutral sentences. The magnitude of delayed activation in the neutral sentence condition was reliably predicted by lower scores on a test of gesture production to viewed objects, as well as by lesion loci in the inferior parietal and posterior temporal lobes. However, when cued by a sentence containing an action verb, apraxic participants showed fixation patterns that were statistically indistinguishable from non-apraxic controls. In support of grounded theories of cognition, these results suggest that apraxia and temporal-parietal lesions may be associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information from objects. Further

  1. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Left-Hemispheric Microstructural Abnormalities in Children With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Daniel; Mahajan, Rajneesh; Crocetti, Deana; Mejia, Amanda; Mostofsky, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Current theories of the neurobiological basis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) posit an altered pattern of connectivity in large-scale brain networks. Here we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging to investigate the microstructural properties of the white matter that mediates inter-regional connectivity in 36 high-functioning children with ASD (HF-ASD), as compared to 37 controls. By employing an atlas-based analysis using LDDMM registration, a widespread, but left-lateralized pattern of abnormalities was revealed. The Mean Diffusivity (MD) of water in the white matter of HF-ASD children was significantly elevated throughout the left hemisphere, particularly in the outer-zone cortical white matter. Across diagnostic groups there was a significant effect of age on left hemisphere MD, with a similar reduction in MD during childhood in both TD and HF-ASD children. The increased MD in children with HF-ASD suggests hypomyelination, and may reflect increased short-range cortico-cortical connections subsequent to early white matter overgrowth. These findings also highlight left hemispheric connectivity as relevant to the pathophysiology of ASD, and indicate that the spatial distribution of microstructural abnormalities in HF-ASD is widespread, and left-lateralized. This altered left-hemispheric connectivity may contribute to deficits in communication and praxis observed in ASD. PMID:25256103

  3. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson’s disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson’s disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

  4. Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is accompanied by altered motor activity and abnormal thermoregulation; therefore, the presence of these symptoms can enhance the face validity of a schizophrenia animal model. The goal was to characterize these parameters in freely moving condition of a new substrain of rats showing several schizophrenia-related alterations. Methods Male Wistar rats were used: the new substrain housed individually (for four weeks) and treated subchronically with ketamine, and naive animals without any manipulations. Adult animals were implanted with E-Mitter transponders intraabdominally to record body temperature and locomotor activity continuously. The circadian rhythm of these parameters and the acute effects of changes in light conditions were analyzed under undisturbed circumstances, and the effects of different interventions (handling, bed changing or intraperitoneal vehicle injection) were also determined. Results Decreased motor activity with fragmented pattern was observed in the new substrain. However, these animals had higher body temperature during the active phase, and they showed wider range of its alterations, too. The changes in light conditions and different interventions produced blunted hyperactivity and altered body temperature responses in the new substrain. Poincaré plot analysis of body temperature revealed enhanced short- and long-term variabilities during the active phase compared to the inactive phase in both groups. Furthermore, the new substrain showed increased short- and long-term variabilities with lower degree of asymmetry suggesting autonomic dysregulation. Conclusions In summary, the new substrain with schizophrenia-related phenomena showed disturbed motor activity and thermoregulation suggesting that these objectively determined parameters can be biomarkers in translational research. PMID:26629908

  5. Detection of abnormal cardiac activity using principal component analysis--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Greisas, Ariel; Zafrir, Zohar; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Electrogram-guided ablation has been recently developed for allowing better detection and localization of abnormal atrial activity that may be the source of arrhythmogeneity. Nevertheless, no clear indication for the benefit of using electrograms guided ablation over empirical ablation was established thus far, and there is a clear need of improving the localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic targets for ablation. In this paper, we propose a new approach for detection and localization of irregular cardiac activity during ablation procedures that is based on dimension reduction algorithms and principal component analysis (PCA). Using an 8×8 electrode array, our method produces manifolds that allow easy visualization and detection of possible arrhythmogenic ablation targets characterized by irregular conduction. We employ mathematical modeling and computer simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach for two well established arrhythmogenic sources for irregular conduction--spiral waves and patchy fibrosis. Our results show that the PCA method can differentiate between focal ectopic activity and spiral wave activity, as these two types of activity produce substantially different manifold shapes. Moreover, the technique allows the detection of spiral wave cores and their general meandering and drifting pattern. Fibrotic patches larger than 2 mm(2) could also be visualized using the PCA method, both for quiescent atrial tissue and for tissue exhibiting spiral wave activity. We envision that this method, contingent to further numerical and experimental validation studies in more complex, realistic geometrical configurations and with clinical data, can improve existing atrial ablation mapping capabilities, thus increasing success rates and optimizing arrhythmia management. PMID:25073163

  6. The integrated method to select drilling muds for abnormally high pressure formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu; Boyko, I. A.; Kayumova, N. S.; Rakhimov, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the method for choosing a drilling mud for drilling abnormally high pressure formations. A carefully selected drilling mud formulation would not only enhance an array of interrelated fluid properties, but also minimize the impact on the pay zones when the drill bit first penetrates the pay. To ensure a better assessment of drilling mud impact on the pay zone, it is reasonable to carry out the study focused on the analysis of technological parameters, involving filtration, acid and drilling mud tests, as well as formation damage analysis. This would enable evaluating the degree of mudding off, reservoirs acid fracturing effect and the risks of pipe sticking at significant depth. The article presents the results of the above-described study with regard to the currently used drilling mud and new experimental formulations developed at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Laboratory).

  7. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  8. Abnormal Resting State fMRI Activity Predicts Processing Speed Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Argyelan, Miklos; Gallego, Juan A; Robinson, Delbert G; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Sarpal, Deepak; John, Majnu; Kingsley, Peter B; Kane, John; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the neuropsychological significance of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) activity early in the course of psychosis. Moreover, no studies have used different approaches for analysis of rs-fMRI activity and examined gray matter thickness in the same cohort. In this study, 41 patients experiencing a first-episode of psychosis (including N=17 who were antipsychotic drug-naive at the time of scanning) and 41 individually age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers completed rs-fMRI and structural MRI exams and neuropsychological assessments. We computed correlation matrices for 266 regions-of-interest across the brain to assess global connectivity. In addition, independent component analysis (ICA) was used to assess group differences in the expression of rs-fMRI activity within 20 predefined publicly available templates. Patients demonstrated lower overall rs-fMRI global connectivity compared with healthy volunteers without associated group differences in gray matter thickness assessed within the same regions-of-interest used in this analysis. Similarly, ICA revealed worse rs-fMRI expression scores across all 20 networks in patients compared with healthy volunteers, with posthoc analyses revealing significant (p<0.05; corrected) abnormalities within the caudate nucleus and planum temporale. Worse processing speed correlated significantly with overall lower global connectivity using the region-of-interest approach and lower expression scores within the planum temporale using ICA. Our findings implicate dysfunction in rs-fMRI activity in first-episode psychosis prior to extensive antipsychotic treatment using different analytic approaches (in the absence of concomitant gray matter structural differences) that predict processing speed. PMID:25567423

  9. High frequency of p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway abnormalities in relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Wilkinson, Jane; O' Toole, Kieran; Wood, Katrina M.; Challen, Christine C.; Baker, Angela G.; Board, Julian R.; Evans, Laura; Cole, Michael; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Boos, Joachim; Köhler, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Lunec, John; Tweddle, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Most neuroblastomas initially respond to therapy but many relapse with chemoresistant disease. p53 mutations are rare in diagnostic neuroblastomas, but we have previously reported inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway in 9/17 (53%) neuroblastoma cell lines established at relapse. Hypothesis: Inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway develops during treatment and contributes to neuroblastoma relapse. Methods: Eighty-four neuroblastomas were studied from 41 patients with relapsed neuroblastoma including 38 paired neuroblastomas at different stages of therapy. p53 mutations were detected by automated sequencing, p14ARF methylation and deletion by methylation-specific PCR and duplex PCR respectively, and MDM2 amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation. Results: Abnormalities in the p53 pathway were identified in 20/41(49%) cases. Downstream defects due to inactivating missense p53 mutations were identified in 6/41 (15%) cases, 5 following chemotherapy and/or at relapse and 1 at diagnosis, post chemotherapy and relapse. The presence of a p53 mutation was independently prognostic for overall survival (hazard ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2, 9.9; p = 0.02). Upstream defects were present in 35% cases: MDM2 amplification in 3 cases, all at diagnosis & relapse and p14ARF inactivation in 12/41 (29%) cases: 3 had p14ARF methylation, 2 after chemotherapy, and 9 had homozygous deletions, 8 at diagnosis and relapse. Conclusions: These results show that a high proportion of neuroblastomas which relapse have an abnormality in the p53 pathway. The majority have upstream defects suggesting that agents which reactivate wild-type p53 would be beneficial, in contrast to those with downstream defects where p53 independent therapies are indicated. PMID:20145180

  10. Reducing abnormal muscle co-activation after stroke using a myoelectric-computer interface: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Zachary A.; Zev Rymer, W.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant factor in impaired movement caused by stroke is the inability to activate muscles independently. While the pathophysiology behind this abnormal co-activation is not clear, reducing the co-activation could improve overall arm function. A myoelectric computer interface (MCI), which maps EMG signals to cursor movement, could be used as a treatment to help retrain muscle activation patterns. Objective To investigate the use of MCI training to reduce abnormal muscle co-activation in chronic stroke survivors. Methods Five healthy subjects and five stroke survivors with hemiparesis participated in multiple sessions of MCI training. The level of arm impairment in stroke survivors was assessed using the upper extremity portion of Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA-UE). Subjects performed isometric activations of up to five muscles. Activation of each muscle was mapped to different directions of cursor movement. The MCI specifically targeted one pair of muscles in each subject for reduction of co-activation. Results Both healthy subjects and stroke survivors learned to reduce abnormal co-activation of the targeted muscles with MCI training. Three out of five stroke survivors exhibited objective reduction in arm impairment as well (improvement in FMA-UE of 3 points in each of these subjects). Conclusions These results suggest that the MCI was an effective tool in directly retraining muscle activation patterns following stroke. PMID:24376069

  11. Abnormal Tc-99m-MDP/GA-67 scan patterns in association with active chronic osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.; McNeil, B.J.

    1985-05-01

    In this study the authors reviewed data from 136 patients (pts) in order to refine the interpretive criteria used to diagnose active osteomyelitis (AOM) in patients with previous bone disease (e.g., old osteomyelitis, fractures, orthopedic devices excluding prostheses). They evaluated bone (Tc-99mMDP) and gallium 67 studies and obtained followup in all pts. AOM was diagnosed by surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 pts and was excluded by the same criteria in 16 pts. An additional 71 pts had the diagnosis excluded by followup clinical criteria. Five patterns were found. T1: abnormal Tc-99m-MDP, normal Ga-67. T2: diffuse increased uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m-MDP greater than Ga-67. T3: different geographic distribution, but similar intensities of uptake of both. T4: very similar uptake and distribution of both. T5: Ga-67 exceeded Tc-99m-MDP. The authors conclude that T5 is diagnostic of AOM, T3 and T4 raise the probability of AOM than before scanning, T1 and T2 decrease it.

  12. The fungicide imazalil induces developmental abnormalities and alters locomotor activity during early developmental stages in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Zhu, Zhihong; Wang, Yueyi; Yang, Enlu; Feng, Xiayan; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-06-01

    The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is used extensively to protect vegetable fields, fruit plantations and post-harvest crops from rot. Likely due to its wide-spread use, IMZ is frequently detected in vegetable, fruit, soil and even surface water samples. Even though several previous studies have reported on the neurotoxicity of IMZ, its effects on the neurobehavior of zebrafish have received little attention to date. In this study, we show that the heartbeat and hatchability of zebrafish were significantly influenced by IMZ concentrations of 300 μg L(-1) or higher. Moreover, in zebrafish larvae, locomotor behaviors such as average swimming speed and swimming distance were significantly decreased after exposure to 300 μg L(-1) IMZ for 96 h, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression and activity were consistently inhibited in IMZ-treated fish. Our results further suggest that IMZ could act as a neuroendocrine disruptor by decreasing the expression of neurotoxicity-related genes such as Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), Myelin basic protein (Mbp) and Sonic hedgehog a (Shha) during early developmental stages of zebrafish. In conclusion, we show that exposure to IMZ has the potential to induce developmental toxicity and locomotor behavior abnormalities during zebrafish development. PMID:27035382

  13. Abnormal Ventral and Dorsal Attention Network Activity during Single and Dual Target Detection in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Amy M.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Cohen, Mark S.; Engel, Stephen A.; Glahn, David C.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Reavis, Eric A.; Green, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB) in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls. In both tasks, letters were targets and numbers were distractors. For the dual target task, the second target (T2) was presented at three different lags after the first target (T1) (lag1 = 100 ms, lag3 = 300 ms, lag7 = 700ms). For both single and dual target tasks, patients identified fewer targets than controls. For the dual target task, both groups showed the expected AB effect with poorer performance at lag 3 than at lags 1 or 7, and there was no group by lag interaction. During the single target task, patients showed abnormally increased deactivation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), a key region of the ventral network. When attention demands were increased during the dual target task, patients showed overactivation of the posterior intraparietal cortex, a key dorsal network region, along with failure to deactivate TPJ. Results suggest inefficient and faulty suppression of salience-oriented processing regions, resulting in increased sensitivity to stimuli in general, and difficulty distinguishing targets from non-targets. PMID:27014135

  14. Abnormal high-Q modes of coupled stadium-shaped microcavities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jung-Wan; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Inbo; Choi, Muhan; Hentschel, Martina; Kim, Sang Wook

    2014-07-15

    It is well known that the strongly deformed microcavity with fully chaotic ray dynamics cannot support high-Q modes due to its fast chaotic diffusion to the critical line of refractive emission. Here, we investigate how the Q factor is modified when two chaotic cavities are coupled, and show that some modes, whose Q factor is about 10 times higher than that of the corresponding single cavity, can exist. These abnormal high-Q modes are the result of an optimal combination of coupling and cavity geometry. As an example, in the coupled stadium-shaped microcavities, the mode pattern extends over both cavities such that it follows a whispering-gallery-type mode at both ends, whereas a big coupling spot forms at the closest contact of the two microcavities. The pattern of such a "rounded bow tie" mode allows the mode to have a high-Q factor. This mode pattern minimizes the leakage of light at both ends of the microcavities as the pattern at both ends is similar to the whispering gallery mode. PMID:25121685

  15. Accuracy of a Custom Physical Activity and Knee Angle Measurement Sensor System for Patients with Neuromuscular Disorders and Gait Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Feldhege, Frank; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Lindner, Tobias; Hein, Albert; Markschies, Andreas; Zettl, Uwe Klaus; Bader, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Long-term assessment of ambulatory behavior and joint motion are valuable tools for the evaluation of therapy effectiveness in patients with neuromuscular disorders and gait abnormalities. Even though there are several tools available to quantify ambulatory behavior in a home environment, reliable measurement of joint motion is still limited to laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel inertial sensor system for ambulatory behavior and joint motion measurement in the everyday environment. An algorithm for behavior classification, step detection, and knee angle calculation was developed. The validation protocol consisted of simulated daily activities in a laboratory environment. The tests were performed with ten healthy subjects and eleven patients with multiple sclerosis. Activity classification showed comparable performance to commercially available activPAL sensors. Step detection with our sensor system was more accurate. The calculated flexion-extension angle of the knee joint showed a root mean square error of less than 5° compared with results obtained using an electro-mechanical goniometer. This new system combines ambulatory behavior assessment and knee angle measurement for long-term measurement periods in a home environment. The wearable sensor system demonstrated high validity for behavior classification and knee joint angle measurement in a laboratory setting. PMID:25954954

  16. Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by a High-Fat Diet Is Associated with Mitochondrial Abnormality and Adenosine Triphosphate Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki-Woon; Kim, Ok-Soon; Chin, Jung Yeon; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yu Jeong; Shin, Jong Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae; Lim, Do-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is well-known as a risk factor for heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction. However, this mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiac dysfunction develops when rats are fed with a HFD for 10 weeks; additionally, we sought to investigate the association between mitochondrial abnormalities, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and cardiac dysfunction. Methods We examined myocardia in Wistar rats after 10 weeks of HFD (45 kcal% fat, n=6) or standard diet (SD, n=6). Echocardiography, histomorphologic analysis, and electron microscopy were performed. The expression levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit genes, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC1α) and anti-oxidant enzymes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial DNA copy number and myocardial ATP level were also examined. Results After 10 weeks, the body weight of the HFD group (349.6±22.7 g) was significantly higher than that of the SD group (286.8±14.9 g), and the perigonadal and epicardial fat weights of the HFD group were significantly higher than that of the SD group. Histomorphologic and electron microscopic images were similar between the two groups. However, in the myocardium of the HFD group, the expression levels of OXPHOS subunit NDUFB5 in complex I and PGC1α, and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were decreased and the oxidative stress damage marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased, accompanied by reduced ATP levels. Conclusion Diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by the mitochondrial abnormality and reduced ATP levels in the myocardium of 10 weeks-HFD-induced rats. PMID:26790384

  17. High and abnormal forms of aggression in rats with extremes in trait anxiety--involvement of the dopamine system in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Reber, Stefan O; Havasi, Andrea; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2012-12-01

    A better neurobiological understanding of high and abnormal aggression based on adequate animal models is essential for novel therapy and prevention. Selective breeding of rats for extremes in anxiety-related behavior resulted in two behavioral phenotypes with high and abnormal forms of aggression. Rats bred for low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) consistently show highest levels of aggression and little social investigation in the resident-intruder (RI) test, compared with non-selected low-aggressive (NAB) rats. High anxiety-related (HAB) rats also show higher levels of aggression than NAB rats, but to a lesser extent than LAB rats. Accordingly, extremes in inborn anxiety in both directions are linked to an increased aggression level. Further, both LAB and HAB, but not NAB males, display abnormal aggression (attacks towards vulnerable body parts, females or narcotized males), which is particularly prominent in LABs. Also, only in LAB rats, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was found to be strongly activated in response to the RI test as reflected by increased c-fos and zif268 mRNA expression, and higher local dopamine release compared with NAB males, without differences in local dopamine receptor binding. Consequently, local pharmacological manipulation by infusion of an anesthetic (lidocaine, 20 μg/μl) or a dopamine D2 (haloperidol, 10 ng/μl), but not D1 (SCH-23390 10 ng/μl), receptor antagonist significantly reduced high aggression in LAB rats. Thus, LAB rats are an adequate model to study high and abnormal aggression. In LAB males, this is likely to be linked to hyper-activation of the reward system, as found in psychopathic patients. Specifically, activation of the accumbal dopamine system is likely to underlie the high aggression observed in LAB rats. PMID:22608548

  18. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  19. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  20. Isolation and Characterization of an Abnormal High Density Lipoprotein in Tangier Disease

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Gerd; Herbert, Peter N.; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Forte, Trudy

    1977-01-01

    The nature of the high density lipoproteins has been investigated in five patients homozygous for Tangier disease (familial high density lipoprotein deficiency). It has been established that Tangier high density lipoproteins, as isolated by ultracentrifugation, are morphologically heterogenous and contain several proteins (Apo B, albumin, and Apo A-II). An abnormal lipoprotein has been isolated from the d = 1.063-1.21 g/ml ultracentrifugal fraction by agarose-column chromatography which contains apoprotein A-II as the sole protein constituent. In negative-stain electron microscopy, these lipoproteins appeared as spherical particles 55-75 Å in diameter. By a variety of criteria (immunochemical, polyacrylamide electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and fluorescence measurements), apoprotein A-I the major apoprotein of normal high density lipoproteins and the C apoproteins were absent from this lipoprotein. As demonstrated by 125I very low density lipoprotein incubation experiments with Tangier plasma, C apoproteins did not associate with lipoproteins of d = 1.063-1.21 g/ml. Tangier apoprotein A-II, isolated to homogeneity by delipidation of the apoprotein A-II-containing lipoprotein or Sephadex G-200 guanidine-HCl chromatography of the d = 1.063-1.21 g/ml fraction, was indistinguishable from control apoprotein A-II with respect to amino acid composition and migration of tryptic peptides in urea-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The ability of Tangier apoprotein A-II to bind phospholipid was demonstrated by in vitro reconstitution experiments and morphological and chemical analysis of lipid-protein complexes. It is concluded that normal high density lipoproteins, as defined by polypeptide composition and morphological appearance, are absent from Tangier plasma and that as a consequence, the impairment of C apoprotein metabolism contributes to the hypertriglyceridemia and fasting chylomicronemia observed in these patients. Images PMID:194920

  1. Kamin Blocking Is Associated with Reduced Medial-Frontal Gyrus Activation: Implications for Prediction Error Abnormality in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Benjamin; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    The following study used 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural signature of Kamin blocking. Kamin blocking is an associative learning phenomenon seen where prior association of a stimulus (A) with an outcome blocks subsequent learning to an added stimulus (B) when both stimuli are later presented together (AB) with the same outcome. While there are a number of theoretical explanations of Kamin blocking, it is widely considered to exemplify the use of prediction error in learning, where learning occurs in proportion to the difference between expectation and outcome. In Kamin blocking as stimulus A fully predicts the outcome no prediction error is generated by the addition of stimulus B to form the compound stimulus AB, hence learning about it is “blocked”. Kamin blocking is disrupted in people with schizophrenia, their relatives and healthy individuals with high psychometrically-defined schizotypy. This disruption supports suggestions that abnormal prediction error is a core deficit that can help to explain the symptoms of schizophrenia. The present study tested 9 healthy volunteers on an f-MRI adaptation of Oades' “mouse in the house task”, the only task measuring Kamin blocking that shows disruption in schizophrenia patients that has been independently replicated. Participant's Kamin blocking scores were found to inversely correlate with Kamin-blocking-related activation within the prefrontal cortex, specifically the medial frontal gyrus. The medial frontal gyrus has been associated with the psychological construct of uncertainty, which we suggest is consistent with disrupted Kamin blocking and demonstrated in people with schizophrenia. These data suggest that the medial frontal gyrus merits further investigation as a potential locus of reduced Kamin blocking and abnormal prediction error in schizophrenia. PMID:23028415

  2. A multimodal assessment of melanin and melanocyte activity in abnormally pigmented hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Travis, Taryn E; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Using a validated swine model of human scar formation, hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples were examined for their histological and optical properties to help elucidate the mechanisms and characteristics of dyspigmentation. Full-thickness wounds were created on the flanks of red Duroc pigs and allowed to heal. Biopsies from areas of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and uninjured tissue were fixed and embedded for histological examination using Azure B and primary antibodies to S100B, HMB45, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was then used to examine the optical properties of scars. Hyperpigmentation was first noticeable in healing wounds around weeks 2 to 3, gradually becoming darker. There was no significant difference in S100B staining for the presence of melanocytes between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples. Azure B staining of melanin was significantly greater in histological sections from hyperpigmented areas than in sections from both uninjured skin and hypopigmented scar (P < .0001). There was significantly greater staining for α-MSH in hyperpigmented samples compared with hypopigmented samples (P = .0121), and HMB45 staining was positive for melanocytes in hyperpigmented scar. SFDI at a wavelength of 632 nm resulted in an absorption coefficient map correlating with visibly hyperpigmented areas of scars. In a red Duroc model of hypertrophic scar formation, melanocyte number is similar in hyperpigmented and hypopigmented tissues. Hyperpigmented tissues, however, show a greater amount of melanin and α-MSH, along with immunohistochemical evidence of stimulated melanocytes. These observations encourage further investigation of melanocyte stimulation and the inflammatory environment within a wound that may influence melanocyte activity. Additionally, SFDI can be used to identify areas of melanin content in mature, pigmented scars, which may lead to its usefulness in wounds at earlier

  3. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  4. High prevalence of anterolateral ligament abnormalities in magnetic resonance images of anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees.

    PubMed

    Claes, Steven; Bartholomeeusen, Stijn; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the newly described anterolateral ligament of the human knee on magnetic resonance imaging and to describe its eventual radiological abnormalities in anterior cruciate ligament-injured subjects. A retrospective cohort study on a series of consecutive subjects undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery was performed. The MR images of 206 included knees were studied and the status of the anterolateral ligament status was judged to be either "non-visualized", "normal" or "abnormal". Of all the visualized anterolateral ligaments, 44 (21.3%) were considered uninjured, while 162 (78.8%) knees demonstrated radiological ALL abnormalities. The majority of ALL abnormalities were situated in the distal part of the ligament (77.8%). In conclusion, the anterolateral ligament can be identified on classic knee magnetic resonance images. Although anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects often demonstrated associated anterolateral ligament lesions, further research is needed in order to establish the clinical relevance of these highly frequent radiological abnormalities. PMID:24873084

  5. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Julia D.I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in ‘decoding’ mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state (‘mentalizing'versus ‘non-mentalizing’) in a 2 × 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  6. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sam J; Meuwese, Julia D I; Towgood, Karren J; Frith, Christopher D; Burgess, Paul W

    2009-04-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in 'decoding' mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state ('mentalizing'versus 'non-mentalizing') in a 2 x 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  7. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Studies on Abnormally High Ammonium of Natural Origin in A Coastal Aquifer-aquitard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiao, J. J.; Cherry, J.

    2010-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen concentration in water bodies is regarded as an environmental contamination because of its possible harm to human bodies and significant ecological effects. Previous studies commonly concerned on elevated nitrogen in water of anthropogenic origins, such as agricultural, domestic, sewage and industrial discharges, because people realize that it is necessary to manage negative influences of human being to the natural environment. Understanding contamination sources of nitrogen is crucial for both waste discharge management and pollutants cleanup. This study was aimed to 1) understand the spatial distribution of abnormally high ammonium groundwater in the Quaternary basalt aquifer in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China; 2) to distinguish sources of recharge to the basalt aquifer; and 3) to identify the origin of the ammonium in the aquitard and aquifer system. Total 40 boreholes were drilled, and approximately 1000 deposit samples from the aquitard and over 200 groundwater samples from the Quaternary basalt aquifer were collected. A cluster of 7 piezometers was installed in Minzhong Town to study the hydraulic relationships between the aquitard and the basalt aquifer. The results demonstrated that the greater groundwater ammonium concentrations were preserved in the aquifer buried deeper. The ammonium concentration up to 390 mg/L was observed in the basalt sand and gravel Pleistocene aquifer of 20-50m deep, and this is the greatest concentration ever reported for natural groundwater globally. The Quaternary aquitard, which contained abundant sedimentary organic matter and was mainly composed of silt and clay, provided a strict anaerobic environment for sedimentary organic matter mineralization and ammonium preservation. Ammonium concentrations in the aquifer were predominantly controlled by the aquitard ammonium content. This naturally occurring abnormally high ammonium in the Quaternary sediments is areally extensive (over 1600 km2). Great

  8. Activation of a Mitochondrial ATPase Gene Induces Abnormal Seed Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kon; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) proteins are widespread in living organisms. Some of the AAA-type ATPases possess metalloprotease activities. Other members constitute the 26S proteasome complexes. In recent years, a few AAA members have been implicated in vesicle-mediated secretion, membrane fusion, cellular organelle biogenesis, and hypersensitive responses (HR) in plants. However, the physiological roles and biochemical activities of plant AAA proteins have not yet been defined at the molecular level, and regulatory mechanisms underlying their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that overexpression of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a mitochondrial AAA protein, ATPase-in-Seed-Development (ASD), induces morphological and anatomical defects in seed maturation. The ASD gene is expressed at a high level during the seed maturation process and in mature seeds but is repressed rapidly in germinating seeds. Transgenic plants overexpressing the ASD gene are morphologically normal. However, seed formation is severely disrupted in the transgenic plants. The ASD gene is induced by abiotic stresses, such as low temperatures and high salinity, in an abscisic acid (ABA)- dependent manner. The ASD protein possesses ATPase activity and is localized into the mitochondria. Our observations suggest that ASD may play a role in seed maturation by influencing mitochondrial function under abiotic stress. PMID:21359673

  9. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  10. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  11. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4±2.3years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010

  12. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site. PMID:16403014

  13. High Goblet Cell Count Is Inversely Associated with Ploidy Abnormalities and Risk of Adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carissa A.; Liu, Karen; Fong, Pui Yee; Li, Xiaohong; Cowan, David S.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Reid, Brian J.; Blount, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Goblet cells may represent a potentially successful adaptive response to acid and bile by producing a thick mucous barrier that protects against cancer development in Barrett's esophagus (BE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between goblet cells (GC) and risk of progression to adenocarcinoma, and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, in BE patients. Experimental Design Baseline mucosal biopsies (N=2988) from 213 patients, 32 of whom developed cancer during the follow up period, enrolled in a prospective dynamic cohort of BE patients were scored in a blinded fashion, for the total number (#) of GC, mean # of GC/crypt (GC density), # of crypts with ≥ 1 GC, and the proportion of crypts with ≥1 GC, in both dysplastic and non-dysplastic epithelium separately. The relationship between these four GC parameters and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities and adenocarcinoma outcome was compared, after adjustment for age, gender, and BE segment length. Results High GC parameters were inversely associated with DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, such as aneuploidy, ploidy >2.7N, and an elevated 4N fraction > 6%, and with risk of adenocarcinoma. However, a Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total # of GC and the total # crypts with ≥1 GC were the only significant GC parameters (p<0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study show, for the first time, an inverse relationship between high GC counts and flow cytometric abnormalities and risk of adenocarcinoma in BE. Further studies are needed to determine if GC depleted foci within esophageal columnar mucosa are more prone to neoplastic progression or whether loss of GC occurs secondary to underlying genetic abnormalities. PMID:26230607

  14. Pharmacological evidence for Orai channel activation as a source of cardiac abnormal automaticity.

    PubMed

    Wolkowicz, Paul E; Huang, Jian; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; Tabengwa, Edlue; Halloran, Brian A; Urthaler, Ferdinand; Grenett, Hernan E

    2011-10-01

    Calcium transport through plasma membrane voltage-independent calcium channels is vital for signaling events in non-excitable and excitable cells. Following up on our earlier work, we tested the hypothesis that this type of calcium transport can disrupt myocardial electromechanical stability. Our Western and immunofluorescence analyses show that left atrial and ventricular myocytes express the Orai1 and the Orai3 calcium channels. Adding the Orai activator 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) to the superfusate of rat left atria causes these non-automatic muscles to contract spontaneously and persistently at rates of up to 10 Hz, and to produce normal action potentials from normal resting potentials, all in the absence of external stimulation. 2-APB likewise induces such automatic activity in superfused rat left ventricular papillary muscles, and the EC(50)s at which 2-APB induces this activity in both muscles are similar to the concentrations which activate Orais. Importantly, the voltage-independent calcium channel inhibitor 1-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl) propoxy]ethyl-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365) suppresses this automaticity with an IC(50) of 11 ± 0.6 μM in left atria and 6 ± 1.6 μM in papillary muscles. 1-(5-Iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine (ML-7), a second voltage-independent calcium channel inhibitor, and two calmodulin inhibitors also prevent 2-APB automaticity while two calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors do not. Thus an activator of the Orai calcium channels provokes a novel type of high frequency automaticity in non-automatic heart muscle. PMID:21745466

  15. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  16. Oncoprotein HBXIP Modulates Abnormal Lipid Metabolism and Growth of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating the LXRs/SREBP-1c/FAS Signaling Cascade.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Hang; Zhang, Yingyi; Li, Leilei; Fang, Runping; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Weiying; Qiu, Liyan; Liu, Fabao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-08-15

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that fatty acid synthase (FAS, FASN) is a metabolic oncogene that supports the growth and survival of tumor cells and is highly expressed in many cancers. Here, we report that the oncoprotein, hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP, LAMTOR5) contributes to abnormal lipid metabolism. We show that high expression of HBXIP in 236 breast cancer patients was significantly associated with decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Interestingly, the expression of HBXIP was positively related to that of FAS in clinical breast cancer tissues, and HBXIP overexpression in breast cancer cells resulted in FAS upregulation. Mechanistically, HBXIP upregulated SREBP-1c (SREBF1), which activates the transcription of FAS, by directly interacting with and coactivating nuclear receptor (NR) liver X receptors (LXR). Physiologically, LXRs are activated via a coactivator containing NR motif in a ligand-dependent manner. However, in breast cancer cells, HBXIP containing the corepressor/nuclear receptor motif with special flanking sequence could coactivate LXRs independent of ligand. Moreover, overexpressed SREBP-1c was able to activate the transcription of HBXIP, forming a positive-feedback loop. Functionally, HBXIP enhanced lipogenesis, resulting in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP contributes to the abnormal lipid metabolism in breast cancer through LXRs/SREBP-1c/FAS signaling, providing new insights into the mechanisms by which cancer cells reprogram lipid metabolism in their favor. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4696-707. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26980761

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  19. High consumption of pulses is associated with lower risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in women in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, M.; Söderberg, S.; Uusitalo, U.; Tuomilehto, J.; Shaw, J. E.; Zimmet, P. Z.; Kowlessur, S.; Pauvaday, V.; Magliano, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate if consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism, increases in body weight and increases in waist circumference in a multi-ethnic cohort in Mauritius. Methods Population-based surveys were performed in Mauritius in 1992 and in 1998. Pulse consumption was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire in 1992 and outcomes were measured in 1998. At both time points, anthropometry was undertaken and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results Mauritian women with the highest consumption of pulses (highest tertile) had a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism [odds ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.99) compared with those with the lowest consumption, and also after multivariable adjustments. In women, a high consumption of pulses was associated with a smaller increase in BMI. Conclusions High consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of abnormal glucose metabolism and a smaller increase in BMI in Mauritian women. Promotion of pulse consumption could be an important dietary intervention for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mauritius and should be examined in other populations and in clinical trials. PMID:25346062

  20. Abnormally Low or High Ankle-Brachial Index Is Associated with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Lee, Yu-Li; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chang, Jer-Ming; Shin, Shyi–Jang

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have reported that low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients, it remains controversial as to which stage of DR. The aim of this study is to assess whether peripheral artery disease (PAD), indicated by abnormally low or high ABI, is associated with different stages of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and further evaluate the risk factors. A total of 2001 (858 men and 1143 women) patients with type 2 DM who underwent ABI measurement in an outpatient clinic were enrolled. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 in either leg. DR was classified as non-DR, nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR stages. The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 was 3.0%. Multivariate forward logistic regression analysis identified proliferative DR (vs. non-DR) was associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio, 1.718; 95% confidence interval, 1.152 to 2.562; p = 0.008), but nonproliferative DR was not. Furthermore, the presence of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, declining renal function and patients without diuretics use were associated with abnormal ABI in patients with proliferative DR. Our study in patients of type 2 DM demonstrated that PAD was associated with proliferative DR. We emphasize the recommendation of performing the ABI test in this population at risk. PMID:26230390

  1. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  2. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  3. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  4. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  6. Abnormal error-related antisaccade activation in premanifest and early manifest Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, J.; Dzemidzic, M.; Blekher, T.; Bragulat, V.; West, J.; Jackson, J.; Hui, S.; Wojcieszek, J.; Saykin, A.J.; Kareken, D.; Foroud, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Individuals with the trinucleotide CAG expansion (CAG+) that causes Huntington disease (HD) have impaired performance on antisaccade (AS) tasks that require directing gaze in the mirror opposite direction of visual targets. This study aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying altered antisaccadic performance. Method Three groups of participants were recruited: 1) Imminent and early manifest HD (early HD, n=8); 2) premanifest (presymptomatic) CAG+ (preHD, n=10); and 3) CAG unexpanded (CAG−) controls (n=12). All participants completed a uniform study visit that included a neurological evaluation, neuropsychological battery, molecular testing, and functional magnetic resonance imaging during an AS task. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response was obtained during saccade preparation and saccade execution for both correct and incorrect responses using regression analysis. Results Significant group differences in BOLD response were observed when comparing incorrect AS to correct AS execution. Specifically, as the percentage of incorrect AS increased, BOLD responses in the CAG− group decreased progressively in a well-documented reward detection network that includes the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, AS errors in the preHD and early HD groups lacked this relationship with BOLD signal in the error detection network, and BOLD responses to AS errors were smaller in the two CAG+ groups as compared with the CAG− group. Conclusions These results are the first to suggest that abnormalities in an error-related response network may underlie early changes in AS eye movements in premanifest and early manifest HD. PMID:21401260

  7. Dyslexic brain activation abnormalities in deep and shallow orthographies: A meta-analysis of 28 functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Kronbichler, Martin; Richlan, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    We used coordinate-based meta-analysis to objectively quantify commonalities and differences of dyslexic functional brain abnormalities between alphabetic languages differing in orthographic depth. Specifically, we compared foci of under- and overactivation in dyslexic readers relative to nonimpaired readers reported in 14 studies in deep orthographies (DO: English) and in 14 studies in shallow orthographies (SO: Dutch, German, Italian, Swedish). The separate meta-analyses of the two sets of studies showed universal reading-related dyslexic underactivation in the left occipitotemporal cortex (including the visual word form area (VWFA)). The direct statistical comparison revealed higher convergence of underactivation for DO compared with SO in bilateral inferior parietal regions, but this abnormality disappeared when foci resulting from stronger dyslexic task-negative activation (i.e., deactivation relative to baseline) were excluded. Higher convergence of underactivation for DO compared with SO was further identified in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars triangularis, left precuneus, and right superior temporal gyrus, together with higher convergence of overactivation in the left anterior insula. Higher convergence of underactivation for SO compared with DO was found in the left fusiform gyrus, left temporoparietal cortex, left IFG pars orbitalis, and left frontal operculum, together with higher convergence of overactivation in the left precentral gyrus. Taken together, the findings support the notion of a biological unity of dyslexia, with additional orthography-specific abnormalities and presumably different compensatory mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to current functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2676-2699, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061464

  8. Abnormal vitamin K metabolism in the presence of normal clotting factor activity in factory workers exposed to 4-hydroxycoumarins.

    PubMed

    Park, B K; Choonara, I A; Haynes, B P; Breckenridge, A M; Malia, R G; Preston, F E

    1986-03-01

    The case histories of two patients exposed to the novel anticoagulants brodifacoum and difenacoum are reported. Abnormal vitamin K1 metabolism, as indicated by elevated vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide plasma concentrations after i.v. administration of vitamin K1, could be detected for more than 18 months after exposure to the anticoagulants. There was a marked prolongation of prothrombin time (greater than 50 s) in both cases, at the time of exposure. However, subsequent haematological investigations (prothrombin time and vitamin K-dependent clotting factor activity) have been shown to be normal in both cases for at least 18 months. These cases confirm the long-acting nature of brodifacoum and difenacoum and present an apparent dissociation between the effect of coumarin anticoagulants on vitamin K1 metabolism and clotting factor activity. PMID:3964529

  9. Abnormal vitamin K metabolism in the presence of normal clotting factor activity in factory workers exposed to 4-hydroxycoumarins.

    PubMed Central

    Park, B K; Choonara, I A; Haynes, B P; Breckenridge, A M; Malia, R G; Preston, F E

    1986-01-01

    The case histories of two patients exposed to the novel anticoagulants brodifacoum and difenacoum are reported. Abnormal vitamin K1 metabolism, as indicated by elevated vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide plasma concentrations after i.v. administration of vitamin K1, could be detected for more than 18 months after exposure to the anticoagulants. There was a marked prolongation of prothrombin time (greater than 50 s) in both cases, at the time of exposure. However, subsequent haematological investigations (prothrombin time and vitamin K-dependent clotting factor activity) have been shown to be normal in both cases for at least 18 months. These cases confirm the long-acting nature of brodifacoum and difenacoum and present an apparent dissociation between the effect of coumarin anticoagulants on vitamin K1 metabolism and clotting factor activity. PMID:3964529

  10. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  11. γ-Band deficiency and abnormal thalamocortical activity in P/Q-type channel mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Choi, Soonwook; Urbano, Francisco J.; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2007-01-01

    Thalamocortical in vivo and in vitro function was studied in mice lacking P/Q-type calcium channels (CaV2.1), in which N-type calcium channels (CaV2.2) supported central synaptic transmission. Unexpectedly, in vitro patch recordings from thalamic neurons demonstrated no γ-band subthreshold oscillation, and voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated an absence of cortical γ-band-dependent columnar activation involving cortical inhibitory interneuron activity. In vivo electroencephalogram recordings showed persistent absence status and a dramatic reduction of γ-band activity. Pharmacological block of T-type calcium channels (CaV3), although not noticeably affecting normal control animals, left the knockout mice in a coma-like state. Hence, although N-type calcium channels can rescue P/Q-dependent synaptic transmission, P/Q calcium channels are essential in the generation of γ-band activity and resultant cognitive function. PMID:17968008

  12. Detection of abnormal muscle activations during walking following spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; McGregor, Alison H; Tow, Adela

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI participants were given assistance from physiotherapists, if required, while they were walking. In agreement with other research, larger cadence and smaller step length and swing phase of SCI gait were observed as a result of muscle weakness and resultant gait instability. Muscle activation patterns of seven major leg muscles were collected. The EMG signal was processed by the RMS in frequency domain to represent the muscle activation power, and the distribution of muscle activation was compared between healthy and SCI participants. The alternations of muscle activation within the phases of the gait cycle are highlighted to facilitate our understanding of the underlying muscular activation following SCI. Key differences were observed (p-value=0.0006) in the reduced activation of tibialis anterior (TA) in single stance phase and rectus femoris (RF) in swing phase (p-value=0.0011). We can then conclude that the proposed assessment approach of gait provides valuable information that can be used to target and define therapeutic interventions and their evaluation; hence impacting the functional outcome of SCI individuals. PMID:23396198

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. Abnormal Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Facial Expressions in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Amy; Reiss, Allan; Howe, Meghan; Kelley, Ryan; Singh, Manpreet; Adleman, Nancy; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late phase of activation, suggesting different temporal characteristics of brain responses. Method Twenty euthymic adolescents with familial BD (14 male) and twenty-one healthy control subjects (13 male) underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of happy, sad, and neutral facial expressions. Whole brain voxel-wise analyses were conducted in SPM5, using a 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with factors group (BD and healthy control [HC]), facial expression (happy, sad, and neutral versus scrambled), and phase (early and late, corresponding to the first and second half of each block of faces). Results There were no significant group differences in task performance, age, gender, or IQ. Significant activation from the Main Effect of Group included greater DLPFC activation in the HC group, and greater amygdala/hippocampal activation in the BD group. The interaction of Group X Phase identified clusters in the superior temporal sulcus/insula and visual cortex, where activation increased from the early to late phase of the block for the BD but not the HC group. Conclusions These findings are consistent with previous studies that suggest deficient prefrontal cortex regulation of heightened amygdala response to emotional stimuli in pediatric BD. Increasing activation over time in superior temporal and visual cortices suggests difficulty processing or disengaging attention from emotional faces in BD. PMID:22840553

  15. Adolescent Binge Drinking Linked to Abnormal Spatial Working Memory Brain Activation: Differential Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Methods 40 binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males) ages 16 to 19, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and a spatial working memory task (SWM) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Significant binge drinking status x gender interactions were found (p<.05) in 8 brain regions spanning bilateral frontal, anterior cingulate, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. In all regions, female binge drinkers showed less SWM activation than female controls, while male bingers exhibited greater SWM response than male controls. For female binge drinkers, less activation was associated with poorer sustained attention and working memory performances (ps<.025). For male binge drinkers, greater activation was linked to better spatial performance (p<.025). Conclusion Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during a SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that BOLD activation is both affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive

  16. Voxel-wise resting-state MEG source magnitude imaging study reveals neurocircuitry abnormality in active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Yurgil, Kate A.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Nichols, Sharon L.; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Song, Tao; Huang, Charles W.; Lee, Roland R.; Baker, Dewleen G.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a leading cause of sustained impairment, distress, and poor quality of life in military personnel, veterans, and civilians. Indirect functional neuroimaging studies using PET or fMRI with fear-related stimuli support a PTSD neurocircuitry model that includes amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, it is not clear if this model can fully account for PTSD abnormalities detected directly by electromagnetic-based source imaging techniques in resting-state. The present study examined resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 25 active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD and 30 healthy volunteers. In contrast to the healthy volunteers, individuals with PTSD showed: 1) hyperactivity from amygdala, hippocampus, posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and insular cortex in high-frequency (i.e., beta, gamma, and high-gamma) bands; 2) hypoactivity from vmPFC, Frontal Pole (FP), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in high-frequency bands; 3) extensive hypoactivity from dlPFC, FP, anterior temporal lobes, precuneous cortex, and sensorimotor cortex in alpha and low-frequency bands; and 4) in individuals with PTSD, MEG activity in the left amygdala and posterolateral OFC correlated positively with PTSD symptom scores, whereas MEG activity in vmPFC and precuneous correlated negatively with symptom score. The present study showed that MEG source imaging technique revealed new abnormalities in the resting-state electromagnetic signals from the PTSD neurocircuitry. Particularly, posterolateral OFC and precuneous may play important roles in the PTSD neurocircuitry model. PMID:25180160

  17. Mapping of Genetic Abnormalities of Primary Tumours from Metastatic CRC by High-Resolution SNP Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Sayagués, José María; Fontanillo, Celia; Abad, María del Mar; González-González, María; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; del Carmen Chillon, Maria; Garcia, Eva; Bengoechea, Oscar; Fonseca, Emilio; Gonzalez-Diaz, Marcos; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Background For years, the genetics of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have been studied using a variety of techniques. However, most of the approaches employed so far have a relatively limited resolution which hampers detailed characterization of the common recurrent chromosomal breakpoints as well as the identification of small regions carrying genetic changes and the genes involved in them. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we applied 500K SNP arrays to map the most common chromosomal lesions present at diagnosis in a series of 23 primary tumours from sporadic CRC patients who had developed liver metastasis. Overall our results confirm that the genetic profile of metastatic CRC is defined by imbalanced gains of chromosomes 7, 8q, 11q, 13q, 20q and X together with losses of the 1p, 8p, 17p and 18q chromosome regions. In addition, SNP-array studies allowed the identification of small (<1.3 Mb) and extensive/large (>1.5 Mb) altered DNA sequences, many of which contain cancer genes known to be involved in CRC and the metastatic process. Detailed characterization of the breakpoint regions for the altered chromosomes showed four recurrent breakpoints at chromosomes 1p12, 8p12, 17p11.2 and 20p12.1; interestingly, the most frequently observed recurrent chromosomal breakpoint was localized at 17p11.2 and systematically targeted the FAM27L gene, whose role in CRC deserves further investigations. Conclusions/Significance In summary, in the present study we provide a detailed map of the genetic abnormalities of primary tumours from metastatic CRC patients, which confirm and extend on previous observations as regards the identification of genes potentially involved in development of CRC and the metastatic process. PMID:21060790

  18. Association between chronic stress-induced structural abnormalities in Ranvier nodes and reduced oligodendrocyte activity in major depression.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shingo; Taniguchi, Manabu; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Shoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudo, Takashi; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Repeated stressful events are associated with the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously showed oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific activation of the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1 cascade, increased expression of axon-myelin adhesion molecules, and elaboration of the oligodendrocytic arbor in the corpus callosum of chronically stressed mice. In the current study, we demonstrate that the nodes and paranodes of Ranvier in the corpus callosum were narrower in these mice. Chronic stress also led to diffuse redistribution of Caspr and Kv 1.1 and decreased the activity in white matter, suggesting a link between morphological changes in OLs and inhibition of axonal activity. OL primary cultures subjected to chronic stress resulted in SGK1 activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it inhibited the transcription of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Furthermore, the cAMP level and membrane potential of OLs were reduced by chronic stress exposure. We showed by diffusion tensor imaging that the corpus callosum of patients with MDD exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy, reflecting compromised white matter integrity possibly caused by axonal damage. Our findings suggest that chronic stress disrupts the organization of the nodes of Ranvier by suppressing mGluR activation in OLs, and that specific white matter abnormalities are closely associated with MDD onset. PMID:26976207

  19. Association between chronic stress-induced structural abnormalities in Ranvier nodes and reduced oligodendrocyte activity in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Shingo; Taniguchi, Manabu; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Shoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudo, Takashi; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Repeated stressful events are associated with the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously showed oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific activation of the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1 cascade, increased expression of axon-myelin adhesion molecules, and elaboration of the oligodendrocytic arbor in the corpus callosum of chronically stressed mice. In the current study, we demonstrate that the nodes and paranodes of Ranvier in the corpus callosum were narrower in these mice. Chronic stress also led to diffuse redistribution of Caspr and Kv 1.1 and decreased the activity in white matter, suggesting a link between morphological changes in OLs and inhibition of axonal activity. OL primary cultures subjected to chronic stress resulted in SGK1 activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it inhibited the transcription of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Furthermore, the cAMP level and membrane potential of OLs were reduced by chronic stress exposure. We showed by diffusion tensor imaging that the corpus callosum of patients with MDD exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy, reflecting compromised white matter integrity possibly caused by axonal damage. Our findings suggest that chronic stress disrupts the organization of the nodes of Ranvier by suppressing mGluR activation in OLs, and that specific white matter abnormalities are closely associated with MDD onset. PMID:26976207

  20. Abnormal Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Facial Expressions in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Amy S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Howe, Meghan E.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Adleman, Nancy E.; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late…

  1. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  2. Maternal high-fat hypercaloric diet during pregnancy results in persistent metabolic and respiratory abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Pamela S.; Walton, Cheryl; Samsell, Lennie; Perez, Miriam K.; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have shown in a previous population-based study significant correlation between childhood asthma and early abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism. This study's specific aim was to determine whether maternal nutrition in pregnancy affects postnatal metabolic and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. Methods: On gestation day 1, dams were switched from standard chow to either high-fat hypercaloric diet or control diet. Terminal experiments were performed on newborn and weanling offspring of dams fed the study diet during gestation and lactation, and on adult offspring maintained on the same diet as their mother. Results: Pups born from high-fat hypercaloric diet (HFD) dams developed metabolic abnormalities persistent throughout development. Cytokine expression analysis of lung tissues from newborns born to HFD dams revealed a strong proinflammatory pattern. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors was upregulated in lungs of weanlings born to HFD dams, and this was associated to higher respiratory system resistance and lower compliance at baseline, as well as hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Furthermore, HFD dams delivered pups prone to develop more severe disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Conclusion: Maternal nutrition in pregnancy is a critical determinant of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in offspring and also increases risk for bronchiolitis independent from prepregnancy nutrition. PMID:26539661

  3. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  4. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p < 0.001). EUROarray was concordant with other assays evaluated for detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively. PMID:27048314

  5. Abnormal Activation of the Social Brain Network in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Young; Choi, Uk-Su; Park, Sung-Yeon; Oh, Se-Hong; Yoon, Hyo-Woon; Koh, Yun-Joo; Im, Woo-Young; Park, Jee-In; Song, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal findings of social brain network in Korean children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TDC). Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to examine brain activations during the processing of emotional faces (happy, fearful, and neutral) in 17 children with ASD, 24 TDC. Results When emotional face stimuli were given to children with ASD, various areas of the social brain relevant to social cognition showed reduced activation. Specifically, ASD children exhibited less activation in the right amygdala (AMY), right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than TDC group when fearful faces were shown. Activation of left insular cortex and right IFG in response to happy faces was less in the ASD group. Similar findings were also found in left superior insular gyrus and right insula in case of neutral stimulation. Conclusion These findings suggest that children with ASD have different processing of social and emotional experience at the neural level. In other words, the deficit of social cognition in ASD could be explained by the deterioration of the capacity for visual analysis of emotional faces, the subsequent inner imitation through mirror neuron system (MNS), and the ability to transmit it to the limbic system and to process the transmitted emotion. PMID:25670944

  6. Cytokine release syndrome after blinatumomab treatment related to abnormal macrophage activation and ameliorated with cytokine-directed therapy.

    PubMed

    Teachey, David T; Rheingold, Susan R; Maude, Shannon L; Zugmaier, Gerhard; Barrett, David M; Seif, Alix E; Nichols, Kim E; Suppa, Erica K; Kalos, Michael; Berg, Robert A; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Aplenc, Richard; Gore, Lia; Grupp, Stephan A

    2013-06-27

    Blinatumomab is a CD19/CD3-bispecific T-cell receptor-engaging (BiTE) antibody with efficacy in refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Some patients treated with blinatumomab and other T cell-activating therapies develop cytokine release syndrome (CRS). We hypothesized that patients with more severe toxicity may experience abnormal macrophage activation triggered by the release of cytokines by T-cell receptor-activated cytotoxic T cells engaged by BiTE antibodies and leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We prospectively monitored a patient during blinatumomab treatment and observed that he developed HLH. He became ill 36 hours into the infusion with fever, respiratory failure, and circulatory collapse. He developed hyperferritinemia, cytopenias, hypofibrinogenemia, and a cytokine profile diagnostic for HLH. The HLH continued to progress after discontinuation of blinatumomab; however, he had rapid improvement after IL-6 receptor-directed therapy with tocilizumab. Patients treated with T cell-activating therapies, including blinatumomab, should be monitored for HLH, and cytokine-directed therapy may be considered in cases of life-threatening CRS. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00103285. PMID:23678006

  7. Abnormal regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity by calcium and calcitonin in renal cortex from hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mice.

    PubMed

    Fukase, M; Avioli, L V; Birge, S J; Chase, L R

    1984-04-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity was assayed in primary serum-free monolayer tissue culture of renal cortical cells from hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mice and normal litter mates. Morphological and growth characteristics of cells from the two genotypes were indistinguishable. Basal enzyme activity was not significantly different in either type of cell over a wide range of substrate concentration. The enzyme from both genotypes was stimulated by PTH and suppressed by increased phosphate concentration in the culture medium. Whereas 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in cells from normal mice was increased in low calcium medium and suppressed in high calcium medium, the enzyme in cells from Hyp mice was not altered by similar changes in the medium calcium concentration. Salmon calcitonin caused a significant increase in 1 alpha-hydroxylase in cells from normal mice, but did not stimulate enzyme activity in cells from Hyp mice. These studies indicate that control of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is abnormal in renal cortical cells from Hyp mice. Impaired control of this enzyme could result in the inappropriately low circulating concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 that have been observed in humans with hypophosphatemic rickets and in the relatively low activity of 1 alpha-hydroxylase in renal cortical homogenates of Hyp mice compared to that in normal mice on a low phosphate diet. PMID:6705736

  8. Abnormal medial temporal activity for bound information during working memory maintenance in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Luck, David; Danion, Jean-Marie; Marrer, Corrine; Pham, Bich-Tuy; Gounot, Daniel; Foucher, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Alterations of binding in long-term memory in schizophrenia are well established and occur as a result of aberrant activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). In working memory (WM), such a deficit is less clear and the pathophysiological bases remain unstudied. Seventeen patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls performed a WM binding task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Binding was assessed by contrasting two conditions comprising an equal amount of verbal and spatial information (i.e., three letters and three spatial locations), but differing in the absence or presence of a link between them. In healthy controls, MTL activation was observed for encoding and maintenance of bound information but not for its retrieval. Between-group comparisons revealed that patients with schizophrenia showed MTL hypoactivation during the maintenance phase only. In addition, BOLD signals correlated with behavioral performance in controls but not in patients with schizophrenia. Our results confirm the major role that the MTL plays in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Short-term and long-term relational memory deficits in schizophrenia may share common cognitive and functional pathological bases. Our results provide additional information about the episodic buffer that represents an integrative interface between WM and long-term memory. PMID:19693783

  9. IL-6 blockade reverses the abnormal STAT activation of peripheral blood leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M A; Diaz-Torné, C; Hernández, M V; Reina, D; de la Fuente, D; Castellví, I; Moya, P; Ruiz, J M; Corominas, H; Zamora, C; Cantó, E; Sanmartí, R; Juarez, C; Vidal, S

    2015-06-01

    Considering the interplay of multiple STATs in response to cytokines, we investigated how IL-6 and its blocking affect STAT signaling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leukocytes obtained from RA patients before and after tocilizumab treatment and healthy donors (HDs) were cytokine-stimulated and STAT phosphorylation was analyzed by cytometry. RA patients had significantly fewer pSTAT1+, pSTAT3+, and pSTAT6+ monocytes and pSTAT5+ lymphocytes than HDs. After 24weeks of treatment, percentages of IFNγ-induced pSTAT1+ and IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ monocytes in RA patients increased, reaching levels comparable to HDs. pSTAT1+ and pSTAT3+ cells correlated inversely with RA disease activity index and levels of pSTAT+ cells at baseline were higher in patients with good EULAR response to tocilizumab. IFNγ-induced pSTAT1+ cells correlated inversely with memory T cells and anti-CCP levels. IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ cells correlated with Treg/Teff ratio. Our findings suggest that IL-6 blocking reduces the inflammatory mechanisms through the correction of STAT1 and STAT3 activation status. PMID:25847223

  10. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  11. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  12. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M.; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  13. Transmural Distribution of Metabolic Abnormalities and Glycolytic Activity during Dobutamine Induced Demand Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad N; Wang, Xiaohong; Eijgelshoven, Marcel H.J.; Mansoor, Abdul; Zhang, Jianyi

    2008-01-01

    The heterogeneity across the LV wall is characterized by higher rates of oxygen consumption, systolic thickening fraction, myocardial perfusion and lower energetic state in the subendocardial layers (ENDO). During dobutamine stimulation induced demand ischemia, the transmural distribution of energy demand and metabolic markers of ischemia are not known. In this study, hemodynamics, transmural high energy phosphate (HEP) and 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (2DGP) levels and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined under basal conditions (B), during dobutamine infusion (DOB: 20 μg/kg/min iv.), and during coronary stenosis+DOB+2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) infusion. DOB increased rate pressure products (RPP) and MBF significantly without affecting subendocardial to subepicardial blood flow ratio (ENDO/EPI) or HEP levels. During coronary stenosis+DOB+2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) infusion RPP, ischemic zone (IZ) MBF and ENDO/EPI decreased significantly. IZ PCr/ATP decreased significantly (2.30 +/- 0.14, 2.06 +/- 0.13 and 2.04 +/- 0.11 to 1.77 +/- 0.12, 1.70 +/- 0.11 and 1.72 +/- 0.12; EPI, MID and ENDO, respectively) and 2DG6P accumulated in all layers as evidenced by the 2DG6P/PCr (0.55 +/- 0.12, 0.52 +/- 0.10 and 0.37 +/- 0.08; EPI, MID and ENDO respectively; p<0.05, EPI>ENDO). In the IZ the wet weight/dry weight ratio was significantly increased as compared to the normal zone (5.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.4; p<0.05). Thus, in stenotic perfused bed, during dobutamine induced high cardiac workstate, despite higher blood flow the subepicardial layers showed the greater metabolic changes that characterized by a shift toward higher carbohydrate metabolism suggesting a homeostatic responses to high cardiac workstate is characterized by more glucose utilization in energy metabolism. PMID:18424629

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition by gemigliptin prevents abnormal vascular remodeling via NF-E2-related factor 2 activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hee; Park, Sungmi; Oh, Chang Joo; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2015-10-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors exert a potent anti-hyperglycemic effect and reduce cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients. Several studies have shown that DPP-4 inhibitors including sitagliptin have beneficial effects in atherosclerosis and cardiac infarction involving reactive oxygen species. Here, we show that gemigliptin can directly attenuate the abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via enhanced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity. Gemigliptin dramatically prevented ligation injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia in mouse carotid arteries. Likewise, the proliferation of primary VSMCs was significantly attenuated by gemigliptin in a dose-dependent manner consistent with a decrease in phospho-Rb, resulting in G1 cell cycle arrest. We found that gemigliptin enhanced Nrf2 activity not only by mRNA expression, but also by increasing Keap1 proteosomal degradation by p62, leading to the induction of Nrf2 target genes such as HO-1 and NQO1. The anti-proliferative role of gemigliptin disappeared with DPP-4 siRNA knockdown, indicating that the endogenous DPP-4 in VSMCs contributed to the effect of gemigliptin. In addition, gemigliptin diminished TNF-α-mediated cell adhesion molecules such as MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and reduced MMP2 activity in VSMCs. Taken together, our data indicate that gemigliptin exerts a preventative effect on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs via Nrf2. PMID:26187356

  15. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lv; Zhaohui, Liu; Fei, Yan; Ting, Li; Pengfei, Zhao; Wang, Du; Cheng, Dong; Pengde, Guo; Xiaoyi, Han; Xiao, Wang; Rui, Li; Zhenchang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n = 42) and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n = 42) to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF) of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients. PMID:24872895

  16. Transmural distribution of metabolic abnormalities and glycolytic activity during dobutamine-induced demand ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jameel, Mohammad N; Wang, Xiaohong; Eijgelshoven, Marcel H J; Mansoor, Abdul; Zhang, Jianyi

    2008-06-01

    The heterogeneity across the left ventricular wall is characterized by higher rates of oxygen consumption, systolic thickening fraction, myocardial perfusion, and lower energetic state in the subendocardial layers (ENDO). During dobutamine stimulation-induced demand ischemia, the transmural distribution of energy demand and metabolic markers of ischemia are not known. In this study, hemodynamics, transmural high-energy phosphate (HEP), 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (2-DGP) levels, and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined under basal conditions, during dobutamine infusion (DOB: 20 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) iv), and during coronary stenosis + DOB + 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) infusion. DOB increased rate pressure products (RPP) and MBF significantly without affecting the subendocardial-to-subepicardial blood flow ratio (ENDO/EPI) or HEP levels. During coronary stenosis + DOB + 2-DG infusion, RPP, ischemic zone (IZ) MBF, and ENDO/EPI decreased significantly. The IZ ratio of creatine phosphate-to-ATP decreased significantly [2.30 +/- 0.14, 2.06 +/- 0.13, and 2.04 +/- 0.11 to 1.77 +/- 0.12, 1.70 +/- 0.11, and 1.72 +/- 0.12 for EPI, midmyocardial (MID), and ENDO, respectively], and 2-DGP accumulated in all layers, as evidenced by the 2-DGP/PCr (0.55 +/- 0.12, 0.52 +/- 0.10, and 0.37 +/- 0.08 for EPI, MID, and ENDO, respectively; P < 0.05, EPI > ENDO). In the IZ the wet weight-to-dry weight ratio was significantly increased compared with the normal zone (5.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.4; P < 0.05). Thus, in the stenotic perfused bed, during dobutamine-induced high cardiac work state, despite higher blood flow, the subepicardial layers showed the greater metabolic changes characterized by a shift toward higher carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting that a homeostatic response to high-cardiac work state is characterized by more glucose utilization in energy metabolism. PMID:18424629

  17. Pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation related to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Sha, Xiang-Yin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Rui-Ming; Wen, Ye

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether the abnormal differentiation of the pterygium epithelium is related to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK), keratin family members including K19 and K10 and the ocular master control gene Pax-6 were measured in 16 surgically excised pterygium tissues and 12 eye bank conjunctiva. In colony-forming cell assays, the differences in clone morphology and in K10, K19, P-ERK and Pax-6 expression between the head and body were investigated. When cocultured with the ERK signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059, the changes in clone morphology, colony-forming efficiency, differentiated marker K10, K19 and Pax-6 expression and P-ERK protein expression level were examined by immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The expression of K19 and Pax-6 decreased in the pterygium, especially in the head. No staining of K10 was found in the normal conjunctiva epithelium, but it was found to be expressed in the superficial cells in the head of the pterygium. Characteristic upregulation of P-ERK was observed by immunohistochemistry. The clone from the head with more differentiated cells in the center expressed more K10, and the clone from the body expressed more K19. The P-ERK protein level increased in the pterygium epithelium compared with conjunctiva and decreased when cocultured with PD98059. The same medium with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was more effective in promoting clonal growth than conventional medium with 3T3 murine feeder layers. It was observed that the epithelium clone co-cultured with the inhibitor had decreased K10 expression and increased K19 and Pax-6 expression. CONCLUSION We suggest ERK signaling pathway activation might play a role in the pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation. PMID:26682158

  18. Abnormal expression of plasminogen activator inhibitors in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Estellés, A.; Grancha, S.; Gilabert, J.; Thinnes, T.; Chirivella, M.; España, F.; Aznar, J.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma and placenta from pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia is a frequent problem in molar pregnancies. As increases in PAI-1 may contribute to the placental alterations that occur in pre-eclampsia, we have begun to investigate changes in PAI-1 as well as PAI-2 and several other components of the fibrinolytic system in patients with trophoblastic disease. Significant increases in plasma PAI-1 and decreases in plasma PAI-2 levels were observed in molar pregnancies when compared with the levels in normal pregnant women of similar gestational age. PAI-1 antigen levels also were increased, and PAI-2 levels were decreased in placenta from women with molar pregnancies compared with placenta obtained by spontaneous abortion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive and specific staining of PAI-1 in trophoblastic epithelium in molar pregnancies and relatively weak staining of PAI-2. No association between the distribution of PAI-1 and vitronectin was found, and no specific signal for tissue type PA, urokinase type PA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or interleukin-1 was detected. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in PAI-1 but not PAI-2 mRNAs in placenta from molar pregnancies in comparison with placenta from abortions. These results demonstrate increased PAI-1 protein and mRNA in trophoblastic disease and suggest that localized elevated levels of PAI-1 may contribute to the hemostatic problems associated with this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8863672

  19. Abnormal intrinsic brain activity patterns in leukoaraiosis with and without cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanming; Yang, Jun; Yin, Xuntao; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaochun; Gui, Li; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) signals can be used to detect intrinsic spontaneous brain activity and provide valuable insights into the pathomechanism of neural disease. In this study, we recruited 56 patients who had been diagnosed as having mild to severe leukoaraiosis. According to the neuropsychological tests, they were subdivided into a leukoaraiosis with cognitive impairment group (n = 28) and a leukoaraiosis without cognitive impairment group (n = 28). 28 volunteers were included as normal controls. We found that the three groups showed significant differences in ALFF in the brain regions of the right inferior occipital gyrus (IOG_R), left middle temporal gyrus (MTG_L), left precuneus (Pcu_L), right superior frontal gyrus (SFG_R) and right superior occipital gyrus (SOG_R). Compared with normal controls, the leukoaraiosis without cognitive impairment group exhibited significantly increased ALFF in the IOG_R, Pcu_L, SFG_R and SOG_R. While compared with leukoaraiosis without cognitive impairment group, the leukoaraiosis with cognitive impairment group showed significantly decreased ALFF in IOG_R, MTG_L, Pcu_L and SOG_R. A close negative correlation was found between the ALFF values of the MTG_L and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Our data demonstrate that white matter integrity and cognitive impairment are associated with different amplitude fluctuations of rs-fMRI signals. Leukoaraiosis is related to ALFF increases in IOG_R, Pcu_L, SFG_Orb_R and SOG_R. Decreased ALFF in MTG_L is characteristic of cognitive impairment and may aid in its early detection. PMID:26116811

  20. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  1. Abnormal brain activation and connectivity to standardized disorder-related visual scenes in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Feldker, Katharina; Neumeister, Paula; Zepp, Britta Maria; Peterburs, Jutta; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of altered emotional processing in social anxiety disorder (SAD) is hampered by a heterogeneity of findings, which is probably due to the vastly different methods and materials used so far. This is why the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated immediate disorder-related threat processing in 30 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) with a novel, standardized set of highly ecologically valid, disorder-related complex visual scenes. SAD patients rated disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes as more unpleasant, arousing and anxiety-inducing than HC. On the neural level, disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes evoked differential responses in SAD patients in a widespread emotion processing network including (para-)limbic structures (e.g. amygdala, insula, thalamus, globus pallidus) and cortical regions (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and precuneus). Functional connectivity analysis yielded an altered interplay between PCC/precuneus and paralimbic (insula) as well as cortical regions (dmPFC, precuneus) in SAD patients, which emphasizes a central role for PCC/precuneus in disorder-related scene processing. Hyperconnectivity of globus pallidus with amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) additionally underlines the relevance of this region in socially anxious threat processing. Our findings stress the importance of specific disorder-related stimuli for the investigation of altered emotion processing in SAD. Disorder-related threat processing in SAD reveals anomalies at multiple stages of emotion processing which may be linked to increased anxiety and to dysfunctionally elevated levels of self-referential processing reported in previous studies. PMID:26806013

  2. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26800576

  3. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles.

    PubMed

    Hunt, W A; Joseph, J A; Rabin, B M

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied. PMID:11537313

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  5. Current source imaging for high spatial resolution magnetocardiography in normal and abnormal rat cardiac muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Iramina, K.; Goto, K.; Ueno, S.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the current source produced by acute ischemia and infarction. We measured magnetocardiograms (MCG) and electrocardiograms (ECG) of five male rats using a high-resolution dc superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer in a magnetically shielded room after performing coronary artery occlusion. The spatial resolution of the detecting magnetic field of our system is higher than the typical system, thus permitting the measurement of magnetic fields in small animals. Distribution of the magnetic fields B(t) and distribution of |rot B(t)|, which corresponded to the distribution of the current source, were imaged by 12-channel MCGs. As a result, the distribution of current source changes in the affected area of the myocardium during the ST segment, and amplitude of the peak significantly increased after occlusion. Our system can be used to help clarify the mechanism of the ST shift related to severe heart disease.

  6. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  7. High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zara, Janette N.; Siu, Ronald K.; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M.; Ting, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The major Food and Drug Association–approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  8. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  9. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract improves high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Mina; Kwon, Oran; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis is a bamboo leaf that is only grown on Jeju Island in South Korea. It is used as a bamboo tea that is consumed for therapeutic purposes, particularly for its anti-diabetic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of S. quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on high fat-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in rats. SQE supplementation significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as the atherogenic index. SQE restored levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were lowered by a high fat diet. Plasma and cardiac resistin levels were also significantly decreased by SQE supplementation. In adipose tissue, mRNA levels of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were suppressed in the SQE group. SQE supplementation decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, inflammatory cell infiltrations, levels of triglycerides, and total lipids in the liver and effectively down-regulated expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2). These results suggest that SQE may be a potential treatment for high fat-related disorders by improving lipid profiles and modulating lipid metabolism. PMID:24738745

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  11. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  12. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  13. Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during "Target" sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2012-03-01

    The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory "oddball" attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances. PMID:22574285

  14. Abnormal activation of potassium channels in aortic smooth muscle of rats with peritonitis-induced septic shock.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Shiu-Jen; Shih, Chih-Chin; Lue, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the role of membrane hyperpolarization in mediating vascular hyporeactivity induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in endothelial-denuded strips of rat thoracic aorta ex vivo. The CLP for 18 h elicited a significant fall of blood pressure and a severe vascular hyporeactivity to norepinephrine as seen in severe sepsis. At the end of the in vivo experiments, thoracic aortas were removed from both CLP-treated and control rats. After removal of the endothelium, aortic segments were mounted in myographs for the recording of isometric tension and smooth muscle membrane potential. The membrane potential recording showed that a hyperpolarization was observed in the CLP-treated rats when compared with the control rats. This hyperpolarization was reversed by iberiotoxin (a large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (a voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker), barium (an inward rectifier K+ channels blocker), N-(1-adamantyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-4-morpholinecarboxamidine hydrochloride (a pore-forming blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channels [KATP]), or methylene blue (a nonspecific guanylyl cyclase [GC] inhibitor). However, this hyperpolarization was not significantly affected by apamin (a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), glibenclamide (a sulfonylurea blocker of KATP), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a NOS inhibitor), or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an NO-sensitive GC inhibitor). In addition, the basal tension of the tissues obtained from CLP rats was increased simultaneously, whereas membrane potential was reversed. In contrast, none of these inhibitors had significant effects on the membrane potential or the basal tension in control tissues. Thus, we provide electrophysiological and functional evidence demonstrating that an abnormal activation of K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle in animals with septic shock induced by CLP. Our observations

  15. Reciprocal Effects of Oxidative Stress on Heme Oxygenase Expression and Activity Contributes to Reno-Vascular Abnormalities in EC-SOD Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tomoko; Puri, Nitin; Sodhi, Komal; Bellner, Lars; Takahashi, Toru; Morita, Kiyoshi; Rezzani, Rita; Oury, Tim D.; Abraham, Nader G.

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) system is one of the key regulators of cellular redox homeostasis which responds to oxidative stress (ROS) via HO-1 induction. However, recent reports have suggested an inhibitory effect of ROS on HO activity. In light of these conflicting reports, this study was designed to evaluate effects of chronic oxidative stress on HO system and its role in contributing towards patho-physiological abnormalities observed in extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) KO animals. Experiments were performed in WT and EC-SOD(−/−) mice treated with and without HO inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). EC-SOD(−/−) mice exhibited oxidative stress, renal histopathological abnormalities, elevated blood pressure, impaired endothelial function, reduced p-eNOS, p-AKT and increased HO-1 expression; although, HO activity was significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated along with attenuation of serum adiponectin and vascular epoxide levels (P < 0.05). CoPP, in EC-SOD(−/−) mice, enhanced HO activity (P < 0.05) and reversed aforementioned pathophysiological abnormalities along with restoration of vascular EET, p-eNOS, p-AKT and serum adiponectin levels in these animals. Taken together our results implicate a causative role of insufficient activation of heme-HO-adiponectin system in pathophysiological abnormalities observed in animal models of chronic oxidative stress such as EC-SOD(−/−) mice. PMID:22292113

  16. Abnormalities of AMPK Activation and Glucose Uptake in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells from Individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Audrey E.; Jones, David E.; Walker, Mark; Newton, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects. Methods Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise. Results In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured. Conclusion EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25836975

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of myocardial deformation indices for detecting high risk coronary artery disease in patients without regional wall motion abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Alireza; Shojaeifard, Maryam; Rezaei, Yousef; Dehghan, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) by conventional echocardiographic measurements is principally based on the estimation of ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). This study aimed to determine whether strain echocardiography of left ventricle measured by velocity vector imaging (VVI) method could detect patients with a high-risk CAD. Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 119 consecutive patients who were assessed for eligibility were categorized into three groups: (1) without CAD as normal (n=59), (2) 1- or 2-vessel disease as low-risk (n=29), and (3) left main and/or 3-vessel disease as high-risk (n=31). The peaks of systolic strain and strain rate from 18 curves of apical views were averaged as global longitudinal strain and strain rate (GLS and GLSR), respectively; the 6 systolic peaks of strain and strain rate at base- and mid-ventricular of short axis views were averaged as mean radial strain rate (MRSR). Results: GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of left ventricle were significantly lower in the high-risk group (P=0.047, P=0.004 and P=0.030, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve showed that the optimal values of GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR for detecting the severe CAD were -17%, -1 s-1, and 1.45 s-1 with the sensitivities of 77%, 71%, and 71% and the specificities of 63%, 67%, and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: Decrements in the GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of the left ventricle can detect the high-risk CAD cases among patients without RWMA at rest. PMID:26309603

  18. Disturbances of the VLF/LF radio signal reception at Dobrogea Seismological Observatory due to local abnormal electric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Toader, Victorin; Dolea, Paul; Biagi, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The National Institute for Earth Physics, as part of the INFREP initiative, has monitored radio waves emitted by 10 transmitters all over Europe in relation with seismicity in the last 5 years. In Romania a radio receiving system is located in only one site (Dobrogea Seismological Observatory) situated in Eforie Nord, in the Eastern part of Romania. The electro-magnetic field monitored both at the ground and (sub) ionospheric level, in different frequency ranges (VLF/LF) is considered to be promising for earthquake forecasting. Because the abnormal behavior of the VLF/LF recordings that could not be correlated with the tectonic activity of the seismogenic zones crossed by the radio paths, we decided to monitor other two parameters, at the receiving site: the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field, which indicates variations of electrical properties of the near-ground air (Boltek electric field mill), and the atmospheric local conditions (WS-3600 weather station). The zone is also surveyed by seismic devices (seismometers, accelerometers and infrasonic equipment) and GPS/GNSS base stations to emphasize the local tectonic conditions. We obtained in such way a multiple-parameter monitoring system that increases the confidence in observational data and decreases uncertainties regarding the accuracy of the data recorded until now. As we are exploring different parameters we have obtained some conclusions regarding the correlation of the anomalies with their possible causes. The final expectation of the monitoring system regard the chance to take a snapshot of the geophysical medium before, during and after a significant earthquake occurrence and to reveal if there was or wasn't a noticeable trace of the preparatory stage of it. This work was partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programe for research- Space Technology and Avanced Research - STAR, project number 84/2013, and by the NUCLEU project, PN 09

  19. Abnormal activation of calpain and protein kinase Cα promotes a constitutive release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Averna, Monica; Bavestrello, Margherita; Cresta, Federico; Pedrazzi, Marco; De Tullio, Roberta; Minicucci, Laura; Sparatore, Bianca; Salamino, Franca; Pontremoli, Sandro; Melloni, Edon

    2016-08-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is physiologically involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix components but its abnormal release has been observed in several human pathologies. We here report that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients homozygous for F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), express constitutively and release at high rate MMP9 due to the alteration in their intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. This spontaneous and sustained MMP9 secretion may contribute to the accumulation of this protease in fluids of CF patients. Conversely, in PBMCs isolated from healthy donors, expression and secretion of MMP9 are undetectable but can be evoked, after 12 h of culture, by paracrine stimulation which also promotes an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. We also demonstrate that in both CF and control PBMCs the Ca(2+)-dependent MMP9 secretion is mediated by the concomitant activation of calpain and protein kinase Cα (PKCα), and that MMP9 expression involves extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Our results are supported by the fact that either the inhibition of Ca(2+) entry or chelation of [Ca(2+)]i as well as the inhibition of single components of the signaling pathway or the restoration of CFTR activity all promote the reduction of MMP9 secretion. PMID:27349634

  20. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, P< 0·05). MI supplementation significantly reduced fatty acid synthase activity in epididymal WAT, which might explain its beneficial, but modest, effect on WAT accretion in HFD-fed mice. Finally, we found some abnormalities in inositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model. PMID:25990651

  1. Reduction of low- and high-grade cervical abnormalities associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, K G J; Kavanagh, K; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Cruickshank, M; Palmer, T J; Nicoll, S; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Scotland, a national HPV immunisation programme began in 2008 for 12- to 13-year olds, with a catch-up campaign from 2008 to 2011 for those under the age of 18. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation on cervical disease at the population level, a programme of national surveillance was established. Methods: We analysed colposcopy data from a cohort of women born between 1988 and 1992 who entered the Scottish Cervical Screening Programme (SCSP) and were aged 20–21 in 2008–2012. Results: By linking datasets from the SCSP and colposcopy services, we observed a significant reduction in diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1; RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87; P=0.0008), CIN 2 (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.63; P<0.0001) and CIN 3 (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.58; P<0.0001) for women who received three doses of vaccine compared with unvaccinated women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to show a reduction of low- and high-grade CIN associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine at the population level. These data are very encouraging for countries that have achieved high HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25180766

  2. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6(-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6(-/-) and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6(-/-) mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6(-/-) mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6(-/-) mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  3. Activation of C-F bonds in fluoroarenes by N-heterocyclic carbenes as an effective route to synthesize abnormal NHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsuk; Lee, Eunsung

    2016-09-18

    IPr (1a) reacts with octafluorotoluene by an unexpected sequential substitution of fluorides in two separate rings. The resulting tetrasubstituted imidazolium salt was isolated and elaborated into Ag(i) and Au(i) complexes with a novel abnormal NHC ligand. Both IPr (1a) and IMes (1b) were also found to be moderately reactive by nucleophilic substitution of the aromatic C-F bond in a weakly-activated fluoroarene, 1-fluoro-4-trifluoromethylbenzene (5). PMID:27533338

  4. Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, P.E.; Shuaib, F.M.; Jiang, Y.; Preko, P.; Baidoo, J.; Stiles, J.K.; Wang, J.-S.; Phillips, T.D.; Williams, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between certain clinical factors and aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct (AF-ALB) levels in HIV-positive people. Plasma samples collected from 314 (155 HIV-positive and 159 HIV-negative) people were tested for AF-ALB levels, viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, liver function profile, malaria parasitaemia, and hepatitis B and C virus infections. HIV-positive participants were divided into high and low groups based on their median AF-ALB of 0.93 pmol mg−1 albumin and multivariable logistic and linear regression methods used to assess relationships between clinical conditions and AF-ALB levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed statistically significant increased odds of having higher HIV viral loads (OR=2.84; 95% CI=1.17–7.78) and higher direct bilirubin levels (OR=5.47; 95% CI=1.03–22.85) among HIV-positive participants in the high AF-ALB group. There were also higher levels of total bilirubin and lower levels of albumin in association with high AF-ALB. Thus, aflatoxin exposure may contribute to high viral loads and abnormal liver function in HIV-positive people and so promote disease progression. PMID:21749228

  5. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  6. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  7. Functional abnormalities of heparan sulfate in mucopolysaccharidosis-I are associated with defective biologic activity of FGF-2 on human multipotent progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chendong; Nelson, Matthew S; Reyes, Morayma; Koodie, Lisa; Brazil, Joseph J; Stephenson, Elliot J; Zhao, Robert C; Peters, Charles; Selleck, Scott B; Stringer, Sally E; Gupta, Pankaj

    2005-09-15

    In mucopolysaccharidosis-I (MPS-I), alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency leads to progressive heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation. The functional consequences of these accumulated molecules are unknown. HS critically influences tissue morphogenesis by binding to and modulating the activity of several cytokines (eg, fibroblast growth factors [FGFs]) involved in developmental patterning. We recently isolated a multipotent progenitor cell from postnatal human bone marrow, which differentiates into cells of all 3 embryonic lineages. The availability of multipotent progenitor cells from healthy volunteers and patients with MPS-I (Hurler syndrome) provides a unique opportunity to directly examine the functional effects of abnormal HS on cytokine-mediated stem-cell proliferation and survival. We demonstrate here that abnormally sulfated HS in Hurler multipotent progenitor cells perturb critical FGF-2-FGFR1-HS interactions, resulting in defective FGF-2-induced proliferation and survival of Hurler multipotent progenitor cells. Both the mitogenic and survival-promoting activities of FGF-2 were restored by substitution of Hurler HS by normal HS. This perturbation of critical HS-cytokine receptor interactions may represent a mechanism by which accumulated HS contributes to the developmental pathophysiology of Hurler syndrome. Similar mechanisms may operate in the pathogenesis of other diseases where structurally abnormal GAGs accumulate. PMID:15947088

  8. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. PMID:24106132

  9. Is abnormal non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol a gender-specific predictor for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia taking second-generation antipsychotics?

    PubMed

    Lin, Esther Ching-Lan; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Yang, Hsin-Ju; Yen, Miaofen; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wu, Pei-Chun; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-01

    Evidence supports an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and schizophrenia. However, specific risk factors for MetS and gender differences in patients with schizophrenia taking second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have not been well explored. A cross-sectional cohort of 329 Han Chinese patients was recruited in a psychiatric hospital in central Taiwan. Using the definitions of the International Diabetes Federation for Chinese, the prevalence of MetS was 23.7% (men: 25.7%; women: 21.2%). Logistic regression analyses showed that patients with a BMI ≥ 24 and an abnormal non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to develop MetS. A BMI ≥ 24 was a significant risk factor in men (OR: 6.092, p < 0.001) and women (OR: 5.886, p < 0.001). An abnormal non-HDL-C was a significant specific risk factor for men with MetS (OR: 4.127, p < 0.001), but not for women. This study supports a greater prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia taking SGAs than in the general population. Abnormal BMI and non-HDL-C were significantly associated with developing MetS, and an abnormal non-HDL-C was a specific risk factor for men. Future development of specific interventions and regular monitoring for MetS is imperative for early identification and prevention. PMID:25034455

  10. Patients with MCI and N400 or P600 abnormalities are at very high risk for conversion to dementia

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, J.M.; Taylor, J.R.; Gatherwright, J.; Salmon, D.P.; Bressler, A.J.; Kutas, M.; Iragui-Madoz, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought cognitive event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers of disease progression and subsequent conversion to dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Background Two ERP components, the P600 and N400, are sensitive to abnormal episodic/declarative memory and semantic processing. When congruous category-exemplars are repeated, smaller P600s (relative to initial presentation) are normally elicited. Repetitions of semantically incongruous words yield smaller N400 amplitude. In mild Alzheimer disease (AD), abnormalities of both the N400 and P600 repetition effects are present, suggesting a wide-spread failure of synaptic plasticity. Methods Patients with amnestic MCI (n = 32) were longitudinally studied annually with an ERP paradigm in which semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous target words are repeated 10 to 140 seconds after initial presentation. ERP data were analyzed to contrast MCI-to-AD converters (within 3 years) vs nonconverters, using split-plot analyses of variance. Results A statistically significant P600 congruous word repetition effect was found only in the nonconverter group (F = 9.9, p = 0.005 vs MCI converters). This effect correlated with verbal memory measures. Repetition of incongruous words produced a significant N400 amplitude attenuation (across right-hemisphere sites) in nonconverters, but not in converters. Patients with MCI with abnormal/reduced N400 or P600 word repetition effects had an 87 to 88% likelihood of dementia within 3 years while those with normal/spared N400 and P600 repetition effects had only an 11 to 27% likelihood. Conclusions Abnormalities of the P600 or N400 in mild cognitive impairment are associated with an increased risk of subsequent conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD). These event-related potential components may offer useful biomarkers for the detection and staging of very early AD. PMID:18077800

  11. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  12. Abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways in frontal cortical areas in postmortem brain in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Funk, Adam J; McCullumsmith, Robert E; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia may result from alterations of integration of signaling mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities of associated intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Proteins and phospho-proteins comprising mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-associated signaling pathways may be abnormally expressed in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia. Using western blot analysis we examined proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in these two brain regions. Postmortem samples were used from a well-characterized collection of elderly patients with schizophrenia (ACC=36, DLPFC=35) and a comparison (ACC=33, DLPFC=31) group. Near-infrared intensity of IR-dye labeled secondary antisera bound to targeted proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways was measured using LiCor Odyssey imaging system. We found decreased expression of Rap2, JNK1, JNK2, PSD-95, and decreased phosphorylation of JNK1/2 at T183/Y185 and PSD-95 at S295 in the ACC in schizophrenia. In the DLPFC, we found increased expression of Rack1, Fyn, Cdk5, and increased phosphorylation of PSD-95 at S295 and NR2B at Y1336. MAPK- and cAMP-associated molecules constitute ubiquitous intracellular signaling pathways that integrate extracellular stimuli, modify receptor expression and function, and regulate cell survival and neuroplasticity. These data suggest abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in frontal cortical areas in schizophrenia. These alterations may underlie the hypothesized hypoglutamatergic function in this illness. Together with previous findings, these data suggest that abnormalities of intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:22048463

  13. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  14. Abnormal Brain Activation in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Link between Visual Processing and the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Violante, Inês R.; Ribeiro, Maria J.; Cunha, Gil; Bernardino, Inês; Duarte, João V.; Ramos, Fabiana; Saraiva, Jorge; Silva, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common single gene disorders affecting the human nervous system with a high incidence of cognitive deficits, particularly visuospatial. Nevertheless, neurophysiological alterations in low-level visual processing that could be relevant to explain the cognitive phenotype are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study early cortical visual pathways in children and adults with NF1. We employed two distinct stimulus types differing in contrast and spatial and temporal frequencies to evoke relatively different activation of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways. Hemodynamic responses were investigated in retinotopically-defined regions V1, V2 and V3 and then over the acquired cortical volume. Relative to matched control subjects, patients with NF1 showed deficient activation of the low-level visual cortex to both stimulus types. Importantly, this finding was observed for children and adults with NF1, indicating that low-level visual processing deficits do not ameliorate with age. Moreover, only during M-biased stimulation patients with NF1 failed to deactivate or even activated anterior and posterior midline regions of the default mode network. The observation that the magnocellular visual pathway is impaired in NF1 in early visual processing and is specifically associated with a deficient deactivation of the default mode network may provide a neural explanation for high-order cognitive deficits present in NF1, particularly visuospatial and attentional. A link between magnocellular and default mode network processing may generalize to neuropsychiatric disorders where such deficits have been separately identified. PMID:22723888

  15. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  16. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  17. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  18. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  19. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin; Zhang, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  20. Post-translationally Abnormal Collagens of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase-2 Null Mice Offer a Pathobiological Mechanism for the High Myopia Linked to Human LEPREL1 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, David M.; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H.; Eyre, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2n/n) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2n/n mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. PMID:25645914

  1. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  2. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Barbara; Wu, Nian; Gyapon-Quast, Frederick; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming; Pickering, Matthew C; Linhardt, Robert J; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-07-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. (1)H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  3. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  4. Palpable pediatric thyroid abnormalities – diagnostic pitfalls necessitate a high index of clinical suspicion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Klopper, Joshua P; McDermott, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with a 4 year history of an enlarged, firm thyroid gland. On exam, her thyroid was firm and fixed and an enlarged cervical lymph node was palpable as well. Though a thyroid ultrasound prior to referral was read as thyroiditis, clinical suspicion for thyroid carcinoma mandated continued investigation. The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer was established and her workup revealed lymph node metastases as well as a tremendous burden of pulmonary metastases. Pediatric thyroid cancer is extremely rare, but often presents with aggressive disease. Palpable thyroid abnormalities in an individual under 20-years-old should be viewed with suspicion and should be thoroughly investigated to rule out malignancy even in the face of negative diagnostic procedures. Though pediatric papillary thyroid cancer often presents with loco-regional and even distant metastatic disease, mortality rates in follow-up for as long as 20 years are very favorable. PMID:17587454

  5. [An acute severe heat stroke patient showing abnormal diffuse high intensity of the cerebellar cortex in diffusion weighted image: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yusuke; Yasui, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Akira; Sobue, Gen

    2009-10-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of general convulsion, loss of consciousness and hyperthermia. A diagnosis of acute heat stroke was made clinically and neuroradiologically. As the consciousness level ameliorated, he developed severe abulia and mutism, then cerebellar ataxic syndrome (viz. truncal ataxia, hypermetria, ataxic speech and nystagmus). An MRI (diffusion weighted image; DWI) disclosed abnormal diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Two months later after the onset, truncal ataxia and dysarthria significantly improved, while dysmetria of the extremities rather worsened. At that time, the abnormal signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex disappeared, and the cerebellum became atrophic. The cerebellar blood flow was significantly decreased on brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD). The abnormal DWI signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex in the present patient may represent the cytotoxic edema of Purkinje cells resulting from heat stroke-related hyperthermia It is essential to repeat MRI examination for cerebellar pathology and to obtain better insight into sequelae in patients with acute heat stroke. Protirelin tartrate seemed to be valid for improvement of abulia in the present patient. Further study is indicated. PMID:19999144

  6. Quantification of the DNA content of structurally abnormal X chromosomes and X chromosome aneuploidy using high resolution bivariate flow karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Trask, B; van den Engh, G; Nussbaum, R; Schwartz, C; Gray, J

    1990-01-01

    Quantification of the Hoechst and chromomycin A3 fluorescence intensities of mitotic human chromosomes isolated from karyotypically normal and abnormal cells was performed with a dual beam flow cytometer. The resultant flow karyotypes contain information about the relative DNA content and base composition of chromosomes and their relative frequencies in the mitotic cell sample. The relative copy number of X and Y chromosomes was determined for 38 normal males and females and 6 cell lines with X or Y chromosome aneuploidy. Flow karyotype diagnoses corresponded with conventional cytogenetic results in all cases. We show that chromosome DNA content can be derived from peak position in Hoechst vs. chromomycin flow karyotypes. These values are linearly related to propidium iodide staining intensity as measured with flow cytometry and to the binding of gallocyanin chrome alum to phosphate groups as measured with slide-based scanning photometry. Cell lines with deleted or dicentric X chromosomes ranging in length from 0.53 to 1.95 times normal were analyzed by using flow cytometry. The measured difference in DNA content between a normal X and each of the structurally abnormal chromosomes was linearly correlated to the difference predicted from cytogenetics and/or probe analyses. Deletions of 3-5 Mb, which were at and below the detection limits of conventional cytogenetics, could be quantified by flow karyotyping in individuals with X-linked diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, choroideremia, and ocular albinism/ichthyosis. The results show that the use of flow karyotyping to quantify the size of restricted regions of the genome can complement conventional cytogenetics and other physical mapping techniques in the study of genetic disorders. PMID:2106419

  7. Abnormal spontaneous regional brain activity in primary insomnia: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaofen; Dong, Mengshi; Yin, Yi; Hua, Kelei; Li, Meng; Li, Changhong; Zhan, Wenfeng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigating functional specialization is crucial for a complete understanding of the neural mechanisms of primary insomnia (PI). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a useful tool to explore the functional specialization of PI. However, only a few studies have focused on the functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI and results of these studies were far from consistent. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate functional specialization of PI using resting-state fMRI with amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) algorithm. Methods In this study, 55 PI patients and 44 healthy controls were included. ALFF values were compared between the two groups using two-sample t-test. The relationship of abnormal ALFF values with clinical characteristics and duration of insomnia was investigated using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results PI patients showed lower ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, while higher ALFF values in the right middle/inferior temporal that extended to the right occipital lobe. In addition, we found that the duration of PI negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score negatively correlated with ALFF values in the left inferior parietal lobule. Conclusion The present study added information to limited studies on functional specialization and provided evidence for hyperarousal hypothesis in PI. PMID:27366068

  8. Beneficial effects of sodium butyrate in 6-OHDA induced neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities: Modulation of histone deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Singh, Sumel

    2015-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have investigated the involvement of epigenetic modifications in PD. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to be beneficial in cognitive and motor deficit states. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - induced experimental PD like symptoms in rats. To produce motor deficit, 6-OHDA was administered unilaterally in the right medial forebrain bundle. Three weeks after 6-OHDA administration, the rats were challenged with apomorphine. Following this, the animals were treated with sodium butyrate (150 and 300 mg/kg i.p.) once daily for 14 days. Movement abnormalities were assessed by battery of behavioral tests. Biochemically, oxidative stress markers, neuroinflammation and dopamine were measured in striatal brain homogenate. Further, to explore the molecular mechanism(s), we measured the level of global H3 histone acetylation and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). 6-OHDA administration results in significant motor deficit along with reduction in striatal dopamine level. 6-OHDA treated rats showed elevated oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. Treatment with sodium butyrate results in significant attenuation of motor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Moreover, sodium butyrate treatment attenuated the oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. These effects occur concurrently with increased global H3 histone acetylation and BDNF levels. Thus, the observed results of the present study are indicative for the therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in PD. PMID:26048426

  9. Abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by Catharanthus roseus treatments.

    PubMed

    Rasineni, Karuna; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2013-09-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups C and C+CR) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (groups F and F+CR) were fed with high-fructose (66 %) diet. C. roseus leaf powder suspension in water (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CR and group F+CR. At the end of a 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. roseus treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F was significantly decreased with C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that C. roseus treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it. PMID:23334857

  10. Quetiapine Inhibits Microglial Activation by Neutralizing Abnormal STIM1-Mediated Intercellular Calcium Homeostasis and Promotes Myelin Repair in a Cuprizone-Induced Mouse Model of Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanzhi; Liu, Shubao; Tian, Yanping; Wu, Xiyan; He, Yangtao; Li, Chengren; Namaka, Michael; Kong, Jiming; Li, Hongli; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been considered as a crucial process in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and psychiatric disorders. Several antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been shown to display inhibitory effects on microglial activation in vitro, possibly through the suppression of elevated intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. However, the exact underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of quetiapine (Que), an atypical APD, on microglial activation. We utilized a chronic cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination mouse model to determine the direct effect of Que on microglial activation. Our results showed that treatment with Que significantly reduced recruitment and activation of microglia/macrophage in the lesion of corpus callosum and promoted remyelination after CPZ withdrawal. Our in vitro studies also confirmed the direct effect of Que on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of microglial N9 cells, whereby Que significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Moreover, we demonstrated that pretreatment with Que, neutralized the up-regulation of STIM1 induced by LPS and declined both LPS and thapsigargin (Tg)-induced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Finally, we found that pretreatment with Que significantly reduced the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit from cytoplasm to nuclei in LPS-activated primary microglial cells. Overall, our data suggested that Que may inhibit microglial activation by neutralization of the LPS-induced abnormal STIM1-mediated intercellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:26732345

  11. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-09-15

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by /sup 125/I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism.

  12. Abnormal parathyroid hormone stimulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the hypophosphatemic mouse. Evidence for a generalized defect of vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, T; Drezner, M K; Lobaugh, B

    1986-01-01

    Abnormal regulation of vitamin D metabolism is a feature of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets in man and of the murine homologue of the disease in the hypophosphatemic (Hyp)-mouse. We previously reported that mutant mice have abnormally low renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase (1 alpha-hydroxylase) activity for the prevailing degree of hypophosphatemia. To further characterize this defect, we examined whether Hyp-mouse renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity responds normally to other stimulatory and inhibitory controls of enzyme function. We studied stimulation by parathyroid hormone (PTH) using: (a) a calcium-deficient (0.02% Ca) diet to raise endogenous PTH; or (b) 24-h continuous infusion of 0.25 IU/h bovine PTH via osmotic minipump. In both cases enzyme activity of identically treated normal mice increased to greater levels than those attained by Hyp-mice. The relative inability of PTH to stimulate 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is not a function of the hypophosphatemia in the Hyp-mouse since PTH-infused, phosphate-depleted normal mice sustained a level of enzyme activity greater than that of normal and Hyp-mice. In further studies we investigated inhibition of enzyme activity by using: (a) a calcium-loaded (1.2% Ca) diet to suppress endogenous PTH; or (b) 24-h continuous infusion of 0.2 ng/h 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). The 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity of normal and Hyp-mice was significantly reduced to similar absolute levels following maintenance on the calcium-loaded diet. Further, infusion of 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a comparable reduction of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in normal, Hyp-, and phosphate-depleted normal mice. These observations indicate that the inhibitory control of 1 alpha-hydroxylase by reduced levels of PTH or increased 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations is intact in the mutants. However, the inability of PTH and hypophosphatemia to stimulate enzyme activity in a manner analogous to that in normal and phosphate-depleted mice indicates

  13. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  15. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  16. AMPK Activation by Metformin Suppresses Abnormal Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Adipose Tissue and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Nocon, Allison; Fry, Jessica; Sherban, Alex; Rui, Xianliang; Jiang, Bingbing; Xu, X Julia; Han, Jingyan; Yan, Yun; Yang, Qin; Li, Qifu; Zang, Mengwei

    2016-08-01

    Fibrosis is emerging as a hallmark of metabolically dysregulated white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity. Although adipose tissue fibrosis impairs adipocyte plasticity, little is known about how aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of WAT is initiated during the development of obesity. Here we show that treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits excessive ECM deposition in WAT of ob/ob mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, as evidenced by decreased collagen deposition surrounding adipocytes and expression of fibrotic genes including the collagen cross-linking regulator LOX Inhibition of interstitial fibrosis by metformin is likely attributable to the activation of AMPK and the suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling, leading to enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity. The ability of metformin to repress TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis is abolished by the dominant negative AMPK in primary cells from the stromal vascular fraction. TGF-β1-induced insulin resistance is suppressed by AMPK agonists and the constitutively active AMPK in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In omental fat depots of obese humans, interstitial fibrosis is also associated with AMPK inactivation, TGF-β1/Smad3 induction, aberrant ECM production, myofibroblast activation, and adipocyte apoptosis. Collectively, integrated AMPK activation and TGF-β1/Smad3 inhibition may provide a potential therapeutic approach to maintain ECM flexibility and combat chronically uncontrolled adipose tissue expansion in obesity. PMID:27207538

  17. Multi-organ Abnormalities and mTORC1 Activation in Zebrafish Model of Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Scott, Sarah A.; Bennett, Michael J.; Carson, Robert P.; Fessel, Joshua; Brown, H. Alex; Ess, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxavu463) that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxavu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxavu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxavu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity. PMID:23785301

  18. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... high total cholesterol among non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign- ... Figure 3 ). The prevalence of high total cholesterol did not differ significantly by sex, age, education, or ...

  19. Environmental Activities, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William C.; Larson, Robert J.

    This guide, for use at the junior high level, is aimed at helping our youth become more knowledgeable concerning the environment and associated problems, thus making them aware of how to solve these problems and motivating them to work toward their solution. Among the subjects discussed are art in nature, erosion, body pollution, water pollution,…

  20. Possible involvement of PPARγ-associated eNOS signaling activation in rosuvastatin-mediated prevention of nicotine-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sonam; Mahadevan, Nanjaian; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2013-02-01

    Nicotine exposure via cigarette smoking and tobacco chewing is associated with vascular complications. The present study investigated the effect of rosuvastatin in nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Further, scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of thoracic aorta were performed to assess the vascular endothelial integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed by estimating aortic superoxide anion generation and serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The nicotine administration produced VED by markedly reducing acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, increasing oxidative stress, and inducing lipid alteration. However, treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) markedly attenuated nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities, oxidative stress, and lipid alteration. Interestingly, the co-administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 (1 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) submaximally, significantly prevented rosuvastatin-induced improvement in vascular endothelial integrity, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and nitrite/nitrate concentration in rats administered nicotine. However, GW9662 co-administration did not affect rosuvastatin-associated vascular anti-oxidant and lipid-lowering effects. The incubation of aortic ring, isolated from rosuvastatin-treated nicotine-administered rats, with L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), significantly attenuated rosuvastatin-induced improvement in acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rosuvastatin prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities by activating

  1. Long-Term Exposure to Concentrated Ambient PM2.5 Increases Mouse Blood Pressure through Abnormal Activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System: A Role for Hypothalamic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Bai, Yuntao; Zhong, Jixin; Chen, Minjie; Liang, Yijia; Zhao, Jinzhuo; Liu, Dongyao; Morishita, Masako; Sun, Qinghua; Spino, Catherine; Brook, Robert D.; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) increases blood pressure (BP) in humans and animal models. Abnormal activation of the sympathetic nervous system may have a role in the acute BP response to PM2.5 exposure. The mechanisms responsible for sympathetic nervous system activation and its role in chronic sustenance of hypertension in response to PM2.5 exposure are currently unknown. Objectives: We investigated whether central nervous system inflammation may be implicated in chronic PM2.5 exposure-induced increases in BP and sympathetic nervous system activation. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAPs) for 6 months, and we analyzed BP using radioactive telemetric transmitters. We assessed sympathetic tone by measuring low-frequency BP variability (LF-BPV) and urinary norepinephrine excretion. We also tested the effects of acute pharmacologic inhibitors of the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system. Results: Long-term CAPs exposure significantly increased basal BP, paralleled by increases in LF-BPV and urinary norepinephrine excretion. The increased basal BP was attenuated by the centrally acting α2a agonist guanfacine, suggesting a role of increased sympathetic tone in CAPs exposure–induced hypertension. The increase in sympathetic tone was accompanied by an inflammatory response in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, evidenced by increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor–kappaB (NF-κB) pathway activation. Conclusion: Long-term CAPs exposure increases BP through sympathetic nervous system activation, which may involve hypothalamic inflammation. Citation: Ying Z, Xu X, Bai Y, Zhong J, Chen M, Liang Y, Zhao J, Liu D, Morishita M, Sun Q, Spino C, Brook RD, Harkema JR, Rajagopalan S. 2014. Long-term exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 increases mouse blood pressure through abnormal activation of the sympathetic

  2. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  3. Fibrosis, Vascular Activation, and Immune Abnormalities Resembling Systemic Sclerosis in Bleomycin-Treated Fli-1–Haploinsufficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Takashi; Asano, Yoshihide; Akamata, Kaname; Noda, Shinji; Takahashi, Takehiro; Ichimura, Yohei; Toyama, Tetsuo; Trojanowska, Maria; Sato, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fli-1, a potential predisposing factor for systemic sclerosis (SSc), is constitutively down-regulated in the lesional skin of patients with SSc by an epigenetic mechanism. To investigate the impact of Fli-1 deficiency on the induction of an SSc phenotype in various cell types, we generated bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in Fli-1+/− mice and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying its phenotypic alterations. Methods Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and protein expression of target molecules were examined by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) bioassay was used to evaluate the activation of latent TGFβ. The binding of Fli-1 to the target gene promoters was assessed with chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Bleomycin induced more severe dermal fibrosis in Fli-1+/− mice than in wild-type mice. Fli-1 haploinsufficiency activated dermal fibroblasts via the up-regulation of αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins and activation of latent TGFβ. Dermal fibrosis in Fli-1+/− mice was also attributable to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which is directly induced by Fli-1 deficiency and amplified by bleomycin. Th2/Th17-skewed inflammation and increased infiltration of mast cells and macrophages were seen, partly due to the altered expression of cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells as well as the induction of the skin chemokines. Fli-1+/− mouse macrophages preferentially differentiated into an M2 phenotype upon stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13. Conclusion Our findings provide strong evidence for the fundamental role of Fli-1 deficiency in inducing SSc-like phenotypic alterations in dermal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in a manner consistent with human disease. PMID:25385187

  4. High speed hybrid active system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Qing, Peter X.; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, David

    2005-05-01

    A novel piezoelectric/fiber-optic system is developed for long-term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses the piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and the fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The aim of the system is to detect changes in structures such as those found in aerospace applications (damage, cracks, aging, etc.). This system involves the use of fiber Bragg gratings, which may be either bonded to the surface of the material or embedded within it in order to detect the linear strain component produced by the excitation waves generate by an arbitrary waveform generator. Interrogation of the Bragg gratings is carried out using a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit and a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input. With data collection and information processing; is able to determine the condition of the structure. The demands on a system suitable for detecting ultrasonic acoustic waves are different than for the more common strain and temperature systems. On the one hand, the frequency is much higher, with typical values for ultrasonic frequencies used in non-destructive testing ranging from 100 kHz up to several MHz. On the other hand, the related strain levels are much lower, normally in the μstrain range. Fiber-optic solutions for this problem do exist and are particularly attractive for ultrasonic sensing as the sensors offer broadband detection capability.

  5. Effects of Abnormal Savda Munzip on the Proliferation Activity and Migration Ability of Fibroblasts Derived from Hypertrophic Scar In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hujun; Gao, Weicheng; Kong, Menglong; Li, Nan; Shaolin, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background. To explore the effect of ASMq on proliferation and migration ability of the fibroblast derived from HS of donor (HSFbs) in vitro. Methods. The HSFbs were cultured from tissue specimens and passaged to the 3~4 generation, which were treated with the different concentrations of ASMq and 5-Fu from 1 to 11 days. The difference of HSFbs proliferation activity was analyzed by the CCK-8 method. The HSFbs migration ability in ASMq (0.4 mg/mL) was analyzed by the Cell Scratch method. Results. Transmission electron microscope result shows ASMq concentration significantly increases and fibroblast cell structure markedly change in the experimental group. The proliferation activity of the HSFbs was obviously weakened in ASMq groups than those of the group A (P < 0.05) at seven days. The group C (0.4 mg/mL) is better suitable than other three ASMq treatment groups. Cell Migration Assay shows that the migration ability HSFbs was significantly reduced in ASMq (0.4 mg/mL) treatment group compared with those of blank control group at both 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.05). Conclusions. These results suggest that ASMq effectively restrains the proliferation and migration ability of the HTSFbs in vitro, which can be one of the mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of HS. PMID:25821502

  6. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  7. Effect of short-term physical exercise on foetal heart rate and uterine activity in normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rauramo, I

    1987-01-01

    The response of a short-term submaximal bicycle ergometer test on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on uterine activity was studied in 61 pregnant women between pregnancy weeks 32 and 40. 28 of the women had uncomplicated pregnancies, 13 were hypertensive, 11 were diabetic, and 9 had intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. After exercise, FHR declined in healthy subjects in pregnancy weeks past 35, whereas no significant change was found in such subjects before week 35 of pregnancy. Analysis of variance revealed a difference of FHR between subjects with umcomplicated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies in relation to time (p = 0.021). Exercise induced uterine contractions in hypertensive subjects. Foetal bradycardia was found in 2 healthy, in 2 pre-eclamptic, and in one cholestatic subject. In healthy pregnant women a non-reactive FHR with concomitant reduced FHR variability was found after exercise (P less than 0.01). The FHR variability of patients with pathologic pregnancies was less affected. These results suggest that, after a relatively strenuous short-term exercise, foetuses of mothers with uneventful pregnancies can be at risk of hypoxia in late pregnancy, but the clinical significance remains uncertain. PMID:3435001

  8. Independent and synergistic activity of rol A, B and C loci in stimulating abnormal growth in plants

    PubMed Central

    Spena, A.; Schmülling, T.; Koncz, C.; Schell, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The Ri plasmid A4 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains within its T-DNA genetic information able to trigger root formation in infected plants. Tobacco plants regenerated from transformed roots display the hairy root (hr) syndrome. We show that DNA fragments containing the rol B locus alone are able to induce root formation both in tobacco and kalanchoe tissues. The rol A and the rol C loci by themselves are also able to induce root formation in tobacco but not in kalanchoe. This capacity to induce root formation in either host is greatly increased when the rol A and/or C loci are combined with the rol B locus. Root induction is shown to be correlated with the expression of the rol loci. Transgenic plants exhibit all the characteristics of the hairy root syndrome only when all three loci are present and expressed. Although the activity of the rol encoded functions is synergistic, each of them appears to independently influence host functions involved in the determination of root differentiation. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453816

  9. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  10. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling. PMID:26335177

  11. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  12. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  13. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  14. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  16. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets. PMID:25212469

  17. Neuroanatomic and Cognitive Abnormalities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Era of “High Definition” Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future “high definition” clinical datasets. PMID:25212469

  18. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. PMID:26362887

  19. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  20. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  1. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  2. Purpose and Meaning in Highly Active Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penick, Jeffrey M.; Fallshore, Marte

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the sources of meaning for active seniors. Results indicated that seniors who were most active were relatively high in a wide range of sources of meaning as well as in life satisfaction in general. The importance of meaning and purpose in relation to counseling with older adults is discussed.

  3. Abnormally activated one-carbon metabolic pathway is associated with mtDNA hypermethylation and mitochondrial malfunction in the oocytes of polycystic gilt ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Longfei; Li, Juan; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Niu, Yingjie; Wang, Chenfei; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and polycystic ovaries (PCO) usually produce oocytes of poor quality. However, the intracellular mechanism linking hyperhomocysteinemia and oocyte quality remains elusive. In this study, the quality of the oocytes isolated from healthy and polycystic gilt ovaries was evaluated in vitro in association with one-carbon metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation, and mitochondrial function. PCO oocytes demonstrated impaired polar body extrusion, and significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. The mitochondrial distribution was disrupted in PCO oocytes, together with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deformed mitochondrial structure. The mtDNA copy number and the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes were significantly lower in PCO oocytes. Homocysteine concentration in follicular fluid was significantly higher in PCO group, which was associated with significantly up-regulated one-carbon metabolic enzymes betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Moreover, mtDNA sequences coding for 12S, 16S rRNA and ND4, as well as the D-loop region were significantly hypermethylated in PCO oocytes. These results indicate that an abnormal activation of one-carbon metabolism and hypermethylation of mtDNA may contribute, largely, to the mitochondrial malfunction and decreased quality of PCO-derived oocytes in gilts. PMID:26758245

  4. Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during “Target” sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances. PMID:22574285

  5. Protein Kinase C Activation as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease: Is there a Role for Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision-like Proteins?

    PubMed

    Talman, Virpi; Pascale, Alessia; Jäntti, Maria; Amadio, Marialaura; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It affects predominantly brain areas that are critical for memory and learning and is characterized by two main pathological hallmarks: extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been classified as one of the cognitive kinases controlling memory and learning. By regulating several signalling pathways involved in amyloid and tau pathologies, it also plays an inhibitory role in AD pathophysiology. Among downstream targets of PKC are the embryonic lethal abnormal vision (ELAV)-like RNA-binding proteins that modulate the stability and the translation of specific target mRNAs involved in synaptic remodelling linked to cognitive processes. This MiniReview summarizes the current evidence on the role of PKC and ELAV-like proteins in learning and memory, highlighting how their derangement can contribute to AD pathophysiology. This last aspect emphasizes the potential of pharmacological activation of PKC as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27001133

  6. A Constitutively Active Gαi3 Protein Corrects the Abnormal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Phenotype of Oa1−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Alejandra; Wang, Ying; Ahmedli, Novruz B.; Jiang, Meisheng; Farber, Debora B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular Albinism type 1 (OA1) is a disease caused by mutations in the OA1 gene and characterized by the presence of macromelanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) as well as abnormal crossing of the optic axons at the optic chiasm. We showed in our previous studies in mice that Oa1 activates specifically Gαi3 in its signaling pathway and thus, hypothesized that a constitutively active Gαi3 in the RPE of Oa1−/− mice might keep on the Oa1 signaling cascade and prevent the formation of macromelanosomes. To test this hypothesis, we have generated transgenic mice that carry the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) protein in the RPE of Oa1−/− mice and are now reporting the effects that the transgene produced on the Oa1−/− RPE phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice carrying RPE-specific expression of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) were generated by injecting fertilized eggs of Oa1−/− females with a lentivirus containing the Gαi3 (Q204L) cDNA. PCR, Southern blots, Western blots and confocal microscopy were used to confirm the presence of the transgene in the RPE of positive transgenic mice. Morphometrical analyses were performed using electron microscopy to compare the size and number of melanosomes per RPE area in putative Oa1−/−, Gαi3 (Q204L) transgenic mice with those of wild-type NCrl and Oa1−/− mice. Results We found a correlation between the presence of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) transgene and the rescue of the normal phenotype of RPE melanosomes in Oa1−/−, Gαi3 (Q204L) mice. These mice have higher density of melanosomes per RPE area and a larger number of small melanosomes than Oa1−/− mice, and their RPE phenotype is similar to that of wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results show that a constitutively active Gαi3 protein can by-pass the lack of Oa1 protein in Oa1−/− mice and consequently rescue the RPE melanosomal phenotype. PMID:24098784

  7. Skin abnormalities in mice transgenic for plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: implications for the regulation of desquamation and follicular neogenesis by plasminogen activator enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Giordano, B; Lazarus, G S

    1995-08-01

    Plasminogen activator enzymes have been implicated in the regulation of growth, migration, and differentiation which occur continually in normal epidermis and cyclically in the hair follicle. To elucidate further the importance of plasminogen activation in epidermal physiology, studies were conducted using mice transgenic for human plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). The epidermis of the newborn (4-7 days) transgenic mice was flaky and showed delayed hair growth compared to that of their control littermates. Histologic analyses revealed a greatly thickened stratum corneum in the transgenics. By 2 weeks after birth, no differences in epidermal morphology were apparent between transgenic and control littermates. Using in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and in situ reverse zymography techniques, epidermal PAI-1 expression was correlated temporally with the aberrant epidermal morphology. These data implicate plasminogen activator activity in the regulation of epidermal shedding and follicular neogenesis. PMID:7649363

  8. Activity Cycles in Stars with Highly Active Chromospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.

    The extended lifetime of the IUE satellite has provided an unique and unanticipated opportunity to examine the long-term evolution of magnetic activity on active chromospheric stars. We propose to obtain further IUE observations of the highly active RS CVn stars V711 Tauri, lambda Andromedae, II Pegasi, and UX Arietis in conjunction with groundbased optical and radio observations, and possibly ROSAT X-ray observations. In addition we would continue IUE observations of the unusual rapidly rotating early G giant, FK Comae, which, although not in the RS CVn category, shares a similarly high level of magnetic activity. These five stars have the most extensive IUE archival coverage for stars of their type and have almost continuous ground-based photometric coverage from about 1975 onward. We aim to trace the long-term development of magnetic activity on these stars: a detailed study of the UV emission-like fluxes will enable us to follow the variations in chromospheric and transition-region activity over an interval of 12-16 years. Optical observations reveal variations in photospheric (starspot) activity: the starspot regions are large (up to 30% of the stellar surface) and vary significantly with time. The main aim of the proposed research is to examine the relationship between chromospheric, transition-region, and photospheric active regions. Elucidation of the role of white-light faculae vis-a-vis spots in effecting stellar irradiance changes is also desirable.

  9. Educational Activity Sites for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutner, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Finding quality Internet resources for high school students is a continuing challenge. Several high-quality web sites are presented for educators and students. These sites offer activities to learn how an art conservator looks at paintings, create a newspaper, research and develop an end product, build geometry and physics skills, explore science…

  10. High Speed Data Bus Active Coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, James J.

    The author discusses the HSDB (high speed data bus) active coupler which provides a typical 13-dB power margin for HSDB systems installed in military aircraft. This high-power margin ensures reliable HSDB operation through fiber-optic component degradation. The active coupler performs optical amplification and signal reshaping functions such that an incoming signal is modified only in amplitude. Signal distortion and jitter are removed by a retiming ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). The active coupler is modular in design, and plug-in growth for a 38 x 38 user interface is available. The active coupler achieves better than -27 dBm sensitivity at 5 x 10 exp -11 bit error rate and outputs -8 to -12 dBm optical power. The active coupler unit weighs only 6.25 lbs and has a predicted mean time between failure of over 21,000 h.

  11. Furosemide Pharmacokinetics in Adult Rats become Abnormal with an Adverse Intrauterine Environment and Modulated by a Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Barent N; Pearson, Jacob; Mahmood, Tahir; Thornburg, Kent; Cherala, Ganesh

    2016-06-01

    Adult individuals born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have physiological maladaptations that significantly increase risk of chronic disease. We suggested that such abnormalities in organ function would alter pharmacokinetics throughout life, exacerbated by environmental mismatch. Pregnant and lactating rats were fed either a purified control diet (18% protein) or low-protein diet (9% protein) to produce IUGR offspring. Offspring were weaned onto either laboratory chow (11% fat) or high-fat diet (45% fat). Adult offspring (5 months old) were dosed with furosemide (10 mg/kg i.p.) and serum and urine collected. The overall exposure profile in IUGR males was significantly reduced due to a ~35% increase in both clearance and volume of distribution. Females appeared resistant to the IUGR phenotype. The effects of the high-fat diet trended in the opposite direction to that of IUGR, with increased drug exposure due to decreases in both clearance (31% males, 46% females) and volume of distribution (24% males, 44% females), with a 10% longer half-life in both genders. The alterations in furosemide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were explained by changes in the expression of renal organic anion transporters 1 and 3, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter-2. In summary, this study suggests that IUGR and diet interact to produce subpopulations with similar body-weights but dissimilar pharmacokinetic profiles; this underlines the limitation of one-size-fits-all dosing which does not account for physiological differences in body composition resulting from IUGR and diet. PMID:26550796

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  15. Mechanisms of Normal and Abnormal Endometrial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation, is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. Progesterone also augments a second HESC hemostatic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In contrast, progestins inhibit HESC matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 3 and 9 expression to stabilize endometrial stromal and vascular extracellular matrix. Through these mechanisms decidualized endometrium is rendered both hemostatic and resistant to excess trophoblast invasion in the mid-luteal phase and throughout gestation to prevent hemorrhage and accreta. In non-fertile cycles, progesterone withdrawal results in decreased HESC TF and PAI-expression and increased MMP activity and inflammatory cytokine production promoting the controlled hemorrhage of menstruation and related tissue sloughing. In contrast to these well ordered biochemical processes, unpredictable endometrial bleeding associated with anovulation reflects absence of progestational effects on TF, PAI-1 and MMP activity as well as unrestrained angiogenesis rendering the endometrium non-hemostatic, proteolytic and highly vascular. Abnormal bleeding associated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives results not from impaired hemostasis but from unrestrained angiogenesis leading to large fragile endometrial vessels. This abnormal angiogenesis reflects progestational inhibition of endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and generation of reactive oxygen species that increase production of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HESCs and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in endometrial endothelial cells while decreasing HESC expression of angiostatic, Ang-1. The resulting vessel fragility promotes bleeding. Aberrant angiogenesis also underlies abnormal bleeding associated with myomas and endometrial polyps however there are gaps in our understanding of this pathology. PMID:21499503

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  17. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  18. Cooperative Activities between High Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the ways in which colleges can work with high schools to enrich secondary school experiences and increase access to and success in higher education, are described, and an essay on successful cooperative activities is presented. In "Pieces and Parts," James Herbert notes efforts to improve the preparation of students for college by…

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  20. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  1. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  2. Chromatographic Purification of Highly Active Yeast Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes. PMID:22042245

  3. Genetic abnormalities associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takafumi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs with high frequency in childhood and is associated with high mortality in adults. Recent technical advances in next-generation sequencing have shed light on genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as the precursor to ALL pathogenesis. Based on these genetic abnormalities, ALL is now being reclassified into newly identified subtypes. Philadelphia chromosome-like B-lineage ALL is one of the new high-risk subtypes characterized by genetic alterations that activate various signaling pathways, including those involving cytokine receptors, tyrosine kinases, and epigenetic modifiers. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL is essentially heterogeneous; however, deletion mutations in the IKZF1 gene encoding the transcription factor IKAROS underlie many cases as a key factor inducing aggressive phenotypes and poor treatment responses. Whole-genome sequencing studies of ALL patients and ethnically matched controls also identified inherited genetic variations in lymphoid neoplasm-related genes, which are likely to increase ALL susceptibility. These findings are directly relevant to clinical hematology, and further studies on this aspect could contribute to accurate diagnosis, effective monitoring of residual disease, and patient-oriented therapies. PMID:26991355

  4. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  5. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  6. A study of the abnormal lipoproteins in abetalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Scanu, A M; Aggerbeck, L P; Kruski, A W; Lim, C T; Kayden, H J

    1974-01-01

    The serum lipoproteins of five patients with abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) were separated by ultracentrifugation and then analyzed either intact or after delipidation. In accord with previous findings, all of the patients lacked serum particles with the characteristics of normal low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and of the LDL apoprotein as assessed by immunochemical methods. Each patient exhibited on every examination an abnormal particle, "LDL", which had the flotational properties of LDL, the polypeptide makeup of high-density lipoproteins HDL, the spectral and morphological characteristics of neither LDL nor HDL, and a relatively low content of cholesteryl esters. The HDL were abnormal in having a marked decrease in their total plasma content, an altered proportion of the subclasses HDL2 and HDL3, and a peculiar polypeptide distribution, comprising both normal and additional components, usually not seen in normal controls. The patients also exhibited a decrease of plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activity which probably accounted for the low content of cholesteryl esters in both "LDL" and HDL, and in turn for the unusual appearance of "LDL" on electron microscopy. It is concluded that ABL is a disorder affecting all serum lipoprotein classes. Whether the abetalipoproteinemia previously described and noted in the current studies is related to or independent of the abnormalities observed in the other lipoproteins was not established. How the deficiency of LCAT activity, observed in all patients studied, contributed to some of the observed structural lipoprotein abnormalities also remained undetermined. Images PMID:11344558

  7. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  8. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. PMID:25726458

  9. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G; Korovin, Yury A; Natalenko, Anatoly A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, A Yu

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  10. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Natalenko, A. A.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.; Mashnik, S. G.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  11. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  12. Red-Backed Vole Brain Promotes Highly Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein from Macaque and Human Brains Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human

  13. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  14. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  15. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  16. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  17. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  18. Active tectonics in the Moroccan High Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébrier, Michel; Siame, Lionel; Zouine, El Mostafa; Winter, Thierry; Missenard, Yves; Leturmy, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Review of seismological and structural data coupled with new data on topographical, geomorphology, and Quaternary geology allows delineating the major active faults of the High Atlas. These are the North and South border faults of which fault segmentations correspond to Mw ranging between 6.1 and 6.4. Detail active tectonics analyses were performed on the South Atlas Fault Zone in the Souss and Ouarzazate basins, where deformed Quaternary levels permit to estimate slip rates on individual faults in the order of 0.1 mm yr -1. Such low slip rates imply that large observational time-window is needed to analyze active deformation in low-seismicity regions. However, the complex 3D geometry of reverse or thrust faults may cause difficulty to relate surface observations with the deeper faults that have the potential to nucleate big earthquakes. Further studies are necessary to interpret the Anti Atlas seismicity. To cite this article: M. Sebrier et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  19. Donor-acceptor organo-imido polyoxometalates: high transparency, high activity redox-active NLO chromophores.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasari, Ahmed; Van Steerteghem, Nick; El Moll, Hani; Clays, Koen; Fielden, John

    2016-02-21

    We show that polyoxometalates (POMs) are an excellent redox-active acceptor on which to base high performance 2(nd) order non-linear optical (NLO) chromophores. This is demonstrated through three new organoimido-Lindqvist derivatives with HRS β0-values exceeding those of any dipolar organic system with comparable donor, π-system and absorption profile. Thus, organoimido POMs may provide a new generation of high performance, high transparency, and potentially redox-switchable NLO materials. PMID:26815652

  20. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  1. A Novel p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Elk-1 Transcription Factor-dependent Molecular Mechanism Underlying Abnormal Endothelial Cell Proliferation in Plexogenic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Monal; Predescu, Dan; Tandon, Rajive; Bardita, Cristina; Pogoriler, Jennifer; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Wang, Minhua; Comhair, Suzy; Ryan-Hemnes, Anna; Chen, Jiwang; Machado, Roberto; Husain, Aliya; Erzurum, Serpil; Predescu, Sanda

    2013-01-01

    Plexiform lesions (PLs), the hallmark of plexogenic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), contain phenotypically altered, proliferative endothelial cells (ECs). The molecular mechanism that contributes to EC proliferation and formation of PLs is poorly understood. We now show that a decrease in intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s) expression due to granzyme B (GrB) cleavage during inflammation associated with PAH and the high p38/Erk1/2MAPK activity ratio caused by the GrB/ITSN cleavage products lead to EC proliferation and selection of a proliferative/plexiform EC phenotype. We used human pulmonary artery ECs of PAH subjects (ECPAH), paraffin-embedded and frozen human lung tissue, and animal models of PAH in conjunction with microscopy imaging, biochemical, and molecular biology approaches to demonstrate that GrB cleaves ITSN-1s, a prosurvival protein of lung ECs, and generates two biologically active fragments, an N-terminal fragment (GrB-EHITSN) with EC proliferative potential and a C-terminal product with dominant negative effects on Ras/Erk1/2. The proliferative potential of GrB-EHITSN is mediated via sustained phosphorylation of p38MAPK and Elk-1 transcription factor and abolished by chemical inhibition of p38MAPK. Moreover, lung tissue of PAH animal models and human specimens and ECPAH express lower levels of ITSN-1s compared with controls and the GrB-EHITSN cleavage product. Moreover, GrB immunoreactivity is associated with PLs in PAH lungs. The concurrent expression of the two cleavage products results in a high p38/Erk1/2MAPK activity ratio, which is critical for EC proliferation. Our findings identify a novel GrB-EHITSN-dependent pathogenic p38MAPK/Elk-1 signaling pathway involved in the poorly understood process of PL formation in severe PAH. PMID:23893408

  2. A novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/Elk-1 transcription factor-dependent molecular mechanism underlying abnormal endothelial cell proliferation in plexogenic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Patel, Monal; Predescu, Dan; Tandon, Rajive; Bardita, Cristina; Pogoriler, Jennifer; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Wang, Minhua; Comhair, Suzy; Hemnes, Anna Ryan; Ryan-Hemnes, Anna; Chen, Jiwang; Machado, Roberto; Husain, Aliya; Erzurum, Serpil; Predescu, Sanda

    2013-09-01

    Plexiform lesions (PLs), the hallmark of plexogenic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), contain phenotypically altered, proliferative endothelial cells (ECs). The molecular mechanism that contributes to EC proliferation and formation of PLs is poorly understood. We now show that a decrease in intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s) expression due to granzyme B (GrB) cleavage during inflammation associated with PAH and the high p38/Erk1/2(MAPK) activity ratio caused by the GrB/ITSN cleavage products lead to EC proliferation and selection of a proliferative/plexiform EC phenotype. We used human pulmonary artery ECs of PAH subjects (EC(PAH)), paraffin-embedded and frozen human lung tissue, and animal models of PAH in conjunction with microscopy imaging, biochemical, and molecular biology approaches to demonstrate that GrB cleaves ITSN-1s, a prosurvival protein of lung ECs, and generates two biologically active fragments, an N-terminal fragment (GrB-EH(ITSN)) with EC proliferative potential and a C-terminal product with dominant negative effects on Ras/Erk1/2. The proliferative potential of GrB-EH(ITSN) is mediated via sustained phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and Elk-1 transcription factor and abolished by chemical inhibition of p38(MAPK). Moreover, lung tissue of PAH animal models and human specimens and EC(PAH) express lower levels of ITSN-1s compared with controls and the GrB-EH(ITSN) cleavage product. Moreover, GrB immunoreactivity is associated with PLs in PAH lungs. The concurrent expression of the two cleavage products results in a high p38/Erk1/2(MAPK) activity ratio, which is critical for EC proliferation. Our findings identify a novel GrB-EH(ITSN)-dependent pathogenic p38(MAPK)/Elk-1 signaling pathway involved in the poorly understood process of PL formation in severe PAH. PMID:23893408

  3. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  5. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    YU, ZEFENG; FAN, LIHONG; LI, JIA; GE, ZHAOGANG; DANG, XIAOQIAN; WANG, KUNZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid-related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of β-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the β-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin pathway. PMID:26352537

  6. Lithium chloride attenuates the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from rats with steroid-related osteonecrosis by activating the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zefeng; Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Ge, Zhaogang; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-11-01

    Steroid-related osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) may be a disease that results from the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). In the present study, we examined the possible use of lithium in an aim to reverse the abnormal osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from rats with steroid-related ONFH (termed ONFH-BMMSCs). BMMSCs obtained from steroid‑related ONFH rat femurs were cultured with or without lithium chloride (LiCl). BMMSCs obtained from normal rat femurs were cultured as controls. LiCl significantly increased the expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 in the ONFH-BMMSCs during osteogenic induction. The mineralization of ONFH-BMMSCs following osteogenic induction was also enhanced. Furthermore, LiCl exerted anti-adipogenic effects on the ONFH-BMMSCs by inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) during adipogenic induction, and decreasing lipid droplet formation at the end of adipogenic induction. These effects of LiCl on the ONFH-BMMSCs were associated with an increased expression of β-catenin and a decreased expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Tyr-216, and these effects were abolished by treatment with quercetin, an antagonist of the β-catenin pathway. The normal osteogenic/adipogenic activity of BMMSCs may be impaired in steroid-related ONFH. However, as demonstrated by our findings, LiCl reduces abnormal adipogenic activity and simultaneously increases the osteogenic differentiation of ONFH-BMMSCs by activating the β-catenin pathway. PMID:26352537

  7. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  8. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1994-09-13

    A process for the preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  9. Active coloration with flexible high contrast metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Kapraun, Jonas; Ferrara, James; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-02-01

    The ability to actively control the perceived color of objects is highly desirable for a variety of applications, such as camouflage, sensing, and displays. Such a phenomenon can be readily found in nature - the chameleon is an excellent example. However, the capability to change color at-will has yet to be reproduced by humans. Ultra-thin dielectric high contrast metastructures (HCMs) have been shown to exhibit unique versatility to manipulate light. In this work, we report a completely new flexible HCM structure whose color can be varied by stretching the membrane. This is accomplished with a novel HCM design that annihilates the 0th order diffraction in a grating while enhancing the -1st order. The color perception of the HCM, determined by the -1st diffraction order, is thus easily changed with the variation of its period. The ultra-thin HCM is patterned on a silicon-on-insulator wafer and transferred onto a flexible membrane. We measure more than 15 times stronger intensity in the -1st order diffraction than the 0th order, in excellent agreement with theoretical results. We experimentally demonstrate brilliant colors and change the color of a 1 cm×1 cm sample from green to orange (39 nm wavelength change) with a stretch of 4.9% (25 nm period change). The same effect can be used for steering a laser beam. We demonstrate more than 40 resolvable beam spots.

  10. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  11. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  12. High Incidence of Progressive Postnatal Cerebellar Enlargement in Costello Syndrome: Brain Overgrowth Associated with HRAS Mutations as the Likely Cause of Structural Brain and Spinal Cord Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Karen W.; Hopkins, Elisabeth; Doyle, Daniel; Dobyns, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Costello syndrome is a rasopathy caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its presentation includes failure-to-thrive with macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, papillomata, malignant tumors, and cognitive impairment. In a systematic review we found absolute or relative macrocephaly (100%), ventriculomegaly (50%), and other abnormalities on brain and spinal cord imaging studies in 27/28 individuals. Posterior fossa crowding with cerebellar tonsillar herniation (CBTH) was noted in 27/28 (96%), and in 10/17 (59%) with serial studies posterior fossa crowding progressed. Sequelae of posterior fossa crowding and CBTH included hydrocephalus requiring shunt or ventriculostomy (25%), Chiari 1 malformation (32%) and syrinx formation (25%). Our data reveal macrocephaly with progressive frontal bossing and CBTH, documenting an ongoing process rather than a static congenital anomaly. Comparison of images obtained in young infants to subsequent studies demonstrated postnatal development of posterior fossa crowding. This process of evolving megalencephaly and cerebellar enlargement is in keeping with mouse model data, delineating abnormal genesis of neurons and glia, resulting in an increased number of astrocytes and enlarged brain volume. In Costello syndrome and macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome disproportionate brain growth is the main factor resulting in postnatal CBTH and Chiari 1 malformation. PMID:20425820

  13. Lack of Evidence for Regional Brain Volume or Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Youths at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Paul; Zhou, Juan; Lim, Joseph K W; Poh, Joann S; Zheng, Hui; Tng, Han Ying; Krishnan, Ranga; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S E; Adcock, R Alison; Wood, Stephen J; Fornito, Alex; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-11-01

    There is cumulative evidence that young people in an "at-risk mental state" (ARMS) for psychosis show structural brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas, comparable to, but less extensive than those reported in established schizophrenia. However, most available data come from ARMS samples from Australia, Europe, and North America while large studies from other populations are missing. We conducted a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study from a relatively large sample of 69 ARMS individuals and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) recruited from Singapore as part of the Longitudinal Youth At-Risk Study (LYRIKS). We used 2 complementary approaches: a voxel-based morphometry and a surface-based morphometry analysis to extract regional gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) and cortical thickness (CT). At the whole-brain level, we did not find any statistically significant difference between ARMS and HC groups concerning total GMV and WMV or regional GMV, WMV, and CT. The additional comparison of 2 regions of interest, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes, did not return any significant difference either. Several characteristics of the LYRIKS sample like Asian origins or the absence of current illicit drug use could explain, alone or in conjunction, the negative findings and suggest that there may be no dramatic volumetric or CT abnormalities in ARMS. PMID:25745033

  14. Spontaneous remission of acute myeloid leukemia relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation in a high-risk patient with 11q23/MLL abnormality.

    PubMed

    Hudecek, Michael; Bartsch, Kristina; Jäkel, Nadja; Heyn, Simone; Pfannes, Roald; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin; Cross, Michael; Pönisch, Wolfram; Gerecke, Ulrich; Edelmann, Jeanett; Ittel, Thomas; Niederwieser, Dietger

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old female patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia with multiple genetic aberrations [48 XX, del(3)(q21), +6, t(11;15)(q23;q15), +21] including an 11q23/MLL abnormality. The patient achieved a complete remission after one induction chemotherapy cycle. After three courses of consolidation, a matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) was performed. Following an upper respiratory tract infection 7 years after transplant, her blood counts declined to leukocytes of 1 x 10(9)/l, platelets of 51 x 10(9)/l and hemoglobin of 7.5 g/dl. A bone marrow aspirate revealed 55% leukemic blasts carrying the unfavorable genetic aberrations seen at initial diagnosis (11q23/MLL). In the absence of any disease-specific treatment, the leukemic blasts cleared from the bone marrow within 6 days after diagnosis of relapse and peripheral blood counts returned to normal. Molecular analysis of the 11q23/MLL rearrangement was used to evaluate minimal residual disease, which became undetectable in repetitive FISH analyses. This is the first report of spontaneous remission in a patient with initially a multiaberrant leukemic cell clone and a proven 11q23/MLL abnormality at relapse after HCT. PMID:18367831

  15. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  16. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  17. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  18. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  19. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  20. Photosynthetically active sunlight at high southern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Frederick, John E; Liao, Yixiang

    2005-01-01

    A network of scanning spectroradiometers has acquired a multiyear database of visible solar irradiance, covering wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm, at four sites in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere, from 55 degrees S to 90 degrees S. Monthly irradiations computed from the hourly measurements reveal the character of the seasonal cycle and illustrate the role of cloudiness as functions of latitude. Near summer solstice, the combined influences of solar elevation and the duration of daylight would produce a monthly irradiation with little latitude dependence under clear skies. However, the attenuation associated with local cloudiness varies geographically, with the greatest effect at the most northern locations, Ushuaia, Argentina and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Near summer solstice, the South Pole experiences the largest monthly irradiation of the sites studied, where relatively clear skies contribute to this result. Scaling factors derived from radiative-transfer calculations combined with the measured 400-600 nm irradiances allow estimating irradiances integrated over the wavelength band 400-700 nm. This produces a climatology of photosynthetically active radiation for each month of the year at each site. PMID:15689179

  1. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  2. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Lu

    2007-12-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  3. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and

  4. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A.; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  5. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  6. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  7. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  8. [Phenomenon of the evolution of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, S V; Drozdova, V D; Kavardakova, N V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells in 116 children with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was performed. Frequency of evolution of clonal chromosome abnormalities in AML constituted 42,3%. The most abundant among them were numerical abnormalities of chromosomes 8, 9, and 21 as well as secondary structural abnormalities in region 12p12, 9p22, 9q22, 9q34, 11q14-23, and 16q22. Numerical abnormalities were registered in 26,7% cases. The basic mechanism of leukemic clone evolution was trisomy, deletion and monosomy. The frequency of evolution was 7 times higher in the age group up to 2 years and twice higher in the age group up to 5 years. The high frequency of evolution was established at t(15;17)(q22;q22) and the absence at inv(16)(p13q22). The patients with clonal evolution died earlier, before reaching remission, that can be connected with heavy initial state and high frequency of relapse. Conception of abnormality clone evolution was proposed at some stages: I--appearance of balanced rearrangement; II--trisomy; III--lose of chromosomal material. Appearance of unbalanced genome in evolution possess an advantage in proliferate activity and can be connected with the answer on chemotherapy. Identity of abnormal chromosome structure at diagnosis and relapse of disease can be an evidence of the influence of chemical agent on establishment of some types of evolution of chromosome abnormalities in leukemic cells in AML in children. PMID:20608159

  9. Comparison of the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and Roche AMPLICOR and LINEAR ARRAY Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Tests in Detecting High-Risk HPV Genotypes in Specimens from Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smear Results▿

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Rudland, Elice; Tan, Jeffrey; Quinn, Michael A.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2007-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is strongly associated with the presence of persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, the commercially manufactured PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and LINEAR ARRAY (LA) HPV tests have become available for HPV detection. However, knowledge of their clinical performance compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay is limited. This study evaluated the concordance between the HC2, AMP, and LA tests in detecting HR-HPV among a cohort of 1,679 women with previous abnormal Pap smear results. Overall, 1,393 specimens (81.3%) generated concordant results for HR-HPV presence or absence by the three assays. The concordance levels were substantial between the HC2 and AMP tests (84.4%, κ = 0.6419) and between the HC2 and LA tests (84.0%, κ = 0.6341) and nearly perfect between the AMP and LA tests (97.8%, κ = 0.9441). HR-HPV prevalence, as detected by the AMP or LA tests, was significantly higher among women with cytological or histological high-grade disease (CIN2 or greater) than that detected by HC2 (P < 0.0001). The AMP and LA tests exhibited greater sensitivity, but lower specificity, than HC2 for detecting HR-HPV among this cohort of women with underlying cervical abnormalities, particularly among subjects with histologically proven high-grade disease. Both PCR-based HPV tests may be valuable in the management of care for women with underlying cervical abnormalities, in predicting treatment success, and in studying the clearance or acquisition of new infections. PMID:17494721

  10. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  11. High incidence of functional ion-channel abnormalities in a consecutive Long QT cohort with novel missense genetic variants of unknown significance

    PubMed Central

    Steffensen, Annette Buur; Refaat, Marwan M.; David, Jens-Peter; Mujezinovic, Amer; Calloe, Kirstine; Wojciak, Julianne; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Scheinman, Melvin M.; Schmitt, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval and a propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which may lead to syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden death. Our objective was to (1) determine the incidence of variants with unknown significance (VUS) in a cohort of consecutive LQTS patients and (2) to determine the percentage of those with novel missense VUS that have demonstrable functional channel abnormalities from a single referral center. We performed genetic screening of candidate genes in 39 probands with a diagnosis of LQTS to identify mutations and variants. Seven variants of unknown significance were identified, six were missense variants and one was a splice site variant. We investigated the six novel missense VUS in five patients; three missense variants in KCNQ1 (L236R, W379R, Y522S) and three missense variants in KCNH2 (R35W, S620G, V491I). We employed two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments in Xenopus laevis oocytes and confocal imaging to characterize the novel missense mutations functionally. We revealed electrophysiological and trafficking loss-of-function phenotypes. This report emphasizes the frequency of adverse channel function in patients with LQTS and the importance of heterologous studies to define channel function. PMID:26066609

  12. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  13. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Brian; McGuire, K Ashlee; Lewanczuk, Richard; McGavock, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it’s determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3–5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children. PMID:17583184

  14. Selective fovea-related deprived activation in retinotopic and high-order visual cortex of human amblyopes.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Y; Hendler, T; Malach, R; Harel, M; Leiba, H; Stolovitch, C; Pianka, P

    2006-10-15

    Amblyopia is a visual disorder starting at early childhood and characterized by reduced visual acuity not of optical origin or due to any eye disease. One expression of such an anomalous early visual experience is abnormal foveal vision. In a previous fMRI study, faces that were presented to amblyopic eyes evoked little response compared to houses in high-order visual areas. Patients also demonstrated reduced recognition of facial expression, raising the possibility that these face-selective abnormalities are related to foveal vision deficit. Whether this deficit originates in low-level processing or is mediated by compromised activation in high-order visual areas is unresolved. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the impact of amblyopia on the representation of object images presented in foveally biased central versus peripheral retinotopic eccentricities through manipulation of object size. Small and large pictures were correlated to visual acuities of 6/6 and 6/60, respectively. In low-level visual areas, the amblyopic eye showed significantly reduced activation for centrally placed, small pictures than the sound eye, while activation to large pictures was only slightly reduced. Similarly, in high-order visual areas, the amblyopic eye showed marked reduction in activation in the fusiform gyrus, with normal activation in the collateral sulcus. The center/periphery size-related amblyopic outcomes of this study support a "bottom-up" nature of the center-periphery effect observed in high-order visual areas. Taken together, these findings point to the regional extent and functional selectivity of fovea-related cortical reorganization that is related to abnormal visual development of one eye. PMID:16919483

  15. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  16. Cone photopigment bleaching abnormalities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elsner, A E; Burns, S A; Lobes, L A; Doft, B H

    1987-04-01

    We have used a color-matching technique to obtain estimates of the optical density of cone photopigments as a function of retinal illuminance in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We found that the half-bleach illuminance of some patients is abnormally high. That is, it takes more light to bleach an equivalent amount of photopigment in these patients. Since low illuminance color matches for these patients are normal, this implies that these patients have normal amounts of photopigment, but the photopigment is not bleaching normally. This result clearly points to abnormalities in the outer retina of these diabetic patients. The most likely causes of this abnormality are either decreases in the ability of the cones to absorb light, or an increased rate of regeneration of the cone photopigments. PMID:3557875

  17. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  18. Decreased platelet function in aortic valve stenosis: high shear platelet activation then inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. R.; Etherington, M. D.; Brant, J.; Watkins, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To elucidate the mechanism of the bleeding tendency observed in patients with aortic valve stenosis. DESIGN--A prospective study of high and low shear platelet function tests in vitro in normal controls compared with that in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis with a mean (SD) systolic gradient by Doppler of 75 (18) mm Hg before and at least 4 months after aortic valve replacement. SETTING--District general hospital. RESULTS--The patients showed reduced retention in the high shear platelet function tests. (a) Platelet retention in the filter test was 53.6 (12.6)% in patients with aortic valve stenosis and 84.8 (9.6)% in the controls (P < 0.001). (b) Retention in the glass bead column test was 49.8 (19.2) in the patients and 87.4 (8.7) in the controls (P < 0.001). (c) The standard bleeding time was longer in the patients (P < 0.06). Results of the high shear tests (a, b, and c) after aortic valve replacement were within the normal range. The platelet count was low but within the normal range before surgery and increased postoperatively (P < 0.01). There were no differences in the results of standard clotting tests, plasma and intraplatelet von Willebrand's factor, or in 15 platelet aggregation tests using five agonists between patients with aortic valve stenosis and controls. CONCLUSIONS--The high shear haemodynamics of aortic valve stenosis modify platelet function in vivo predisposing to a bleeding tendency. This abnormality of platelet function is detectable only in vitro using high shear tests. The abnormal function is reversed by aortic valve replacement. High shear forces in vitro activate and then inactivate platelets. By the same mechanisms aortic valve stenosis seems to lead to high shear damage in vivo, resulting in a clinically important bleeding tendency in some patients. PMID:8541170

  19. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies. PMID:26233431

  20. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  1. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    PubMed

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  2. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  3. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  4. A Case of Abnormal Lymphatic-Like Differentiation and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Activation in Neovascularization Associated with Hemi-Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Gucciardo, Erika; Repo, Pauliina; Lohi, Jouko; Salven, Petri; Lehti, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pathological vascular differentiation in retinal vein occlusion (RVO)-related neovessel formation remains poorly characterized. The role of intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation or endothelial progenitor cell activity has not been studied in this disease. Methods Vitrectomy was performed in an eye with hemi-RVO; the neovessel membrane located at the optic nerve head was removed and subjected to immunohistochemistry. Characterization of the neovascular tissue was performed using hematoxylin and eosin, α-smooth muscle actin, and the pan-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule CD31. The expression of lymphatic EC markers was studied by lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), podoplanin (PDPN), and prospero-related homeobox protein 1 (Prox-1). Potential vascular stem/progenitor cells were identified by active cellular proliferation (Ki67) and expression of the stem cell marker CD117. Results The specimen contained blood vessels lined by ECs and surrounded by pericytes. Immunoreactivity for LYVE-1 and Prox-1 was detected, with Prox-1 being more widely expressed in the active Ki67-positive lumen-lining cells. PDPN expression was instead found in the cells residing in the extravascular tissue. Expression of the stem cell markers CD117 and Ki67 suggested vascular endothelial progenitor cell activity. Conclusions Intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation coupled with progenitor cell activation may be involved in the pathology of neovessel formation in ischemia-induced human hemi-RVO. PMID:26327908

  5. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2012-10-01

    While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation. PMID:22687465

  6. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    PubMed

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents. PMID:26701117

  7. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  8. Chromosome 13q deletion and IgH abnormalities may be both masked by near-tetraploidy in a high proportion of multiple myeloma patients: a combined morphology and I-FISH analysis.

    PubMed

    Koren-Michowitz, Maya; Hardan, Izhar; Berghoff, Janina; Yshoev, Galina; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Nagler, Arnon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2007-10-01

    Ploidy status and chromosomal aberrations involving chromosome 13q and the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH) are important prognostic features in multiple myeloma (MM). However, conventional cytogenetic studies are often not reveling and determination of plasma cells (PC) ploidy status in MM is technically difficult. We have used a combined cell morphology and interphase FISH (I-FISH) analysis in 184 consecutive BM samples from 136 MM patients for the diagnosis of chromosome 13q deletion [del (13q)] and IgH abnormalities. We have found a high prevalence (37%) of near-tetraploid (NT) PC in the BM samples studied. NT status of PC was verified with DNA index (DI) measurements. del (13q) was found in 69% and a total absence of one IgH copy (loss of IgH) in 20% of NT samples. We have shown that the presence of del (13q) and loss of IgH can be masked in NT cases: in 12 NT samples originally identified as normal for del (13q) the abnormality was obscured in the majority of plasma cells due to the presence of NT. Similarly, loss of IgH was masked in four samples with a large population of NT cells. Moreover, in one case the appearance of a 100% tetraploidy during disease progression masked the presence of del (13q), originally present, and could therefore falsely appear as disappearance of this prognostic marker. In conclusion, we have shown that a combination of three abnormalities, i.e., del (13q), loss of IgH and NT, all of potential prognostic significance, can be overlooked unless NT is specifically searched for and ruled out. Therefore, we suggest that a search for NT should be added to the routine BM assessment in MM patients. PMID:17590504

  9. High frequency of known copy number abnormalities and maternal duplication 15q11-q13 in patients with combined schizophrenia and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many copy number variants (CNVs) are documented to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Chromosomal deletions of 1q21.1, 3q29, 15q13.3, 22q11.2, and NRXN1 and duplications of 15q11-q13 (maternal), 16p11, and 16p13.3 have the strongest association with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that cases with both schizophrenia and epilepsy would have a higher frequency of disease-associated CNVs and would represent an enriched sample for detection of other mutations associated with schizophrenia. Methods We used array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyze 235 individuals with both schizophrenia and epilepsy, 80 with bipolar disorder and epilepsy, and 191 controls. Results We detected 10 schizophrenia plus epilepsy cases in 235 (4.3%) with the above mentioned CNVs compared to 0 in 191 controls (p = 0.003). Other likely pathological findings in schizophrenia plus epilepsy cases included 1 deletion 16p13 and 1 duplication 7q11.23 for a total of 12/235 (5.1%) while a possibly pathogenic duplication of 22q11.2 was found in one control for a total of 1 in 191 (0.5%) controls (p = 0.008). The rate of abnormality in the schizophrenia plus epilepsy of 10/235 for the more definite CNVs compares to a rate of 75/7336 for these same CNVs in a series of unselected schizophrenia cases (p = 0.0004). Conclusion We found a statistically significant increase in the frequency of CNVs known or likely to be associated with schizophrenia in individuals with both schizophrenia and epilepsy compared to controls. We found an overall 5.1% detection rate of likely pathological findings which is the highest frequency of such findings in a series of schizophrenia patients to date. This evidence suggests that the frequency of disease-associated CNVs in patients with both schizophrenia and epilepsy is significantly higher than for unselected schizophrenia. PMID:22118685

  10. High School Extracurricular Activities & College Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rombokas, Mary; And Others

    Many factors influence the development and socialization of American adolescents including peers, schools, family, and the community. This paper examines how the relationship of extracurricular participation influences academic growth. To determine if selected personal and academic variables during high school currently affect college academic…

  11. High temperature solid oxide fuel development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC development activities and current program status. Goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 h. Test results are presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 40,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Two 25-kW SOFC customer tests units were delivered in 1992; a 20-kW SOFC system is bein manufactured and will be operated by Southern California Edison in 1995. Megawatt class generators are being developed.

  12. High specific activity platinum-195m

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  13. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  14. Abnormalities in subset distribution, activation, and differentiation of T cells isolated from large intestine biopsies in HIV infection. The Berlin Diarrhoea/Wasting Syndrome Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, T; Ullrich, R; Bergs, C; Schmidt, W; Riecken, E O; Zeitz, M

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal T cells have a unique state of activation and differentiation which might specifically affect or be affected by HIV infection. Lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood are well characterized, but our knowledge about intestinal lymphocytes in HIV infection is incomplete. We therefore analysed lymphocytes isolated from large intestine biopsies of AIDS patients and controls by three-colour cytofluorometry. In the large intestine of HIV-infected patients CD4 T cells were reduced and CD8 T cells were increased compared with controls. Most of the CD8 T cells in the colorectal mucosa of AIDS patients were of the cytotoxic phenotype. Activated and resting CD4 T cells were similarly reduced, the expression of CD25 and HLA-DR of CD8 T cells was unaltered and increased, respectively. In intestinal CD4 T cells the expression of CD29 was decreased, but the expression of CD45RO and HML-1 was normal. CD8 T cells had a decreased expression of all these differentiation markers. Our findings demonstrate substantial alterations in subset distribution, activation, and differentiation of large intestine T cells, which may contribute to the secondary infections and malignancies commonly observed in the gut of AIDS patients. PMID:8137540

  15. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  16. Altered relationships between age and functional brain activation in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; van Erp, Theo G M; Bearden, Carrie E; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-01-30

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, but whether the adolescent period, proximal to onset, is associated with aberrant development in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is incompletely understood. While abnormal gray and white matter development has been observed, alterations in functional neuroimaging (fMRI) parameters during adolescence as related to conversion to psychosis have not yet been investigated. Twenty CHR individuals and 19 typically developing controls (TDC), (ages 14-21), were recruited from the Center for Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) at UCLA. Participants performed a Sternberg-style verbal working memory (WMem) task during fMRI and data were analyzed using a cross-sectional design to test the hypothesis that there is a deviant developmental trajectory in WMem associated neural circuitry in those at risk for psychosis. Eight of the CHR adolescents converted to psychosis within 2 years of initial assessment. A voxel-wise regression examining the relationship between age and activation revealed a significant group-by-age interaction. TDC showed a negative association between age and functional activation in the WMem circuitry while CHR adolescents showed a positive association. Moreover, CHR patients who later converted to overt psychosis showed a distinct pattern of abnormal age-associated activation in the frontal cortex relative to controls, while non-converters showed a more diffuse posterior pattern. Finding that age related variation in baseline patterns of neural activity differentiate individuals who subsequently convert to psychosis from healthy subjects suggests that these differences are likely to be clinically relevant. PMID:24144510

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  18. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  19. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  20. Coagulation abnormalities in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Cheng-Ming; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Chin-Chen

    2015-03-01

    Although the pathophysiology of sepsis has been elucidated with the passage of time, sepsis may be regarded as an uncontrolled inflammatory and procoagulant response to infection. The hemostatic changes in sepsis range from subclinical activation of blood coagulation to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC is characterized by widespread microvascular thrombosis, which contributes to multiple organ dysfunction/failure, and subsequent consumption of platelets and coagulation factors, eventually causing bleeding manifestations. The diagnosis of DIC can be made using routinely available laboratory tests, scoring algorithms, and thromboelastography. In this cascade of events, the inhibition of coagulation activation and platelet function is conjectured as a useful tool for attenuating inflammatory response and improving outcomes in sepsis. A number of clinical trials of anticoagulants were performed, but none of them have been recognized as a standard therapy because recombinant activated protein C was withdrawn from the market owing to its insufficient efficacy in a randomized controlled trial. However, these subgroup analyses of activated protein C, antithrombin, and thrombomodulin trials show that overt coagulation activation is strongly associated with the best therapeutic effect of the inhibitor. In addition, antiplatelet drugs, including acetylsalicylic acid, P2Y12 inhibitors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, may reduce organ failure and mortality in the experimental model of sepsis without a concomitant increased bleeding risk, which should be supported by solid clinical data. For a state-of-the-art treatment of sepsis, the efficacy of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents needs to be proved in further large-scale prospective, interventional, randomized validation trials. PMID:25544351

  1. Studies on human blood lymphocytes with iC3b (type 3) complement receptors: III. Abnormalities in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J D; Lash, A; Bakke, A C; Kitridou, R C; Horwitz, D A

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes displaying iC3b (Type 3) complement receptors (CR3) were quantified by flow cytometry in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The percentages and absolute numbers were compared to age and sex matched controls. Total CR3+ lymphocytes identified by the monoclonal antibodies OKM1 or Leu 15 were significantly decreased in patients with symptomatic arthritis, serositis or vasculitis and those with lupus nephritis, whereas values for CR3+ lymphocytes in patients with inactive disease were similar to normal donors. The phenotype of CR3+ lymphocytes was markedly different in patients with active SLE. In normals granular lymphocytes bearing Fc receptors for IgG (L cells) comprised two-thirds of CR3+ lymphocytes. However, in SLE this subset was reduced to 20% and there was a corresponding increase in CR3+ lymphocytes co-expressing the T3 marker. Percentages of CR3 T4+ but not CR3+ T8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in SLE. Although patients with active disease were lymphopenic, absolute numbers of CR3+ lymphocytes co-expressing T cell markers were similar to normal controls. Since L cells are non-specific suppressors of Ig production, the reduction of this subset along with the increase in CR3 T4+ cells could contribute to unregulated antibody production characteristic of SLE. PMID:2955974

  2. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination. PMID:26132513

  3. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  4. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  5. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  6. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  7. Cationic zinc enolates as highly active catalysts for acrylate polymerization.

    PubMed

    Garner, Logan E; Zhu, Hongping; Hlavinka, Mark L; Hagadorn, John R; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2006-11-22

    Unprecedented cationic zinc enolates have been generated by a novel activation route involving the amido to imino ligand transformation with B(C6F5)3, structurally characterized, and utilized as highly active catalysts for the production of high molecular weight polyacrylates at ambient temperature. PMID:17105289

  8. Energy and Energy Conservation Activities for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottinelli, Charles A., Ed.; Dow, John O., Ed.

    This manual contains fifteen energy activities suitable for high school physical and environmental science and mathematics classrooms. The activities are independent, each having its own objectives, introduction, and background information. A special section of each activity is written for the instructor and contains limits, sample data, and…

  9. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  10. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  11. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  12. Targeting Cx43 and N-Cadherin, Which Are Abnormally Upregulated in Venous Leg Ulcers, Influences Migration, Adhesion and Activation of Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Naranjo, Ariadna; Cormie, Peter; Serrano, Antonio E.; Hu, Rebecca; O'Neill, Shay; Wang, Chiuhui Mary; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Power, Kieran T.; White, Alexis; Serena, Thomas; Phillips, Anthony R. J.; Becker, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venous leg ulcers can be very hard to heal and represent a significant medical need with no effective therapeutic treatment currently available. Principal Findings In wound edge biopsies from human venous leg ulcers we found a striking upregulation of dermal N-cadherin, Zonula Occludens-1 and the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) compared to intact skin, and in stark contrast to the down-regulation of Cx43 expression seen in acute, healing wounds. We targeted the expression of these proteins in 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate their role in venous leg ulcers healing. Knockdown of Cx43 and N-cadherin, but not Zonula Occludens-1, accelerated cell migration in a scratch wound-healing assay. Reducing Cx43 increased Golgi reorientation, whilst decreasing cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, Connexin43 and N-cadherin knockdown led to profound effects on fibroblast cytoskeletal dynamics after scratch-wounding. The cells exhibited longer lamelipodial protrusions lacking the F-actin belt seen at the leading edge in wounded control cells. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented activation of Rac-1 and RhoA GTPases, as revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and pull down experiments. Conclusions Cx43 and N-cadherin are potential therapeutic targets in the promotion of healing of venous leg ulcers, by acting at least in part through distinct contributions of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and cytoskeletal dynamics. PMID:22615994

  13. Increased Low- and High-Frequency Oscillatory Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Manyoel; Kim, June Sic; Kim, Dajung J.; Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have suggested that fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic widespread pain disorder, exhibits altered thalamic structure and function. Since the thalamus has extensive reciprocal connection with the cortex, structural and functional thalamic alterations in FM might be linked to aberrant thalamocortical oscillation. This study investigated the presence of abnormal brain rhythmicity in low- and high-frequency bands during resting state in patients with FM and their relationship to clinical pain symptom. Spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity was recorded in 18 females with FM and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. The most remarkable finding was that FM patients had general increases in theta, beta and gamma power along with a slowing of the dominant alpha peak. Increased spectral powers in the theta-band were primarily localized to the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Beta and gamma over-activation were localized to insular, primary motor and primary and secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices, as well as the DLPFC and OFC. Furthermore, enhanced high-frequency oscillatory activities in the DLPFC and OFC were associated with higher affective pain scores in patients with FM. Our results demonstrate that FM patients feature enhanced low- and high-frequency oscillatory activity in the brain areas related to cognitive and emotional modulation of pain. Increased low- and high-frequency activity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to persistent perception of pain in FM. Therapeutic intervention based on manipulating neural oscillation to restore normal thalamocortical rhythmicity may be beneficial to pain relief in FM. PMID:27014041

  14. Bakers' cyst and tibiofemoral abnormalities are more distinctive MRI features of symptomatic osteoarthritis than patellofemoral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Visser, A W; Mertens, B; Reijnierse, M; Bloem, J L; de Mutsert, R; le Cessie, S; Rosendaal, F R; Kloppenburg, M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate which structural MR abnormalities discriminate symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), taking co-occurrence of abnormalities in all compartments into account. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45–65 years. In 1285 participants (median age 56 years, 55% women, median body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2), MRI of the right knee were obtained. Structural abnormalities (osteophytes, cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), subchondral cysts, meniscal abnormalities, effusion, Baker's cyst) at 9 patellofemoral and tibiofemoral locations were scored following the knee OA scoring system. Symptomatic OA in the imaged knee was defined following the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Logistic ridge regression analyses were used to investigate which structural abnormalities discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic OA, crude and adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Symptomatic knee OA was present in 177 individuals. Structural MR abnormalities were highly frequent both in individuals with OA and in those without. Baker's cysts showed the highest adjusted regression coefficient (0.293) for presence of symptomatic OA, followed by osteophytes and BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment (0.185–0.279), osteophytes in the medial trochlear facet (0.262) and effusion (0.197). Conclusions Baker's cysts discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic knee OA. Structural MR abnormalities, especially in the medial side of the tibiofemoral joint and effusion, add further in discriminating symptomatic OA. Baker's cysts may present as a target for treatment. PMID:27252896

  15. Periods of Highly Synchronous, Non-Reentrant Endocardial Activation Cycles Occur During Long Duration Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Robichaux, Robert P.; Dosdall, Derek J.; Osorio, Jose; Garner, Nicholas W.; Li, Li; Huang, Jian; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF), lasting 1-10 minutes when resuscitation is still possible. Methods and Results To determine global LV endocardial activation during LDVF, 6 canines (9.5±0.8 kg) received a 64-electrode basket catheter in the left ventricle (LV), a right ventricular (RV) catheter, and a 12-lead ECG. Activation sequences of 15 successive cycles after initiation and after 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minutes of LDVF were determined. Early during VF, LV endocardial activation was complex and present throughout most (78.0±9.7%) of each cycle consistent with reentry. After 3-7 min of LDVF in 5 animals, endocardial activation became highly synchronized and present for only a small percentage of each cycle (18.2±7.7%), indicating that LV endocardial reentry was no longer present. During this synchronization, activations arose focally in Purkinje fibers and spread as large wavefronts to excite the Purkinje system followed by the subendocardial working myocardium. During this synchronization, the ECG continued to appear irregular, consistent with VF, and LV cycle length (183±29 ms) was significantly different than RV cycle length (144±14 ms) and significantly different than the LV cycle length when synchronization was not present (130±11 ms). Conclusion After 3-7 minutes of LDVF, a highly organized, synchronous, focal LV endocardial activation pattern frequently occurs that is not consistent with reentry but is consistent with triggered activity or abnormal automaticity in Purkinje fibers. The ECG continues to appear irregular during this period, partially because of differences in LV and RV cycle lengths. PMID:20487123

  16. From Little Acorns...Self Awareness Activity for Junior High and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Rosemary

    The document contains nine self awareness activities designed to precede or accompany typical career awareness activities in the junior high school and high school curricula. Four objectives for the career education goal of self awareness are stated. The activities require little or no materials, media, or advance preparation. Purposes and…

  17. Differential modulation of cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue by high-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Mario, Érica Guilhen; de Souza Cordeiro, Letícia Maria; Avelar, Gleide Fernandes; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that a high-fructose (FRUC) diet induces metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities, known as the metabolic syndrome, which are characterised by obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. In this study, the effect of a FRUC diet (60 % fructose) for 8 weeks on the metabolism of lipids in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from Wistar rats was compared with the AIN-93M diet and the effects of the AIN-93M diet were compared with a chow diet. The FRUC diet induced marked increases in both hepatocyte lipid droplet volume and postprandial serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), but reduced the postprandial serum levels of insulin. The AIN-93M diet induced marked increases in the hepatocyte lipid droplet volume and the serum levels of insulin, without affecting the serum levels of TAG. We found that isocaloric substitution of cornstarch, dextrinised cornstarch and sucrose (AIN-93M diet) for fructose did not affect the hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion and adipose tissue glucose uptake, lipolysis and cytosolic lipases activities in rats. However, the high-fructose diet induced a severe steatosis in liver accompanied by a decrease in cytosolic lipases activities. In adipose tissue, the FRUC diet induced a decrease in the lipoprotein lipase activity, and an increase in lipogenesis. FRUC and AIN-93M diets induced changes in lipid homeostasis in liver and adipose tissue by distinct biochemical mechanisms. PMID:26874528

  18. Genetic and Disorder-Specific Aspects of Resting State EEG Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Noah C.; Bernat, Edward M.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether abnormal frequency composition of the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in schizophrenia was associated with genetic liability for the disorder by studying first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. The study included a data-driven method for defining EEG frequency components and determined the specificity of resting state EEG frequency abnormalities by assessing schizophrenia patients, bipolar disorder patients, and relatives of both patient groups. Schizophrenia patients and their relatives, but not bipolar patients or their relatives, exhibited increased high-frequency activity (beta) providing evidence for disturbances in resting state brain activity being specific to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented low-frequency EEG activity (delta, theta), while bipolar disorder patients and the 2 groups of relatives generally failed to manifest similar low-frequency EEG abnormalities. The Val158Met polymorphism for the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene was most strongly associated with delta and theta activity in schizophrenia patients. Met homozygote schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented activity for the 2 low-frequency bands compared with control subjects. Excessive high-frequency EEG activity over frontal brain regions may serve as an endophenotype that reflects cortical expression of genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. Low-frequency resting state EEG anomalies in schizophrenia may relate to disorder-specific pathophysiology in schizophrenia and the influence of the COMT gene on tonic dopamanergic function. PMID:18381357

  19. Imaging of activated complement using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) - conjugated vectors: an in vivo in utero non-invasive method to predict placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Girardi, G; Fraser, J; Lennen, R; Vontell, R; Jansen, M; Hutchison, G

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging-based method for non-invasive detection of complement activation in placenta and foetal brain in vivo in utero. Using this method, we found that anti-complement C3-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles bind within the inflamed placenta and foetal brain cortical tissue, causing a shortening of the T2* relaxation time. We used two mouse models of pregnancy complications: a mouse model of obstetrics antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB). We found that detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with placental insufficiency characterised by increased oxidative stress, decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor levels and intrauterine growth restriction. We also found that foetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration in the mouse model of APS and in the PTB model. In the APS model, foetuses that showed increased C3 in their brains additionally expressed anxiety-related behaviour after birth. Importantly, USPIO did not affect pregnancy outcomes and liver function in the mother and the offspring, suggesting that this method may be useful for detecting complement activation in vivo in utero and predicting placental insufficiency and abnormal foetal neurodevelopment that leads to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25245499

  20. Abnormal grain growth in TD-nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the coarse grain transformation occurring in TD-nickel 1 in. bar under certain conditions of deformation and annealing were examined. The transformation exhibits Avrami-type kinetics, with an activation energy of 250 kcal per mole. Characteristics of untransformed regions are like those of the as-received state. The transformed grain size increases with increasing deformation and decreasing annealing temperature. The coarse grain transformation is significantly different from primary recrystallization in pure nickel. Its characteristics cannot be rationalized in terms of primary recrystallization concepts, but may be explained in terms of an abnormal grain growth description. The coarse grain transformation in TD-nickel is abnormal grain growth rather than primary recrystallization. The analysis suggests an explanation for the effect of thermomechanical history on the deformation and annealing behavior of TD-nickel.

  1. Pleiotrophin promotes vascular abnormalization in gliomas and correlates with poor survival in patients with astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Kundu, Soumi; Feenstra, Tjerk; Li, Xiujuan; Jin, Chuan; Laaniste, Liisi; El Hassan, Tamador Elsir Abu; Ohlin, K Elisabet; Yu, Di; Olofsson, Tommie; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Pontén, Fredrik; Magnusson, Peetra U; Nilsson, Karin Forsberg; Essand, Magnus; Smits, Anja; Dieterich, Lothar C; Dimberg, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastomas are aggressive astrocytomas characterized by endothelial cell proliferation and abnormal vasculature, which can cause brain edema and increase patient morbidity. We identified the heparin-binding cytokine pleiotrophin as a driver of vascular abnormalization in glioma. Pleiotrophin abundance was greater in high-grade human astrocytomas and correlated with poor survival. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which is a receptor that is activated by pleiotrophin, was present in mural cells associated with abnormal vessels. Orthotopically implanted gliomas formed from GL261 cells that were engineered to produce pleiotrophin showed increased microvessel density and enhanced tumor growth compared with gliomas formed from control GL261 cells. The survival of mice with pleiotrophin-producing gliomas was shorter than that of mice with gliomas that did not produce pleiotrophin. Vessels in pleiotrophin-producing gliomas were poorly perfused and abnormal, a phenotype that was associated with increased deposition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in direct proximity to the vasculature. The growth of pleiotrophin-producing GL261 gliomas was inhibited by treatment with the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, the ALK inhibitor ceritinib, or the VEGF receptor inhibitor cediranib, whereas control GL261 tumors did not respond to either inhibitor. Our findings link pleiotrophin abundance in gliomas with survival in humans and mice, and show that pleiotrophin promotes glioma progression through increased VEGF deposition and vascular abnormalization. PMID:26645582

  2. A Prospective Exploratory Analysis of Cardiac Biomarkers and Electrocardiogram Abnormalities in Patients Receiving Thoracic Radiation Therapy with High-Dose Heart Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Yusuf, Syed Wamique; Munsell, Mark; Welsh, James W.; Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H.; Pan, Hubert; Chang, Joe Y.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Grosshans, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute effects of incidental cardiac irradiation in patients treated for thoracic cancer are not well characterized. We evaluated longitudinal changes in cardiac biomarkers for patients undergoing conformal radiation therapy (RT) with thoracic malignancies with high-dose cardiac exposure. Methods Twenty-five patients enrolled in a prospective trial (February 2009–December 2012) received ≥45 Gy to the thorax, with pretreatment estimates of ≥20 Gy to the heart. Chemotherapy was allowed except for doxorubicin or fluorouracil. Electrocardiographic (ECG), troponin-I (TnI), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements were obtained before RT, within 24 hours of the first fraction, at the end of RT, and at first follow-up (1–2 months). These biomarkers were quantified at specific times and changes from baseline were evaluated with paired t tests. Results The median heart dose was 25.9 Gy (range 10.1–35.1 Gy). After the first RT fraction, no changes were noted in ECG or median Tnl or BNP levels; at the end of RT, two patients had elevated TnI and BNP, but neither difference was statistically significant. At first follow-up, TnI had returned to normal but the median BNP remained elevated (P=0.042). BNP did not increase over time in the 18 patients who received only RT. Twelve patients experienced acute ECG changes during RT, which resolved in seven patients by the next measurement. No patients experienced clinically significant RT-related events. Conclusion Increases in BNP and ECG changes were observed during high doses of radiation to the heart. The findings of this pilot study warrant further investigation and validation. PMID:25521400

  3. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  4. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:21845737

  5. Blockade of Extracellular High-Mobility Group Box 1 Attenuates Systemic Inflammation and Coagulation Abnormalities in Rats with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhao, Kun; Shen, Xiao; Fan, Xin-xin; Ding, Kai; Liu, Ren-min; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background As an extracellularly released mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initiates sterile inflammation following severe trauma. Serum HMGB1 levels correlate well with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in trauma patients, which is independently associated with higher mortality. We investigated the involvement of HMGB1 in ATC through blocking extracellular HMGB1. Material/Methods The ATC model was induced by polytrauma and hemorrhage in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned to sham, ATC, and ATCH (ATC with HMGB1 blockade) groups. Thrombelastography (TEG) was performed to monitor changes in coagulation function. Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured, as well as lung levels of HMGB1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Results Compared with the sham group, HMGB1 increased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas HMGB1 blockade inhibited the induction of TNF-α and IL-6. HMGB1 also induced elevated serum soluble P-selectin and fibrinolysis markers plasmin-antiplasmin complex, which both were reduced by HMGB1 blockade. Thrombelastography revealed the hypocoagulability status in the ATC group, which was attenuated by anti-HMGB1 antibody. Furthermore, the lung level of NF-κB and expression of RAGE were decreased by anti-HMGB1 antibody, suggesting the role of RAGE/NF-κB pathway in ATC. Conclusions HMGB1 blockade can attenuate inflammation and coagulopathy in ATC rats. Anti-HMGB1 antibody might exert protective effects partly through the RAGE/NF-κB pathway. Thus, HMGB1 has potential as a therapeutic target in ATC. PMID:27436061

  6. Abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function associated with a heritable deficiency of high molecular weight surface glycoproteins (GP138): common relationship to diminished cell adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D C; Schmalstieg, F C; Arnaout, M A; Kohl, S; Tosi, M F; Dana, N; Buffone, G J; Hughes, B J; Brinkley, B R; Dickey, W D

    1984-01-01

    Investigations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function were performed in a 5-yr-old white female with delayed umbilical cord separation, impaired pus formation, and a severe defect of PMN chemotaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated an almost total deficiency of a high molecular weight glycoprotein(s) (GP138) in the granule and membrane fractions of the patient's cells, and NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling demonstrated the absence of a major glycoprotein complex on the surface of her PMNs. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were employed in flow cytometry experiments to demonstrate that two previously characterized glycoproteins (Mo1 and LFA1) were undetectable on the surface of the patient's PMNs and monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled patient cells with subunit specific MAbs confirmed that the alpha-subunits of Mo1 (155 kD) and LFA1 (177 kD) and their common beta-subunit (94 kD) were totally deficient. Functional analyses of patient PMNs demonstrated severe impairment of adherence- and adhesion-dependent cell functions including spreading, aggregation, orientation in chemotactic gradients, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis of particles (Oil-Red-0-paraffin, zymosan) selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands. Patient PMNs demonstrated a normal capacity to rosette with IgG or C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes, but rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes was profoundly diminished. Adhesion-independent functions including shape change, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-3H-phenylalanine binding, and O-2 generation or secretion elicited by soluble stimuli were normal. Membrane fluidity, surface charge, and microtubule assembly were also normal. These findings provide new evidence that critical PMN surface glycoproteins are required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent cellular functions of the inflammatory response. Images PMID:6746906

  7. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. Glia as drivers of abnormal neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Robel, Stefanie; Sontheimer, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Reactive astrocytes have been proposed to become incompetent bystanders in epilepsy as a result of cellular changes rendering them unable to perform important housekeeping functions. Indeed, successful surgical treatment of mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy hinges on the removal of the glial scar. New research now extends the role of astrocytes, suggesting that they may drive the disease process by impairing the inhibitory action of neuronal GABA receptors. Here we discuss studies that include hyperexcitability resulting from impaired supply of astrocytic glutamine for neuronal GABA synthesis, and epilepsy resulting from genetically induced astrogliosis or malignant transformation, both of which render the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA excitatory. In these examples, glial cells alter the expression or function of neuronal proteins involved in excitability. Although epilepsy has traditionally been thought of as a disease caused by changes in neuronal properties exclusively, these new findings challenge us to consider the contribution of glial cells as drivers of epileptogenesis in acquired epilepsies. PMID:26713746

  10. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  11. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  12. Activities Selected from the High School Geography Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Salvatore J., Ed.; And Others

    Out of approximately 50 activities which were, for a variety of reasons, not included in the final version of the High School Geography Project course, Geography in an Urban Age, the HSGP staff selected eight which would be useful in many secondary school classrooms. The activities included here are: 1) Operation Bigger Beef (on themes of cultural…

  13. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  14. Cell cycle regulators and their abnormalities in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, P L; Jares, P; Rey, M J; Campo, E; Cardesa, A

    1998-01-01

    One of the main properties of cancer cells is their increased and deregulated proliferative activity. It is now well known that abnormalities in many positive and negative modulators of the cell cycle are frequent in many cancer types, including breast carcinomas. Abnormalities such as defective function of the retinoblastoma gene and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (for example, p16, p21, and p27), as well as upregulation of cyclins, are often seen in breast tumours. These abnormalities are sometimes coincidental, and newly described interplays between them suggest the existence of a complex regulatory web in the cell cycle. PMID:10193510

  15. The Physical Activity Climate in Minnesota Middle and High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Methods Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. Results While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Conclusions Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity. PMID:21088313

  16. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities in Clozapine-Treated Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Nishant; Desarkar, Pushpal; Nizamie, Haque

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities associated with clozapine treatment. It was a cross-sectional study on 87 psychiatric patients on clozapine treatment. 32 channel digital EEG was recorded and analysed visually for abnormalities. EEG abnormalities were observed in 63.2% of patients. Both slowing and epileptiform activities were noted in 41.4% of patients. The EEG abnormalities were not associated with dose or duration of clozapine exposure. PMID:22216049

  17. Automated Gastric Slow Wave Cycle Partitioning and Visualization for High-resolution Activation Time Maps

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jonathan C.; O’Grady, Greg; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Pullan, Andrew J.; Cheng, Leo K.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) multi-electrode mapping has become an important technique for evaluating gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave (SW) behaviors. However, the application and uptake of HR mapping has been constrained by the complex and laborious task of analyzing the large volumes of retrieved data. Recently, a rapid and reliable method for automatically identifying activation times (ATs) of SWs was presented, offering substantial efficiency gains. To extend the automated data-processing pipeline, novel automated methods are needed for partitioning identified ATs into their propagation cycles, and for visualizing the HR spatiotemporal maps. A novel cycle partitioning algorithm (termed REGROUPS) is presented. REGROUPS employs an iterative REgion GROwing procedure and incorporates a Polynomial-surface-estimate Stabilization step, after initiation by an automated seed selection process. Automated activation map visualization was achieved via an isochronal contour mapping algorithm, augmented by a heuristic 2-step scheme. All automated methods were collectively validated in a series of experimental test cases of normal and abnormal SW propagation, including instances of patchy data quality. The automated pipeline performance was highly comparable to manual analysis, and outperformed a previously proposed partitioning approach. These methods will substantially improve the efficiency of GI HR mapping research. PMID:20927594

  18. A System and Method for Online High-Resolution Mapping of Gastric Slow-Wave Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Simon H.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping employs multielectrode arrays to achieve spatially detailed analyses of propagating bioelectrical events. A major current limitation is that spatial analyses must currently be performed “off-line” (after experiments), compromising timely recording feedback and restricting experimental interventions. These problems motivated development of a system and method for “online” HR mapping. HR gastric recordings were acquired and streamed to a novel software client. Algorithms were devised to filter data, identify slow-wave events, eliminate corrupt channels, and cluster activation events. A graphical user interface animated data and plotted electrograms and maps. Results were compared against off-line methods. The online system analyzed 256-channel serosal recordings with no unexpected system terminations with a mean delay 18 s. Activation time marking sensitivity was 0.92; positive predictive value was 0.93. Abnormal slow-wave patterns including conduction blocks, ectopic pacemaking, and colliding wave fronts were reliably identified. Compared to traditional analysis methods, online mapping had comparable results with equivalent coverage of 90% of electrodes, average RMS errors of less than 1 s, and CC of activation maps of 0.99. Accurate slow-wave mapping was achieved in near real-time, enabling monitoring of recording quality and experimental interventions targeted to dysrhythmic onset. This work also advances the translation of HR mapping toward real-time clinical application. PMID:24860024

  19. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  20. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  1. Highly Active Multidentate Ligand-Based Alkyne Metathesis Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Du, Ya; Yang, Haishen; Zhu, Chengpu; Ortiz, Michael; Okochi, Kenji D; Shoemaker, Richard; Jin, Yinghua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Alkyne metathesis catalysts composed of molybdenum(VI) propylidyne and multidentate tris(2-hydroxylbenzyl)methane ligands have been developed, which exhibit excellent stability (remains active in solution for months at room temperature), high activity, and broad functional-group tolerance. The homodimerization and cyclooligomerization of monopropynyl or dipropynyl substrates, including challenging heterocycle substrates (e.g., pyridine), proceed efficiently at 40-55 °C in a closed system. The ligand structure and catalytic activity relationship has been investigated, which shows that the ortho groups of the multidentate phenol ligands are critical to the stability and activity of such a catalyst system. PMID:27113640

  2. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  3. Central Mechanisms of Abnormal Sympathoexcitation in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that the sympathetic nervous system is abnormally activated in chronic heart failure, and leads to further worsening chronic heart failure. In the treatment of chronic heart failure many clinical studies have already suggested that the inhibition of the abnormal sympathetic hyperactivity by beta blockers is beneficial. It has been classically considered that abnormal sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic heart failure is caused by the enhancement of excitatory inputs including changes in peripheral baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes and chemical mediators that control sympathetic outflow. Recently, the abnormalities in the central regulation of sympathetic nerve activity mediated by brain renin angiotensin system-oxidative stress axis and/or proinflammatory cytokines have been focused. Central renin angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines, and the interaction between them have been determined as the target of the sympathoinhibitory treatment in experimental animal models with chronic heart failure. In conclusion, we must recognize that chronic heart failure is a syndrome with an abnormal sympathoexcitation, which is caused by the abnormalities in the central regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:22919539

  4. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  5. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

  6. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Abnormal Electrocardiograms After Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; Julayanont, Parunyou; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Kim, Jongyeol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities occur frequently but are often underrecognized after strokes. Acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in some particular area of brain can disrupt central autonomic control of the heart, precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, ECG abnormalities, myocardial injury and sometimes sudden death. Identification of high-risk patients after acute stroke is important to arrange appropriate cardiac monitoring and effective management of arrhythmias, and to prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to better clarify pathogenesis, localization of areas associated with arrhythmias and practical management of arrhythmias and abnormal ECGs after acute stroke. PMID:26802767

  7. Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

  8. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  9. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  10. High energy expenditure masks low physical activity in obesity

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate energy expenditure in lean and obese individuals, focusing particularly on physical activity and severely obese individuals. Design Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry, activity EE (AEE) by difference and time spent in physical activity by multisensor activity monitors. Subjects 177 lean, Class I and severely obese individuals (age 31–56, BMI 20–64 kg/m2). Results All components of EE were elevated in obese individuals. For example, TDEE was 2404±95 kcal/d in lean and 3244 ± 48 kcal/d in Class III obese. After appropriate adjustment, RMR was similar in all groups. Analysis of AEE by body weight and obesity class indicated a lower AEE in the obese. Confirming lower physical activity, obese individuals spent less time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (2.7±1.3, 1.8±0.6, 2.0±1.4 and 1.2±1.0 hr/d in lean, Class I, Class II and Class III), and more time in sedentary behaviors. Conclusions There was no indication of metabolic efficiency in even the severely obese, as adjusted RMR was similar across all groups. The higher AEE observed in the obese is consistent with a higher cost of activities due to higher body weight. However, the magnitude of the higher AEE (20 to 25% higher in obese) is lower than expected (weight approximately 100% higher in Class III). Confirming a lower volume of physical activity in the obese, the total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average daily MET level were lower with increasing obesity. These findings demonstrate that high body weight in obesity leads to a high TDEE and AEE which masks the fact that they are less physically active, which can be influenced by duration or intensity of activity, than lean individuals. PMID:23090575

  11. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  12. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis. PMID:25810444

  13. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  14. High viscosity to highly dispersed PtPd bimetallic nanocrystals for enhanced catalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jie; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Wei, Hao; Xiao, Yu-Xuan; Janiak, Christoph; Mu, Shi-Chun; Tian, Ge; Pan, Mu; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-07-01

    A facile high-viscosity-solvent method is presented to synthesize PtPd bimetallic nanocrystals highly dispersed in different mesostructures (2D and 3D structures), porosities (large and small pore sizes), and compositions (silica and carbon). Further, highly catalytic activity, stability and durability of the nanometals have been proven in different catalytic reactions. PMID:27222099

  15. High flare activity and redistribution of solar global magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.; Gesztelyi, L.

    It is demonstrated that, both on the global scale and on the scale of large and complex active regions, high flare activity is closely related to changes in the whole background magnetic-field distribution. It is found that the disturbances of the normal course of magnetic active longitudes (MAL) during the years 1965-1980 correlated with the maxima of flare activity, while the mode of the MAL distribution correlated with the mean level of solar flare numbers. The development of activity during the last two submaxima of the 21st cycle, especially the formation of the white-light flare region of April 1984, were parts of global processes in the solar atmosphere. They were accompanied by a complete reorganization of the MAL patterns, background field sector structure, and coronal holes.

  16. Neuropsychological abnormalities in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I

    1993-01-01

    Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104

  17. Axolemmal abnormalities in myelin mutants.

    PubMed

    Rosenbluth, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that the paranodal axoglial junction plays important roles in the differentiation and function of myelinated axons. In myelin-deficient axons, ion flux across the axolemma is greater than that in myelinated fibers because a larger proportion of the axolemma is active during continuous, as opposed to saltatory, conduction. In addition, older myelin-deficient rats that have developed spontaneous seizures display small foci of node-like E-face particle accumulations in CNS axons as well as more diffuse regions of increased particle density and number. Assuming that the E-face particles represent sodium channels, such regions could underlie high sodium current density during activity, low threshold for excitation, and increased extracellular potassium accumulation. Depending on the degree of spontaneous channel opening, they could also represent sites of spontaneous generation of activity. The appearance of seizures and their gradual increase in frequency and severity could represent an increase in the number of such regions. In addition, diminution in the dimensions of the extracellular space during maturation would result in increased extracellular resistance, which, together with increasing axonal diameter, would tend to increase the likelihood of ephaptic interaction among neighboring axons as well as the likelihood of extracellular potassium rises to levels that could cause spontaneous activity. PMID:2268117

  18. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633. PMID:27313852

  19. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  20. Selection of quiescent Escherichia coli with high metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Marco; Schümperli, Michael; Sauer, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Sustained metabolic activity in non-growing, quiescent cells can increase the operational life-span of bio-processes and improve process economics by decoupling production from cell growth. Because of the ill-defined molecular nature of this phenotype, we developed selection protocols for the evolution of quiescent Escherichia coli mutants that exhibit high metabolic activity in ammonium starvation-induced stationary phase. The best enrichment procedures were continuously or discontinuously fed ammonium-limited chemostat cultures with a very low dilution rate of 0.03 h(-1). After 40 generations of selection, improved mutants with up to doubled catabolic rates in stationary phase were isolated. The metabolically most active clones were identified by screening for high specific glucose uptake rates during ammonium starvation-induced stationary phase in deep-well microtiter plates. PMID:15721805

  1. Low-Dimensional Chaos of High-Latitude Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi-Xiu; Li, Ke-Jun

    2007-10-01

    The chaos of high-latitude solar activity has been investigated by determining the behavior of the monthly averaged polar facula counts obtained from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on the basis of nonlinear dynamics theories and methods. It is found that the high-latitude solar activity is also governed by a low-dimensional chaotic attractor in both the northern and southern solar hemispheres, which is the same as that of the low-latitude solar activity. However, their maximal Lyapunov exponents are different, showing different strength of chaos. The maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) of polar faculae in the southern solar hemisphere is about 0.0211 ± 0.0003 (month-1), which is nearly consistent with the low-latitude Wolf sunspot numbers, while the MLE in the northern one is approximately 0.0944 ± 0.0066 (month-1), which is obviously greater than the above two.

  2. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  3. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  4. Effects of abnormal excitation on the dynamics of spiral waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Yi, Deng; Xue-Liang, Zhang; Jing-Yu, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The effect of physiological and pathological abnormal excitation of a myocyte on the spiral waves is investigated based on the cellular automaton model. When the excitability of the medium is high enough, the physiological abnormal excitation causes the spiral wave to meander irregularly and slowly. When the excitability of the medium is low enough, the physiological abnormal excitation leads to a new stable spiral wave. On the other hand, the pathological abnormal excitation destroys the spiral wave and results in the spatiotemporal chaos, which agrees with the clinical conclusion that the early after depolarization is the pro-arrhythmic mechanism of some anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11365003 and 11165004).

  5. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A.

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  6. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  7. Relationship Between Clinical and Immunological Features with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Female Patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Cui-Yan; Pan, Zheng-Lun; Zhao, Jun-Yu; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    , cortex involvement, and RD might be markers of high systemic lupus erythematosus activity. Some MRI abnormalities might correspond to neuropsychiatric manifestations and might be helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of NPSLE. PMID:26904988

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of tetrahexahedral rhodium nanocrystals with extraordinarily high surface energy and high electrocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Neng-Fei; Tian, Na; Zhou, Zhi-You; Huang, Long; Xiao, Jing; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-05-12

    Noble metal nanocrystals (NCs) enclosed with high-index facets hold a high catalytic activity thanks to the high density of low-coordinated step atoms that they exposed on their surface. Shape-control synthesis of the metal NCs with high-index facets presents a big challenge owing to the high surface energy of the NCs, and the shape control for metal Rh is even more difficult because of its extraordinarily high surface energy in comparison with Pt, Pd, and Au. The successful synthesis is presented of tetrahexahedral Rh NCs (THH Rh NCs) enclosed by {830} high-index facets through the dynamic oxygen adsorption/desorption mediated by square-wave potential. The results demonstrate that the THH Rh NCs exhibit greatly enhanced catalytic activity over commercial Rh black catalyst for the electrooxidation of ethanol and CO. PMID:24692362

  9. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  10. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  11. Return to Activity at Altitude After High-Altitude Illness

    PubMed Central

    DeWeber, Kevin; Scorza, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sports and other activities at high altitude are popular, yet they pose the unique risk for high-altitude illness (HAI). Once those who have suffered from a HAI recover, they commonly desire or need to perform the same activity at altitude in the immediate or distant future. Evidence Acquisition: As based on key text references and peer-reviewed journal articles from a Medline search, this article reviews the pathophysiology and general treatment principles of HAI. Results: In addition to the type of HAI experienced and the current level of recovery, factors needing consideration in the return-to-play plan include physical activity requirements, flexibility of the activity schedule, and available medical equipment and facilities. Most important, adherence to prudent acclimatization protocols and gradual ascent recommendations (when above 3000 m, no more than 600-m net elevation gain per day, and 1 rest day every 1 to 2 ascent days) is powerful in its preventive value and thus strongly recommended. When these are not practical, prophylactic medications (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, salmeterol, nifedipine, or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, depending on the type of prior HAI) may be prescribed and can reduce the risk of illness. Athletes with HAI should be counseled that physical and mental performance may be adversely affected if activity at altitude continues before recovery is complete and that there is a risk of progression to a more serious HAI. Conclusion: With a thoughtful plan, most recurrent HAI in athletes can be prevented. PMID:23015950

  12. Frequency of abnormal findings detected by comprehensive clinical evaluation at 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie J; Seaborn, Travis; Mao, Frances J; Massey, Susan C; Luu, Ngoc Q; Schubert, Mary A; Chien, Jason W; Carpenter, Paul A; Moravec, Carina; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2009-04-01

    Consensus guidelines recommend various screening examinations for survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but how often these examinations detect abnormal findings is unknown. We reviewed the medical records of 118 patients who received comprehensive, standardized evaluations at 1 year after allogeneic HCT at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Abnormal findings were common, including moderate to severe pulmonary dysfunction (16%), fasting hyperlipidemia (56%), osteopenia (52%), osteoporosis (6%), and active chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) (64%). Recurrent malignancy (4%) and cGVHD (29%) were detected in previously unsuspected cases. Only 3% of patients had no abnormal findings. We conclude that comprehensive evaluation at 1 year after allogeneic HCT detects a high prevalence of medical problems. Longer follow-up is needed to determine whether early detection and intervention affect later morbidity and mortality. PMID:19285628

  13. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  14. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  15. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  16. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  17. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  18. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  19. High-resolution Mapping of In Vivo Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Activity Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board Electrodes: Methodology and Validation

    PubMed Central

    DU, PENG; O'GRADY, G.; EGBUJI, J. U.; LAMMERS, W. J.; BUDGETT, D.; NIELSEN, P.; WINDSOR, J. A.; PULLAN, A. J.; CHENG, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-electrode mapping is providing valuable new insights into the origin, propagation, and abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave activity. Construction of high-resolution mapping arrays has previously been a costly and time-consuming endeavor, and existing arrays are not well suited for human research as they cannot be reliably and repeatedly sterilized. The design and fabrication of a new flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode array that is suitable for GI mapping is presented, together with its in vivo validation in a porcine model. A modified methodology for characterizing slow waves and forming spatiotemporal activation maps showing slow waves propagation is also demonstrated. The validation study found that flexible PCB electrode arrays are able to reliably record gastric slow wave activity with signal quality near that achieved by traditional epoxy resin-embedded silver electrode arrays. Flexible PCB electrode arrays provide a clinically viable alternative to previously published devices for the high-resolution mapping of GI slow wave activity. PCBs may be mass-produced at low cost, and are easily sterilized and potentially disposable, making them ideally suited to intra-operative human use. PMID:19224368

  20. Extreme high-latitude activity from high-speed stream embedded Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, Eija; Mursula, Kalevi; Hynönen, Reko; Snekvik, Kristian; Slavin, James; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic activity is known to be driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME), interaction regions and high-speed streams (HSS). Storm activity in low-latitudes is mainly driven by ICMEs while substorm activity in high-latitudes is strongly modulated by high-speed streams. In this work we explore what makes high-speed streams more powerful in modulating high-latitudes than ICMEs. We identified Alfvén waves from 1995 to 2011. Alfvén waves are found throughout the solar cycle, but they are fastest, most frequent and most geo-effective in the declining phase of the solar cycle 23, when the number of high-speed streams at the Eart&hacute;s vicinity increases rapidly. HSS embedded Alfvén waves were found to carry twice as much Alfvénicity than ICME embedded Alfvén waves. Furthermore, we found a rapid transition from predominance of slow Alfvén waves in 2002 to fast Alfvén waves in 2003, which coincide with the 40% increase in substorm number and 30% increase in substorm strength. We conclude that Alfvénic fluctuations embedded to high-speed streams make them more powerful in modulating high-latitudes than ICMEs, and thus cause largest threat to high-latitude infrastructure during declining solar cycle phases.

  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder are Associated with Abnormalities in Processing Visual Information

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lai, Tsz Man; Bohon, Cara; Loo, Sandra K; McCurdy, Danyale; Strober, Michael; Bookheimer, Susan; Feusner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by distorted body image and are frequently comorbid with each other, although their relationship remains little studied. While there is evidence of abnormalities in visual and visuospatial processing in both disorders, no study has directly compared the two. We used two complementary modalities – event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI – to test for abnormal activity associated with early visual signaling. Methods We acquired fMRI and ERP data in separate sessions from 15 unmedicated individuals in each of three groups (weight-restored AN, BDD, and healthy controls) while they viewed images of faces and houses of different spatial frequencies. We used joint independent component analyses to compare activity in visual systems. Results AN and BDD groups demonstrated similar hypoactivity in early secondary visual processing regions and the dorsal visual stream when viewing low spatial frequency faces, linked to the N170 component, as well as in early secondary visual processing regions when viewing low spatial frequency houses, linked to the P100 component. Additionally, the BDD group exhibited hyperactivity in fusiform cortex when viewing high spatial frequency houses, linked to the N170 component. Greater activity in this component was associated with lower attractiveness ratings of faces. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence of similar abnormal spatio-temporal activation in AN and BDD for configural/holistic information for appearance- and nonappearance-related stimuli. This suggests a common phenotype of abnormal early visual system functioning, which may contribute to perceptual distortions. PMID:25652023

  2. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  3. Highly concentrated active nonlinear media based on oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bakin, D.V.; Dorozhkin, L.M.; Krasilov, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, N.T.; Potemkin, A.V.; Tadzhi-Aglaev, K.S.; Shestakov, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    Important characteristics of highly concentrated active nonlinear media were studied which were based on oxide compounds of phosphates, niobates, tantalates, and titanates of neodymium with alkaline earth metals. Compounds of the indicated classes were synthesized and their spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties were studied. Single crystals were grown from the selected compounds (5-8mm) and preliminary measurements of the laser and nonlinear optical parameters were taken. Formulas are given for materials that demonstrated high nonlinear and luminescent properties simultaneously. Spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of some oxygen compounds of rare earth elements are shown.

  4. Substrate independent ATPase activity may complicate high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Tuntland, Micheal L; Fung, L W-M

    2016-10-01

    Inorganic phosphate release, [Pi], is often measured in an enzymatic reaction in a high throughput setting. Based on the published mechanism, we designed a protocol for our screening for inhibitors of SAICAR synthetase (PurC), and we found a gradual increase in [Pi] in positive control samples over the course of the day. Further investigation indicated that hydrolysis of ATP catalyzed by PurC, rather than substrate-related phosphate release, was responsible for a partial contribution to the signals in the control samples. Thus substrate-independent ATPase activity may complicate high throughput screening. PMID:27430931

  5. Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, H; Ahmad, M

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (PLA) in a Pakistani human population, 53 probands belonging to the Punjabi ethnic group were examined using a lactose tolerance test. The incidence of PLA in the sample was found to be 55%, which has been compared with the incidence in other ethnic groups racially or geographically related to the Pakistani population. Various possible explanations for the fairly high incidence of PLA in the Punjabi ethnic group have been discussed. PMID:6885071

  6. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Silate Inhibits High Glucose-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-yu; Yan, Hong; Wang, Xin-bo; Gui, Yu-zhou; Gao, Fei; Tang, Xi-lan; Qin, Yin-lin; Su, Mei; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yi-ping

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells may perform a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. AMPK additionally exerts several salutary effects on vascular function and improves vascular abnormalities. The current study sought to determine whether sodium tanshinone IIA silate (STS) has an inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration under high glucose conditions mimicking diabetes without dyslipidemia, and establish the underlying mechanism. In this study, STS promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at T172 in VSMCs. VSMC proliferation was enhanced under high glucose (25 mM glucose, HG) versus normal glucose conditions (5.5 mM glucose, NG), and this increase was inhibited significantly by STS treatment. We utilized western blotting analysis to evaluate the effects of STS on cell-cycle regulatory proteins and found that STS increased the expression of p53 and the Cdk inhibitor, p21, subsequent decreased the expression of cell cycle-associated protein, cyclin D1. We further observed that STS arrested cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase. Additionally, expression and enzymatic activity of MMP-2, translocation of NF-κB, as well as VSMC migration were suppressed in the presence of STS. Notably, Compound C (CC), a specific inhibitor of AMPK, as well as AMPK siRNA blocked STS-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation and migration. We further evaluated its potential for activating AMPK in aortas in animal models of type 2 diabetes and found that Oral administration of STS for 10 days resulted in activation of AMPK in aortas from ob/ob or db/db mice. In conclusion, STS inhibits high glucose-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, possibly through AMPK activation. The growth suppression effect may be attributable to activation of AMPK-p53-p21 signaling, and the inhibitory effect on migration to the AMPK/NF-κB signaling axis. PMID:24739942

  7. Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (lactose tolerance) in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, A G; Delbrück, H; Haeckel, R; Goedde, H W; Flatz, G

    1976-09-10

    Two hundred and seventy apparently healthy adult subjects from Afghanistan, mainly from the central and eastern parts of the country, were subjected to a lactose tolerance test. The change of blood glucose from the fasting concentration at 20 min after the administration of lactose showed a bimodal distribution. Forty-seven subjects had a rise of blood glucose concentration of more than 1.1 mmol/l and were classified as persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (PHILA), a term which lays emphasis on the fact that high lactase activity in the adult is an unusual state whose prevalence in some populations requires explanation. In the Afghan sample there were no significant differences of the frequency of PHILA in different ethnic groups. PMID:965005

  8. Topside electron temperature models for low and high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V. K.; Sethi, N. K.; Mahajan, K. K.

    It is now well known that in the topside ionosphere thermal conduction from the protonosphere becomes the dominant factor over the heating and loss terms in shaping the ionospheric electron temperature (Te) profile. By analyzing a limited database of incoherent scatter (IS) Te measurements, Mahajan and Pandey [J. Geophys. Res. 85 (1980) 213] reported a correlation between the electron heat flux and electron density in the topside ionosphere. Since attention has been steadily mounting for the empirical modeling of Te, we now exploit the large database of IS measurements of Te and Ne at Arecibo during 1989-1990 (high solar activity), as well as during 1975-1976 (low solar activity) for this purpose. We again find a functional relationship between heat flux and electron density in the topside ionosphere during both the solar activities. These functional relationships are used to generate topside Te profiles.

  9. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  10. Prognostic Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhou, Huixing; Zhu, Wanqiu; Liu, Nian; Geng, Chuanying; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of specific cytogenetic abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) has become a routine procedure for prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in 229 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was retrospectively analyzed. Results showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were adverse predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who carried these cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely to have more adverse biological parameters and lower response rate. Multivariate analysis showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were statistically independent predictors of PFS, whereas del (17p) was also adverse predictor of overall survival. Multiple coexisting cytogenetic abnormalities also had a negative correlation with PFS. Bortezomib-based therapy could improve the rate and depth of response in patients with t(4;14) translocation and 1q21 gain. Autologous stem cell transplantation could improve, but not overcome the adverse prognostic effect of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MM patients with iFISH abnormalities, especially del (17p), are more likely to have a poor prognosis. PMID:27175647

  11. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  12. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  13. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  14. Stellar activity effects on high energy exoplanet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    High energy (X-ray / UV) observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At such high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. At these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the stellar disk appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as extended bright features that evolve on a much shorter timescale than in the optical making it difficult . These features impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulated exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  15. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  16. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  17. Symmetric Active/Active Metadata Service for High Availability Parallel File Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ou, Li; Engelmann, Christian; Chen, Xin; Scott, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    High availability data storage systems are critical for many applications as research and business become more data-driven. Since metadata management is essential to system availability, multiple metadata services are used to improve the availability of distributed storage systems. Past research focused on the active/standby model, where each active service has at least one redundant idle backup. However, interruption of service and even some loss of service state may occur during a fail-over depending on the used replication technique. In addition, the replication overhead for multiple metadata services can be very high. The research in this paper targets the symmetric active/active replication model, which uses multiple redundant service nodes running in virtual synchrony. In this model, service node failures do not cause a fail-over to a backup and there is no disruption of service or loss of service state. We further discuss a fast delivery protocol to reduce the latency of the needed total order broadcast. Our prototype implementation shows that metadata service high availability can be achieved with an acceptable performance trade-off using our symmetric active/active metadata service solution.

  18. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  19. Adiposity and Insufficient MVPA Predict Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Snih, Soham Al; Stoddard, Jonathan; McClain, James; Lee, IMin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the extent to which different combinations of objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity contribute to cardiometabolic health. Design and Methods A population representative sample of 5,268 individuals, aged 20-85 years, was included from the combined 2003-2006 NHANES datasets. Activity categories were created on the combined basis of objectively measured SB and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) tertiles. Cardiometabolic abnormalities included elevated blood pressure, levels of triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance value, and low HDL-cholesterol level. BMI, and DXA-derived percent body fat (% BF) and android adiposity were also compared across groups. Predictors for a metabolically abnormal phenotype (≥3 cardiometabolic abnormalities, or insulin resistance) were determined. Results Adults with the least SB and greatest MVPA exhibited the healthiest cardiometabolic profiles, whereas adults with the greatest SB and lowest MVPA were older and had elevated risk. Time spent in SB was not a predictor of the metabolically abnormal phenotype when MVPA was accounted for. Adults with the highest MVPA across SB tertiles did not differ markedly in prevalence of obesity, adiposity, and/or serum cardiometabolic risk factors; however, less MVPA was associated with substantial elevations of obesity and cardiometabolic risk. Android adiposity (per kilogram) was independently associated with the metabolically abnormal phenotype in both men (OR: 2.36 [95% CI, 1.76-3.17], p<0.001) and women (OR: 2.00 [95% CI, 1.63-2.45], p<0.001). Among women, greater SB, and less lifestyle moderate activity and MVPA were each independently associated with the metabolically abnormal phenotype, whereas only less MVPA was associated with it in men. Conclusions MVPA is a strong predictor of cardiometabolic health among adults, independent of time spent in SB. PMID

  20. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  1. Physical activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Eric P; Grandjean, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries around the world despite the documented success of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. This illustrates the multifactorial nature of atherosclerosis and the use of novel inflammatory markers as an adjunct to risk factor reduction strategies. As evidence continues to accumulate that inflammation is involved in all stages of the development and progression of atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) may provide additional information regarding the biological status of the atherosclerotic lesion. Recent investigations suggest that physical activity reduces CRP levels. Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are consistently associated with 6-35% lower CRP levels. Longitudinal training studies that have demonstrated reductions in CRP concentrations range from 16% to 41%, an effect that may be independent of baseline levels of CRP, body composition or weight loss. The average change in CRP associated with physical activity appears to be at least as good, if not better, than currently prescribed pharmacological interventions in similar populations. The primary purpose of this review will be to present evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations that physical activity lowers CRP levels in a dose-response manner. Finally, this review will examine factors such as body composition, sex, blood sample timing, diet and smoking, which may influence the CRP response to physical activity. PMID:16646631

  2. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Cassandra; Deschênes, Sonya; Au, Bonnie; Smith, Kimberley; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity). Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1) no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717); 2) high depressive symptoms only (n = 338); 3) cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180); and 4) high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219). Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64) for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44) for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94) for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  3. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cassandra; Deschênes, Sonya; Au, Bonnie; Smith, Kimberley; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity). Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1) no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717); 2) high depressive symptoms only (n = 338); 3) cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180); and 4) high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219). Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64) for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44) for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94) for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  5. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  6. High-Tc SQUID magnetometer system with active cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, S.; Oyama, H.; Hayashi, A.; Washio, T.; Fujita, M.; Hirata, Y.

    2002-05-01

    Recent developments of high-Tc SQUIDs have enabled high sensitivity magnetometers to be used in wide range of places, such as laboratory and outdoor fields. At the early stage of developing multichannel system for measurement of magnetocardiogram (MCG) in clinical application, we have fabricated a single channel high-Tc SQUID magnetometer system. The system includes a direct-coupled SQUID with slot structure, a simple magnetically shielded room (MSR), and some active compensation electronics for the purpose of reducing various environmental field noises. A novel active noise cancellation was made by using a combination of a normal conducting detection coil that was horizontally wound in the middle height of the MSR, and two compensation coils that were wound at the top and bottom of the MSR. In addition, adaptive noise cancellation was supplemented by means of adaptive digital filter that was implemented in a digital signal processor. A total noise field attenuation of 50-60 dB was attained at 0.5-100 Hz. Low noise signals from the human heart were measured with a high-Tc SQUID in the noise reduced space in the MSR.

  7. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  8. Alterations to the remote control of Shh gene expression cause congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert E; Lettice, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Multi-species conserved non-coding elements occur in the vertebrate genome and are clustered in the vicinity of developmentally regulated genes. Many are known to act as cis-regulators of transcription and may reside at long distances from the genes they regulate. However, the relationship of conserved sequence to encoded regulatory information and indeed, the mechanism by which these contribute to long-range transcriptional regulation is not well understood. The ZRS, a highly conserved cis-regulator, is a paradigm for such long-range gene regulation. The ZRS acts over approximately 1 Mb to control spatio-temporal expression of Shh in the limb bud and mutations within it result in a number of limb abnormalities, including polydactyly, tibial hypoplasia and syndactyly. We describe the activity of this developmental regulator and discuss a number of mechanisms by which regulatory mutations in this enhancer function to cause congenital abnormalities. PMID:23650631

  9. Alterations to the remote control of Shh gene expression cause congenital abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert E.; Lettice, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-species conserved non-coding elements occur in the vertebrate genome and are clustered in the vicinity of developmentally regulated genes. Many are known to act as cis-regulators of transcription and may reside at long distances from the genes they regulate. However, the relationship of conserved sequence to encoded regulatory information and indeed, the mechanism by which these contribute to long-range transcriptional regulation is not well understood. The ZRS, a highly conserved cis-regulator, is a paradigm for such long-range gene regulation. The ZRS acts over approximately 1 Mb to control spatio-temporal expression of Shh in the limb bud and mutations within it result in a number of limb abnormalities, including polydactyly, tibial hypoplasia and syndactyly. We describe the activity of this developmental regulator and discuss a number of mechanisms by which regulatory mutations in this enhancer function to cause congenital abnormalities. PMID:23650631

  10. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. PMID:19002453

  11. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  12. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin.

    PubMed

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4-16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  13. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  14. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  15. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  16. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic.

    PubMed

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  17. Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic

  18. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  19. High-activity barley alpha-amylase by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dominic W S; Batt, Sarah B; Lee, Charles C; Robertson, George H

    2004-10-01

    Barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 was cloned into and constitutively secreted by Saccharomyces cervisiae. The gene coding for the wild-type enzyme was subjected to directed evolution. Libraries of mutants were screened by halo formation on starch agar plates, followed by high-throughput liquid assay using dye-labeled starch as the substrate. The concentration of recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant was determined by immunodetection, and used for the calculation of specific activity. After three rounds of directed evolution, one mutant (Mu322) showed 1000 times the total activity and 20 times the specific activity of the wild-type enzyme produced by the same yeast expression system. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of this mutant with the wild type revealed five substitutions: Q44H, R303K and F325Y in domain A, and T94A and R128Q in domain B. Two of these mutations. Q44H and R303K, result in amino acids highly conserved in cereal alpha-amylases. R303K and F325Y are located in the raw starch-binding fragment of the enzyme molecule. PMID:15635937

  20. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  1. Tunable plasmonic nanoparticles with catalytically active high-index facets.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hao; Zhang, Qingfeng; Large, Nicolas; Yu, Chunmei; Blom, Douglas A; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-11

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. PMID:24842375

  2. Tunable Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Catalytically Active High-Index Facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao; Large, Nicolas; Zhang, Qinfeng; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell shaped particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. Past affiliation: Rice University.

  3. Building models for postmortem abnormalities in hippocampus of schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2015-09-01

    Postmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics. PMID:25749020

  4. A Potential Mechanism of High-Dose Ticagrelor in Modulating Platelet Activity and Atherosclerosis Mediated by Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yi; Peng, Yudong; Zeng, Qiutang; Cheng, Longxian; Wang, Boyuan; Mao, Xiaobo; Meng, Kai; Liu, Yuzhou; Lian, Yitian; Li, Dazhu

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and its receptor (TSLPR) was found in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Ticagrelor, an oral platelet ADP P2Y12 receptor antagonist, is widely used in these patients. The aim of this study was to verify whether different doses of ticagrelor regulated plaque progression and platelet activity by modulating TSLP/TSLPR. Seventy-five ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into five groups: (1) high-cholesterol diet (HCD, n = 15); (2) HCD plus ticagrelor 25 mg/kg/d (T1, n = 15); (3) HCD plus ticagrelor 50 mg/kg/d (T2, n = 15); (4) HCD plus ticagrelor 100 mg/kg/d (T3, n = 15); and (5) a normal diet group (ND, n = 15). At day 0 and at week 16, blood lipids and serum TSLP levels, expression of TSLPR, CD62, and CD63, platelet aggregation, platelet ATP release, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and plaque morphology were assessed. HCD increased TSLPR expression and atherosclerosis progression but high-dose ticagrelor (100 mg/kg) moderated this trend. TSLPR was positively correlated with Akt1, platelet aggregation, corrected plaque area, and vulnerability index in the T3 group (P<0.01). In conclusion, low-dose ticagrelor only inhibited platelet activity. Besides this inhibition, high-dose ticagrelor modulated platelet activity and atherosclerosis mediated by TSLPR, potentially through the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. PMID:26517374

  5. High-throughput screening of phosphodiesterase activity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Rich, Thomas C; Karpen, Jeffrey W

    2005-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and play a crucial role in the termination and spatial segregation of cyclic nucleotide signals. Despite a wealth of molecular information, very little is known about how PDEs regulate cAMP and cGMP signals in living cells because conventional methods lack the necessary spatial and temporal resolution. We present here a sensitive optical method for monitoring cAMP levels and PDE activity near the membrane, using cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels as sensors. These channels are directly opened by the binding of cyclic nucleotides and allow cations to cross the membrane. The olfactory channel A subunit (CNGA2) has been genetically modified to improve its cAMP sensitivity and specificity. Channel activity is assessed by measuring Ca2+ influx using standard fluorometric techniques. In addition to studying PDEs in their native setting, the approach should be particularly useful in high-throughput screening assays to test for compounds that affect PDE activity, as well as the activities of the many G protein-coupled receptors that cause changes in intracellular cAMP. PMID:15988054

  6. Novel highly active recombinant glutaredoxin from Chlorella sorokiniana T-89.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsu-Han; Cheng, Chu-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ting; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2014-01-29

    Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase that maintains the cellular thiol/disulfide ratio. A 321 bp cDNA fragment encoding a putative Grx (named CsT-89Grx) was cloned from heat-tolerant Chlorella sorokiniana T-89 and expressed in an Escherichia coli system. The sequence analysis of CsT-89Grx and site-directed mutations showed that the putative active site within the CPYC motif belonged to the dithiol superfamily. The biochemical property analyses showed that the optimal pH and temperature of CsT-89Grx are pH 8.5 and 50 °C, respectively. The activity of CsT-89Grx showed high thermal stability (retained 70% activity at 80 °C for 30 min) and broad pH stability (retained over 70% activity for 1 h) ranging from pH 3 to 11. The kinetic parameter kcat/Km was 20,982 min(-1) mM(-1), which suggested that CsT-89Grx exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency in reducing the disulfide bond among all the Grx reported in the related literature and is therefore potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:24377422

  7. Topside electron temperature models for low and high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V.; Sethi, N.; Mahajan, K.

    It is now well known that in the topside ionosphere, thermal conduction from the protonosphere becomes the dominant factor over the "heating" and "loss" terms in shaping the ionospheric electron temperature (Te) profile. By analyzing a limited data base of incoherent scatter (i.s.) Te measurements , Mahajan and Pandey (1980) reported a correlation between the topside electron heat flux and electron density, Ne at 400 km. In the recent years, since attention has been steadily mounting for the empirical modelling of Te, in this paper we exploit the large data base of i.s. measurements of Te and Ne at Arecibo, during 1989 -90 (high solar activity), as well as during 1975-76 ( low solar activity). We again find a functional relationship between heat flux and electron density in the topside ionosphere during both the solar activities. These functional relationships are used to generate topside Te profiles. As the current IRI Te model does not include variations with solar activity, the present work can contribute in improving the topside Te model.

  8. High power VCSEL device with periodic gain active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y. Q., II; Qin, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Li, T.; Cui, J. J.; Peng, B.; Liu, G. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2007-11-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structure, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the cavity to enhance the coupling between the optical field and the gain region. Large aperture and bottom-emitting configuration was used to improve the beam quality and the heat dissipation. A maximum output power of 1.4W was demonstrated at CW operation for a 400μm-diameter device. The lasing wavelength shifted to 995.5nm with a FWHM of 2nm at a current of 4.8A due to the internal heating and the absence of active water cooling. A ring-shape farfield pattern was induced by the non-homogeneous lateral current distribution in large diameter device. The light intensity at the center of the ring increased with increasing current. A symmetric round light spot at the center and single transverse mode operation with a divergence angle of 16° were observed with current beyond 4.8A.

  9. High tibial osteotomies in the young active patient

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Shaun; Efird, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Unicompartmental changes in the knee of a young athlete remains a difficult and controversial problem in orthopaedics. Excessive premature loading of articular cartilage, most often the result of a knee injury, has been shown to result in increased degenerative changes and pain in the younger patient. Instability may also contribute to the degeneration of cartilage and must therefore be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis in the young adult. High tibial osteotomy has been described as a treatment option for malalignment in the older, less active adult and has shown promising results in a younger, more active population. Osteotomies for instability are more controversial and should be considered in more complex injury patterns. PMID:20076957

  10. Biologically Active Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Mohamed M.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Nine new cannabinoids (1–9) were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. Their structures were identified as (±)-4-acetoxycannabichromene (1), (±)-3″-hydroxy-Δ(4″,5″)-cannabichromene (2), (−)-7-hydroxycannabichromane (3), (−)-7R-cannabicoumarononic acid A (4), 5-acetyl-4-hydroxycannabigerol (5), 4-acetoxy-2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentylphenol (6), 8-hydroxycannabinol (7), 8-hydroxycannabinolic acid A (8), and 2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (9) through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known sterol β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-6′-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis. Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity. PMID:19344127

  11. Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

  12. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  13. Hypoxia-inducible factors in human pulmonary arterial hypertension: a link to the intrinsic myeloid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Farha, Samar; Asosingh, Kewal; Xu, Weiling; Sharp, Jacqueline; George, Deepa; Comhair, Suzy; Park, Margaret; Tang, W H Wilson; Loyd, James E; Theil, Karl; Tubbs, Raymond; Hsi, Eric; Lichtin, Alan; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2011-03-31

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative vasculopathy characterized by high circulating CD34(+)CD133(+) proangiogenic progenitors, and endothelial cells that have pathologic expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α). Here, CD34(+)CD133(+) progenitor cell numbers are shown to be higher in PAH bone marrow, blood, and pulmonary arteries than in healthy controls. The HIF-inducible myeloid-activating factors erythropoietin, stem cell factor (SCF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are also present at higher than normal levels in PAH blood, and related to disease severity. Primary endothelial cells harvested from human PAH lungs produce greater HGF and progenitor recruitment factor stromal-derived factor 1 α (SDF-1α) than control lung endothelial cells, and thus may contribute to bone marrow activation. Even though PAH patients had normal numbers of circulating blood elements, hematopoietic alterations in myeloid and erythroid lineages and reticulin fibrosis identified a subclinical myeloproliferative process. Unexpectedly, evaluation of bone marrow progenitors and reticulin in nonaffected family members of patients with familial PAH revealed similar myeloid abnormalities. Altogether, the results show that PAH is linked to myeloid abnormalities, some of which may be related to increased production of HIF-inducible factors by diseased pulmonary vasculature, but findings in nonaffected family suggest myeloid abnormalities may be intrinsic to the disease process. PMID:21258008

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factors in human pulmonary arterial hypertension: a link to the intrinsic myeloid abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Asosingh, Kewal; Xu, Weiling; Sharp, Jacqueline; George, Deepa; Comhair, Suzy; Park, Margaret; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Loyd, James E.; Theil, Karl; Tubbs, Raymond; Hsi, Eric; Lichtin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative vasculopathy characterized by high circulating CD34+CD133+ proangiogenic progenitors, and endothelial cells that have pathologic expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α). Here, CD34+CD133+ progenitor cell numbers are shown to be higher in PAH bone marrow, blood, and pulmonary arteries than in healthy controls. The HIF-inducible myeloid-activating factors erythropoietin, stem cell factor (SCF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are also present at higher than normal levels in PAH blood, and related to disease severity. Primary endothelial cells harvested from human PAH lungs produce greater HGF and progenitor recruitment factor stromal-derived factor 1 α (SDF-1α) than control lung endothelial cells, and thus may contribute to bone marrow activation. Even though PAH patients had normal numbers of circulating blood elements, hematopoietic alterations in myeloid and erythroid lineages and reticulin fibrosis identified a subclinical myeloproliferative process. Unexpectedly, evaluation of bone marrow progenitors and reticulin in nonaffected family members of patients with familial PAH revealed similar myeloid abnormalities. Altogether, the results show that PAH is linked to myeloid abnormalities, some of which may be related to increased production of HIF-inducible factors by diseased pulmonary vasculature, but findings in nonaffected family suggest myeloid abnormalities may be intrinsic to the disease process. PMID:21258008

  15. Evaluation of a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyser in highly active, moderately active and less active young men.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ann M; Swartz, Ann M; Jeremy Evans, M; King, George A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2002-08-01

    The Tanita TBF-305 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) is a commercially available foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. The manufacturer-supplied equations incorporate gender, mass, height, activity category and a measured impedance value to determine % body fat (BF). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the manufacturer-supplied 'adult' and 'athlete' equations provided an accurate estimate of % BF for a group of young men with varying activity levels. Fifty-seven men (18-35 years old) were categorized into the following groups: (1) highly active (HA) (> or = 10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (2) moderately active (MA) (2.5-10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (3) less active (LA) (<2.5 h aerobic activity/week). The % BF was measured using the BIA 'athlete' and 'adult' modes. After BIA measurements, residual volume was measured and hydrostatic weighing (HW) was performed. The amount of activity performed by each group was significantly different (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between the % BF determined by the 'athlete' mode and HW for HA (P=0.309) and MA (P=0.091). However, a significant difference was found for LA (P=0.001). The % BF determined by the 'adult' mode and HW was not different for LA (P=0.395), but was significantly different for MA (P<0.001) and HA (P<0.001). The choice of activity mode on the foot-to-foot BIA significantly alters prediction of % BF. With careful selection of activity mode, there was no statistical difference between % BF determined by HW and the BIA, but the range of individual error scores was large. PMID:12144724

  16. High-throughput generation of an activation-tagged mutant library for functional genomic analyses in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Gong, Daping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Dawei; Cui, Mengmeng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Guanshan; Wu, Jinxia; Wang, Yuanying

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an ideal model system for molecular biological and genetic studies. In this study, activation tagging was used to generate approximately 100,000 transgenic tobacco plants. Southern blot analysis indicated that there were 1.6 T-DNA inserts per line on average in our transformed population. The phenotypes observed include abnormalities in leaf and flower morphology, plant height, flowering time, branching, and fertility. Among 6,000 plants in the T0 generation, 57 displayed obvious phenotypes. Among 4,105 lines in the T1 generation, 311 displayed abnormal phenotypes. Fusion primer and nested integrated PCR was used to identify 963 independent genomic loci of T-DNA insertion sites in 1,257 T1 lines. The distribution of T-DNA insertions was non-uniform and correlated well with the predicted gene density along each chromosome. The insertions were biased toward genic regions and noncoding regions within 5 kb of a gene. Fifteen plants that showed the same phenotype as their parent with a dominant pattern in the T2 generation were chosen randomly to detect the expression levels of genes adjacent to the T-DNA integration sites by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen candidate genes were identified. Activation was observed in 7 out of the 15 adjacent genes, including one that was located 13.1 kb away from the enhancer sequence. The activation-tagged population described in this paper will be a highly valuable resource for tobacco functional genomics research using both forward and reverse genetic approaches. PMID:25408504

  17. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  18. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  19. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  20. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  1. Pharmacologic Approaches to Electrolyte Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Justin L

    2016-08-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in heart failure and can arise from a variety of etiologies. Neurohormonal activation from ventricular dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and heart failure medications can perturb electrolyte homeostasis which impact both heart failure-related morbidity and mortality. These include disturbances in serum sodium, chloride, acid-base, and potassium homeostasis. Pharmacological treatments differ for each electrolyte abnormality and vary from older, established treatments like the vaptans or acetazolamide, to experimental or theoretical treatments like hypertonic saline or urea, or to newer, novel agents like the potassium binders: patiromer and zirconium cyclosilicate. Pharmacologic approaches range from limiting electrolyte intake or directly repleting the electrolyte, to blocking or promoting their resorption, and to neurohormonal antagonism. Because of the prevalence and clinical impact of electrolyte abnormalities, understanding both the older and newer therapeutic options is and will continue to be necessity for the management of heart failure. PMID:27278221

  2. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Lis; Sousa, Bruno de; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria Ls; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-06-01

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites. PMID:27276364

  3. Active Control of High-Frequency Combustor Instability Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities-high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the combustor and turbine safe operating life. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Propulsion and Power Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Center, and Georgia Institute of Technology is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities.

  4. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting application