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Sample records for abnormally high ammonium

  1. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  2. High-affinity ammonium transporters and nitrogen sensing in mycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Javelle, Arnaud; André, Bruno; Marini, Anne Marie; Chalot, Michel

    2003-02-01

    Most terrestrial plants live in mutualistic symbiosis with root-infecting mycorrhizal fungi. This association requires a molecular dialogue between the two partners. However, the nature of the chemical signals that induce hyphal differentiation are not well characterized and the mechanisms for signal reception are still unknown. In addition to its role in ammonium scavenging, the Mep2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed to act as an ammonium sensor that is essential for pseudohyphal differentiation in response to ammonium limitation. We propose that the high-affinity ammonium transporters from mycorrhizal fungi act in a similar manner to sense the environment and induce, via as-yet-unidentified signal transduction cascades, the switch in the mode of fungal growth observed during the formation of mycorrhiza.

  3. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  4. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density.

  5. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and

  6. High irradiance improves ammonium tolerance in wheat plants by increasing N assimilation.

    PubMed

    Setién, Igor; Fuertes-Mendizabal, Teresa; González, Azucena; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro Ma; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, María Begoña; Estavillo, José María

    2013-05-15

    Ammonium is a paradoxical nutrient ion. Despite being a common intermediate in plant metabolism whose oxidation state eliminates the need for its reduction in the plant cell, as occurs with nitrate, it can also result in toxicity symptoms. Several authors have reported that carbon enrichment in the root zone enhances the synthesis of carbon skeletons and, accordingly, increases the capacity for ammonium assimilation. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that increasing the photosynthetic photon flux density is a way to increase plant ammonium tolerance. Wheat plants were grown in a hydroponic system with two different N sources (10mM nitrate or 10mM ammonium) and with two different light intensity conditions (300 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1) and 700 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1)). The results show that, with respect to biomass yield, photosynthetic rate, shoot:root ratio and the root N isotopic signature, wheat behaves as a sensitive species to ammonium nutrition at the low light intensity, while at the high intensity, its tolerance is improved. This improvement is a consequence of a higher ammonium assimilation rate, as reflected by the higher amounts of amino acids and protein accumulated mainly in the roots, which was supported by higher tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. Glutamate dehydrogenase was a key root enzyme involved in the tolerance to ammonium, while glutamine synthetase activity was low and might not be enough for its assimilation.

  7. Slow strain rate fracture of high-strength steel at controlled electrochemical potentials in ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and ammonium nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Daniels, R.D.

    1992-08-15

    Slow strain rate testing has been undertaken to determine the effects of individual chemical species on the fracture process of high-strength 4340 steel. Test environments included potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium chloride at concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mole por liter at ambient temperature. Tests were performed at cathodic and anodic controlled potentials, as well as at the open-circuit potential, to delineate the stress corrosion cracking range.

  8. Use of aerobic granules for treating synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Wan, Chunli; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mature aerobic granules were utilized to treat synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters with chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratios of 3.9-6.9. The contributions of various mechanisms to the removal of ammonium were determined. Ammonium levels of 600-2000 mg-N l-1 had little adverse effect on the COD removal rate (91.6%-95.3%) with an influent COD of 4490-9860 mg l-1. The TN removal rate was slightly reduced from 71.3% to 59.6% as the influent ammonium concentration was increased from 600 to 2000 mg-N l-1. Experimental results indicated that aerobic granules removed 94.5% of COD and 59.6% of TN in the treatment of synthetic high-strength wastewater (9860 mg-COD l-1 and 2000 mg NH+4-Nl-1) during a 12 h cycle. Granular adsorption, air stripping and conversion by nitrification/denitrification were responsible for removing 9%, 15% and 76%, respectively, of the total removed NHf -N. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was a useful process indicator of the biological reactions in the treatment of high-level ammonium wastewaters.

  9. Rapid formation of nitrifying granules treating high-strength ammonium wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Yuan; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Ning, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Short initial settling time and rapidly increased ammonium nitrogen loading were employed to cultivate nitrifying granular sludge treating inorganic wastewater with 1000 mg/L ammonium nitrogen. It was found that the nitrifying granule-dominant sludge was formed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with influent ammonium concentration increased from 200 to 1000 mg N/L within 55 days. During the following 155-day operation period, nitrifying granules exhibited good performance with an ammonium removal efficiency of 99%. In the meantime, sludge volume index (SVI) decreased from 92 to 15 mL/g and the mean size of the nitrifying granules increased from 106 to 369 μm. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) decreased from the initial 6.4 to around 3 g/L during the granulation period and increased to over 10 g/L at the end of the operation. The long-term stability of nitrifying granules and the reactor performance were not negatively affected by inhibition from free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) in this study. This makes the granule sludge technology promising in treating high-strength ammonium wastewater in practice.

  10. Partial nitrification treatment for high ammonium wastewater from magnesium ammonium phosphate process of methane fermentation digester liquor.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Kanda, Ryuichi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated partial nitrification treatment of methane fermentation digester liquor effluent from magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation process in a swim-bed reactor. The reactor was operated at a temperature of 35 degrees C and pH between 7.5 and 7.8. Partial nitrification was achieved at the onset of the experiments even though conventional activated sludge was used as seed sludge. The maximum nitrite production rate was 1.0 kg NO(2)-N/m(3)/d at a nitrogen loading rate of 2.0 kg-N/m(3)/d. The average effluent NO(2)-N/NH(4)-N ratio and the effluent NO(3)-N concentration were 1.04+/-0.34 and 5.7 mg/l, respectively, during the stable experiment periods. After 150 days of operation, the sludge volume index value decreased to 15 ml/g and the mean particle size of suspended sludge increased by approximately 3 times from 80 to 260 mum. Comparison of mineral analysis between the seed sludge and the partial nitrification sludge demonstrated that the mineral content of the latter increased approximately three-fold in comparison to that of the former. High Ca concentration was considered to be closely related to dense floc formation and superior settleability of the sludge. Both DGGE and DNA clone analysis verified that there were significant microbiological differences between the samples taken at different time periods. Nitrosomonas was confirmed to be the predominant species after stable partial nitrification performance was obtained. The overall results of this study validated our previous results that swim-bed reactor technology could be successfully used as a pre-treatment technology for anammox treatment.

  11. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  12. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  13. Characterization of AMT-mediated high-affinity ammonium uptake in roots of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gu, Riliang; Duan, Fengying; An, Xia; Zhang, Fusuo; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Yuan, Lixing

    2013-09-01

    High-affinity ammonium uptake in plant roots is mainly mediated by AMT1-type ammonium transporters, and their regulation varies depending on the plant species. In this study we aimed at characterizing AMT-mediated ammonium transport in maize, for which ammonium-based fertilizer is an important nitrogen (N) source. Two ammonium transporter genes, ZmAMT1;1a and ZmAMT1;3, were isolated from a maize root-specific cDNA library by functional complementation of an ammonium uptake-defective yeast mutant. Ectopic expression of both genes in an ammonium uptake-defective Arabidopsis mutant conferred high-affinity ammonium uptake capacities in roots with substrate affinities of 48 and 33 μM for ZmAMT1;1a and ZmAMT1;3, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed co-localization of both ZmAMT genes on the rhizodermis, suggesting an involvement in capturing ammonium from the rhizosphere. In N-deficient maize roots, influx increased significantly while ZmAMT expression did not. Ammonium resupply to N-deficient or nitrate-pre-cultured roots, however, rapidly enhanced both influx and ZmAMT transcript levels, revealing a substrate-inducible regulation of ammonium uptake. In conclusion, the two rhizodermis-localized transporters ZmAMT1;1a and ZmAMT1;3 are most probably the major components in the high-affinity transport system in maize roots. A particular regulatory feature is their persistent induction by ammonium rather than an up-regulation under N deficiency.

  14. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  15. Alkyl ammonium cation stabilized biocidal polyiodides with adaptable high density and low pressure.

    PubMed

    He, Chunlin; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-05-26

    The effective application of biocidal species requires building the active moiety into a molecular back bone that can be delivered and decomposed on demand under conditions of low pressure and prolonged high-temperature detonation. The goal is to destroy storage facilities and their contents while utilizing the biocidal products arising from the released energy to destroy any remaining harmful airborne agents. Decomposition of carefully selected iodine-rich compounds can produce large amounts of the very active biocides, hydroiodic acid (HI) and iodine (I2). Polyiodide anions, namely, I3(-), I5(-), which are excellent sources of such biocides, can be stabilized through interactions with large, symmetric cations, such as alkyl ammonium salts. We have designed and synthesized suitable compounds of adaptable high density up to 3.33 g cm(-3) that are low-pressure polyiodides with various alkyl ammonium cations, deliverable iodine contents of which range between 58.0-90.9%.

  16. Nitrification and denitrification in high-strength ammonium by Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

    2005-06-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis sp. No. 4, that has the ability of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification in high-strength ammonium at about 1200 mg-N/l, converted about one-half of removed NH4+-N to intracellular nitrogen and nitrified only 3% of the removed NH4+. From the nitrogen balance, 40-50% of removed NH4+-N was estimated to be denitrified. Production of N2 was confirmed by GC-MS and 90% of denitrified products was N2. The maximum ammonium removal rate, 29 mg-N/l h and its denitrification rate in aerated batch experiments, were 5-40 times higher than those of other bacteria with the same ability.

  17. High pressure structural, elastic and vibrational properties of green energetic oxidizer ammonium dinitramide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Ghule, Vikas D.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonium DiNitramide (ADN) is one of the most promising green energetic oxidizers for future rocket propellant formulations. In the present work, we report a detailed theoretical study on structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of the emerging oxidizer under hydrostatic compression using various dispersion correction methods to capture weak intermolecular (van der Waals and hydrogen bonding) interactions. The calculated ground state lattice parameters, axial compressibilities, and equation of state are in good accord with the available experimental results. Strength of intermolecular interactions has been correlated using the calculated compressibility curves and elastic moduli. Apart from this, we also observe discontinuities in the structural parameters and elastic constants as a function of pressure. Pictorial representation and quantification of intermolecular interactions are described by the 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D finger print maps. In addition, the computed infra-red (IR) spectra at ambient pressure reveal that ADN is found to have more hygroscopic nature over Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Pressure dependent IR spectra show blue- and red-shift of bending and stretching frequencies which leads to weakening and strengthening of the hydrogen bonding below and above 5 GPa, respectively. The abrupt changes in the calculated structural, mechanical, and IR spectra suggest that ADN might undergo a first order structural transformation to a high pressure phase around 5-6 GPa. From the predicted detonation properties, ADN is found to have high and low performance characteristics (DCJ = 8.09 km/s and PCJ = 25.54 GPa) when compared with ammonium based energetic oxidizers (DCJ = 6.50 km/s and PCJ = 17.64 GPa for AP, DCJ = 7.28 km/s and PCJ = 18.71 GPa for ammonium nitrate) and well-known secondary explosives for which DCJ = ˜8-10 km/s and PCJ = ˜30-50 GPa, respectively.

  18. Understanding the differential nitrogen sensing mechanism in rice genotypes through expression analysis of high and low affinity ammonium transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Singh, U S; Gupta, Atul K; Kumar, Anil

    2012-03-01

    Two rice genotypes, Kalanamak 3119 (KN3119) and Pusa Basmati 1(PB1) differing in their optimum nitrogen requirements (30 and 120 kg/ha, respectively) were undertaken to study the expression of both high and low affinity ammonium transporter genes responsible for ammonium uptake. Exposing the roots of the seedlings of both the genotypes to increasing (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentrations revealed that all the three families of rice AMT genes are expressed, some of which get altered in a genotype and concentration specific manner. This indicates that individual ammonium transporter genes have defined contributions for ammonium uptake and plant growth. Interestingly, in response to increasing nitrogen concentrations, a root specific high affinity gene, AMT1;3, was repressed in the roots of KN3119 but not in PB1 indicating the existence of a differential ammonium sensing mechanism. This also indicates that not only AMT1;3 is involved not only in ammonium uptake but may also in ammonium sensing. Further, if it can differentiate and could be used as a biomarker for nitrogen responsiveness. Expression analysis of low affinity AMT genes showed that, both AMT2;1 and AMT2;2 have high levels of expression in both roots and shoots and in KN3119 are induced at low ammonium concentrations. Expressions of AMT3 family genes were higher shoots than in the roots indicating that these genes are probably involved in the translocation and distribution of ammonium ions in leaves. The expression of the only high affinity AMT gene, AMT1;1, along with six low affinity AMT genes in the shoots suggests that low affinity AMTs in the shoots leaves are involved in supporting AMT1;1 to carry out its activities/function efficiently.

  19. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  20. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments.

  1. The multiple plant response to high ammonium conditions: the Lotus japonicus AMT1; 3 protein acts as a putative transceptor.

    PubMed

    Rogato, Alessandra; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Plant evolved a complex profile of responses to cope with changes of nutrient availability in the soil. These are based on a stringent control of expression and/or activity of proteins involved in nutrients transport and assimilation. Furthermore, a sensing and signaling system for scanning the concentration of substrates in the rooted area and for transmitting this information to the plant machinery controlling root development can be extremely useful for an efficient plant response. Ammonium represents for plants either a preferential nitrogen source or the trigger for toxicity symptoms depending by its concentration. We propose a role for the high affinity Lotus japonicus ammonium transporter LjAMT1;3 as an intracellular ammonium sensor to achieve a convenient modulation of the root development in conditions of potentially toxic external ammonium concentration.

  2. High-rate partial nitrification performance of high ammonium containing wastewater under low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Matsumoto, Noriko; Shinohara, Takehiko; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a swim-bed reactor was used for partial nitrification treatment of magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation process treated effluent of methane fermentation digester liquor. Even without temperature, DO, and pH control, the maximum nitrite production rate of 2.66 kg NO(2)-N/m(3)/d was achieved under a nitrogen loading rate of 5.45 kg N/m(3)/d at 18 degrees C and a nitrite production rate of 0.22 kg NO(2)-N/m(3)/d was still attained at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.48 kg N/m(3)/d even the operational temperature decreased to 8 degrees C. The average effluent NO(2)-N/(NO(2)+NO(3)-N) ratio reached 95.4% during the entire experimental period. The mean particle size of suspended sludge increased from 260 to 450 microm and the microscopic observation confirmed the formation of dense-flocs. The results indicated that there were two regimes for ammonium oxidation, one at 20-30 degrees C and the other at 10-20 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopic observation and FISH analysis demonstrated that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were the dominant microorganisms and were considered to be responsible for the satisfactory partial nitrification performance.

  3. Ammonium carbamates as highly active transdermal permeation enhancers with a dual mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Michal; Klimentová, Jana; Janůšová, Barbora; Palát, Karel; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2011-03-10

    Transdermal permeation enhancers are compounds that temporarily increase drug flux through the skin by interacting with constituents of the stratum corneum. Transkarbam 12 (T12) is a highly active, broad-spectrum, biodegradable enhancer with low toxicity and low dermal irritation. We show here that T12 acts by a dual mechanism of action. The first part of this activity is associated with its ammonium carbamate polar head as shown by its pH-dependent effects on the permeation of two model drugs. Once this ammonium carbamate penetrates into the stratum corneum intercellular lipids, it rapidly decomposes releasing two molecules of protonated dodecyl 6-aminohexanoate (DDEAC) and carbon dioxide. This was observed by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. This step of T12 action influences drug permeation through lipidic pathways, not through the aqueous pores (polar pathway) as shown by its effects on various model drugs and electrical impedance. Consequently, protonated DDEAC released in the stratum corneum is also an active enhancer. It broadens the scope of T12 action since it is also able to increase permeation of hydrophilic drugs that prefer the pore pathway. Thus, this dual effect of T12 is likely responsible for its favorable properties, which make it a good candidate for prospective clinical use.

  4. Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Chen, Shuo; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the worldwide anoxic and mesophilic habitats. Recently, the existence and activity of anammox bacteria have been detected in some thermophilic environments, but their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not reported. This study investigated the abundance, distribution and functional diversity of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 high-temperature oil reservoirs by molecular ecology analysis. High concentration (5.31–39.2 mg l−1) of ammonium was detected in the production water from these oilfields with temperatures between 55°C and 75°C. Both 16S rRNA and hzo molecular biomarkers indicated the occurrence of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 samples. Most of 16S rRNA gene phylotypes are closely related to the known anammox bacterial genera Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia, while hzo gene phylotypes are closely related to the genera Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia. The total bacterial and anammox bacterial densities were 6.4 ± 0.5 × 103 to 2.0 ± 0.18 × 106 cells ml−1 and 6.6 ± 0.51 × 102 to 4.9 ± 0.36 × 104 cell ml−1, respectively. The cluster I of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed distant identity (<92%) to the known Candidatus Scalindua species, inferring this cluster of anammox bacteria to be a new species, and a tentative name Candidatus “Scalindua sinooilfield” was proposed. The results extended the existence of anammox bacteria to the high-temperature oil reservoirs. PMID:20740282

  5. Ammonium removal from high-strength aqueous solutions by Australian zeolite.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Sommer, Sven G; Jayasinghe, Guttila Y; J Scales, Peter; Chen, Deli

    2016-07-02

    Removal of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) particularly from sources which are highly rich in nitrogen is important for addressing environmental pollution. Zeolites, aluminosilicate minerals, are commonly used as commercial adsorbents and ion-exchange medium in number of commercial applications due to its high adsorption capacity of ammonium (NH4(+)). However, detailed investigations on NH4(+) adsorption and ion exchange capacities of Australian natural zeolites are rare, particularly under higher NH4(+) concentrations in the medium. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine NH4(+) adsorption characteristics of Australian natural zeolites at high NH4(+) concentrations with and without other chemical compounds in an aqueous solution. Results showed that initial NH4(+) concentration, temperature, reaction time, and pH of the solution had significant effects on NH4(+) adsorption capacity of zeolite. Increased retention time and temperature generally had a positive impact on adsorption. Freundlich model fitted well with adsorption process of Australian natural zeolites; however, Langmuir model had best fitted for the adsorption process of sodium (Na(+)) treated zeolites. NaCl treatment increased the NH4(+) adsorption capacity of Australian zeolites by 25% at 1000 mg-N, NH4(+) solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of both natural Australian zeolites and Na(+) treated zeolites were estimated as 9.48 and 11.83 mg-N/g, respectively, which is lower than many zeolites from other sources. Compared to the NH4(+) only medium, presence of other competitive ions and acetic acid in the medium (resembling composition in digested swine manure slurries) reduced NH4(+) removal of natural and Na(+) treated zeolites by 44% and 57%, respectively. This suggests detailed investigations are required to determine practically achievable NH4(+) -N removal potential of zeolites for applications in complex mediums such as animal manure slurries.

  6. Analysis of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds in the brain using tandem capillary column separation and high resolution mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Sara; Petruzziello, Filomena; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2012-06-08

    Endogenous quaternary ammonium compounds are involved in various physiological processes in the central nervous system. In the present study, eleven quaternary ammonium compounds, including acetylcholine, choline, carnitine, acetylcarnitine and seven other acylcarnitines of low polarity, were analyzed from brain extracts using a two dimension capillary liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry method. To deal with their large difference in hydrophobicities, tandem coupling between reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns was used to separate all the targeted quaternary ammonium compounds. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode, all the compounds could be detected from each brain sample with high selectivity. The developed method was applied for the relative quantification of these quaternary ammonium compounds in three different brain regions of tree shrews: prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. The comparative analysis showed that quaternary ammonium compounds were differentially distributed across the three brain areas. The analytical method proved to be highly sensitive and reliable for simultaneous determination of all the targeted analytes from brain samples.

  7. Phase diagram of ammonium perchlorate: Raman spectroscopic constrains at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-06-01

    We present the pressure-temperature (PT) induced physical and chemical transformations in ammonium perchlorates (APs) up to 50 GPa and 450 °C, using diamond anvil cells and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, which provide new constraints for the phase diagram of AP. The results show spectral evidences for three new polymorphs (III, IV, and VI) of AP, in addition to two previously known phases (I and II), at various PT conditions with varying degrees of hydrogen bonding and lack of strong spectral evidence for previously known high-temperature cubic phase (phase V). Upon further heating, AP chemically decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O. The present phase diagram is, therefore, in sharp contrast to the previous one, underscoring a rich polymorphism, a large stability field for solids, and a replacement of the melt with a decomposition line.

  8. Low-temperature rapid syntheses of high-quality ZnO nanostructure arrays induced by ammonium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Tang, Yang; Han, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a simple ammonium ion-assisted hydrothermal method for the fast preparation of high quality Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. Ammonium salts were introduced into typically hydrothermal growth solutions formed from Zinc acetate (ZnAc2) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the growth rate of ZnO nanorods was promoted by adding ammonium salts and the as-grown ZnO nanostructure arrays showed remarkably low defect density. Upon addition of ammonium salt to the hydrothermal reaction solution, complex Zn(NH3)42+ was formed by Zn2+ capturing NH3 molecules dissociated from HMTA. The improvement of growth rate and optical property of the ZnO nanostructure arrays was attributed to positively charged Zn(NH3)42+ attracting oxygen rich OH- in the growth sites of ZnO for hydrolysis reaction and simultaneously inhibiting the defect. Our results demonstrated that ammonium salt can act as a new paradigm to control morphology and quality of the ZnO microstructures.

  9. Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kumar; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2015-01-01

    High-performance electrochemical capacitors will drive the next-generation portable, flexible and wearable electronics. Unlike the conventional all-carbon supercapacitors (electric double layer capacitors, EDLC) with high power but poor energy density, pseudocapacitors capitalize the high energy density inherent to reversible redox reactions and provide a facile means to enhancing the energy ratings of supercapacitors. The high length-to-diameter ratio and anisotropic character of 1-D architecture makes them suitable for use in energy storage. For the first time, we report 1-D microrod structures (~ 36 nm width) of ammonium nickel phosphate hydrate (ANPmr) as a pseudocapacitor with high energy rating and power handling. To confirm the data, the ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor was subjected to various configurations (i.e., half-cell, symmetric, asymmetric, and flexible all-solid-state) and in each case it gave excellent values compared to any accessible literature to date. We clearly demonstrate that a flexible all-solid-state ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor achieved high areal capacitance of 66 mF cm−2 with extra-ordinary energy (21.2 mWh cm−2) and power (12.7 mW cm−2) densities. This work opens doors for a facile, robust and scalable preparation strategy for low-cost, earth-abundant electrode materials for high-performance pseudocapacitors. PMID:26631578

  10. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension.

  11. Oriented free-standing ammonium vanadium oxide nanobelt membranes: highly selective absorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Yu, Li; Tian, Qiwei; Wu, Jianghong; Sun, Yangang; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing

    2010-12-27

    Highly selective, absorbent, free-standing, paper-like membranes made of ammonium vanadium oxide (NH(4)V(4)O(14)) nanobelts have been engineered by taking advantage of the nanoscaled self-assembly of architectures that display a mesh structure with an average periodic pore size of about 5 to 10 nm. The NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelts are synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal process, and exhibit the same orientation and assemble into bundles, each about 40 to 80 nm in width, 3 to 5 nm in thickness, and up to several millimeters in length. Importantly, the as-obtained NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelt membranes can highly selectively absorb a variety of organic solvents, covering both polar and non-polar solvents, for example, the absorbent capacity of glycol is 28 times as high as the initial weight of the membrane, and it can even separate organic solvents with similar polarities and absorb solid contaminants in organic solvents. These highly selective, absorbent membrane materials can be an ideal candidate for the separation and removal of pollution in industrial and environmental applications.

  12. A differential protein solubility approach for the depletion of highly abundant proteins in plasma using ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Mills, Ian G; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-12-21

    Depletion of highly abundant proteins is an approved step in blood plasma analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we explored a precipitation and differential protein solubility approach as a fractionation strategy for abundant protein removal from plasma. Total proteins from plasma were precipitated with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, followed by differential solubilization in 55% and 35% saturated ammonium sulfate solutions. Using a four hour liquid chromatography (LC) gradient and an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer, a total of 167 and 224 proteins were identified from the 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate fractions, whereas 235 proteins were found in the remaining protein fractions with at least two unique peptides. SDS-PAGE and exclusive total spectrum counts from LC-MS/MS analyses clearly showed that majority of the abundant plasma proteins were solubilized in 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate solutions, indicating that the remaining protein fraction is of potential interest for identification of less abundant plasma proteins. Serum albumin, serotransferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transthyretin were the abundant proteins that were highly enriched in 55% ammonium sulfate fractions. Immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, and apolipoproteins were among other abundant plasma proteins that were enriched in 35% ammonium sulfate fractions. In the remaining protein fractions a total of 40 unique proteins were identified of which, 32 proteins were identified with at least 10 exclusive spectrum counts. According to PeptideAtlas, 9 of these 32 proteins were estimated to be present at low μg ml(-1) (0.12-1.9 μg ml(-1)) concentrations in the plasma, and 17 at low ng ml(-1) (0.1-55 ng ml(-1)) range.

  13. Ammonium removal from high-salinity oilfield-produced water: assessing the microbial community dynamics at increasing salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Quartaroli, Larissa; Silva, Lívia C Fidélis; Silva, Claudio Mudadu; Lima, Helena Santiago; de Paula, Sergio Oliveira; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; de Cássia S da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina M; de Sousa, Maíra Paula; Torres, Ana Paula R; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett; Bassin, João Paulo; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo

    2017-01-01

    Water generated during oil exploration is chemically complex and contains high concentrations of ammonium and, in some cases, high salinity. The most common way to remove ammonium from effluent is a biological process, which can be performed by different routes and different groups of microorganisms. However, the presence of salts in the effluents could be an inhibiting factor for biological processes, interfering directly with treatment. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the profile of a microbial community involved in the process of ammonium removal when subjected to a gradual increase of salt (NaCl), in which the complete inhibition of the ammonium removal process occurred at 125 g L(-1) NaCl. During the sludge acclimatization process, samples were collected and submitted to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and massive sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. As the salt concentration increased in the reactor, a change in the microbial community was observed by the DGGE band profiles. As a result, there was a reduction in the presence of bacterial populations, and an increase in archaeal populations was found. The sequencing data suggested that ammonium removal in the reactor was carried out by different metabolic routes by autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, such as Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosovibrio, Nitrospira, and Nitrococcus; ammonium-oxidizing archaea Candidatus nitrosoarchaeum; ANAMMOX microorganisms, such as Candidatus brocadia, Candidatus kuenenia, and Candidatus scalindua; and microorganisms with the potential to be heterotrophic nitrifying, such as Paracoccus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Marinobacter sp., and Alcaligenes spp.

  14. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  15. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  16. Metabolic adaptation of microbial communities to ammonium stress in a high solid anaerobic digester with dewatered sludge

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Yan, Han; Li, Ning; He, Jin; Ding, Yueling; Dai, Lingling; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A high solid digester with dewatered sludge was operated for 110 days to ascertain the interactions between bacterial and archaeal communities under ammonium stress, as well as the corresponding changes in bio-degradation mechanisms. The volatile solids reduction (95% confidence intervals in mean) changed from 31.6 ± 0.9% in the stable period (day 40–55) to 21.3 ± 1.5% in the last period (day 71–110) when ammonium concentration was elevated to be within 5,000–6,000 mgN/L. Biogas yield dropped accordingly from 11.9 ± 0.3 to 10.4 ± 0.2 L/d and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously from 35.2% to 44.8%. Anaerobranca better adapted to the ammonium stress, while the initially dominant protein-degrading microbes-Tepidimicrobium and Proteiniborus were suppressed, probably responsible for the increase of protein content in digestate. Meanwhile, Methanosarcina, as the dominant Archaea, was resistant to ammonium stress with the constant relative abundance of more than 92% during the whole operation. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis was thus conducted which indicated that the gradually increased TAN dictated the bacterial clusters. The dominant Methanosarcina and the increased carbon dioxide content under ammonium stress suggested that, rather than the commonly acknowledged syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, only SAO pathway was enhanced during the initial ‘ammonium inhibition’. PMID:27312792

  17. Differential responses of two wetland graminoids to high ammonium at different pH values.

    PubMed

    van Diggelen, J M H; Smolders, A J P; Visser, E J W; Hicks, S; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced soil ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in wetlands often lead to graminoid dominance, but species composition is highly variable. Although NH4+ is readily taken up as a nutrient, several wetland species are known to be sensitive to high NH4+ concentrations or even suffer toxicity, particularly at low soil pH. More knowledge about differential graminoid responses to high NH4+ availability in relation to soil pH can help to better understand vegetation changes. The responses of two wetland graminoids, Juncus acutiflorus and Carex disticha, to high (2 mmol·l(-1) ) versus control (20 μmol·l(-1) ) NH4+ concentrations were tested in a controlled hydroponic set up, at two pH values (4 and 6). A high NH4+ concentration did not change total biomass for these species at either pH, but increased C allocation to shoots and increased P uptake, leading to K and Ca limitation, depending on pH treatment. More than 50% of N taken up by C. disticha was invested in N-rich amino acids with decreasing C:N ratio, but only 10% for J. acutiflorus. Although both species appeared to be well adapted to high NH4+ loadings in the short term, C. disticha showed higher classic detoxifying responses that are early warning indicators for decreased tolerance in the long term. In general, the efficient aboveground biomass allocation, P uptake and N detoxification explain the competitive strength of wetland graminoids at the expense of overall biodiversity at high NH4+ loading. In addition, differential responses to enhanced NH4+ affect interspecific competition among graminoids and lead to a shift in vegetation composition.

  18. Ammonium toxicity at high pH in a marine bioassay using Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Kater, Belinda J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Postma, Jaap F

    2006-10-01

    Two forms of ammonium exist in water: un-ionized ammonia NH3 and ionized ammonium NH4+. The toxicity to many aquatic organisms is primarily attributed to the NH3 (un-ionized) species, with the NH4+ ion (ionized) species being relatively less toxic. The pH level influences the degree of ionization. It is therefore very important that quality criteria be derived for total ammonium levels at several pH values in order to allow correct interpretation of the sediment bioassay with Corophium volutator. The responses of Corophium to total ammonium were studied in a series of pH-controlled experiments. The LC50 of total ammonium showed a significant decrease with increasing pH, in both water-only and sediment experiments. The results indicated a combined NH4+ and NH3 toxicity at pH levels less than 8.3. The results can be used to set pH-dependent water quality criteria for total ammonium in overlying water in a 10-day sediment bioassay with Corophium volutator.

  19. Trophic mode conversion and nitrogen deprivation of microalgae for high ammonium removal from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng; Ruan, Roger

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a well-controlled three-stage process was proposed for high ammonium removal from synthetic wastewater using selected promising microalgal strain UMN266. Three trophic modes (photoautotrophy, heterotrophy, and mixotrophy), two N sufficiency conditions (N sufficient and N deprived), two inoculum modes (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic), and different NH4(+)-N concentrations were compared to investigate the effect of trophic mode conversion and N deprivation on high NH4(+)-N removal by UMN266. Results showed that photoautotrophic inoculum with trophic mode conversion from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy and N deprivation in Stage 2 turned was the optimum plan for NH4(+)-N removal, and average removal rates were 12.4 and 19.1mg/L/d with initial NH4(+)-N of 80 and 160mg/L in Stage 3. Mechanism investigations based on algal biomass carbon (C) and N content, cellular composition, and starch content confirmed the above optimum plan and potential of UMN266 as bioethanol feedstock.

  20. Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of high-strength ammonium in anaerobically digested sludge by Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 which is capable of heterogeneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification, was used to remove high-strength ammonium (approximately 1 g NH4(+)-N/l) from digested sludge, the product of an anaerobic digestion reactor, in which methane was produced from excess municipal sewage sludge. Repeated batch operations were conducted at 20°C and 30°C for 550 h, using a jar fermentor. The removal ratios of high-strength ammonium reached 90-100% within 24 h, and the average ammonium removal rate was 2.9 kg-N/m(3)/day, more than 200 times higher than that in conventional nitrification-denitrification processes. During these operations, the cell density was maintained at 10(8)-10(9) cells of A. faecalis strain No. 4/ml. At 3% NaCl in the digested sludge, strain No. 4 exhibited an ammonium removal rate of 3 kg-N/m(3)/day.

  1. Effect of ammonium concentration on alcoholic fermentation kinetics by wine yeasts for high sugar content.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, Patricia; Ramon Portugal, Felipe; Fuster, André; Strehaiano, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains in a synthetic medium with high sugar content were established for different nitrogen initial content and are presented for four strains. The composition of the medium was close to grape must except that the nitrogen source consisted mainly in ammonium and was varied from 120 to 290 mg N/l assimilable nitrogen. The overall nitrogen consumed was also estimated in order to determine nitrogen requirement variability. The effect of assimilable nitrogen was in general greater on sugar consumption rates than on growth and three kinds of effect on sugar consumption rates were observed: (i) existence of an optimal initial nitrogen level for a maximal sugar consumption rate (inhibition if excess), (ii) no effect of nitrogen beyond the intermediary level (saturation), (iii) sugar consumption rate proportional to the initial nitrogen level (activation). In all cases, the amount of consumed nitrogen increased with its initial concentration and so did the fructophilic capacity of the strains. The optimal requirement varied from 0.62 to 0.91 mg N/g of sugars according to different strains. There was no general correlation between the sugar assimilation rates and the nitrogen requirement.

  2. Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-11-08

    As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

  3. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  4. The Organization of High-Affinity Ammonium Uptake in Arabidopsis Roots Depends on the Spatial Arrangement and Biochemical Properties of AMT1-Type Transporters[W

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lixing; Loqué, Dominique; Kojima, Soichi; Rauch, Sabine; Ishiyama, Keiki; Inoue, Eri; Takahashi, Hideki; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2007-01-01

    The AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER (AMT) family comprises six isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the complete functional organization of root-expressed AMTs for high-affinity ammonium uptake. High-affinity influx of 15N-labeled ammonium in two transposon-tagged amt1;2 lines was reduced by 18 to 26% compared with wild-type plants. Enrichment of the AMT1;2 protein in the plasma membrane and localization of AMT1;2 promoter activity in the endodermis and root cortex indicated that AMT1;2 mediates the uptake of ammonium entering the root via the apoplasmic transport route. An amt1;1 amt1;2 amt1;3 amt2;1 quadruple mutant (qko) showed severe growth depression under ammonium supply and maintained only 5 to 10% of wild-type high-affinity ammonium uptake capacity. Transcriptional upregulation of AMT1;5 in nitrogen-deficient rhizodermal and root hair cells and the ability of AMT1;5 to transport ammonium in yeast suggested that AMT1;5 accounts for the remaining uptake capacity in qko. Triple and quadruple amt insertion lines revealed in vivo ammonium substrate affinities of 50, 234, 61, and 4.5 μM for AMT1;1, AMT1;2, AMT1;3, and AMT1;5, respectively, but no ammonium influx activity for AMT2;1. These data suggest that two principle means of achieving effective ammonium uptake in Arabidopsis roots are the spatial arrangement of AMT1-type ammonium transporters and the distribution of their transport capacities at different substrate affinities. PMID:17693533

  5. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  6. High-throughput genome sequencing of lichenizing fungi to assess gene loss in the ammonium transporter/ammonia permease gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer has shaped the evolution of the ammonium transporter/ammonia permease gene family. Horizontal transfers of ammonium transporter/ammonia permease genes into the fungi include one transfer from archaea to the filamentous ascomycetes associated with the adaptive radiation of the leotiomyceta. The horizontally transferred gene has subsequently been lost in most of the group but has been selectively retained in lichenizing fungi. However, some groups of lichens appear to have secondarily lost the archaeal ammonium transporter. Definitive assessment of gene loss can only be made via whole genome sequencing. Results Ammonium transporter/ammonia permease gene sequences were recovered from the assembled genomes of eight lichenizing fungi in key clades including the Caliciales, the Peltigerales, the Ostropomycetidae, the Acarosporomycetidae, the Verrucariales, the Arthoniomycetidae and the Lichinales. The genes recovered were included in a refined phylogenetic analysis. The hypothesis that lichens symbiotic with a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium as a primary photobiont or lichens living in high nitrogen environments lose the plant-like ammonium transporters was upheld, but did not account for additional losses of ammonium transporters/ammonia permeases in the lichens from the Acarosporomycetidae, Chaetotheriomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. In addition, the four ammonium transporter/ammonia permease genes from Cladonia grayi were shown to be functional by expressing the lichen genes in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which all three native ammonium transporters were deleted, and assaying for growth on limiting ammonia as a sole nitrogen source. Conclusions Given sufficient coverage, next-generation sequencing technology can definitively address the loss of a gene in a genome when using environmental DNA isolated from lichen thalli collected from their natural habitats. Lichen-forming fungi have been losing ammonium transporters

  7. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  8. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  9. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  10. Characterization of Three Functional High-Affinity Ammonium Transporters in Lotus japonicus with Differential Transcriptional Regulation and Spatial Expression1

    PubMed Central

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Rogato, Alessandra; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; El Alaoui, Hicham; Barbulova, Ani; Betti, Marco; Dimou, Maria; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Marquez, Antonio; Marini, Anne-Marie; Udvardi, Michael K.; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Ammonium is a primary source of nitrogen for plants. In legume plants ammonium can also be obtained by symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NH}}_{4}^{+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} is also a regulator of early and late symbiotic interaction steps. Ammonium transporters are likely to play important roles in the control of nodule formation as well as in nitrogen assimilation. Two new genes, LjAMT1;2 and LjAMT1;3, were cloned from Lotus japonicus. Both were able to complement the growth defect of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ammonium transport mutant. Measurement of [14C]methylammonium uptake rates and competition experiments revealed that each transporter had a high affinity for \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{NH}}_{4}^{+}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}. The Ki for ammonium was 1.7, 3, and 15 μm for LjAMT1;1, 1;2, and 1;3, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed higher expression of LjAMT1;1, 1;2, and 1;3 genes in leaves than in roots and nodule, with expression levels decreasing in the order LjAMT1;1 > 1;2 > 1;3 except in flowers, in which LjAMT1;3 was expressed at higher level than in leaves, and LjAMT1;1 showed the lowest level of expression. Expression of LjAMT1;1 and 1;2 in roots was induced by nitrogen deprivation. Expression of LjAMT1;1 was repressed in leaves exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations, which also suppress photorespiration. Tissue and cellular localization of LjAMT1 genes expression, using promoter-β-glucuronidase and in situ RNA hybridization approaches, revealed distinct cellular spatial

  11. Response of nitrite accumulation and microbial community to free ammonia and dissolved oxygen treatment of high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Junya; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Wang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of free ammonia (FA) and dissolved oxygen (DO) on nitrite accumulation in the treatment of high ammonium wastewater and on the evolution of the microbial community were investigated. Under high DO conditions (3.75 ± 0.49 mg/L), FA as high as 10.61 ± 2.89 mg NH3/L maintained stable nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) of 84 % with NH4 (+)-N load of 2.05 kg N/(m(3) day) at sludge retention time (SRT) of 15-18 days. After 56 days of operation, Proteobacteria and Nitrosomonas were the dominant phylum and genus, respectively; Nitrosomonas increased from 21.14 to 54.57 %. By contrast, under relative low DO and low FA, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were nearly eliminated (NOB/AOB of 0; ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)), and NAR of 94 % was achieved with lower NH4 (+)-N load of 0.48 kg N/(m(3) day). DO correlated with AOB and NOB abundance, and FA decreased NOB activity and the NOB/AOB ratio. In conclusion, high FA and high DO conditions are optimal for efficient nitrite accumulation.

  12. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  13. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1; 20mg NO3--N kg-1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3- and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg-1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3- pools, and spatial separation of NO3- formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to total N2O

  14. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  15. Effect of carbon source on acclimatization of nitrifying bacteria to achieve high-rate partial nitrification of wastewater with high ammonium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2014-08-01

    Experiments in two laboratory-scale sequential batch reactors were carried out to investigate the effect of heterotrophic bacteria on nitrifying bacteria using external carbon sources. Partial nitrification of ammonium-rich wastewater during short-term acclimatization enriched the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in both reactors. Heterotrophic bacteria exhibited a minor effect on nitrifying bacteria, and complete removal of ammonium occurred at a rate of 41 mg L-1 h-1 in both reactors. The main strategy of this research was to carry out partial nitrification using high-activity ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with a high concentration of free ammonia (70 mg L-1). The NO2 -/(NO3 - + NO2 -) ratio was greater than 0.9 in both reactors most of the time.

  16. Nitrosomonas stercoris sp. nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha-like microbes are distributed in strongly eutrophic environments such as wastewater treatment plants and animal manure. In the present study, we isolated an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium tolerant of high ammonium levels, designated strain KYUHI-ST, from composted cattle manure. Unlike the other known Nitrosomonas species, this isolate grew at 1,000 mM ammonium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Nitrosomonas and formed a unique cluster with the uncultured ammonia oxidizers found in wastewater systems and animal manure composts, suggesting that these ammonia oxidizers contributed to removing higher concentrations of ammonia in strongly eutrophic environments. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic data presented here, we propose and call for the validation of the provisional taxonomic assignment Nitrosomonas stercoris, with strain KYUHI-S as the type strain (type strain KYUHI-ST = NBRC 110753T = ATCC BAA-2718T). PMID:26156554

  17. Ammonium Additives to Dissolve Lithium Sulfide through Hydrogen Binding for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huilin; Han, Kee Sung; Vijayakumar, M; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Ruiguo; Chen, Junzheng; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2017-02-08

    In rechargeable Li-S batteries, the uncontrollable passivation of electrodes by highly insulating Li2S limits sulfur utilization, increases polarization, and decreases cycling stability. Dissolving Li2S in organic electrolyte is a facile solution to maintain the active reaction interface between electrolyte and sulfur cathode, and thus address the above issues. Herein, ammonium salts are demonstrated as effective additives to promote the dissolution of Li2S to 1.25 M in DMSO solvent at room temperature. NMR measurements show that the strong hydrogen binding effect of N-H groups plays a critical role in dissolving Li2S by forming complex ligands with S(2-) anions coupled with the solvent's solvating surrounding. Ammonium additives in electrolyte can also significantly improve the oxidation kinetics of Li2S, and therefore enable the direct use of Li2S as cathode material in Li-S battery system in the future. This provides a new approach to manage the solubility of lithium sulfides through cation coordination with sulfide anion.

  18. Ammonium Additives to Dissolve Lithium Sulfide through Hydrogen Binding for High-Energy Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Huilin; Han, Kee Sung; Vijayakumar, M.; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Ruiguo; Chen, Junzheng; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    In rechargeable Li-S batteries, the uncontrollable passivation of electrodes by highly insulating Li2S limits sulfur utilization, increases polarization and decreases cycling stability. Dissolving Li2S in organic electrolyte is a facile solution to maintain the active reaction interface between electrolyte and sulfur cathode, and thus address the above issues. Herein, ammonium salts are demonstrated as effective additives to promote the dissolution of Li2S to 1.25 M in DMSO solvent at room temperature. NMR measurements show that the strong hydrogen binding effect of N-H groups plays a critical role in dissolving Li2S by forming complex ligands with S2- anions coupled with the solvent’s solvating surrounding. Ammonium additives in electrolyte can also significantly improve the oxidation kinetics of Li2S, therefore enables the direct use of Li2S as cathode material in Li-S battery system in the future. This provides a new approach to manage the solubility of lithium sulfides through cation coordination with sulfide anion.

  19. Ammonium attenuation in aquifer material impacted with high levels of organic wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-08-01

    Total concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +1}) have been found to exceed the State of Wyoming ground water quality standard for Class 1 aquifers near Torrington, Wyoming. The cause of the NH{sub 4}{sup +1} contamination is thought to be associated with fertilizer use and/or the leaching of organics into the ground water from impoundments holding wastes from sugar beet processing. This type of contamination could be expected from other industrial processes, including those associated with the use of fossil fuels. In an initial step in understanding and solving the ground water contamination problem, Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a laboratory investigation to understand the aquifer system as it relates to the chemistry of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} as it moves through the aquifer material. The data collected during the attenuation tests do provide an indication that the attenuation of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} in the ground water system will occur. In addition, the results show the redox condition of the site and the possible chemical reactions that are influencing the ground water quality.

  20. Major influencing factors of water flooding in abnormally high-pressure carbonate reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingying, Hou; Kaiyuan, Chen; Zifei, Fan; Libing, Fu; Yefei, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The higher pressure coefficient is the major characteristics of the abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoirs, which the pressure coefficient generally exceeds 1.2 and the initial formation pressure is higher than normal sandstone reservoirs. Due to the large pressure difference between initial formation and saturated pressure, oil wells are capable to production with high flow rate by the natural energy at early production stage. When the formation pressure drops to the saturation pressure, the water or gas is usually injected to stabilize the well productivity and sustain the formation pressure. Based on the characteristics of Kenkiak oilfield, a typical abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoir, a well group model is designed to simulate and analyze the influence factors on water flooding. The conclusion is that permeability, interlayer difference and reserve abundance are the main three factors on the water flooding development in these reservoirs.

  1. Chromothripsis Is a Recurrent Genomic Abnormality in High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abáigar, María; Robledo, Cristina; Benito, Rocío; Ramos, Fernando; Díez-Campelo, María; Hermosín, Lourdes; Sánchez-del-Real, Javier; Alonso, Jose M.; Cuello, Rebeca; Megido, Marta; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; Aguilar, Carlos; Vargas, Manuel; Martín, Ana A.; García, Juan L.; Kohlmann, Alexander; del Cañizo, M. Consuelo; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. 301 patients diagnosed with MDS (n = 240) or MDS/MPN (n = 61) were studied at the time of diagnosis. A genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number abnormalities was performed. In addition, a mutational analysis of DNMT3A, TET2, RUNX1, TP53 and BCOR genes was performed by NGS in selected cases. 285 abnormalities were identified in 71 patients (23.6%). Three high-risk MDS cases (1.2%) displayed chromothripsis involving exclusively chromosome 13 and affecting some cancer genes: FLT3, BRCA2 and RB1. All three cases carried TP53 mutations as revealed by NGS. Moreover, in the whole series, the integrative analysis of aCGH and NGS enabled the identification of cryptic recurrent deletions in 2p23.3 (DNMT3A; n = 2.8%), 4q24 (TET2; n = 10%) 17p13 (TP53; n = 8.5%), 21q22 (RUNX1; n = 7%), and Xp11.4 (BCOR; n = 2.8%), while mutations in the non-deleted allele where found only in DNMT3A (n = 1), TET2 (n = 3), and TP53 (n = 4). These cryptic abnormalities were detected mainly in patients with normal (45%) or non-informative (15%) karyotype by conventional cytogenetics, except for those with TP53 deletion and mutation (15%), which had a complex karyotype. In addition to well-known copy number defects, the presence of chromothripsis involving chromosome 13 was a novel recurrent change in high-risk MDS patients. Array CGH analysis revealed the presence of cryptic abnormalities in genomic regions where MDS-related genes, such as TET2, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and BCOR, are located. PMID:27741277

  2. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates. PMID:27996060

  3. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  5. Integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidization with partial denitrification process for advanced nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shenbin; Du, Rui; Niu, Meng; Li, Baikun; Ren, Nanqi; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidization with partial denitrification process (termed as ANAMMOX-PD) was developed for advanced nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater, which excess NO3(-)-N produced by ANAMMOX was fed into PD reactor for NO2(-)-N production and then refluxing to ANAMMOX reactor for further removal. Results showed that total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency as high as 97.8% was achieved and effluent TN-N was below 20mg/L at influent TN-N of 820mg/L. Furthermore, the feasibility of simultaneously treating domestic wastewater was demonstrated in ANAMMOX-PD process, and NH4(+)-N removal efficiency of 96.7% was obtained. The nitrogen removal was mainly carried out through ANAMMOX pathway, and high-throughput sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Brocadia was the major ANAMMOX species. The presented process could effectively solve the problem of excess nitrate residual in ANAMMOX effluent, which hold a great potential in application of currently ANAMMOX treating high-strength wastewater (e.g. sludge digestion supernatant).

  6. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale bioreactors with high ammonium bicarbonate loading.

    PubMed

    Vejmelkova, Dana; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Kovaleva, Olga L; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Kampschreur, Marlies J; Muyzer, Gerard; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2012-01-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community (AOB) was investigated in two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors performing partial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite or nitrate at high (80 mM) to extremely high (428 mM) concentrations of ammonium bicarbonate. At all conditions, the dominant AOB was affiliated to the Nitrosomonas europaea lineage as was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Molecular analysis of the mixed populations, based on the 16S rRNA and cbbL genes, demonstrated the presence of two different phylotypes of Nitrosomonas, while microbiological analysis produced a single phylotype, represented by three different morphotypes. One of the most striking features of the AOB populations encountered in the bioreactors was the domination of highly aggregated obligate microaerophilic Nitrosomonas, with unusual cellular and colony morphology, commonly observed in nitrifying bioreactors but rarely investigated by cultural methods. The latter is probably not an adaptation to stressful conditions created by high ammonia or nitrite concentrations, but oxygen seems to be a stressful factor in these bioreactors.

  7. High-calcium exposure to frog heart: a simple model representing hypercalcemia-induced ECG abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro

    2017-01-20

    By simply adding a high concentration of calcium solution to the surface of the bullfrog heart, we reproduced electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities representing those observed in hypercalcemia, such as Osborn waves and shortening of the QT interval. The rise in extracellular calcium concentration may have activated the outward potassium currents during phase 3 of the action potential, and thus decreased its duration. In addition to the known decrease in the duration of phase 2, such changes in phase 3 were also likely to contribute to the shortening of the QT interval. The dual recordings of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and the ECG waves enabled us to demonstrate the mechanisms of ECG abnormalities induced by hypercalcemia.

  8. High-calcium exposure to frog heart: a simple model representing hypercalcemia-induced ECG abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    KAZAMA, Itsuro

    2016-01-01

    By simply adding a high concentration of calcium solution to the surface of the bullfrog heart, we reproduced electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities representing those observed in hypercalcemia, such as Osborn waves and shortening of the QT interval. The rise in extracellular calcium concentration may have activated the outward potassium currents during phase 3 of the action potential, and thus decreased its duration. In addition to the known decrease in the duration of phase 2, such changes in phase 3 were also likely to contribute to the shortening of the QT interval. The dual recordings of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and the ECG waves enabled us to demonstrate the mechanisms of ECG abnormalities induced by hypercalcemia. PMID:27773880

  9. Ammonium Fluoride Mediated Synthesis of Anhydrous Metal Fluoride-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jinyoung; Jo, Changshin; Sahgong, Sunhye; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Eunho; Kim, Dong Hyeon; Hwang, Jongkook; Kang, Eunae; Ryu, Keun Ah; Jung, Yoon Seok; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Jinwoo

    2016-12-28

    Metal fluorides (MFx) are one of the most attractive cathode candidates for Li ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conversion potentials with large capacities. However, only a limited number of synthetic methods, generally involving highly toxic or inaccessible reagents, currently exist, which has made it difficult to produce well-designed nanostructures suitable for cathodes; consequently, harnessing their potential cathodic properties has been a challenge. Herein, we report a new bottom-up synthetic method utilizing ammonium fluoride (NH4F) for the preparation of anhydrous MFx (CuF2, FeF3, and CoF2)/mesoporous carbon (MSU-F-C) nanocomposites, whereby a series of metal precursor nanoparticles preconfined in mesoporous carbon were readily converted to anhydrous MFx through simple heat treatment with NH4F under solventless conditions. We demonstrate the versatility, lower toxicity, and efficiency of this synthetic method and, using XRD analysis, propose a mechanism for the reaction. All MFx/MSU-F-C prepared in this study exhibited superior electrochemical performances, through conversion reactions, as the cathode for LIBs. In particular, FeF3/MSU-F-C maintained a capacity of 650 mAh g(-1)FeF3 across 50 cycles, which is ∼90% of its initial capacity. We expect that this facile synthesis method will trigger further research into the development of various nanostructured MFx for use in energy storage and other applications.

  10. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  11. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  12. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system.

  13. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  14. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  15. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  16. [A case of megaloblastic anemia with abnormally high urine level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Konjiki, O; Yoneda, Y; Sato, Y; Oosawa, Y; Imamura, T; Takasaki, M

    1993-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with anemia and jaundice. Hematological studies revealed hyperchromic macrocytic anemia, and biochemical studies revealed findings of hemolysis. The folic acid level was low and megaloblasts were observed in the bone marrow. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency. This patient had been a heavy alcohol drinker in the habit of drinking alcohol without meals. He began to eat regular meals in the hospital, and the anemia and jaundice improved gradually. Since liver cirrhosis was suspected, amino acid analysis of the urine was performed, and abnormal excretion of beta-amino-isobutyric acid (BAIB) was found. According to the amount of BAIB excreted, the Japanese population can be divided into low and high BAIB excretors comprising 65% and 36%, respectively. BAIB is also considered to reflect dissimilation of thymine. The present patient was included in the high excretion group because of the abnormally high urine level of BAIB, which was considered to be caused by ineffective hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as a result of his megaloblastic anemia. For this reason, dissimilation of thymine was considered to have been active in this patient.

  17. High pH (and not free ammonia) is responsible for Anammox inhibition in mildly alkaline solutions with excess of ammonium.

    PubMed

    Puyol, D; Carvajal-Arroyo, J M; Li, G B; Dougless, A; Fuentes-Velasco, M; Sierra-Alvarez, R; Field, J A

    2014-10-01

    Ammonium is a substrate of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process but it has been suggested as a substrate-inhibitor because of the action of its unionized form, free ammonia. High pH of the medium is also an important limiting factor of the Anammox bacteria. Both effects are difficult to discriminate. In this work the inhibitory effects of high pH, total ammonia (TA) and NH3 on the Anammox process were investigated simultaneously. Results confirmed that TA caused no inhibition and high pH is a much more important inhibiting factor than NH3 in mildly alkaline conditions, based on a multi-factorial analysis. Values of pH higher than 7.6 caused Anammox inhibition >10 % and should be avoided during the application of the Anammox process in practice.

  18. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  19. Size Exclusion High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of a Cellulose Acetate-Ammonium Nitrate Gas Generator Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-02

    Problems involving mix-to-mix reproducibility for TAL-704 (a Talley Industries of Arizona cellulose acetate -ammonium nitrate gas generator propellant...correspondingly similar retention volumes (measured by both ultraviolet and refractive index detectors). These peaks were mainly attributed to cellulose acetate (5.51

  20. Insensitive Ammonium Nitrate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    is reduced by replacing the ammonium nitrate with a solid solution of potassium nitrate in form III ammonium nitrate wherein the potassium nitrate...constitutes from more than zero to less than 50 weight percent of the solid solution . (Author)

  1. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. High-T c superconductor/polymer composites. Modeling of abnormal electrical properties at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlhachemi, A.; Gavarri, J. R.; Musso, J.; Alfred-Duplan, C.; Marfaing, J.

    1994-09-01

    High- Tc 2223-bismuth superconducting pigments have been inserted in a matrix of Fe 3+-doped polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) to obtain new composites with variable properties. The fabrication and the characterization of the various components are briefly described. The electrical resistivity at a low temperature of the composites is reported. In the case of multiphase super-conducting pigments presenting various Tc's and semiconducting fabrication residues inserted in the polymeric matrix, the composites are characterized by abnormal resistivity evolutions between 20 K and 300 K. A new electrical model is proposed to interpret the behavior of such composites in the full 5 K to 300 K temperature range. Percolation features are taken into account through an empirical description of the electrical complex impedances. The computer calculations allow one to characterize fabrication residues and interfaces between insulating, conducting and superconducting areas in the composites.

  3. Abnormally high fluid pressures in the region of the Coalinga earthquake sequence and their significance

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, R.F.; Levine, P.; Wentworth, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Abnormally high fluid pressures (AHP's) permitted or aided thrusting of buried tectonic wedges of Franciscan assemblage eastward beneath coeval Great Valley sequence onto mafic basement and thus contributed to the 1983 Coalinga earthquake sequence. Much of the southwestern San Joaquin Valley and adjoining parts of the Diablo Range are underlain by rocks with pressure/depth (P/D) ratios near or greater than 0.5 psi/ft (the hydrostatic gradient for oil-field waters is about 0.47 psi/ft). Plots of P/D ratio versus depth for more than 300 wells show an average ratio of about 0.6 psi/ft above 14,000-ft depth, a lower bound of 0.47 psi/ft, and an upper bound greater than 0.9 psi/ft; ratios greater than 0.60 psi/ft are interpreted to be abnormally high. Several likely sources of AHP's are recognized, but their relative contributions cannot be determined. Chief of these sources are diagenetic-metamorphic generation of fluids in the Great Valley sequence and Franciscan rocks, compaction disequilibrium and aquathermal pressuring in Tertiary strata, and horizontal tectonic compression. Yerkes, Levine, and Wentworth infer the presence of near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the Great Valley sequence and Franciscan rocks below the Coalinga anticline on the basis of (1) a mapped seismic low-velocity zone; (2) active generation of metamorphic fluids in the Great Valley sequence and Franciscan rocks, which pond below relatively impermeable layers and thus increase fluid pressure; and (3) apparent southward and westward propagation of the 1983 main-shock rupture, which indicates rupture on a gently southwest dipping surface and implies an inverse relation between depth and crustal strength.

  4. Phase transitions, prominent dielectric anomalies, and negative thermal expansion in three high thermally stable ammonium magnesium-formate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ran; Xu, Guan-Cheng; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2014-01-20

    We present three Mg-formate frameworks, incorporating three different ammoniums: [NH4][Mg(HCOO)3] (1), [CH3CH2NH3][Mg(HCOO)3] (2) and [NH3(CH2)4NH3][Mg2(HCOO)6] (3). They display structural phase transitions accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and anisotropic and negative thermal expansion. The temperature-dependent structures, covering the whole temperature region in which the phase transitions occur, reveal detailed structural changes, and structure-property relationships are established. Compound 1 is a chiral Mg-formate framework with the NH4(+) cations located in the channels. Above 255 K, the NH4(+) cation vibrates quickly between two positions of shallow energy minima. Below 255 K, the cations undergo two steps of freezing of their vibrations, caused by the different inner profiles of the channels, producing non-compensated antipolarization. These lead to significant negative thermal expansion and a relaxor-like dielectric response. In perovskite 2, the orthorhombic phase below 374 K possesses ordered CH3CH2NH3(+) cations in the cubic cavities of the Mg-formate framework. Above 374 K, the structure becomes trigonal, with trigonally disordered cations, and above 426 K, another phase transition occurs and the cation changes to a two-fold disordered state. The two transitions are accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and negative and positive thermal expansion, contributing to the large regulation of the framework coupled the order-disorder transition of CH3CH2NH3(+). For niccolite 3, the gradually enhanced flipping movement of the middle ethylene of [NH3(CH2)4NH3](2+) in the elongated framework cavity finally leads to the phase transition with a critical temperature of 412 K, and the trigonally disordered cations and relevant framework change, providing the basis for the very strong dielectric dispersion, high dielectric constant (comparable to inorganic oxides), and large negative thermal expansion. The spontaneous polarizations

  5. In situ measurement of ammonium utilization by phytoplankton in the Sacramento River to determine the impacts of high nutrient loading on the base of the food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    High concentrations of ammonium in the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (SFE) have been hypothesized to inhibit the growth of larger phytoplankton such as diatoms, which are an important food source to zooplankton at the base of the pelagic food web. The goal of this research is to use stable isotope approaches to distinguish ammonium and nitrate utilization at the base of the food web in a range of habitats extending from freshwater portions of Sacramento River through San Pablo Bay. Preliminary results from transects sampled over a range of hydrologic conditions between 2007 and 2010 indicate shifts in the δ15N composition of the bulk particulate organic matter (POM) where ammonium concentrations increase downstream of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant and again where ammonium concentrations decrease near the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. However, interpretation of δ15N of bulk POM as a proxy for δ15N of phytoplankton is complicated by the fact that the C:N ratios of bulk POM often increase to values greater than 8 downstream of the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, suggesting that in this region of the estuary bulk POM includes a significant proportion of terrestrial detrital material. Given the interest in understanding nitrogen source utilization in this portion of the estuary, work is currently underway to isolate algae from bulk POM using flow cytometry prior to isotopic analysis. δ15N vales from isolated algal samples will allow downstream changes in nutrient source utilization to be distinguished from mixing of different POM sources. Because considerable bulk POM isotopic data have been collected over the last ten years, greater understanding of the relationship between δ15N-POM and δ15N of isolated algal and terrestrial fractions will allow for improved use of the bulk POM isotope record to understand the potential link between historical changes in phytoplankton nutrient

  6. High frequency of p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway abnormalities in relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Wilkinson, Jane; O' Toole, Kieran; Wood, Katrina M.; Challen, Christine C.; Baker, Angela G.; Board, Julian R.; Evans, Laura; Cole, Michael; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Boos, Joachim; Köhler, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Lunec, John; Tweddle, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Most neuroblastomas initially respond to therapy but many relapse with chemoresistant disease. p53 mutations are rare in diagnostic neuroblastomas, but we have previously reported inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway in 9/17 (53%) neuroblastoma cell lines established at relapse. Hypothesis: Inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway develops during treatment and contributes to neuroblastoma relapse. Methods: Eighty-four neuroblastomas were studied from 41 patients with relapsed neuroblastoma including 38 paired neuroblastomas at different stages of therapy. p53 mutations were detected by automated sequencing, p14ARF methylation and deletion by methylation-specific PCR and duplex PCR respectively, and MDM2 amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation. Results: Abnormalities in the p53 pathway were identified in 20/41(49%) cases. Downstream defects due to inactivating missense p53 mutations were identified in 6/41 (15%) cases, 5 following chemotherapy and/or at relapse and 1 at diagnosis, post chemotherapy and relapse. The presence of a p53 mutation was independently prognostic for overall survival (hazard ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2, 9.9; p = 0.02). Upstream defects were present in 35% cases: MDM2 amplification in 3 cases, all at diagnosis & relapse and p14ARF inactivation in 12/41 (29%) cases: 3 had p14ARF methylation, 2 after chemotherapy, and 9 had homozygous deletions, 8 at diagnosis and relapse. Conclusions: These results show that a high proportion of neuroblastomas which relapse have an abnormality in the p53 pathway. The majority have upstream defects suggesting that agents which reactivate wild-type p53 would be beneficial, in contrast to those with downstream defects where p53 independent therapies are indicated. PMID:20145180

  7. Network Mechanisms Generating Abnormal and Normal Hippocampal High-Frequency Oscillations: A Computational Analysis1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gliske, Stephen; Catoni, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are an intriguing potential biomarker for epilepsy, typically categorized according to peak frequency as either ripples (100–250 Hz) or fast ripples (>250 Hz). In the hippocampus, fast ripples were originally thought to be more specific to epileptic tissue, but it is still very difficult to distinguish which HFOs are caused by normal versus pathological brain activity. In this study, we use a computational model of hippocampus to investigate possible network mechanisms underpinning normal ripples, pathological ripples, and fast ripples. Our results unify several prior findings regarding HFO mechanisms, and also make several new predictions regarding abnormal HFOs. We show that HFOs are generic, emergent phenomena whose characteristics reflect a wide range of connectivity and network input. Although produced by different mechanisms, both normal and abnormal HFOs generate similar ripple frequencies, underscoring that peak frequency is unable to distinguish the two. Abnormal ripples are generic phenomena that arise when input to pyramidal cells overcomes network inhibition, resulting in high-frequency, uncoordinated firing. In addition, fast ripples transiently and sporadically arise from the precise conditions that produce abnormal ripples. Lastly, we show that such abnormal conditions do not require any specific network structure to produce coherent HFOs, as even completely asynchronous activity is capable of producing abnormal ripples and fast ripples in this manner. These results provide a generic, network-based explanation for the link between pathological ripples and fast ripples, and a unifying description for the entire spectrum from normal ripples to pathological fast ripples. PMID:26146658

  8. Characterization of Side Populations in HNSCC: Highly Invasive, Chemoresistant and Abnormal Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun; Chang, Insoon; Chen, Zhuo; Kang, Mo; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Side Population (SP) cells, a subset of Hoechst-low cells, are enriched with stem cells. Originally, SP cells were isolated from bone marrow but recently have been found in various solid tumors and cancer cell lines that are clonogenic in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo. In this study, SP cells from lymph node metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were examined using flow cytometry and Hoechst 3342 efflux assay. We found that highly metastatic HNSCC cell lines M3a2 and M4e contained more SP cells compared to the low metastatic parental HNSCC cell line 686LN. SP cells in HNSCC were highly invasive in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo compared to non-SP cells. Furthermore, SP cells highly expressed ABCG2 and were chemoresistant to Bortezomib and etoposide. Importantly, we found that SP cells in HNSCC had abnormal activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as compared to non-SP cells. Together, these findings indicate that SP cells might be a major driving force of head and neck tumor formation and metastasis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be an important target for eliminating cancer stem cells in HNSCC. PMID:20625515

  9. An ARXPS and ERXPS study of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids: utilising a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Rebecca K; Delorme, Astrid E; Smith, Emily F; Licence, Peter

    2016-02-17

    A series of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids have been probed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source. The capability of the Ag Lα' X-ray source for ionic liquid analysis is confirmed alongside the characterisation of previously undetected high energy core photoelectron emissions. Additionally, the utilisation of the Ag Lα' X-ray source as a depth profiling technique (ERXPS) to investigate the structure of the ionic liquid/vacuum interface has been demonstrated, with comparison made to angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS).

  10. Benzylic Ammonium Ylide Mediated Epoxidations

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Lukas; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding synthesis of stilbene oxides using ammonium ylides has been developed. It turned out that the amine leaving group plays a crucial role as trimethylamine gives higher yields than DABCO or quinuclidine. The amine group also influences the diastereoselectivity, and detailed DFT calculations to understand the key parameters of these reactions have been carried out. PMID:27766017

  11. Abnormal high-energy phosphate molecule metabolism during regional brain activation in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, C; Du, F; Ravichandran, C; Goldbach, J R; Thida, T; Lin, P; Dora, B; Gelda, J; O'Connor, L; Sehovic, S; Gruber, S; Ongur, D; Cohen, B M

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests bioenergetic abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD). In the brain, phosphocreatine (PCr) acts a reservoir of high-energy phosphate (HEP) bonds, and creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the transfer of HEP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to PCr and from PCr back to ATP, at times of increased need. This study examined the activity of this mechanism in BD by measuring the levels of HEP molecules during a stimulus paradigm that increased local energy demand. Twenty-three patients diagnosed with BD-I and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included. Levels of phosphorus metabolites were measured at baseline and during visual stimulation in the occipital lobe using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4T. Changes in metabolite levels showed different patterns between the groups. During stimulation, HC had significant reductions in PCr but not in ATP, as expected. In contrast, BD patients had significant reductions in ATP but not in PCr. In addition, PCr/ATP ratio was lower at baseline in patients, and there was a higher change in this measure during stimulation. This pattern suggests a disease-related failure to replenish ATP from PCr through CK enzyme catalysis during tissue activation. Further studies measuring the CK flux in BD are required to confirm and extend this finding.

  12. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  13. Abnormally high thromboxane biosynthesis in homozygous homocystinuria. Evidence for platelet involvement and probucol-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, G; Davì, G; Margaglione, M; Cirillo, F; Grandone, E; Ciabattoni, G; Catalano, I; Strisciuglio, P; Andria, G; Patrono, C

    1993-01-01

    Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation. PMID:8376592

  14. Abnormal degradation of high-voltage p-type MOSFET with n+ polycrystalline silicon gate during AC stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongjun; Joo, Ikhyung; Lee, Changsub; Song, Duheon; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the abnormal degradation of high-voltage p-type MOSFET (HV pMOSFET) under negative AC gate bias stress. In HV pMOSFET with n+ polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) gate, the abnormal degradation occurs after the gradual degradation during negative AC stress. The abnormal degradation is suppressed by changing the gate material from n+ poly-Si to p+ poly-Si, and it is caused by hot holes produced by the impact ionization near the surface when electrons move from the gate toward the gate oxide. We suggest a possible mechanism to explain the improvement of degradation by using p+ poly-Si as a gate material.

  15. Over-expression of OsPTR6 in rice increased plant growth at different nitrogen supplies but decreased nitrogen use efficiency at high ammonium supply.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaorong; Xie, Dan; Chen, Jingguang; Lu, Haiyan; Xu, Yanling; Ma, Cui; Xu, Guohua

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays a critical role in plant growth and productivity and PTR/NRT1 transporters are critical for rice growth. In this study, OsPTR6, a PTR/NRT1 transporter, was over-expressed in the Nipponbare rice cultivar by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation using the ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter. Three single-copy T2 generation transgenic lines, named OE1, OE5 and OE6, were produced and subjected to hydroponic growth experiments in different nitrogen treatments. The results showed the plant height and biomass of the over-expression lines were increased, and plant N accumulation and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities were enhanced at 5.0mmol/L NH4(+) and 2.5mmol/L NH4NO3. The expression of OsATM1 genes in over-expression lines showed that the OsPTR6 over expression increased OsAMT1.1, OsATM1.2 and OsAMT1.3 expression at 0.2 and 5.0mmol/L NH4(+) and 2.5mmol/L NH4NO3. However, nitrogen utilisation efficiency (NUE) was decreased at 5.0mmol/LNH4(+). These data suggest that over-expression of the OsPTR6 gene could increase rice growth through increasing ammonium transporter expression and glutamine synthetase activity (GSA), but decreases nitrogen use efficiency under conditions of high ammonium supply.

  16. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  17. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  18. CO2/ethylene oxide copolymerization and ligand variation for a highly active salen-cobalt(III) complex tethering 4 quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Lee, Jung Jae; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan; Na, Sung Jae; Sujith, S; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong; Ok, Myung-Ahn; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2013-07-07

    A cobalt(III) complex (1) of a salcy-type ligand tethering 4 quaternary ammonium salts, which is thought to act as a highly active catalyst for CO2/propylene oxide (PO) copolymerization, also shows high activity (TOF, 25,900 h(-1); TON, 518,000; 2.72 kg polymer per g cat) and selectivity (>98%) for CO2/ethylene oxide (EO) copolymerization that results in high-molecular-weight polymers (M(n), 200,000-300,000) that have strictly alternating repeating units. The related cobalt(III) complexes 11-14 were prepared through variations of the ligand framework of 1 by replacing the trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane unit with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, trans-1,2-diaminocyclopentane, or 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine or by replacing the aldimine bond with ketimine. These ligand frameworks are thought to favour the formation of the cis-β configuration in complexation, and the formation of the cis-β configuration in 11-14 was confirmed through NMR studies or X-ray crystallographic studies of model complexes not bearing the quaternary ammonium salts. Complexes 11, 13, and 14, which adopt the cis-β configuration even in DMSO did not show any activity for CO2/PO copolymerization. Complex 12, which was constructed with trans-1,2-diaminocyclopentane and fluctuated in DMSO between the coordination and de-coordination of the acetate ligand as observed for 1, showed fairly high activity (TOF, 12,400 h(-1)). This fluctuating behaviour may play a role in polymerization. However, complex 12 did not compete with 1 in terms of activity, selectivity, and the catalyst cost.

  19. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  20. Do Subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Differ from those with a Genetic High Risk? – A Systematic Review of Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Smieskova, R; Marmy, J; Schmidt, A; Bendfeldt, K; Riecher-Rössler, A; Walter, M; Lang, UE; Borgwardt, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pre-psychotic and early psychotic characteristics are investigated in the high-risk (HR) populations for psychosis. There are two different approaches based either on hereditary factors (genetic high risk, G-HR) or on the clinically manifested symptoms (clinical high risk, C-HR). Common features are an increased risk for development of psychosis and similar cognitive as well as structural and functional brain abnormalities. Methods: We reviewed the existing literature on longitudinal structural, and on functional imaging studies, which included G-HR and/or C-HR individuals for psychosis, healthy controls (HC) and/or first episode of psychosis (FEP) or schizophrenia patients (SCZ). Results: With respect to structural brain abnormalities, vulnerability to psychosis was associated with deficits in frontal, temporal, and cingulate regions in HR, with additional insular and caudate deficits in C-HR population. Furthermore, C-HR had progressive prefrontal deficits related to the transition to psychosis. With respect to functional brain abnormalities, vulnerability to psychosis was associated with prefrontal, cingulate and middle temporal abnormalities in HR, with additional parietal, superior temporal, and insular abnormalities in C-HR population. Transition-to-psychosis related differences emphasized prefrontal, hippocampal and striatal components, more often detectable in C-HR population. Multimodal studies directly associated psychotic symptoms displayed in altered prefrontal and hippocampal activations with striatal dopamine and thalamic glutamate functions. Conclusion: There is an evidence for similar structural and functional brain abnormalities within the whole HR population, with more pronounced deficits in the C-HR population. The most consistent evidence for abnormality in the prefrontal cortex reported in structural, functional and multimodal studies of HR population may underlie the complexity of higher cognitive functions that are impaired

  1. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  2. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  3. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacter cloacae with High MICs of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in a Hematology Ward Associated with Contaminated Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Angélique; Amoureux, Lucie; Bador, Julien; Gavalas, Arthur; Siebor, Eliane; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Caillot, Denis; Janin, Marion; de Curraize, Claire; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit) of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France) between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized). Design: We performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing) and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. Results: We have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n = 43 clinical and n = 17 environmental) revealed that bla CTX−M15 was predominant (37 isolates) followed by bla CTX−M9 plus bla SHV−12 (20 isolates). We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs) in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs) in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens. PMID:27462306

  4. A river-scale Lagrangian experiment examining controls on phytoplankton dynamics in the presence and absence of treated wastewater effluent high in ammonium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara; Carpenter, Kurt; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parker, Alexander; Stumpner, Elizabeth; Downing, Bryan D.; Travis, Nicole; Wilkerson, Frances; Kendall, Carol; Mussen, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplankton are critical component of the food web in most large rivers and estuaries, and thus identifying dominant controls on phytoplankton abundance and species composition is important to scientists, managers, and policymakers. Recent studies from a variety of systems indicate that ammonium ( ) in treated wastewater effluent decreases primary production and alters phytoplankton species composition. However, these findings are based mainly on laboratory and enclosure studies, which may not adequately represent natural systems. To test effects of effluent high in ammonium on phytoplankton at the ecosystem scale, we conducted whole-river–scale experiments by halting discharges to the Sacramento River from the regional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and used a Lagrangian approach to compare changes in phytoplankton abundance and species composition in the presence (+EFF) and absence (−EFF) of effluent. Over 5 d of downstream travel from 20 km above to 50 km below the WWTP, chlorophyll concentrations declined from 15–25 to ∼2.5 μg L−1, irrespective of effluent addition. Benthic diatoms were dominant in most samples. We found no significant difference in phytoplankton abundance or species composition between +EFF and −EFF conditions. Moreover, greatest declines in chlorophyll occurred upstream of the WWTP where concentrations were low. Grazing by clams and zooplankton could not account for observed losses, suggesting other factors such as hydrodynamics and light limitation were responsible for phytoplankton declines. These results highlight the advantages of conducting ecosystem-scale, Lagrangian-based experiments to understand the dynamic and complex interplay between physical, chemical, and biological factors that control phytoplankton populations.

  5. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Spontaneous intercalation of long-chain alkyl ammonium into edge-selectively oxidized graphite to efficiently produce high-quality graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Wu, Fei; Shi, Diwen; Hu, Changchen; Li, Xiaolin; Yuan, Weien; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Jiang; Geng, Huijuan; Wei, Hao; Wang, Ying; Hu, Nantao; Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of high-quality graphene nanosheets (GNs) is essential for practical applications. We report that oxidation of graphite by low concentration KMnO4 at relatively high temperature (60°C) leads to edge-selectively oxidized graphite (EOG) which preserves the high crystalline graphitic structure on its basal planes while the edges are functionalized by oxygen-containing groups. Long-chain tetradecyl-ammonium salt (C14N+) could be spontaneously intercalated into EOG to form intercalated EOG-C14N+ compounds. Gentle and short-time sonication of EOG-C14N+ in toluene can full exfoliate EOG into edge-oxidized graphene nanosheets (EOGNs) with concentration of 0.67 mg/ml, monolayer population up to 90% and lateral size from 1 μm to >100 μm. The EOG and EOGN films show excellent electrical conductance, which is far superior to their graphene oxide (GO) counterparts. Our method provides an efficient way to produce high-quality GNs, and the resultant EOG also can be directly used for production of multifunctional materials and devices. PMID:24022463

  7. Electrochemically and bioelectrochemically induced ammonium recovery.

    PubMed

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K; Andersen, Stephen J; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-22

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems.

  8. Electrochemically and Bioelectrochemically Induced Ammonium Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K.; Andersen, Stephen J.; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems. PMID:25651406

  9. A morphologic study of the airway structure abnormalities in patients with asthma by high-resolution computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Luo, Jian; Du, Wen; Zhang, Lan-Lan; He, Li-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Airway structure changes, termed as airway remodeling, are common in asthma patients due to chronic inflammation, which can be assessed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Considering the controversial conclusions in the correlation of morphologic abnormalities with clinical feature and outcome, we aimed to further specify and evaluate the structural abnormalities of Chinese asthmatics by HRCT. Methods From August 2012 to February 2015, outpatients with asthma were recruited consecutively in the Asthma Center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Standard HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed to collect information of bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation, mucus impaction, emphysema, mosaic perfusion, atelectasis, and spirometric parameters. We reported the incidence of each structural abnormality in HRCT and compared it among different asthmatic severities. Results A total of 123 asthmatics were enrolled, among which 84 (68.3%) were female and 39 (31.7%) were male. At least one structural abnormality was detected by HRCT in 85.4% asthmatics, and the incidence of bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation, mucus impaction, emphysema, mosaic perfusion, and atelectasis was 57.7%, 51.2%, 22%, 24.4%, 5.7% and 1.6%, respectively. The incidences of bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilation and emphysema were significantly increased by asthma severity (P<0.05), while incidences of mucus impaction (26/27, 96.30%), mosaic perfusion (6/7, 85.71%) and atelectasis (2/2, 100%) were mainly found in severe asthma. We found a longer asthma history (28.13±18.55 years, P<0.001, P=0.003), older age (51.30±10.70 years, P=0.022, P=0.006) and lower predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%) (41.97±15.19, P<0.001, P<0.001) and ratio of forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) (48.01±9.55, P<0.001, P<0.001) in patients with severe bronchial dilation compared with those in

  10. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Su Shim, Chang; Kook Hong, Chang

    2015-06-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm-2 and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm-2) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs.

  11. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Su Shim, Chang; Kook Hong, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm-2 and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm−2) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs. PMID:26094863

  12. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  13. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  14. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meert, K L; Ellis, J; Aronow, R; Perrin, E

    1994-10-01

    We report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child that resulted in multiple-organ-system failure and death. Exchange transfusion and hemodialysis were ineffective in removing significant amounts of chromium or causing sustained clinical improvement. We suggest that immediate, large doses of the reducing agent ascorbic acid would allow effective reduction of hexavalent chromium with less cellular toxicity.

  15. A highly reproducible solenoid micropump system for the analysis of total inorganic carbon and ammonium using gas-diffusion with conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Camelia; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple, economic, and miniaturized flow-based analyzer based on solenoid micropumps is presented. It was applied to determine two parameters of high environmental interest: ammonium and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in natural waters. The method is based on gas diffusion (GD) of CO₂ and NH3 through a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane from an acidic or alkaline donor stream, respectively. The analytes are trapped in an acceptor solution, being slightly alkaline for CO₂ and slightly acidic for NH₃. The analytes are quantified using a homemade stainless steel conductimetric cell. The proposed system required five solenoid micro-pumps, one for each reagent and sample. Two especially made air bubble traps were placed down-stream of the solendoid pumps, which provided the acceptor solutions, by this increasing the method's reproducibility. Values of RSD lower than 1% were obtained. Achieved limits of detection were 0.27 µmol L⁻¹ for NH₄⁺ and 50 µmol L⁻¹ for TIC. Add-recovery tests were used to prove the trueness of the method and recoveries of 99.5 ± 7.5% were obtained for both analytes. The proposed system proved to be adequate for monitoring purpose of TIC and NH₄⁺ due to its high sample throughput and repeatability.

  16. Clinoptilolite: a possible support material for nitrifying biofilms for effective control of ammonium effluent quality?

    PubMed

    Inan, H; Beler Baykal, B

    2005-01-01

    Ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite is suggested as a possible support material for nitrifying biofilms to help improve effluent ammonium quality through its high capacity of ammonium removal in the process of ion exchange. This will especially be helpful in cases where the biofilter receives peak or variable loads routinely or occasionally. At the time of peak loads or shocks of ammonium, ion exchange capacity will provide a buffer for the effluent ammonium quality. Data to support this suggestion is presented.

  17. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  18. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  19. Mapping of Genetic Abnormalities of Primary Tumours from Metastatic CRC by High-Resolution SNP Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Sayagués, José María; Fontanillo, Celia; Abad, María del Mar; González-González, María; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; del Carmen Chillon, Maria; Garcia, Eva; Bengoechea, Oscar; Fonseca, Emilio; Gonzalez-Diaz, Marcos; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Background For years, the genetics of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have been studied using a variety of techniques. However, most of the approaches employed so far have a relatively limited resolution which hampers detailed characterization of the common recurrent chromosomal breakpoints as well as the identification of small regions carrying genetic changes and the genes involved in them. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we applied 500K SNP arrays to map the most common chromosomal lesions present at diagnosis in a series of 23 primary tumours from sporadic CRC patients who had developed liver metastasis. Overall our results confirm that the genetic profile of metastatic CRC is defined by imbalanced gains of chromosomes 7, 8q, 11q, 13q, 20q and X together with losses of the 1p, 8p, 17p and 18q chromosome regions. In addition, SNP-array studies allowed the identification of small (<1.3 Mb) and extensive/large (>1.5 Mb) altered DNA sequences, many of which contain cancer genes known to be involved in CRC and the metastatic process. Detailed characterization of the breakpoint regions for the altered chromosomes showed four recurrent breakpoints at chromosomes 1p12, 8p12, 17p11.2 and 20p12.1; interestingly, the most frequently observed recurrent chromosomal breakpoint was localized at 17p11.2 and systematically targeted the FAM27L gene, whose role in CRC deserves further investigations. Conclusions/Significance In summary, in the present study we provide a detailed map of the genetic abnormalities of primary tumours from metastatic CRC patients, which confirm and extend on previous observations as regards the identification of genes potentially involved in development of CRC and the metastatic process. PMID:21060790

  20. Maternal high-fat hypercaloric diet during pregnancy results in persistent metabolic and respiratory abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Pamela S.; Walton, Cheryl; Samsell, Lennie; Perez, Miriam K.; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have shown in a previous population-based study significant correlation between childhood asthma and early abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism. This study's specific aim was to determine whether maternal nutrition in pregnancy affects postnatal metabolic and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. Methods: On gestation day 1, dams were switched from standard chow to either high-fat hypercaloric diet or control diet. Terminal experiments were performed on newborn and weanling offspring of dams fed the study diet during gestation and lactation, and on adult offspring maintained on the same diet as their mother. Results: Pups born from high-fat hypercaloric diet (HFD) dams developed metabolic abnormalities persistent throughout development. Cytokine expression analysis of lung tissues from newborns born to HFD dams revealed a strong proinflammatory pattern. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors was upregulated in lungs of weanlings born to HFD dams, and this was associated to higher respiratory system resistance and lower compliance at baseline, as well as hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Furthermore, HFD dams delivered pups prone to develop more severe disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Conclusion: Maternal nutrition in pregnancy is a critical determinant of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in offspring and also increases risk for bronchiolitis independent from prepregnancy nutrition. PMID:26539661

  1. Growth, morphology, ammonium uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess. under high NH₄⁺ concentrations.

    PubMed

    Saunkaew, Piyanart; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2011-11-01

    The effects of high NH(4)(+) concentration on growth, morphology, NH(4) (+) uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense were investigated in hydroponic culture. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 4 weeks using four levels of NH(4)(+) concentration: 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM. M. brasiliense grew well with a relative growth rate of c.0.03 day(-1) at NH(4)(+) concentration up to 5 mM. At the higher NH(4)(+) concentrations the growth of the plants was stunted and the plants had short roots and few new buds, especially when grown in 15 mM NH(4)(+) where the submerged leaves were lost and there were rotten roots and submerged stems. To avoid NH(4)(+) toxicity, the plants may have a mechanism to prevent cytoplasmic NH(4)(+) accumulation in plant cells. The net uptake of NH(4)(+) significantly decreased and the total N significantly increased in the plants treated with 10 and 15 mM NH(4)(+), respectively. The plant may employ NH(4)(+) assimilation and extrusion as a mechanism to compensate for the high NH(4)(+) concentrations. However, the plants may show nutrient deficiency symptoms, especially K deficiency symptoms, after they were exposed to NH(4)(+) concentration higher than 10 mM. The present study provides a basic ecophysiology of M. brasiliense that it can grow in NH(4)(+) enriched water up to concentrations as high as 5 mM.

  2. White matter alterations related to P300 abnormalities in individuals at high risk for psychosis: an MRI–EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crossley, Nicolas; Woolley, James; Carletti, Francesco; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Broome, Matthew; Johns, Louise; Tabraham, Paul; Bramon, Elvira; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychosis onset is characterized by white matter and electrophysiologic abnormalities. The relation between these factors in the development of illness is almost unknown. We studied the relation between white matter volumes and P300 in prodromal psychosis. Methods We assessed white matter volume (detected using magnetic resonance imaging) and electrophysiologic response during an oddball task (P300) in healthy controls and individuals at high clinical risk for psychosis (with an “at-risk mental state” [ARMS]). Results We included 41 controls and 39 patients with an ARMS in our study. A psychotic disorder developed in 26% of the ARMS group within the follow-up period of 2 years. The P300 amplitude was significantly lower in the ARMS group than in the control group. The ARMS group showed reduced volume of white matter underlying the left superior temporal gyrus and the left superior frontal gyrus and increased volume of white matter underlying the right insula and the right angular gyrus compared with controls. Relative to individuals who did not later become psychotic, the subgroup in whom psychosis subsequently developed had a smaller volume of white matter underlying the left precuneus and the right middle temporal gyrus and increased volume in the white matter underlying the right middle frontal gyrus. We observed a significant interaction in the right middle frontal gyrus: white matter volume was negatively associated with P300 amplitude in the ARMS group and positively associated with P300 amplitude in the control group. Limitations The voxel-based morphometry method alone cannot determine whether abnormal white matter volumes are due to an altered number of axonal connections or decreased myelination. Conclusion P300 abnormalities precede the onset of psychosis and are directly related to white matter alterations, representing a correlate of an increased vulnerability to disease. PMID:21299920

  3. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries.

  4. The mechanical properties of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene grafted with 3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wang, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was modified with a zwitterion monomer with good biocompatibility of MPDSAH (3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) by UV irradiation and then hot pressed. The microstructure and mechanical properties of modified UHMWPE are investigated. The results show that the structure of powder and bulk materials has been changed. The modified powders have more filaments than that of untreated. The surface of modified bulk materials is more rough and displays the granular protuberances which have the random loose arrangement compared with untreated UHMWPE. The crystallinity, uniaxial tensile and compressive properties decreased after grafting. Ultimate elongations decrease with the increase of the monomer concentration and are higher than 300% which is recommended by ASTM and ISO except the sample with 0.45mol/L MPDSAH. The friction coefficient of modified UHMWPE is lower than that of the untreated UHMWPE and it decreases gradually with the increase of monomer concentration. The wear rates have been decreased and the wear resistance has been improved under saline and distilled water lubrication.

  5. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-02-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells.

  6. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J.; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S.; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells. PMID:28224984

  7. Cardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with breast cancer undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Yokozawa, T; Sawada, J; Takaue, Y; Togitani, K; Kawahigashi, N; Narabayashi, M; Takeyama, K; Tanosaki, R; Mineishi, S; Kobayashi, Y; Watanabe, T; Adachi, I; Tobinai, K

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac toxicities in 39 consecutive patients with breast cancer receiving high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell transplantation were reviewed. All 39 patients received various anthracycline-containing regimens in adjuvant settings and/or for metastatic disease before HDC. As a cytoreductive regimen, all received cyclophosphamide 2000 mg/m2 and thiotepa 200 mg/m2 for 3 consecutive days. No immediate fatal toxicities were observed, but one patient developed chronic congestive heart failure and two had transient left ventricular dysfunction. Pericardial effusion was observed in another three patients. ST-T abnormalities during HDC were observed in two patients and arrhythmias were observed in nine, four of which occurred during stem cell infusion (SCI). There were three atrial arrhythmias, two ventricular arrhythmias, and four atrioventricular (AV)-block episodes. Two patients developed advanced and complete AV-block with an asystolic pause. Notably, three patients experienced AV-block with uncontrolled vomiting. No relationship was observed between the cumulative dose of anthracycline and cardiac toxicities during HDC. These results suggest that abnormalities in the conduction system during HDC may be more frequent than previously reported. Vagal reflex secondary to emesis may play an important role in the development of AV-block. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 185-189.

  8. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  9. Widespread chromosomal abnormalities in high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Comparative genomic hybridization study of pure high-grade DCIS.

    PubMed

    Moore, E; Magee, H; Coyne, J; Gorey, T; Dervan, P A

    1999-03-01

    For a variety of technical reasons it is rarely possible to study cytogenetic abnormalities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using traditional techniques. However, by combining molecular biology and computerized image analysis it is possible to carry out cytogenetic analyses on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of chromosomal amplifications and deletions in high-grade DCIS and to look specifically for unique or consistent abnormalities in this pre-invasive cancer. Twenty-three cases of asymptomatic, non-palpable, screen-detected, high-grade DCIS were examined using CGH on tumour cells obtained from histology slides. All cases showed chromosomal abnormalities. A wide variety of amplifications and deletions were spread across the genome. The most frequent changes were gains of chromosomes 17 (13 of 23), 16p (13 of 23), and 20q (9 of 23) and amplifications of 11q13 (22 of 23), 12q 24.1-24.2 (12 of 23), 6p21.3 (11 of 23), and 1q31-qter (6 of 23). The most frequent deletions were on 13q 21.3-q33 (7 of 23), 9p21 (4 of 23), and 6q16.1 (4 of 23). These findings indicate that high-grade DCIS is, from a cytogenetic viewpoint, an advanced lesion. There was no absolutely consistent finding in every case, but amplification of 11q13 was found in 22 of the 23 cases. The precise significance of this is unknown at present. This region of chromosome 11q harbours a number of known oncogenes, including cyclin D1 andINT2. It is likely that many of these findings are the result of accumulated chromosomal abnormalities, reflecting an unstable genome in established malignancy.

  10. Long-term performance of side-stream deammonification in a continuous flow granular-activated sludge process for nitrogen removal from high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Babak; Mavinic, Donald S; Kelly, Harlan G

    2015-01-01

    An innovative granular sludge deammonification system was incorporated into a conventional-activated sludge process. The process incorporated an internal baffle in the bioreactor for continuous separation of granular biomass from flocculent biomass, which allowed for controlling the solids retention time of flocculent sludge. The process was evaluated for ammonium removal from municipal digested sludge dewatering centrate under various operating conditions lasting over 450 days. The process successfully removed, on average, 90% of the ammonium from centrate at various ammonium loading reaching 1.4 kg/m³d at 20 hours hydraulic retention time. Controlling the retention time of the flocculent biomass and maintaining low nitrite concentration were both found to be effective for nitrite oxidizing bacteria management, resulting in a low nitrate concentration (below 50 mg/L) over a wide range of flocculent biomass concentration in the bioreactor.

  11. Implications of perennial saline springs for abnormally high fluid pressures and active thrusting in western California

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, J.R.; Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.; Moores, E.M. )

    1992-05-01

    Perennial saline springs in the Rumsey Hills area, southwestern Sacramento Valley, California, locally discharge at high elevations and near ridgetops. The springs are cold, are commonly associated with natural gas seeps, and typically emerge along west-vergent thrust faults. Stable isotope analyses indicate that the spring waters are similar to oil-field formation fluids and they have had a significant residence time in the subsurface at moderate temperatures. The nonmeteoric character of the springs demonstrates that they are not being fed by perched water tables. The authors propose that these subsurface formation waters are being forced to the surface by anomalously high porefluid pressures. The Rumsey Hills area is one of Quaternary uplift, thrusting, and crustal shortening, and prospect wells drilled there have encountered anomalously high fluid pressures at shallow depths. They attribute these high fluid pressures to active tectonic compression and shortening of Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks. The widespread occurrence of anomalously high pore-fluid pressures and perennial saline springs in the Coast Ranges and western Great Valley suggests that much of western California may be characterized as a seismically active, overpressured thrust belt. The emergence of formation waters along thrust faults further suggests that patterns of subsurface fluid flow in western California may be similar to those in overpressured accretionary prisms, and that excess fluid pressures may also play a role in the distribution of seismicity.

  12. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4(+) accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4(+)-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4(+) or 1 mM NO3(-) as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation.

  13. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  14. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  15. High Take Off Left Main and Abnormal Origin of Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Negar; Abdi, Seyfollah; Pouraliakba, Hamid Reza; Vakili-Zarch, Anoushiravan

    2013-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are rare congenital disorders with mostly benign course. We report a case of 54-year-old white male who was with stable angina scheduled for coronary angiography. Due to the difficulty of catheterization, patient underwent CT angiography and high take off left main and right coronary arteries were revealed. We conclude that anomalous coronary arteries are important and coronary interventions may be difficult in their presence.

  16. Separation of adult chains of abnormal haemoglobin: Identification by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yapo, Paul Angoué; Datté, Jacques Y; Yapo, Ayekoé; Wachman, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Rare abnormal haemoglobin (Hb) often poses a problem in the diagnosis of relative electrophoresis mobility. The rare neutral Hbs interact with the Hb S and thus can increase the severity of sickle cell anaemia. In the present study, we investigated the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) as a method for the identification of neutral or unstable Hb, and compared it with the well-known techniques urea-triton electrophoresis (UT) and isoelectrofocusing (IEF). The results of our experiments showed that Bucuresti Hb was separated without ambiguity by RP-HPLC. To date, no other electrophoresis techniques have been able to isolate this Hb. We also examined the Hb Nouakchott, which was the most hydrophobic Hb. Moreover, the adult and foetal chains of globins (especially the Agamma(t) and Agamma(i) chains) were quantified on the same chromatogram.

  17. High fat diet produces brain insulin resistance, synaptodendritic abnormalities and altered behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F

    2014-07-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.

  18. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  19. New approach to optimize operational conditions for the biological treatment of a high-strength thiocyanate and ammonium waste: pH as key factor.

    PubMed

    Lay-Son, Meiling; Drakides, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Biological treatment of coke and steel-processing wastewaters has to satisfy both industrial economic needs and environmental protection regulations. Nevertheless, as some of the pollutants contained in these waters or produced during the treatment are highly toxic, an effective and safe treatment has proved to be difficult to obtain. This paper reports the study of a biological method for the treatment of wastewaters containing free cyanide, thiocyanate and ammonium (NH4). Laboratory-scale activated-sludge reactors were fed with a synthetic solution reproducing a steel-processing industrial wastewater and inoculated with the same industrial bacterial seeding used on-site (Ecosynergie Inc.). The results demonstrated that free cyanide and thiocyanate were efficiently degraded. Nevertheless, thiocyanate degradation and nitrification processes were actually inhibited by the free ammonia form (NH3) in place of the ionized NH4 form (NH4+) currently dosed and often unproperly named "ammonia" [IUPAC, 1997. In: McNaught, A.D., Wilkinson, A. (compilers). Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK]. Optimum degradation rates were obtained for very narrow ranges of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. This result can be explained by the role of pH, which mainly controls the NH3/NH4 equilibrium. Pollutants and NH3 concentrations influenced degradation rates of main pollutants. This influence was determined and expressed through elementary equations. Although the Michaelis-Menten equation could have been used to describe thiocyanate degradation, a Haldane-inhibition model was used to satisfactorily describe cyanide degradation. On the other hand, a slightly modified Haldane model was applied to describe both NH4 oxidation using NH3-N as substrate and thiocyanate degradation using NH3-N as inhibitor. These findings emphasize the role of pH on degradation rates and allow one to optimize operational conditions in the biological treatment of

  20. Experimental observations of detonation in ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) surrounded by a high-sound speed, shockless, aluminum confiner

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could desensitize the explosive by crushing porosity required for shock initiation or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. As these phenomena are not well understood, most numerical explosive models are unable to account for them. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by an aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation front curvature, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Front curvature profiles display detonation acceleration near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness due to the additional inertial confinement of the reaction zone flow. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected which interfered with the front curvature measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation.

  1. Current source imaging for high spatial resolution magnetocardiography in normal and abnormal rat cardiac muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Iramina, K.; Goto, K.; Ueno, S.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the current source produced by acute ischemia and infarction. We measured magnetocardiograms (MCG) and electrocardiograms (ECG) of five male rats using a high-resolution dc superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer in a magnetically shielded room after performing coronary artery occlusion. The spatial resolution of the detecting magnetic field of our system is higher than the typical system, thus permitting the measurement of magnetic fields in small animals. Distribution of the magnetic fields B(t) and distribution of |rot B(t)|, which corresponded to the distribution of the current source, were imaged by 12-channel MCGs. As a result, the distribution of current source changes in the affected area of the myocardium during the ST segment, and amplitude of the peak significantly increased after occlusion. Our system can be used to help clarify the mechanism of the ST shift related to severe heart disease.

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  3. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  4. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  5. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site.

  6. Reversible Brain Abnormalities in People Without Signs of Mountain Sickness During High-Altitude Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cunxiu; Zhao, Yuhua; Yu, Qian; Yin, Wu; Liu, Haipeng; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming; Gesang, Luobu; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested. After 30-day HA exposure, the gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface areas significantly increased, with cortical thicknesses and curvatures changed in a wide spread regions; Anisotropy decreased with diffusivities increased in multiple sites of white matter tracts. Two months after HA exposure, cortical measurements returned to basal level. However, increased anisotropy with decreased diffusivities was observed. Behaviors and serum inflammatory factor did not significant changed during three time-point tests. NSE significantly decreased during HA but increased after HA exposure. Results suggest brain swelling occurred in people without neurological signs at HA, but no negative sequelae in cortical structures and neuropsychiatric functions were left after the return to lowlands. Reoxygenation changed white matter microstructure. PMID:27633944

  7. Ammonium imidazolium dichromate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Run-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C(3)H(5)N(2))(NH(4))[Cr(2)O(7)], the anions and cations are linked through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional structure which contains three kinds of layers parallel to (001). One layer contains imidazole cations, the other two layers the ammonium cations and dichromate anions. The dichromate anion has an eclipsed conformation with a dihedral angle of 14.65 (18)° between the mean planes of the O-P-O-P-O backbone.

  8. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  9. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  11. High bacterial titers in urine are predictive of abnormal postvoid residual urine in patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Caron, F; Alexandre, K; Pestel-Caron, M; Chassagne, P; Grise, P; Etienne, M

    2015-09-01

    Urine bacterial titers (BTs) are influenced by bacterial and host factors. The impact of an abnormal postvoid residual (PVR) on BT in urine was investigated. A total of 103 inpatients with a urine growing Enterobacteriacae (≥ 10(2) CFU/mL) and a PVR measure were analyzed, mostly female (62%), elderly (mean age: 72 years), with urinary tract infection (25% of asymptomatic bacteriuria) due to Escherichia coli (85%). Fifty-two subjects (56%) had BT ≥ 10(6) CFU/mL; 48 (53%) had a PVR ≤ 100 mL, while 26 (25%) had a PVR >250 mL. PVR increased with BT, and a significant (P<0.0001) threshold was reached for 10(6) CFU/mL: 100mL mean PVR for patients with BT ≤ 10(5) CFU/mL versus 248 mL for patients with BT >10(5) CFU/mL. High PVR and BT were associated with complicated infections, concomitant bacteremia, and delayed apyrexia. Screening for patients with BT ≥ 10(6) CFU/mL is an easy way to identify patients at high risk for acute retention and voiding disorders.

  12. Milk from dams fed an obesogenic diet combined with a high-fat/high-sugar diet induces long-term abnormal mammary gland development in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hue-Beauvais, C; Koch, E; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Galio, L; Chat, S; Letheule, M; Rousseau-Ralliard, D; Jaffrezic, F; Laloë, D; Aujean, E; Révillion, F; Lhotellier, V; Gertler, A; Devinoy, E; Charlier, M

    2015-04-01

    Alterations to the metabolic endocrine environment during early life are crucial to mammary gland development. Among these environmental parameters, the initial nutritional event after birth is the consumption of milk, which represents the first maternal support provided to mammalian newborns. Milk is a complex fluid that exerts effects far beyond its immediate nutritional value. The present study, therefore, aimed to determine the effect of the nutritional changes during the neonatal and prepubertal periods on the adult mammary phenotype. Newborn rabbits were suckled by dams fed a high-fat/high-sugar obesogenic (OD) or a control (CON) diet and then subsequently fed either the OD or CON diets from the onset of puberty and throughout early pregnancy. Mammary glands were collected during early pregnancy (Day 8 of pregnancy). Rabbits fed with OD milk and then subjected to an OD diet displayed an abnormal development of the mammary gland: the mammary ducts were markedly enlarged (P < 0.05) and filled with abundant secretory products. Moreover, the alveolar secretory structures were disorganized, with an abnormal aspect characterized by large lumina. Mammary epithelial cells contained numerous large lipid droplets and exhibited fingering of the apical membrane and abnormally enlarged intercellular spaces filled with casein micelles. Leptin has been shown to be involved in modulating several developmental processes. We therefore analyzed its expression in the mammary gland. Mammary leptin mRNA was strongly expressed in rabbits fed with OD milk and subjected to an OD diet by comparison with the CON rabbits. Leptin transcripts and protein were localized in the epithelial cells, indicating that the increase in leptin synthesis occurs in this compartment. Taken together, these findings suggest that early-life nutritional history, in particular through the milking period, can determine subsequent mammary gland development. Moreover, they highlight the potentially important

  13. Determination of the quaternary ammonium compounds dequalinium and cetylpyridinium chlorides in candy-based lozenges by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R B; Toasaksiri, S; Reid, R G; Wood, D

    1997-09-01

    The retention behavior of the quaternary ammonium compounds benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride and dequalinium chloride on a 100 x 4.6 mm id cyanopropyl stationary phase column is reported as a function of organic modifier and ionic hydrophobic mobile phase additive concentrations. Optimum liquid chromatographic mobile phases using different mobile phase additives are reported which are suitable for the determination of cetylpyridinium chloride and dequalinium chloride in a variety of candy-based lozenge formulations. The quantitative aspects of assays based on the separation of active ingredients and formulation excipients were established. The generality of application of the assay methods was evaluated by determining the quaternary ammonium content of different lozenges and comparing the values obtained with the stated dose.

  14. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  15. Multi-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition reveal the spatial constraints and biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system.

    PubMed

    Wells, Naomi S; Hakoun, Vivien; Brouyère, Serge; Knöller, Kay

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg N l(-1) ammonium (NH4(+)) and 300 mg N l(-1) nitrate (NO3(-)), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ∼1 mg l(-1) DIN ([DIN] = [NH4(+)N] + [NO3(-)N] + [NO2(-)N]). Mean δ(15)N-DIN increased from ∼2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4(+) sources (δ(15)NNH4(+) from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ(15)N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ(18)O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ(15)NNO2(-) values were 50‰-20‰ less than δ(15)NNH4(+) values in the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ(15)NNO2(-) was greater than δ(15)NNH4(+) in wells with the highest [NH4(+)] shows that an autotrophic NO2(-) reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4(+) oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex

  16. Environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonium perchlorate inhibit development and metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Goleman, Wanda L; Urquidi, Lina J; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E; Kendall, Ronald J; Carr, James A

    2002-02-01

    We determined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonium perchlorate alter development and metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. Eggs and larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of ammonium perchlorate or control medium for 70 d. Most treatment-related mortality was observed within 5 d after exposure and was due in large part to reduced hatching success. The 5- and 70-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were 510 +/- 36 mg ammonium perchlorate/L and 223 +/- 13 mg ammonium perchlorate/L, respectively. Ammonium perchlorate did not cause any concentration-related developmental abnormalities at concentrations below the 70-d LC50. Ammonium perchlorate inhibited metamorphosis in a concentration-dependent manner as evident from effects on forelimb emergence, tail resorption, and hindlimb growth. These effects were observed after exposure to ammonium perchlorate concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, at or below concentrations reported in surface waters contaminated with ammonium perchlorate. Ammonium perchlorate significantly inhibited tail resorption after a 14-d exposure in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Committee (EDSTAC) Tier I frog metamorphosis assay for thyroid disruption in amphibians. We believe that ammonium perchlorate may pose a threat to normal development and growth in natural amphibian populations.

  17. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  18. Abnormal Mammary Adipose Tissue Environment of Brca1 Mutant Mice Show a Persistent Deposition of Highly Vascularized Multilocular Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laundette P; Buelto, Destiney; Tago, Elaine; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo E

    2011-12-08

    A major challenge to breast cancer research is the identification of alterations in the architecture and composition of the breast that are associated with breast cancer progression. The aim of the present investigation was to characterize the mammary adipose phenotype from Brca1 mutant mice in the expectation that this would shed light on the role of the mammary tissue environment in the early stages of breast tumorigenesis. We observed that histological sections of mammary tissue from adult Brca1 mutant mice abnormally display small, multilocular adipocytes that are reminiscent of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as compared to wildtype mice. Using a marker for BAT, the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), we demonstrated that these multilocular adipose regions in Brca1 mutant mice stain positive for UCP1. Transcriptionally, UCP1 mRNA levels in the Brca1 mutant mice were elevated greater than 50-fold compared to age-matched mammary glands from wildtype mice. Indeed, BAT has characteristics that are favorable for tumor growth, including high vascularity. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the multilocular brown adipose phenotype in the mammary fat pad of Brca1 mutant mice displayed regions of increased vascularity as evidenced by a significant increase in the protein expression of CD31, a marker for angiogenesis. This Brca1 mutant mouse model should provide a physiologically relevant context to determine whether brown adipose tissue can play a role in breast cancer development.

  19. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  20. Abnormal responses of electronic pocket dosimeters caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones.

    PubMed

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2005-09-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPDs). Electric field strength distribution around a cell phone transmitting 1.5 GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five types of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50 s under configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the phone's antenna and had a maximum electric field strength of 36.5 +/- 0.3 V m(-1). The cell phone gave rise to erroneous indicated dose readings on four out of five EPDs. The maximum value of erroneous indicated dosage for 50 s reached 1,283 microSv, which was about 2.6% of the annual effective dose limit of 50 mSv. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPDs was higher in the sections where the semiconductor detectors or electric circuit boards were located. The distance required to prevent electromagnetic interference differed for each EPD and ranged from 2.0 to 21.0 cm from the cell phone. The electric and magnetic field immunity levels of the EPDs varied from 9.2 V m(-1) to greater than 37.6 V m(-1), and from 0.03 A m(-1) to greater than 0.51 A m(-1). The EPDs displayed erroneous dose readings during exposure but recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection. The simplest and most reliable measure to prevent potential malfunction is to prohibit the radiation workers from carrying cell phones to their workplace.

  1. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2 nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  2. Toxicokinetics of ammonium perfluorohexanoate.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    Excretion patterns and rates of ammonium perfluorohexanoate (APFHx) after administration of a single and multiple (14 days) oral dose(s) at 50 mg/kg to male and female mice and rats were examined. The test substance was [(14)C]-labeled APFHx. After a single oral administration, total excretion was rapid, with mean recoveries of over 90% of the dose at 24 hours after administration, irrespective of gender or species. The major route of elimination was via the urine (means of percentage recovery between 73.0 and 90.2% of the dose), followed by the feces (means of percentage recovery between 7.0 and 15.5% of the dose). Elimination via expired air was negligible. For the multiple dose tests, multiple (13 daily doses) oral administration of APFHx was followed by a single oral administration of [(14)C]-APFHx. Excretion was rapid, with mean recoveries of over 90% of the administered dose (mean values >95% of the ultimately recovered material) at 24 hours after dosing, irrespective of gender or species. The major route of elimination was via the urine (means of percentage recovery between 77.8 and 83.4% of the dose), followed by the feces (means of percentage recovery between 9.6 and 12.9% of the dose).

  3. Nucleophilic addition to olefins. 19. Abnormally high intrinsic barrier in the reaction of piperidine and morpholine with benzylideneacetylacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Bernasconi, C.F.; Kanavarioti, A.

    1986-11-26

    The title reaction leads to the formation of the zwitterionic Michael adduct T/sup +/-/ (PhCH(R/sub 2/NH/sup +/)C(COCH/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup -/) which is in rapid acid-base equilibrium with its anionic form T/sup -/ (PhCH(R/sub 2/N)C(COCH/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup -/). Rate (K/sub 1/, k/sub -1/) and equilibrium constants (K/sub 1/) for nucleophilic addition and the pK/sub a/ of the T/sup +/-/-adducts were determined in 50% Me/sub 2/SO-50% water at 20/sup 0/C. From an interpolation of the rate constants to K/sub 1/ = 1 an intrinsic rate constant, log k/sub 0/ = 0.3, was determined. This value deviates negatively by approximately 2.5 log units from a correlation of log k/sub 0/ for amine addition to five olefins of the type PhCH=CXY, with log k/sub 0/ for the deprotonation of the corresponding carbon acids CH/sub 2/XY. Two major factors are believed to contribute to this depressed intrinsic rate constant or enhanced intrinsic barrier: (1) steric inhibition of resonance in T/sup +/-/ with the steric effect developing ahead of C-N bond formation (this conclusion is supported by an X-ray crystallographic study of p-methoxybenzylideneacetylacetone which shows that steric hindrance to optimal ..pi..-overlap in the adduct T/sup+/-/ is already present in the substrate); (2) intramolecular hydrogen bonding in T/sup +/-/, which is inferred from abnormally high pK/sub a/ values and whose development lags behind C-N bond formation. These effects are shown to be manifestations of the Principle of Nonperfect Synchronization.

  4. Lung function and heart disease in American Indian adults with high frequency of metabolic abnormalities (from the Strong Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fawn; Dixon, Anne E; Best, Lyle G; Marion, Susan M; Lee, Elisa T; Ali, Tauqeer; Yeh, Jeunliang; Rhoades, Everett R; Howard, Barbara V; Devereux, Richard B

    2014-07-15

    The associations of pulmonary function with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome have not been examined in a population-based setting. We examined prevalence and incidence CVD in relation to lower pulmonary function in the Strong Heart Study second examination (1993 to 1995) in 352 CVD and 2,873 non-CVD adults free of overt lung disease (mean age 60 years). Lung function was assessed by standard spirometry. Participants with metabolic syndrome or DM with or without CVD had lower pulmonary function than participants without these conditions after adjustment for hypertension, age, gender, abdominal obesity, smoking, physical activity index, and study field center. CVD participants with DM had significantly lower forced vital capacity than participants with CVD alone. Significant associations were observed between reduced pulmonary function, preclinical CVD, and prevalent CVD after adjustment for multiple CVD risk factors. During follow-up (median 13.3 years), pulmonary function did not predict CVD incidence, it predicted CVD mortality. Among 3,225 participants, 412 (298 without baseline CVD) died from CVD by the end of 2008. In models adjusted for multiple CVD risk factors, DM, metabolic syndrome, and baseline CVD, compared with highest quartile of lung function, lower lung function predicted CVD mortality (relative risk up to 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.0, p<0.05). In conclusion, a population with a high prevalence of DM and metabolic syndrome and lower lung function was independently associated with prevalent clinical and preclinical CVD, and its impairment predicted CVD mortality. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms linking metabolic abnormalities, low lung function, and CVD.

  5. Ammonium partitioning and nitrogen-isotope fractionation among coexisting micas during high-temperature fluid-rock interactions: examples from the New England Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, Seth J.; Bebout, Gray E.

    2000-08-01

    Despite recent advances in the field of N-isotope geochemistry, our understanding of the behavior of this element in the solid earth remains limited by a lack of fundamental information regarding the partitioning of ammonium and isotopic fractionation of N among coexisting mineral and fluid phases. Study of N behavior in regionally metamorphosed rocks provides the opportunity to assess intermineral NH 4+ partitioning and N-isotope fractionation among coexisting micas during metamorphism and affords an application of the N system as a tracer of high-T fluid-rock interactions. Analyzed mica samples range in δ 15N air from +3.3 to +11.9‰, and contain 9 to 1820 ppm N. The outcrop at Townshend Dam, Vermont, allows examination of N behavior across-strike on a relatively small scale, and samples from western Maine demonstrate the effect of varying metamorphic conditions on N behavior in metapelites. Δ 15N bt-w.mica(δ 15N biotite-δ 15N white-mica) ranges from -0.9 to +2.7‰ (for all samples from both suites, mean = +0.36‰, with 1σ = 0.79‰), with samples containing a separate paragonite white-mica phase showing the greatest range (-0.12 to +1.02‰; mean = 0.58‰, 1σ = 1.03‰). Thirteen samples containing only Na-poor muscovite (six from Townshend Dam, seven from Western Maine) have mean Δ 15N bt-w.mica of 0.07‰ (1σ = 0.41‰). In both suites, biotite nearly always contains more N than coexisting white mica, but N w.mica/N bt also shows some significant scatter (mean N w.mica/N bt = 0.46, with 1σ = 0.34). The thirteen samples, containing only a Na-poor, muscovitic white-mica phase, have mean N w.mica/N bt = 0.39 with 1σ = 0.26, similar to that reported by others for other metamorphic suites containing only muscovite as the white-mica phase. There is no obvious suggestion of equilibrium N-isotopic fractionation among coexisting micas at epidote-amphibolite to amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, although NH 4+ appears to partition systematically

  6. Abnormal monsoon years and their control on erosion and sediment flux in the high, arid northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, Bodo; Thiede, Rasmus C.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2005-02-01

    The interplay between topography and Indian summer monsoon circulation profoundly controls precipitation distribution, sediment transport, and river discharge along the Southern Himalayan Mountain Front (SHF). The Higher Himalayas form a major orographic barrier that separates humid sectors to the south and arid regions to the north. During the Indian summer monsoon, vortices transport moisture from the Bay of Bengal, swirl along the SHF to the northwest, and cause heavy rainfall when colliding with the mountain front. In the eastern and central parts of the Himalaya, precipitation measurements derived from passive microwave analysis (SSM/I) show a strong gradient, with high values at medium elevations and extensive penetration of moisture along major river valleys into the orogen. The end of the monsoonal conveyer belt is near the Sutlej Valley in the NW Himalaya, where precipitation is lower and rainfall maxima move to lower elevations. This region thus comprises a climatic transition zone that is very sensitive to changes in Indian summer monsoon strength. To constrain magnitude, temporal, and spatial distribution of precipitation, we analyzed high-resolution passive microwave data from the last decade and identified an abnormal monsoon year (AMY) in 2002. During the 2002 AMY, violent rainstorms conquered orographic barriers and penetrated far into otherwise arid regions in the northwest Himalaya at elevations in excess of 3 km asl. While precipitation in these regions was significantly increased and triggered extensive erosional processes (i.e., debris flows) on sparsely vegetated, steep hillslopes, mean rainfall along the low to medium elevations was not significantly greater in magnitude. This shift may thus play an important role in the overall sediment flux toward the Himalayan foreland. Using extended precipitation and sediment flux records for the last century, we show that these events have a decadal recurrence interval during the present-day monsoon

  7. Development of an on-line source-tagged model for sulfate, nitrate and ammonium: A modeling study for highly polluted periods in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Qian; Li, Jie; Xu, Jianming; Chen, HuanSheng; Ge, Baozhu; Zhou, Guangqiang; Chang, Luyu

    2017-02-01

    An on-line source-tagged model coupled with an air quality model (Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System, NAQPMS) was applied to estimate source contributions of primary and secondary sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) during a representative winter period in Shanghai. This source-tagged model system could simultaneously track spatial and temporal sources of SNA, which were apportioned to their respective primary precursors in a simulation run. The results indicate that in the study period, local emissions in Shanghai accounted for over 20% of SNA contributions and that Jiangsu and Shandong were the two major non-local sources. In particular, non-local emissions had higher contributions during recorded pollution periods. This suggests that the transportation of pollutants plays a key role in air pollution in Shanghai. The temporal contributions show that the emissions from the "current day" (emission contribution from the current day during which the model was simulating) contributed 60%-70% of the sulfate and ammonium concentrations but only 10%-20% of the nitrate concentration, while the previous days' contributions increased during the recorded pollution periods. Emissions that were released within three days contributed over 85% averagely for SNA in January 2013. To evaluate the source-tagged model system, the results were compared by sensitivity analysis (emission perturbation of -30%) and backward trajectory analysis. The consistency of the comparison results indicated that the source-tagged model system can track sources of SNA with reasonable accuracy.

  8. Brain Anatomical Abnormalities in High-Risk Individuals, First-Episode, and Chronic Schizophrenia: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-analysis of Illness Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Di, Xin; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Gong, Qi-yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study reviewed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies on high-risk individuals with schizophrenia, patients experiencing their first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and those with chronic schizophrenia. We predicted that gray matter abnormalities would show progressive changes, with most extensive abnormalities in the chronic group relative to FES and least in the high-risk group. Method: Forty-one VBM studies were reviewed. Eight high-risk studies, 14 FES studies, and 19 chronic studies were analyzed using anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis. Results: Less gray matter in the high-risk group relative to controls was observed in anterior cingulate regions, left amygdala, and right insula. Lower gray matter volumes in FES compared with controls were also found in the anterior cingulate and right insula but not the amygdala. Lower gray matter volumes in the chronic group were most extensive, incorporating similar regions to those found in FES and high-risk groups but extending to superior temporal gyri, thalamus, posterior cingulate, and parahippocampal gryus. Subtraction analysis revealed less frontotemporal, striatal, and cerebellar gray matter in FES than the high-risk group; the high-risk group had less gray matter in left subcallosal gyrus, left amygdala, and left inferior frontal gyrus compared with FES. Subtraction analysis confirmed lower gray matter volumes through ventral-dorsal anterior cingulate, right insula, left amygdala and thalamus in chronic schizophrenia relative to FES. Conclusions: Frontotemporal brain structural abnormalities are evident in nonpsychotic individuals at high risk of developing schizophrenia. The present meta-analysis indicates that these gray matter abnormalities become more extensive through first-episode and chronic illness. Thus, schizophrenia appears to be a progressive cortico-striato-thalamic loop disorder. PMID:19633214

  9. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  11. Effective ammonium removal by anaerobic oxidation in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Dipak A; Ghangrekar, Makarand M

    2015-01-01

    Dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs), made of clayware cylinder, were operated at different chemical oxygen demands: ammonium-nitrogen (COD:NH4+) ratio (1:1, 10:1 and 5:1) under batch mode for simultaneous removal of ammonia and organic matter from wastewater. Ammonium-N removal efficiencies of 63-32.66% were obtained for COD:NH4+ ratio of 1:10, respectively. Average COD removal efficiencies demonstrated by these MFCs were about 88%; indicating effective use of MFCs for treatment of wastewater containing organic matter and high ammonia concentration. MFCs operated with COD:NH4+ ratio of 10:1 produced highest volumetric power density of 752.88 mW/m3. The ammonium-N removal slightly increased when microbes were exposed to only ammonium as a source of electron when organic source was not supplemented. When this MFC was operated with imposed potential on cathode and without aeration in the cathode chamber, oxidation of ammonium ions at a faster rate confirmed anaerobic oxidation. During the non-turnover condition of cyclic voltammetry, MFC operated with COD:NH4+ ratio of 10:1 gave higher oxidative and reductive currents than MFC operated with COD:NH4+ ratio of 1:1 due to higher redox species. Successful application of such an anammox process for ammonium oxidation in MFCs will be useful for treatment of wastewater containing higher ammonium concentration and harvesting energy in the form of electricity.

  12. Do sleep abnormalities and misaligned sleep/circadian rhythm patterns represent early clinical characteristics for developing psychosis in high risk populations?

    PubMed

    Zanini, Marcio; Castro, Juliana; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Bittencourt, Lia; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Tufik, Sergio; Brietzke, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    Sleep architecture changes, such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) percentage variations and reductions in latency and density of rapid eye movement (REM), are found in most patients with schizophrenia and are considered to be an important part of the pathophysiology of the disorder. In addition to these sleep parameters changes, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and the sleep/circadian rhythm also occur in these patients. Sleep/circadian rhythm abnormalities negatively affect neocortical plasticity and cognition and often precede the diagnosis of the illness. Thus, it has been suggested that the sleep/circadian rhythm might be involved in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Recent advances in the identification of individuals at a high risk for developing schizophrenia allow us to investigate several neurobiological processes involved in the development of psychosis. In this article, we review the current evidence of the effects of sleep parameter abnormalities, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and misalignments of sleep circadian rhythm on the early stages of schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the preliminary evidence of sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during the prodromal stages of psychosis and propose that these abnormalities can be explored as potential predictors, as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis, of developing a psychotic disorder in at risk populations.

  13. Patients with MCI and N400 or P600 abnormalities are at very high risk for conversion to dementia

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, J.M.; Taylor, J.R.; Gatherwright, J.; Salmon, D.P.; Bressler, A.J.; Kutas, M.; Iragui-Madoz, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought cognitive event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers of disease progression and subsequent conversion to dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Background Two ERP components, the P600 and N400, are sensitive to abnormal episodic/declarative memory and semantic processing. When congruous category-exemplars are repeated, smaller P600s (relative to initial presentation) are normally elicited. Repetitions of semantically incongruous words yield smaller N400 amplitude. In mild Alzheimer disease (AD), abnormalities of both the N400 and P600 repetition effects are present, suggesting a wide-spread failure of synaptic plasticity. Methods Patients with amnestic MCI (n = 32) were longitudinally studied annually with an ERP paradigm in which semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous target words are repeated 10 to 140 seconds after initial presentation. ERP data were analyzed to contrast MCI-to-AD converters (within 3 years) vs nonconverters, using split-plot analyses of variance. Results A statistically significant P600 congruous word repetition effect was found only in the nonconverter group (F = 9.9, p = 0.005 vs MCI converters). This effect correlated with verbal memory measures. Repetition of incongruous words produced a significant N400 amplitude attenuation (across right-hemisphere sites) in nonconverters, but not in converters. Patients with MCI with abnormal/reduced N400 or P600 word repetition effects had an 87 to 88% likelihood of dementia within 3 years while those with normal/spared N400 and P600 repetition effects had only an 11 to 27% likelihood. Conclusions Abnormalities of the P600 or N400 in mild cognitive impairment are associated with an increased risk of subsequent conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD). These event-related potential components may offer useful biomarkers for the detection and staging of very early AD. PMID:18077800

  14. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  15. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  16. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  17. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  18. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  19. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  20. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  1. Nitric oxide controls nitrate and ammonium assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Ocaña-Calahorro, Francisco; Llamas, Angel; Galvan, Aurora; Fernandez, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    Nitrate and ammonium are major inorganic nitrogen sources for plants and algae. These compounds are assimilated by means of finely regulated processes at transcriptional and post-translational levels. In Chlamydomonas, the expression of several genes involved in high-affinity ammonium (AMT1.1, AMT1.2) and nitrate transport (NRT2.1) as well as nitrate reduction (NIA1) are downregulated by ammonium through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. At the post-translational level, nitrate/nitrite uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) are also inhibited by ammonium, but the mechanisms implicated in this regulation are scarcely known. In this work, the effect of NO on nitrate assimilation and the high-affinity ammonium uptake was addressed. NO inhibited the high-affinity uptake of ammonium and nitrate/nitrite, as well as the NR activity, in a reversible form. In contrast, nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase activities were not affected. The in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that NR enzyme is inhibited by NO in a mediated process that requires the cell integrity. These data highlight a role of NO in inorganic nitrogen assimilation and suggest that this signalling molecule is an important regulator for the first steps of the pathway.

  2. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

    PubMed Central

    Mokta, Jitender; Kumar, Subash; Ganju, Neeraj; Mokta, Kiran; Panda, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Swatantra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women) with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]), and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5%) or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%). A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38%) had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38%) had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT) and 60 (24%) had diabetes; 48 (19.2%) were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8%) had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT) is

  3. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  4. Nitrogen removal with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ziye; Lotti, Tommaso; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Kartal, Boran

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria convert ammonium to N2 with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor in the absence of O2. Nitritation-anammox bioreactors provide a cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative to conventional nitrification/denitrification nitrogen removal systems. Currently, this process is only applied for ammonium removal from wastewater with high ammonium load and temperature. Nevertheless, recent results obtained with laboratory-scale bioreactors suggest new possible routes of application of the Nitritation-anammox technology including (1) municipal wastewater treatment, removal of (2) methane in combination with nitrite-reducing methane-oxidizing bacteria, (3) nitrate coupled to organic acid oxidation and (4) nitrogen oxides. The current review summarizes the state-of-the-art of the application of Nitritation-anammox systems and discusses the possibilities of utilizing these recent results for wastewater treatment.

  5. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2)...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  6. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  7. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security Program AGENCY... ``Ammonium Nitrate Security Program,'' which was published in the Federal Register on August 3, 2011. The... 62311). Under the proposed Ammonium Nitrate Security Program, the DHS will regulate the sale...

  8. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security...), entitled ``Ammonium Nitrate Security Program,'' which was published in the Federal Register on August 3... of ammonium nitrate pursuant to section 563 of the Fiscal Year 2008 Department of Homeland...

  9. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  10. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from...

  11. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  12. Effects of Krenite? brush control agent (fosamine ammonium) on embryonic development in mallards and bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fosamine ammonium (Krenite) is a highly water-soluble carbamoylphosphonate herbicide used to control woody brush. It has been reported to be teratogenic to avian embryos following spray application of the eggs. The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of Krenite was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). At 96 h of development, eggs were briefly immersed in distilled water or in Krenite formulation in distilled water at concentrations of 1.5, 6.5, or 30% fosamine ammonium. At 6.5% active ingredient (a.i.), Krenite reduced hatching success in bobwhite and mallards to 85 and 33% of that in the distilled-water controls. At 30% a.i., Krenite caused 95 to 100% mortality in both species by the time of hatching. Early embryonic growth was impaired by 30% Krenite in both species. There was no evidence of teratogenesis of the axial skeleton, as reported previously in chickens and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Most abnormal embryos had severe edema and some stunting. Mallard hatchlings from the 1.5 and 6.5% Krenite groups weighed significantly less than controls and had lower plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with elevated plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was unaffected by Krenite in embryos and hatchlings.

  13. High pulse pressure is not associated with abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in repaired aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T A L; Pedersen, E B; Munk, K; Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Andersen, N H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between pulse pressure (PP)--a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness-and activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in adult patients with repaired coarctation and normal left ventricular (LV) function. A total of 114 patients (44 (26-74) years, 13 (0.1-40) years at repair) and 20 healthy controls were examined with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, vasoactive hormone levels and magnetic resonance of the thoracic aorta. Forty-one patients (36%) were taking antihypertensives (28 RAAS inhibitors). Fifty-one had mean 24-h blood pressures >130/80 mm Hg. Hypertension was not associated with age at repair (P=0.257). Patients had higher PP and LV mass compared with controls (52±11 vs. 45±5 mm Hg and 221±71 vs. 154±55 g, respectively; both P<0.05). Differences were more pronounced in the presence of recoarctation, but independently of RAA levels. Even normotensive patients had higher LV mass than controls. LV mass and recoarctation were correlated with PP levels. In conclusion, adult patients with repaired coarctation have increased PP and LV mass compared with controls. PP increased with increasing recoarctation. Hypertension was present also in the absence of recoarctation. These changes could not be explained by abnormal activation of the RAAS.

  14. Altered DNA methylation associated with an abnormal liver phenotype in a cattle model with a high incidence of perinatal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Hélène; Jouneau, Luc; Campion, Évelyne; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Larcher, Thibaut; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Balzergue, Sandrine; Ledevin, Mireille; Prézelin, Audrey; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Heyman, Yvan; Richard, Christophe; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Renard, Jean-Paul; Jammes, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Cloning enables the generation of both clinically normal and pathological individuals from the same donor cells, and may therefore be a DNA sequence-independent driver of phenotypic variability. We took advantage of cattle clones with identical genotypes but different developmental abilities to investigate the role of epigenetic factors in perinatal mortality, a complex trait with increasing prevalence in dairy cattle. We studied livers from pathological clones dying during the perinatal period, clinically normal adult clones with the same genotypes as perinatal clones and conventional age-matched controls. The livers from deceased perinatal clones displayed histological lesions, modifications to quantitative histomorphometric and metabolic parameters such as glycogen storage and fatty acid composition, and an absence of birth-induced maturation. In a genome-wide epigenetic analysis, we identified DNA methylation patterns underlying these phenotypic alterations and targeting genes relevant to liver metabolism, including the type 2 diabetes gene TCF7L2. The adult clones were devoid of major phenotypic and epigenetic abnormalities in the liver, ruling out the effects of genotype on the phenotype observed. These results thus provide the first demonstration of a genome-wide association between DNA methylation and perinatal mortality in cattle, and highlight epigenetics as a driving force for phenotypic variability in farmed animals. PMID:27958319

  15. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  16. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  17. Bacterial Investigation of Ammonium-rich Sediment in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chunbo, H.; Jiao, J. J.; Jidong, G.

    2011-12-01

    similar bacteria presenting in comparable habits were found. Mutual effects between bacteria and environment widely exist through PRD aquifer-aquitard system, and abnormal high ammonium was probably released during organic nitrogen dissimilation coupled with sulfate reduction.
    Chemical Parameters of SD14

  18. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  19. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  20. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  1. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of ammonium cationized polyethers.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  2. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Ammonium Cationized Polyethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M. A.; van Doormalen, Irene; de Wijs-Rot, Nicolette; van den Brink, Oscar F.

    2011-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (Quats) and amines are known to facilitate the MS analysis of high molar mass polyethers by forming low charge state adduct ions. The formation, stability, and behavior upon collision-induced dissociation (CID) of adduct ions of polyethers with a variety of Quats and amines were studied by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight, quadrupole ion trap, and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The linear ion trap instrument was part of an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer that allowed accurate mass MS/MS measurements. The Quats and amines studied were of different degree of substitution, structure, and size. The stability of the adduct ions was related to the structure of the cation, especially the amine's degree of substitution. CID of singly/doubly charged primary and tertiary ammonium cationized polymers resulted in the neutral loss of the amine followed by fragmentation of the protonated product ions. The latter reveals information about the monomer unit, polymer sequence, and endgroup structure. In addition, the detection of product ions retaining the ammonium ion was observed. The predominant process in the CID of singly charged quaternary ammonium cationized polymers was cation detachment, whereas their doubly charged adduct ions provided the same information as the primary and tertiary ammonium cationized adduct ions. This study shows the potential of specific amines as tools for the structural elucidation of high molar mass polyethers.

  3. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, A.; Pardo, J.P.; Ramirez, J.

    1987-03-01

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased (H+)ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity.

  4. Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Grace A.; Datta, S. Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A.; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Methods A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. Results In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. Conclusions We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer. PMID:21553660

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  6. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  7. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  8. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  10. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging to Assess Brain Structural Abnormalities in the Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Model

    PubMed Central

    Poptani, Harish; Kumar, Manoj; Nasrallah, Ilya M; Kim, Sungheon; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Pickup, Stephen; Li, Joel; Parente, Michael K; Wolfe, John H.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed to characterize brain structural abnormalities in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). μMRI demonstrated a decrease in the volume of anterior commissure and corpus callosum and a slight increase in the volume of the hippocampus in MPS VII vs. wild-type mice. DTI indices were analyzed in gray and white matter. In vivo and ex vivo DTI demonstrated significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, external capsule and hippocampus in MPS VII vs. control brains. Significantly increased mean diffusivity was also found in the anterior commissure and corpus callosum from ex-vivo DTI. Significantly reduced linear anisotropy was observed from the hippocampus from in-vivo DTI, whereas significantly decreased planar anisotropy and spherical anisotropy were observed in the external capsule from only ex-vivo DTI. There were corresponding morphological differences in the brains of MPS VII mice by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated less intense staining of the corpus callosum and external capsule; myelin abnormalities in the corpus callosum were also demonstrated quantitatively in toluidine blue-stained sections and confirmed by electron microscopy. These results demonstrate the potential for μMRI and DTI for quantitative assessment of brain pathology in murine models of brain diseases. PMID:24335527

  11. Simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids in multipurpose filters.

    PubMed

    Alkas, Deniz; Baykal, Bilsen Beler; Kinaci, Cumali

    2012-06-01

    A multipurpose filter in which sand and clinoptilolite are used together as filter material is suggested for the simultaneous removal of suspended solids and ammonium in one single unit. The capacity of the clinoptilolite used was determined as 10.4 mg/g for 20 mg/l initial ammonium concentration. In addition, a packed column ion exchanger with clinoptilolite and a classical sand filter were also investigated for comparison. Ammonium and suspended solids removal rates were observed and compared for all columns. The results of the column analysis have revealed that the ammonium removal rate, which was only 20% in the sand column, was increased to 100% by replacing 50% of the sand with clinoptilolite; similarly, the suspended solids removal, which was only 17% in the clinoptilolite column, was increased to 75% by replacing 50% of the clinoptilolite with sand. As such, when ion exchange and filtration processes were carried out in a multipurpose column, high removals for both parameters could be obtained simultaneously. Multipurpose columns could be an alternative both for the upgrading of existing treatment plants or for new plants for simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids, giving considerable savings in terms of land requirements.

  12. Removing ammonium from water using modified corncob-biochar.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thi Mai; Trinh, Van Tuyen; Doan, Dinh Phuong; Van, Huu Tap; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-02-01

    Ammonium pollution in groundwater and surface water is of major concern in many parts of the world due to the danger it poses to the environment and people's health. This study focuses on the development of a low cost adsorbent, specifically a modified biochar prepared from corncob. Evaluated here is the efficiency of this new material for removing ammonium from synthetic water (ammonium concentration from 10 to 100mg/L). The characteristics of the modified biochar were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that ammonium adsorption on modified biochar strongly depended on pH. Adsorption kinetics of NH4(+)-N using modified biochar followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherm models could simulate well the adsorption behavior of ammonium on modificated biochar. The highest adsorption capacity of 22.6mg NH4(+)-N/g modified biochar was obtained when the biochar was modified by soaking it in HNO3 6M and NaOH 0.3M for 8h and 24h, respectively. The high adsorption capacity of the modified biochar suggested that it is a promising adsorbent for NH4(+)-N remediation from water.

  13. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  14. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis; Kendall, Carol; Evans, John R.; Fries, Terry L.

    1993-08-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH 4 + by K + or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14‰ range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles.

  15. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  16. Human papillomavirus genotypes in women with cervical cytological abnormalities from an area with high incidence of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo Daniel; Lucero, Raúl Horacio; Martin de Civetta, María T; Vicente, Lilian; de Gorodner, Ofelia L Z; Schelover, Eduardo; Alonso, José Mario

    2004-01-01

    It has been well demonstrated the relationship between the infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVs) genotypes and cervical cancer. In Northeastern Argentina a high incidence of this pathology has been described and therefore a high prevalence of HPV infection is expected. In order to identify HPV genotypes associated with malignant and pre-malignant cervical lesions present in the area, 53 ecto-endo cervical cell specimens obtained from women with cytohistological alterations were studied by a PCR-RFLP technique. Out of 53 patients, 34 (64.2%) were positive for HPV infection, being HPV-16 (32.3%) the most frequently found genotype, followed by HPV-58 (14.7%), -6, -18 and -45 (5.9%), -33, -52, -53, -54, -56, -66, -MM4 and -LVX100 (2.9%). Also 5 cases of infection caused by multiple genotypes were found, which corresponded to 14.7% of the positive cases. Results indicate that besides HPV-16 and -18, the most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide, others like -45 and -58 as well as co-infection cases are frequent between women of Northeastern Argentina, and a particular attention should be paid to this circumstance because it could be an epidemiological feature of regional importance and a useful information for a future vaccination program.

  17. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  18. Precipitation of phenyl and phenoxypenicillin from solutions using ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Luengo, J M

    1985-09-01

    An easy, rapid, and available method for separating 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), benzylpenicillin (penicillin G), and other related molecules from aqueous solutions or complex industrial broths is described. A high concentration of ammonium sulphate induces partially or totally the precipitation of the penicillin present in the solutions, while 6-APA, phenylacetic, and phenoxyacetic acid always remain in the supernatant. The filtration through No. 4 Pyrex glass-fiber filter or Whatman 3MM paper permits the separation of the compounds present in the supernatant from the other ones precipitated. The precipitated product was identified, in all cases, as ammonium penicillin. This method is described here for the first time.

  19. A longitudinal follow-up using the high trans-scrotal approach for inguinal and scrotal abnormalities in boys.

    PubMed

    Gökçora, I H; Yagmurlu, A

    2003-12-01

    The popular incision for surgical approach to pediatric inguinal pathologies has been the suprapubic transverse inguinal incision. Yet alternative incisions may be considered. A prospectively randomized study of a consecutive series of 256 male infants and children with various inguinal pathologies (mainly indirect inguinal hernias) were treated surgically using the "high trans-scrotal skin-crease incision," over a period of 84 months (7 years) and were compared and found to be clinically better than age- and sex-matched 278 controls with suprapubic transverse inguinal incisions for wound healing/infection, edema, seroma, hematoma, malpositioning or atrophy of testes and recurrence of the primary pathology. The results in the study group were cosmetically and clinically more favorable, and better than the control group. Nosocomial infections, complications of incarceration, and emergency surgery have resulted in an acceptable morbidity rate of approximately 5%. Popularized use of the high trans-scrotal incision and further clinical experience is recommended to facilitate even better results.

  20. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p < 0.05) observed in fructose-fed rats were completely prevented with TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  1. Effects of salinity induced by ammonium sulfate fertilizer on root and shoot growth of highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium sulfate fertilizer is commonly used in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), but due to a high salt index, it often causes salt damage, particularly in young plants, when too much of the fertilizer is applied. A study was done to determine the sensitivity of blueberry to ammonium su...

  2. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  3. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Wang, Pengyan; Ren, Yan; Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  4. Ab initio molecular dynamic study of solid-state transitions of ammonium nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyu; Duan, Defang; Liu, Hanyu; Yang, Ting; Tian, Fubo; Bao, Kuo; Li, Da; Zhao, Zhonglong; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure polymorphism and phase transitions have wide ranging consequences on the basic properties of ammonium nitrate. However, the phase diagram of ammonium nitrate at high pressure and high temperature is still under debate. This study systematically investigates the phase transitions and structural properties of ammonium nitrate at a pressure range of 5–60 GPa and temperature range of 250–400 K by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two new phases are identified: one corresponds to the experimentally observed phase IV’ and the other is named AN-X. Simultaneously, the lattice strains play a significant role in the formation and stabilization of phase IV’, providing a reasonable explanation for experimental observation of phase IV-IV’ transition which only appears under nonhydrostatic pressure. In addition, 12 O atoms neighboring the NH (N atom in ammonium cation) atom are selected as reference system to clearly display the tanglesome rotation of ammonium cation. PMID:26754622

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamic study of solid-state transitions of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongyu; Duan, Defang; Liu, Hanyu; Yang, Ting; Tian, Fubo; Bao, Kuo; Li, Da; Zhao, Zhonglong; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure polymorphism and phase transitions have wide ranging consequences on the basic properties of ammonium nitrate. However, the phase diagram of ammonium nitrate at high pressure and high temperature is still under debate. This study systematically investigates the phase transitions and structural properties of ammonium nitrate at a pressure range of 5–60 GPa and temperature range of 250–400 K by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two new phases are identified: one corresponds to the experimentally observed phase IV’ and the other is named AN-X. Simultaneously, the lattice strains play a significant role in the formation and stabilization of phase IV’, providing a reasonable explanation for experimental observation of phase IV-IV’ transition which only appears under nonhydrostatic pressure. In addition, 12 O atoms neighboring the NH (N atom in ammonium cation) atom are selected as reference system to clearly display the tanglesome rotation of ammonium cation.

  6. Neuroanatomic and Cognitive Abnormalities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Era of “High Definition” Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future “high definition” clinical datasets. PMID:25212469

  7. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets.

  8. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  9. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Aili; Liang, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhuqing; Cai, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH4+ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants. PMID:25915023

  10. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status.

    PubMed

    Bao, Aili; Liang, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhuqing; Cai, Hongmei

    2015-04-23

    AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH₄⁺ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants.

  11. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools.

  12. High Frequency Tympanometry (1,000 Hz) for Neonates with Normal and Abnormal Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Nahrani, Morteza Hamidi; Bolandi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives This paper aimed at evaluating the characteristics of high-frequency (1,000 Hz) acoustic admittance (ya) for the neonates with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) as either pass or refer group. Subjects and Methods Using a 1,000 Hz probe tone, 297neonates (152 male, 145 female aged 0–104 days old) were evaluated. Tympanometric parameters admittance value at +200 dapa, middle ear admittance, and tympanometric peak pressure were calculated for each tympanogram. Results The mean of ya was 0.9678 mmho in the TEOAE for the pass group and 0.7229 mmho in the refer group. The mean of acoustic admittance at +200 (y200) was 2.0657 in the TEOAE for the pass group and 1.7191 for the refer group. The mean of Tpp was 23/8591 in the TEOAE for the pass group and 59/7619 for the refer group. Conclusions There were significant differences in the distribution of different types of tympanograms, the mean of ya, tympanic peak pressure, and y200 between the TEOAEs for the pass and the refer groups. PMID:27942601

  13. A study of neurosonogram abnormalities, clinical correlation with neurosonogram findings, and immediate outcome of high-risk neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Niranjan; Berwal, Pramod Kumar; Srinivas, Anusha; Sehra, Ramnarayan; Swami, Sarika; Jeevaji, Prathyusha; Swami, Gotam; Choudary, Lokesh; Berwal, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neonatal sonography of the brain is now an essential part of newborn care, particularly in high risk and unstable premature infants. Cranial ultrasound is the most available and easily repeatable imaging technique for the neonatal brain showing brain development and the most frequently occurring forms of cerebral injury in the preterm and terms. This study aims to assess the importance of cranial ultrasound as an investigatory modality for high-risk neonates and to find out the morphology of various cerebral lesions and correlate clinically. Methodology: An observational correlation clinical study was conducted at Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner involving 100 high-risk neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) who was subjected to neurosonography on selected days as per protocol. Perinatal details were recorded, and clinical examination with appropriate investigations was done. The cranial ultrasound was done, and morphology of various findings was studied and recorded. Clinical correlation with cranial ultrasound findings and follow-up was done. Results: On cranial ultrasound, 38% of neonates had abnormal findings. Twelve percent of these had evidence of intracranial bleed, 13% periventricular echogenicity, 7% had ventriculomegaly, 2% had cerebral edema, and 1% had leukomalacia. Three neonates had findings suggestive of simple cyst in middle cranial fossa, agenesis of corpus callosum, and choroid plexus cyst. Conclusions: Cranial ultrasonography is the best point of care neuroimaging method available for high-risk neonates. It is critical as an investigatory modality in NICU and effectively documents morphology of cerebral damage. PMID:27857787

  14. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  15. High prevalence of androgen deficiency and abnormal lipid profile in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Bobjer, J; Naumovska, M; Giwercman, Y L; Giwercman, A

    2012-10-01

    In men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), the risk of hypogonadism is often overlooked. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) may increase this risk. The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hypogonadism in NOA-patients, the impact of TESE on hormone balance and the association between testosterone deficiency and dyslipidaemia. Men with NOA who had undergone TESE during the period 2004-2009 were eligible. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone <10 nmol/L and/or LH >10 IU/L and/or ongoing androgen replacement therapy. Sixty-five consecutive men who had undergone TESE owing to NOA and from whom post-TESE serum testosterone levels measured before 1100 h were available. Furthermore, 141 fertile men served as controls. Serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and lipids were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) for biochemical hypogonadism were calculated. Pre- and post-TESE hormone levels were compared. Lipid profile was related to testosterone levels. Hypogonadism was found in 47% (95% CI, 0.36, 0.59) of the NOA-men. As compared with fertile controls, the OR for hypogonadism post-TESE was 17 (95% CI 6.6-45). Serum LH (p = 0.03), but not testosterone (p = 0.43), differed significantly pre- and post-TESE. Compared with eugonadal NOA-men, the OR for having deviations in lipid profile was 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.8) for the hypogonadal NOA-men. NOA-men are at very high risk of androgen deficiency, which even in young subjects is associated with dyslipidaemia. Medical management of these men should therefore include endocrinological evaluation and follow-up after completion of infertility treatment.

  16. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  17. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  18. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  19. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  20. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  1. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  2. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  3. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  4. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  5. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  6. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES § 126.28 Ammonium...

  7. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity.

  8. Highly efficient ablation of metastatic breast cancer using ammonium-tungsten-bronze nanocube as a novel 1064 nm-laser-driven photothermal agent.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chongshen; Yu, Haijun; Feng, Bing; Gao, Weidong; Yan, Mei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping; Liu, Shaoqin

    2015-06-01

    Photothermal ablation (PTA) therapy has been viewed as an invasive option for cancer therapy with minimal deconstruction of healthy tissues. In this study, a potent candidate of (NH4)xWO3 nanocube was developed for PTA treatment of metastatic breast cancer in the second near-infrared (NIR) window. It was found that the as-synthesized (NH4)xWO3 nanocube had significant photoabsorption across the whole NIR window of 780-2500 nm and exhibited considerable photo-heat conversion efficiency. Moreover, the as-prepared (NH4)xWO3 nanocube displayed good biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiency through endocytosis pathway without nuclei entry. The PTA study employing 1064 nm laser in the second NIR window revealed that (NH4)xWO3 nanocubes induced significant cell necrosis and apoptosis by producing obviously hyperthermia effect inside cancer cells. Using an orthotopicly implanted breast tumor model, it demonstrated that the (NH4)xWO3 nanocube was a promising photothermal agent for effective ablation of solid tumors and suppressing their distant metastasis.

  9. Structural heterogeneity and unique distorted hydrogen bonding in primary ammonium nitrate ionic liquids studied by high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments and MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuedan; Hamano, Hiroshi; Minofar, Babak; Kanzaki, Ryo; Fujii, Kenta; Kameda, Yasuo; Kohara, Shinji; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Ishiguro, Shin-ichi; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-08

    Liquid structure and the closest ion-ion interactions in a series of primary alkylammonium nitrate ionic liquids [C(n)Am(+)][NO(3)(-)] (n = 2, 3, and 4) were studied by means of high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) experiments with the aid of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Experimental density and X-ray structure factors are in good accordance with those evaluated with MD simulations. With regard to liquid structure, characteristic peaks appeared in the low Q (Q: a scattering vector) region of X-ray structure factors S(Q)'s for all ionic liquids studied here, and they increased in intensity with a peak position shift toward the lower Q side by increasing the alkyl chain length. Experimentally evaluated S(Q(peak))(r(max)) functions, which represent the S(Q) intensity at a peak position of maximum intensity Q(peak) as a function of distance (actually a integration range r(max)), revealed that characteristic peaks in the low Q region are related to the intermolecular anion-anion correlation decrease in the r range of 10-12 Å. Appearance of the peak in the low Q region is probably related to the exclusion of the correlations among ions of the same sign in this r range by the alkyl chain aggregation. From MD simulations, we found unique and rather distorted NH···O hydrogen bonding between C(n)Am(+) (n = 2, 3, and 4) and NO(3)(-) in these ionic liquids regardless of the alkyl chain length. Subsequent ab initio calculations for both a molecular complex C(2)H(5)NH(2)···HONO(2) and an ion pair C(2)H(5)NH(3)(+)···ONO(2)(-) revealed that such distorted hydrogen bonding is specific in a liquid state of this family of ionic liquids, though the linear orientation is preferred for both the N···HO hydrogen bonding in a molecular complex and the NH···O one in an ion pair. Finally, we propose our interpretation of structural heterogeneity in PILs and also in APILs.

  10. [Adaptation of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber) to conditions of biogeochemical province with abnormally high content of nickel, cobalt and chromium].

    PubMed

    Mikheeva, E V; Zhigal'skiĭ, O A; Mamina, V P; Baĭtimirova, E A

    2006-01-01

    Morphophysiological characteristics and peculiarities of adrenal gland of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied in the area of natural biogeochemical province with abnormally high content of nickel, cobalt and chromium. The control population inhabited area with usual content of these elements. We used 4-factor analysis of variance to estimate the influence of geochemical conditions, phase of population cycle, sex and reproductive state on the morphophysiological characteristics of animals and functional activity of adrenal gland. Animals from area with high concentration of Ni, Co and Cr show an increase in relative mass of adrenal glands, fascicular zone of adrenal cortex, size of cells and their nuclei. All these changes can be considered as an evidence of increased secretion of glucocorticoids. It is shown that phase of population cycle influences fatness of animals, size of nuclei, cells and adrenal cortex. Females in comparison with males are characterized with higher indexes of liver and adrenal gland, as well as morphometric indexes of adrenal cortex. The maturation of animals is accompanied with increase in body mass, fatness and relative mass of adrenal glands, the size of cortex zone, nuclei and cells themselves. It is supposed that the effect of "geochemical factor" results in intensification of glucocorticoid secretion of adrenal costex, thus increasing non-specific resistance of animals inhabiting area with high concentration of heavy metals. Such factors as "phase of population cycle", "sex" and "reproductive state", influence mineralocorticoid activity, glucocorticoid and androgenic functions of adrenal cortex. Some factors show synergetic effect.

  11. Ammonium nonanoate broadcast application over onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium nonanoate occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. Racer (40% ammonium nonaoate) is a potential contact herbicide for weed control in organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determin...

  12. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs as a white powder or a hard... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  17. Dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, John le G.

    1987-12-01

    Two dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate are attributed to reorientations of mixed-isotope ammonium ions. Loss peaks were observed between 20 and 40 K and obey the Arrhenius law with activation energy 1.5 kcal/mol for the stronger relaxation. The dipole moment is of the order of 0.015 D.

  18. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tami R.; Ward, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  19. Adsorption of ammonium ion by coconut shell-activated carbon from aqueous solution: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Ramasamy; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Mandal, Asit Baran; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium ions are one of the most encountered nitrogen species in polluted water bodies. High level of ammonium ion in aqueous solution imparts unpleasant taste and odor problems, which can interfere with the life of aquatics and human population when discharged. Many chemical methods are developed and being used for removal of ammonium ion from aqueous solution. Among various techniques, adsorption was found to be the most feasible and environmentally friendly with the use of natural-activated adsorbents. Hence, in this study, coconut shell-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared and used for the removal of ammonium ion by adsorption techniques. Ammonium chloride (analytical grade) was purchased from Merck Chemicals for adsorption studies. The CSAC was used to adsorb ammonium ions under stirring at 100 rpm, using orbital shaker in batch experiments. The concentration of ammonium ion was estimated by ammonia distillate, using a Buchi distillation unit. The influence of process parameters such as pH, temperature, and contact time was studied for adsorption of ammonium ion, and kinetic, isotherm models were validated to understand the mechanism of adsorption of ammonium ion by CSAC. Thermodynamic properties such as ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S were determined for the ammonium adsorption, using van't Hoff equation. Further, the adsorption of ammonium ion was confirmed through instrumental analyses such as SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The optimum conditions for the effective adsorption of ammonium ion onto CSAC were found to be pH 9.0, temperature 283 K, and contact time 120 min. The experimental data was best followed by pseudosecond order equation, and the adsorption isotherm model obeyed the Freundlich isotherm. This explains the ammonium ion adsorption onto CSAC which was a multilayer adsorption with intraparticle diffusion. Negative enthalpy confirmed that this adsorption process was exothermic. The instrumental analyses confirmed the adsorption of ammonium ion onto CSAC.

  20. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  1. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  2. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  3. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  4. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  5. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Abnormal relationships between the neural response to high- and low-calorie foods and endogenous acylated ghrelin in women with active and weight-recovered anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lawson, Elizabeth A.; Christensen, Kara; Klibanski, Anne; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence contributing to the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms underlying appetite dysregulation in anorexia nervosa draws heavily on separate lines of research into neuroendocrine and neural circuitry functioning. In particular, studies consistently cite elevated ghrelin and abnormal activation patterns in homeostatic (hypothalamus) and hedonic (striatum, amygdala, insula) regions governing appetite. The current preliminary study examined the interaction of these systems, based on research demonstrating associations between circulating ghrelin levels and activity in these regions in healthy individuals. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 13 women with active anorexia nervosa (AN), 9 women weight-recovered from AN (AN-WR), and 12 healthy-weight control women using a food cue functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, with assessment of fasting levels of acylated ghrelin. Healthy-weight control women exhibited significant positive associations between fasting acylated ghrelin and activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to high-calorie foods, associations which were absent in the AN and AN-WR groups. Women with AN-WR demonstrated a negative relationship between ghrelin and activity in the left hippocampus in response to high-calorie foods, while women with AN showed a positive association between ghrelin and activity in the right orbitofrontal cortex in response to low-calorie foods. Findings suggest a breakdown in the interaction between ghrelin signaling and neural activity in relation to reward responsivity in AN, a phenomenon that may be further characterized using pharmacogenetic studies. PMID:24862390

  7. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    PubMed

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention.

  8. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  9. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  10. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers’ taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies. PMID:28282914

  11. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples.

  12. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  16. Lower limb areflexia without central and peripheral conduction abnormalities is highly suggestive of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease Pro102Leu.

    PubMed

    Salsano, Ettore; Fancellu, Roberto; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Ciano, Claudia; Scaioli, Vidmer; Nanetti, Lorenzo; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Mariotti, Caterina; Pareyson, Davide

    2011-03-15

    Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease Pro102Leu (GSS102) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited prion disease due to a substitution of proline for leucine at codon 102 in the Prion Protein gene, and characterized by early walking difficulties and much later occurring dementia. We report clinical, electrophysiological and neuroradiological features of seven novel Italian cases of GSS102. The findings in our series support the thesis that early signs of GSS102 (including areflexia, ataxia, lower limb weakness, and painful dysesthesias) are likely due to a caudal myelopathic process, and suggest that GSS102 should be included among the causes of ataxia with areflexia. Moreover, our observations show that in patients with GSS102, as opposed to Friedreich's ataxia and other forms of ataxia with areflexia, nerve conduction studies and somato-sensory evoked potentials are normal, despite the presence of lower limb areflexia. Hence, in subjects with walking difficulties, the presence of lower limb areflexia without central and peripheral conduction abnormalities is highly suggestive or possibly pathognomonic of GSS102, and can easily guide the clinicians to make the diagnosis of this rare neurodegenerative disease.

  17. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  18. γ-Aminobutyric acid addition alleviates ammonium toxicity by limiting ammonium accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoling; Zhu, Changhua; Yang, Na; Gan, Lijun; Xia, Kai

    2016-12-01

    Excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has increased ammonium (NH4(+) ) accumulation in many paddy soils to levels that reduce rice vegetative biomass and yield. Based on studies of NH4(+) toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa, Nanjing 44) seedlings cultured in agar medium, we found that NH4(+) concentrations above 0.75 mM inhibited the growth of rice and caused NH4(+) accumulation in both shoots and roots. Use of excessive NH4(+) also induced rhizosphere acidification and inhibited the absorption of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn in rice seedlings. Under excessive NH4(+) conditions, exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment limited NH4(+) accumulation in rice seedlings, reduced NH4(+) toxicity symptoms and promoted plant growth. GABA addition also reduced rhizosphere acidification and alleviated the inhibition of Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn absorption caused by excessive NH4(+) . Furthermore, we found that the activity of glutamine synthetase/NADH-glutamate synthase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2/NADH-GOGAT; EC1.4.1.14) in root increased gradually as the NH4(+) concentration increased. However, when the concentration of NH4(+) is more than 3 mM, GABA treatment inhibited NH4(+) -induced increases in GS/NADH-GOGAT activity. The inhibition of ammonium assimilation may restore the elongation of seminal rice roots repressed by high NH4(+) . These results suggest that mitigation of ammonium accumulation and assimilation is essential for GABA-dependent alleviation of ammonium toxicity in rice seedlings.

  19. Three functional transporters for constitutive, diurnally regulated, and starvation-induced uptake of ammonium into Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed Central

    Gazzarrini, S; Lejay, L; Gojon, A; Ninnemann, O; Frommer, W B; von Wirén, N

    1999-01-01

    Ammonium and nitrate are the prevalent nitrogen sources for growth and development of higher plants. 15N-uptake studies demonstrated that ammonium is preferred up to 20-fold over nitrate by Arabidopsis plants. To study the regulation and complex kinetics of ammonium uptake, we isolated two new ammonium transporter (AMT) genes and showed that they functionally complemented an ammonium uptake-deficient yeast mutant. Uptake studies with 14C-methylammonium and inhibition by ammonium yielded distinct substrate affinities between ammonium uptake in roots when nitrogen nutrition became limiting, whereas those of AtAMT1;3 increased slightly, with AtAMT1;2 being more constitutively expressed. All three ammonium transporters showed diurnal variation in expression, but AtAMT1;3 transcript levels peaked with ammonium uptake at the end of the light period, suggesting that AtAMT1;3 provides a link between nitrogen assimilation and carbon provision in roots. Our results show that high-affinity ammonium uptake in roots is regulated in relation to the physiological status of the plant at the transcriptional level and by substrate affinities of individual members of the AMT1 gene family. PMID:10330477

  20. Molecular determinants for binding of ammonium ion in the ammonia transporter AmtB-A quantum chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuemin; Hu, Xiche

    2006-02-02

    The transport of ammonium across the cell membrane represents an important biological process in all living organisms. The mechanisms for ammonium translocation were analyzed by computer simulations based on first principles. Intermolecular interaction energies between the differentially methylated ammonium and the ammonium channel protein AmtB were calculated by means of the supermolecular approach at the MP2/6-311+G* level based on the high-resolution crystal structures of ligand-bound protein complexes. Our analysis attributes the molecular determinants for protein-ligand recognition in ammonium transporter AmtB to the aromatic cage formed by three aromatic residues Phe103, Phe107, and Trp148, as well as Ser219. The former residues are involved in cation-pi interactions with the positively charged methylated ammoniums. The latter residue acts as a hydrogen bond acceptor to ammonium. Thus, this work provides directly the missing evidence for the hypothesized role played by the wider vestibule site of AmtB at the periplasmic side of the membrane in "recruiting" NH(4)(+) or methylammonium ions as proposed by Khademi et al. (Science 2004, 305, 1587). In addition, a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics scheme was applied to optimize the structures of differentially methylated ammoniums in the AmtB protein, which generated structural and energetic data that provide a satisfactory explanation to the experimental observation that tetramethylammonium is not inhibitory to conducting ammonium and methylammonium in the ammonium transport channel.

  1. Substrate specificity of Rhbg: ammonium and methyl ammonium transport

    PubMed Central

    Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange M.; Boulpaep, Emile L.; Rabon, Edd; Schmidt, Eric; Hamm, L. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Rhbg is a nonerythroid membrane glycoprotein belonging to the Rh antigen family. In the kidney, Rhbg is expressed at the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells of the distal nephron and is involved in NH4+ transport. We investigated the substrate specificity of Rhbg by comparing transport of NH3/NH4+ with that of methyl amine (hydrochloride) (MA/MA+), often used to replace NH3/NH4+, in oocytes expressing Rhbg. Methyl amine (HCl) in solution exists as neutral methyl amine (MA) in equilibrium with the protonated methyl ammonium (MA+). To assess transport, we used ion-selective microelectrodes and voltage-clamp experiments to measure NH3/NH4+- and MA/MA+-induced intracellular pH (pHi) changes and whole cell currents. Our data showed that in Rhbg oocytes, NH3/NH4+ caused an inward current and decrease in pHi consistent with electrogenic NH4+ transport. These changes were significantly larger than in H2O-injected oocytes. The NH3/NH4+-induced current was not inhibited in the presence of barium or in the absence of Na+. In Rhbg oocytes, MA/MA+ caused an inward current but an increase (rather than a decrease) in pHi. MA/MA+ did not cause any changes in H2O-injected oocytes. The MA/MA+-induced current and pHi increase were saturated at higher concentrations of MA/MA+. Amiloride inhibited MA/MA+-induced current and the increase in pHi in oocytes expressing Rhbg but had no effect on control oocytes. These results indicate that MA/MA+ is transported by Rhbg but differently than NH3/NH4+. The protonated MA+ is likely a direct substrate whose transport resembles that of NH4+. Transport of electroneutral MA is also enhanced by expression of Rhbg. PMID:20592240

  2. Substrate specificity of Rhbg: ammonium and methyl ammonium transport.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Nazih L; Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange M; Boulpaep, Emile L; Rabon, Edd; Schmidt, Eric; Hamm, L Lee

    2010-09-01

    Rhbg is a nonerythroid membrane glycoprotein belonging to the Rh antigen family. In the kidney, Rhbg is expressed at the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells of the distal nephron and is involved in NH4+ transport. We investigated the substrate specificity of Rhbg by comparing transport of NH3/NH4+ with that of methyl amine (hydrochloride) (MA/MA+), often used to replace NH3/NH4+, in oocytes expressing Rhbg. Methyl amine (HCl) in solution exists as neutral methyl amine (MA) in equilibrium with the protonated methyl ammonium (MA+). To assess transport, we used ion-selective microelectrodes and voltage-clamp experiments to measure NH3/NH4+- and MA/MA+-induced intracellular pH (pH(i)) changes and whole cell currents. Our data showed that in Rhbg oocytes, NH3/NH4+ caused an inward current and decrease in pH(i) consistent with electrogenic NH4+ transport. These changes were significantly larger than in H2O-injected oocytes. The NH3/NH4+-induced current was not inhibited in the presence of barium or in the absence of Na+. In Rhbg oocytes, MA/MA+ caused an inward current but an increase (rather than a decrease) in pH(i). MA/MA+ did not cause any changes in H2O-injected oocytes. The MA/MA+-induced current and pH(i) increase were saturated at higher concentrations of MA/MA+. Amiloride inhibited MA/MA+-induced current and the increase in pH(i) in oocytes expressing Rhbg but had no effect on control oocytes. These results indicate that MA/MA+ is transported by Rhbg but differently than NH3/NH4+. The protonated MA+ is likely a direct substrate whose transport resembles that of NH4+. Transport of electroneutral MA is also enhanced by expression of Rhbg.

  3. Sorption of aromatic ionizable organic compounds to montmorillonites modified by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium and polydiallyldimethyl ammonium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huaizhou; Wan, Yuqiu; Li, Hui; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-01-01

    Environmental residues of aromatic ionizable organic compounds (AIOCs) have received considerable attention due to their potential human health and ecological risks. The main objective of this study was to investigate the key factors and mechanisms controlling sorption of a series of anionic and zwitterionic AIOCs (two aromatic sulfonates, 4-methyl-2,6-dinitrophenol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and tannic acid) to montmorillonites modified with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and polydiallyldimethyl ammonium (PDADMA). Compared with naphthalene (a nonpolar and nonionic solute), all AIOCs showed stronger sorption (the sorbent-to-solution distribution coefficient was in the order of 10-10 L kg) to the two organoclays in spite of the much lower hydrophobicity, indicating the predominance of electrostatic interaction in sorption. The proposed electrostatic mechanism of the tested AIOCs was supported by the pH dependency of sorption to the two organoclays. The two organoclays manifested weaker sorption affinity but faster sorption kinetics for bulky AIOCs than commercial activated carbon, resulting from the high accessibility of sorption sites in the open, ordered clay interlayer. The findings of this study highlight the potential of using HDTMA- and PDADMA-exchanged montmorillonites as effective sorbents for AIOCs in water and wastewater treatments.

  4. Maximizing ammonium nitrogen removal from solution using different zeolites.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Warren, Jason G; Smith, Savannah

    2010-01-01

    Zeolite minerals are ideal for removing ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from animal wastes, leachates, and industrial effluents. The objectives of this study were to compare NH4+ removal and kinetics among several commercially available zeolites under various conditions and determine if calorimetry could provide information regarding kinetics of NH4+ removal. Ammonium sorption onto potassium (K) saturated zeolites was compared using synthetic vs. natural swine effluent and with either traditional batch-shaken system or a "tea bag" approach in which zeolites were contained in a mesh sack and suspended in a solution of swine effluent. Ammonium sorption was measured at four retention times using a flow-through system, and the resulting heat response was measured using isothermal calorimetry. Ammonium removal was not significantly different in synthetic vs. natural swine effluent. Ammonium removal was lower in batch-stirred compared to batch-shaken systems, suggesting that diffusion between particles was rate-limiting in the former system. Flow-through cells possessing contact times > 100 s displayed greater NH4+ sorption than batch systems, suggesting that maintaining high NH4+ concentration in solution, removal of exchange products, and sufficient reaction time are critical to maximizing NH4+ removal by zeolites. Within 100 s after NH4+ addition, endothermic heat responses indicated that NH4(+)-K+ exchange had peaked; this was followed by significant heat rate reduction for 50 min. This confirmed findings of an initial fast NH4(+)-K+ exchange followed by a slower one and suggests the 100-s period of rapid reaction is an indicator of the minimum flow through retention time required to optimize NH4+ sorption to zeolites used in this study.

  5. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  6. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  7. Toxicology of ammonium sulfate in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Cohen, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Despite the relatively low toxicity of ammonium sulfate in experimental animals, it cannot be concluded that increased sulfuric acid production is harmless to human health. Many other pollutants are present in ambient air with possible synergistic effects. Sulfuric acid undoubtedly reacts to produce other sulfates in ambient air which are often much more toxic. For example zinc sulfate and zinc ammonium sulfate are much more irritating to the lung than ammonium sulfate. In order to assess with more certainty the health effects of increased sulfuric acid production, it will be necessary to determine accurately that proportion inhaled as free sulfuric acid compared with ammonium sulfate as well as the proportion and kinds of other sulfates present in the atmosphere.

  8. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... used in agricultural operations indicated that ammonium nitrate is the best choice for nitrogen... contains not less than 33 percent nitrogen by weight.'' See 6 U.S.C. 488(1)(A). DHS proposes to use...

  9. Transkarbams as transdermal permeation enhancers: effects of ester position and ammonium carbamate formation.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Michal; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Janůsová, Barbora; Novotný, Jakub; Vávrová, Katerina

    2010-05-01

    Transkarbam 12, an ammonium carbamate formed by the reaction of dodecyl 6-aminohexanoate with carbon dioxide, is a highly active, broad-spectrum, nontoxic, and nonirritant transdermal permeation enhancer. It probably acts by a dual mechanism: a part of its activity is associated with the carbamic acid salt and/or its decomposition in the acidic stratum corneum. The ammonium ester thereby released is an active enhancer species as well, and its activity highly depends on the position of the ester group.

  10. Ammonium removal by a novel oligotrophic Acinetobacter sp. Y16 capable of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Duoying; Qin, Wen

    2013-10-01

    Ammonium removal from source water is usually inhibited by insufficient carbon sources and low temperature in Northeastern China. A strain Y16 was isolated from oligotrophic niche and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. Y16. It demonstrated excellent capability for ammonium removal at 2 °C, and simultaneously produced nitrogen gas as the end product. About 66% of ammonium was removed after 36 h of incubation. Only trace accumulation of nitrate was observed during the process. The utilization of nitrite and nitrate as well as the existence of napA gene further proved the aerobic denitrification ability of strain Y16. Sodium acetate was the most favorable carbon source for ammonium oxidation by strain Y16. High rotation speed was beneficial for ammonium oxidation. Furthermore, strain Y16 could efficiently remove ammonium at low C/N ratio and low temperature conditions, which was advantageous for nitrogen removal from source water under cold temperatures.

  11. Ammonium reduces oxalate accumulation in different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) genotypes by inhibiting root uptake of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Lingli; Chen, Qiuhui; Ding, Wenya; Dai, Peibin; Hu, Yan; Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-11-01

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate negatively affects nutritional value of many vegetables, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Mixed solution of ammonium and nitrate could effectively reduce oxalate accumulation, while the mechanism involved remains unknown. High (Heizhenzhu) and low (Weilv) oxalate-accumulated spinach genotypes were used in this study to investigate the association of oxalate accumulation and root uptake of nitrogen. Exposure of increasing nitrate or mixed-nitrogen (nitrate:ammonium = 1:1) significantly increased leaf total and soluble oxalate contents. In contrast, increasing ammonium did not result in elevation of leaf oxalate. Correlation analysis confirmed that leaf oxalate accumulation was positively associated with root uptake of nitrate but not ammonium. Moreover, addition of ammonium significantly reduced nitrate uptake rate, and subsequently decreased leaf oxalate accumulation. The results suggest that oxalate synthesis in spinach leaves is associated with its root uptake of nitrate, and ammonium is able to reduce oxalate accumulation by inhibiting uptake of nitrate.

  12. Evidence of ammonium ion-exchange properties of natural bentonite and application to ammonium detection.

    PubMed

    Zazoua, A; Kazane, I; Khedimallah, N; Dernane, C; Errachid, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium exchange with hybrid PVC-bentonite (mineral montmorillonite clay) thin film was revealed using FTIR spectroscopy, EDX, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of ammonium exchange on the charge transfer resistance of PVC-bentonite hybrid thin film was attributed to a modification of the intersheet distance and hydration of bentonite crystals. The obtained impedimetric ammonium sensor shows a linear range of detection from 10(-4)M to 1M and a detection limit around 10(-6)M.

  13. Polyclonal antibodies mediated immobilization of a peroxidase from ammonium sulphate fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Aiman; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-06-01

    Polyclonal antibody bound Sepharose 4B support has been exploited for the immobilization of bitter gourd peroxidase directly from ammonium sulphate precipitated proteins. Immunoaffinity immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase exhibited high yield of immobilization. IgG-Sepharose 4B bound bitter gourd peroxidase showed a higher stability against heat, chaotropic agents (urea and guanidinium chloride), detergents (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and Surf Excel), proteolytic enzyme (trypsin) and water-miscible organic solvents (propanol, THF and dioxane). The activity of immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase was significantly enhanced in the presence of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and after treatment with trypsin as compared to soluble enzyme.

  14. Effects of nitrate and ammonium on larvae of Rana temporaria from the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Oromí, Neus; Sanuy, Delfí; Vilches, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrate and ammonium on the amphibians in a pasture zone of the Catalonian Pyrenees, larvae of Rana temporaria from several ponds were exposed to different concentrations of nitrate (0-500 mg/L) and ammonium (0-1.2 mg/L). High concentrations of nitrate in the water caused mortality and reduced larval size of R. temporaria, whereas no effects on larvae were observed in ammonium conditions. The results suggest that, if the levels of nitrate reach about 100 mg/L, the possibility of survival of R. temporaria larvae may be reduced.

  15. Greater default-mode network abnormalities compared to high order visual processing systems in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an integrated multi-modal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Rami, Lorena; Bargalló, Núria; Junqué, Carme; Molinuevo, José-Luis; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an integrated multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study based on functional MRI (fMRI) data during a complex but cognitively preserved visual task in 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) patients and 15 Healthy Elders (HE). Independent Component Analysis of fMRI data identified a functional network containing an Activation Task Related Pattern (ATRP), including regions of the dorsal and ventral visual stream, and a Deactivation Task Related Pattern network (DTRP), with high spatial correspondence with the default-mode network (DMN). Gray matter (GM) volumes of the underlying ATRP and DTRP cortical areas were measured, and probabilistic tractography (based on diffusion MRI) identified fiber pathways within each functional network. For the ATRP network, a-MCI patients exhibited increased fMRI responses in inferior-ventral visual areas, possibly reflecting compensatory activations for more compromised dorsal regions. However, no significant GM or white matter group differences were observed within the ATRP network. For the DTRP/DMN, a-MCI showed deactivation deficits and reduced GM volumes in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, excessive deactivations in the inferior parietal lobe, and less fiber tract integrity in the cingulate bundles. Task performance correlated with DTRP-functionality in the HE group. Besides allowing the identification of functional reorganizations in the cortical network directly processing the task-stimuli, these findings highlight the importance of conducting integrated multi-modal MRI studies in MCI based on spared cognitive domains in order to identify functional abnormalities in critical areas of the DMN and their precise anatomical substrates. These latter findings may reflect early neuroimaging biomarkers in dementia.

  16. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride... the following compounds: n-dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 139-07-1);...

  17. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  18. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  19. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  20. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  1. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  2. A case of fatal intoxication with ammonium sulfate and a toxicological study using rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Gonmori, K; Yoshioka, N

    1999-04-26

    Agricultural fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate are widely used in house gardens as well as in agriculture, but few case reports or toxicological studies of ingested fertilizers have been reported. This paper investigates a fatal case of ammonium sulfate poisoning and demonstrates its clinical and biochemical findings in rabbits. An 85-year-old woman was found dead lying on the ground outside her house in the middle of March, but the autopsy could not determine the cause of her death. Examination at the police laboratory of the solution in the beer can found next to her showed that it was very likely ammonium sulfate. Our measurement showed a significant increase of ammonium and sulfate ions in serum and gastric contents. The cause of her death was determined as poisoning by ammonium sulfate. The total dose of 1500 mg/kg of ammonium sulfate was administered to three rabbits, all of which showed similar symptoms such as mydriasis, irregular respiratory rhythms, local and general convulsions, until they fell into respiratory failure with cardiac arrest. EEG showed slow, suppressive waves and high-amplitude slowing wave pattern, which is generally observed clinically in hyperammonemia in man and animal. There was a remarkable increase in the concentration of ammonium ion and inorganic sulfate ion in serum, and blood gas analysis showed severe metabolic acidosis. These results, mainly findings by EEG, have shown that a rapid increase in ammonium ions in blood can cause damaging the central nervous system without microscopic change. When the cause of death can not be determined, measurement of ammonium ion, inorganic ion and electrolytes in blood as well as in stomach contents at forensic autopsy is necessary.

  3. Monthly variations in nitrogen isotopes of ammonium and nitrate in wet deposition at Guangzhou, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guodong; Chen, Fajin

    2010-06-01

    Monthly nitrogen isotopes of ammonium and nitrate in wet deposition in the city of Guangzhou, and the causes of their variability, are reported in this paper. Nitrate δ 15N showed nearly constant values around zero in the dry season (October to April), but oscillating values from negative to positive in the rainy season (May to September). By contrast, ammonium δ 15N displayed lower values during the rainy season than in the dry season. The rural area north of the city was considered as the prominent source of ammonium and nitrate in spring and early summer (May and June), as suggested by their concurrent negative isotopic trends and higher NH 4+/NO 3- ratios. From July to September, different dominating sources from the city, i.e., fossil fuel combustion for nitrate, and sewage and waste emission for ammonium, caused disparate δ 15N trends of the two species, showing positive nitrate δ 15N, but still negative ammonium δ 15N. During the cool dry season, the high values of ammonium δ 15N and concurrently low NH 4+/NO 3- ratios suggested the decrease in NH 3 volatilization and relatively important thermogenic origin of ammonium, but the intermediate nitrate δ 15N values around zero may be a result of a balanced emission of NO x from the city and the rural areas. The isotopic effects of chemical conversion of NO x to nitrate and washout of nitrate were ruled out as significant causes of nitrate δ 15N variability, but ammonium washout, during which 15N is assumed to be preferentially removed, may partly contribute to the ammonium δ 15N variability.

  4. Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

  5. Synergetic stress of acids and ammonium on the shift in the methanogenic pathways during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organics.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Hao, Liping; Guan, Dongxing; Qi, Yujiao; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2013-05-01

    Combined effects of acids and ammonium on functional pathway and microbial structure during organics methanization were investigated by stable isotopic method and quantitative PCR. The results showed that the stress from acids and ammonium was synergetic, resulted in different inhibition for acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation, leading to pathway shift. Methane production from acetate was affected more by acetate than by ammonium until the ammonium concentration reached 6-7 g-N/L. When the ammonium concentration exceeded 6 g-N/L, ammonium inhibition was strengthened by the increased concentration of acetate. At a low acetate concentration (50 mmol/L), acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated, regardless of ammonium concentration. At higher acetate concentrations (150 and 250 mmol/L) and at low-medium ammonium levels (1-4 g-N/L), acetate was mainly degraded by acetoclastic methanogenesis, while residual acetate was degraded by a combination of acetoclastic methanogenesis and the syntrophic reaction of syntrophic acetate oxidization and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with the latter dominating at 250 mmol/L acetate. At high ammonium levels (6-7 g-N/L), the degradation of acetate in the 150 mmol/L treatment was firstly through a combination of acetoclastic methanogenesis and the syntrophic pathway and then gradually shifted to the syntrophic pathway, while the degradation of acetate in the 250 mmol/L treatment was completely by the syntrophic pathway.

  6. Transcription Factor OsDOF18 Controls Ammonium Uptake by Inducing Ammonium Transporters in Rice Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunfei; Yang, Wenzhu; Wei, Jinhuan; Yoon, Hyeryung; An, Gynheung

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important mineral elements for plant growth. We studied the functional roles of Oryza sativa DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER 18 (OsDOF18) in controlling ammonium uptake. The growth of null mutants of OsDOF18 was retarded in a medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. In contrast, those mutants grew normally in a medium with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. The gene expression was induced by ammonium but not by nitrate. Uptake of ammonium was lower in osdof18 mutants than in the wild type, while that of nitrate was not affected by the mutation. This indicated that OsDOF18 is involved in regulating ammonium transport. Among the 10 ammonium transporter genes examined here, expression of OsAMT1;1, OsAMT1;3, OsAMT2;1, and OsAMT4;1 was reduced in osdof18 mutants, demonstrating that the ammonium transporter genes function downstream of OsDOF18. Genes for nitrogen assimilation were also affected in the mutants. These results provide evidence that OsDOF18 mediates ammonium transport and nitrogen distribution, which then affects nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:28292004

  7. Exploiting the Imidazolium Effect in Base-free Ammonium Enolate Generation: Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Claire M; Stark, Daniel G; West, Thomas H; Taylor, James E; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-11-07

    N-Acyl imidazoles and catalytic isothiourea hydrochloride salts function as ammonium enolate precursors in the absence of base. Enantioselective Michael addition-cyclization reactions using different α,β-unsaturated Michael acceptors have been performed to form dihydropyranones and dihydropyridinones with high stereoselectivity. Detailed mechanistic studies using RPKA have revealed the importance of the "imidazolium" effect in ammonium enolate formation and have highlighted key differences with traditional base-mediated processes.

  8. Use of a Novel High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography Protocol to Detect Abnormal Dorsal Root Ganglia in Sjögren Patients With Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C.; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional “stocking-and-glove” distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system—the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients

  9. Crystallization characteristics of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) in ammonium carbonate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tae-Joon, Kim; Kyung-Chai, Jeong; Jin-Ho, Park; In-Soon, Chang; Cheong-Song, Choi

    1994-05-01

    Ammonium carbonate solutions with an excessive amount of NH 3 were produced in a commercial AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) conversion plant. In this study the AUC crystals, precipitated with uranyl nitrate and ammonium carbonate solutions prepared in the laboratory, were characterized to determine the feasibility of recycling ammonium carbonate solution. The AUC crystals were easily agglomerated with the increasing concentration of CO 32- and mole ratio of {NH 4+}/{CO 32-} in ammonium carbonate solution. Effects of a mixing system for the solution in the AUC crystallizer and the feed location of the solution on the agglomeration of AUC crystals were also studied along with the effects of agglomerated AUC powders on UO 2 powders. Finally, the feasibility of manufacturing UO 2 fuel with a sintered pellet density of 10.52 g/cm 3, using the AUC powders generated in this experiment, was demonstrated.

  10. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  11. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  12. Red-Backed Vole Brain Promotes Highly Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein from Macaque and Human Brains Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human

  13. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  14. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  15. Perinatal Exposure to Glufosinate Ammonium Herbicide Impairs Neurogenesis and Neuroblast Migration through Cytoskeleton Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Herzine, Ameziane; Laugeray, Anthony; Feat, Justyne; Menuet, Arnaud; Quesniaux, Valérie; Richard, Olivier; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Perche, Olivier; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). During this process, newly generated neurons migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to replace granule cells and periglomerular neurons. This neuronal migration is pivotal not only for neuronal plasticity but also for adapted olfactory based behaviors. Perturbation of this highly controlled system by exogenous chemicals has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We reported recently that perinatal exposure to low dose herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA), leads to long lasting behavioral defects reminiscent of Autism Spectrum Disorder-like phenotype in the offspring (Laugeray et al., 2014). Herein, we demonstrate that perinatal exposure to low dose GLA induces alterations in neuroblast proliferation within the SVZ and abnormal migration from the SVZ to the olfactory bulbs. These disturbances are not only concomitant to changes in cell morphology, proliferation and apoptosis, but are also associated with transcriptomic changes. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that perinatal exposure to low dose GLA alters SVZ neurogenesis. Jointly with our previous work, the present results provide new evidence on the link between molecular and cellular consequences of early life exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of ASD-like phenotype later in life. PMID:27555806

  16. The regulation of ammonium translocation in plants.

    PubMed

    Schjoerring, J K; Husted, S; Mäck, G; Mattsson, M

    2002-04-01

    Much controversy exists about whether or not NH(+)(4) is translocated in the xylem from roots to shoots. In this paper it is shown that such translocation can indeed take place, but that interference from other metabolites such as amino acids and amines may give rise to large uncertainties about the magnitude of xylem NH(+)(4) concentrations. Elimination of interference requires sample stabilization by, for instance, formic acid or methanol. Subsequent quantification of NH(+)(4) should be done by the OPA-fluorometric method at neutral pH with 2-mercaptoethanol as the reducing agent since this method is sensitive and reliable. Colorimetric methods based on the Berthelot reaction should never be used, as they are prone to give erroneous results. Significant concentrations of NH(+)(4), exceeding 1 mM, were measured in both xylem sap and leaf apoplastic solution of oilseed rape and tomato plants growing with NO(-)(3) as the sole N source. When NO(-)(3) was replaced by NH(+)(4), xylem sap NH(+)(4) concentrations increased with increasing external concentrations and with time of exposure to NH(+)(4). Up to 11% of the translocated N was constituted by NH(+)(4). Glutamine synthetase (GS) incorporates NH(+)(4) into glutamine, but root GS activity and expression were repressed when high levels of NH(+)(4) were supplied. Ammonium concentrations measured in xylem sap sampled just above the stem base were highly correlated with NH(+)(4) concentrations in apoplastic solution from the leaves. Young leaves tended to have higher apoplastic NH(+)(4) concentrations than older non-senescing leaves. The flux of NH(+)(4) (concentration multiplied by transpirational water flow) increased with temperature despite a decline in xylem NH(+)(4) concentration. Retrieval of leaf apoplastic NH(+)(4) involves both high and low affinity transporters in the plasma membrane of mesophyll cells. Current knowledge about these transporters and their regulation is discussed.

  17. Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Lehotay, Steven J; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2014-09-05

    The "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate and other nonvolatile compounds for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed and evaluated three new different versions of the QuEChERS method using more volatile salts (ammonium chloride and ammonium formate and acetate buffers) to induce phase separation and extraction of 43 representative pesticide analytes of different classes. Fast low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS were used for analysis. The QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01 was also tested for comparison purposes. Of the studied methods, formate buffering using 7.5g of ammonium formate and 15mL of 5% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction of 15g of sample (5g for wheat grain) provided the best performance and practical considerations. Method validation was carried out with and without the use of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup, and no significant differences were observed for the majority of pesticides. The method was demonstrated in quantitative analysis for GC- and LC-amenable pesticides in 4 representative food matrices (apple, lemon, lettuce, and wheat grain). With the typical exceptions of certain pH-dependent and labile pesticides, 90-110% recoveries and <10% RSD were obtained. Detection limits were mostly <5ng/g, which met the general need to determine pesticide concentrations as low as 10ng/g for monitoring purposes in food applications.

  18. [Effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/ NO(x)/air mixture].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Hao, Ji-Ming; Lü, Zi-Feng; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Jun-Hua

    2007-06-01

    The effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/NO(x)/air mixture was evaluated with Tsinghua Smog Chamber facility. The results indicate that the presence of concentrated preexisting ammonium sulfate aerosol shortens the time to reach maximum PM (particle matter) concentration and increases the aerosol yield of toluene. And under the presence of high concentrated ammonium sulfate aerosol seed, the concentration of aerosol does not have significant effects on NO(x), NO and O3 variation, but affects the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The SOA yield increases with the increasing initial ammonium sulfate seed concentration (< 160 microg x m(-3)). From the minimum 7.2% to the maximum 11.7%, the percentage increase of SOA yield is more than 60%.

  19. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste.

  20. Combined anaerobic ammonium and methane oxidation for nitrogen and methane removal.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoli; Sánchez, Jaime; van Alen, Theo A; Sanabria, Janeth; Jetten, Mike S M; Ettwig, Katharina F; Kartal, Boran

    2011-12-01

    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) is an environment-friendly and cost-efficient nitrogen-removal process currently applied to high-ammonium-loaded wastewaters such as anaerobic digester effluents. In these wastewaters, dissolved methane is also present and should be removed to prevent greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. Potentially, another recently discovered microbial pathway, n-damo (nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation) could be used for this purpose. In the present paper, we explore the feasibility of simultaneously removing methane and ammonium anaerobically, starting with granules from a full-scale anammox bioreactor. We describe the development of a co-culture of anammox and n-damo bacteria using a medium containing methane, ammonium and nitrite. The results are discussed in the context of other recent studies on the application of anaerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria for wastewater treatment.

  1. Glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis: activation by ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Kazumi; Ueno, Yoshie; Oda, Kohei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene from Lactobacillus brevis IFO12005 (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 61, 1168-1171 (1997)), was cloned and expressed. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 99.6% and 53.1% identity with GAD of L. brevis ATCC367 and L. lactis respectively. The His-tagged recombinant GAD showed an optimum pH of 4.5-5.0, and 54 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The GAD activity and stability was significantly dependent on the ammonium sulfate concentration, as observed in authentic GAD. Gel filtration showed that the inactive form of the GAD was a dimer. In contrast, the ammonium sulfate-activated form was a tetramer. CD spectral analyses at pH 5.5 revealed that the structures of the tetramer and the dimer were similar. Treatment of the GAD with high concentrations of ammonium sulfate and subsequent dilution with sodium glutamate was essential for tetramer formation and its activation. Thus the biochemical properties of the GAD from L. brevis IFO12005 were significantly different from those from other sources.

  2. Evaluating Ammonium, Nitrate and Sulfate Aerosols in 3-Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezuman, K.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of aerosols and their chemical composition dictates whether they would have a cooling or a warming effect on the climate system. Hence, properly modeling the 3-dimensonal distribution of aerosols is a crucial step for coherent climate simulations. Since surface networks only give 2-D data, and most satellites supply integrated column information, it is thus important to integrate aircraft measurements in climate model evaluation. In this study, the vertical distribution of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate, is constrained against a collection of 14 AMS flight campaigns, and surface measurements from 2000-2010 in the USA and Europe. GISS modelE2, one of the only models to include nitrate aerosol in CIMP5, is used with multiple aerosol microphysics (MATRIX, OMA) and thermodynamic (ISORROPIA-II, EQSAM) configurations. Our results show that the MATRIX microphysical scheme improves the model performance for sulfate and that there is a systematic underestimation of ammonium and nitrate over the USA and Europe. In terms of gaseous precursors, underestimation of nitrate and ammonium is likely tied to ammonia emissions uncertainties, while nitric acid concentrations are largely overestimated in the higher levels of the model, influenced by strong strat-trop exchange. At high altitudes, nitrate formation is calculated to be ammonia limited, whose profile measurements are scarce.

  3. Ammonium photo-production by heterocytous cyanobacteria: potentials and constraints.

    PubMed

    Grizeau, Dominique; Bui, Lan Anh; Dupré, Catherine; Legrand, Jack

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decades, production of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been developed for several applications, including novel foods, cosmetic ingredients and more recently biofuel. The sustainability of these promising developments can be hindered by some constraints, such as water and nutrient footprints. This review surveys data on N2-fixing cyanobacteria for biomass production and ways to induce and improve the excretion of ammonium within cultures under aerobic conditions. The nitrogenase complex is oxygen sensitive. Nevertheless, nitrogen fixation occurs under oxic conditions due to cyanobacteria-specific characteristics. For instance, in some cyanobacteria, the vegetative cell differentiation in heterocyts provides a well-adapted anaerobic microenvironment for nitrogenase protection. Therefore, cell cultures of oxygenic cyanobacteria have been grown in laboratory and pilot photobioreactors (Dasgupta et al., 2010; Fontes et al., 1987; Moreno et al., 2003; Nayak & Das, 2013). Biomass production under diazotrophic conditions has been shown to be controlled by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, aeration rate, and inorganic carbon concentration, also, more specifically, by the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Currently, there is little information regarding the production of extracellular ammonium by heterocytous cyanobacteria. This review compares the available data on maximum ammonium concentrations and analyses the specific rate production in cultures grown as free or immobilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Extracellular production of ammonium could be coupled, as suggested by recent research on non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria, to that of other high value metabolites. There is little information available regarding the possibility for using diazotrophic cyanobacteria as cellular factories may be in regard of the constraints due to nitrogen fixation.

  4. Nanomodified vermiculite NMV - a new material for recycling ammonium nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, Miradije; Laiho, Taina; Eklund, Olav; Lehto, Kirsi; Shebanov, Alex; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Vermiculites ((Mg,Fe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O) are naturally occurring minerals from hydromica group with a high cation exchange capacity and large surface area. Since vermiculite is a hydrated mineral, its structure can be changed with heat. In this study vermiculite samples were heated in an oven until the interlayer distance of them diminished from 14 Å to 11.7 Å. This method for improving vermiculites intake of ammonium ions by heating, is an invention made at the University of Turku. Nanomodified vermiculite (NMV) is able to absorb up to 4.7 wt% of ammonium. NMV can be used as an efficient filter and immobilizer of ammonium in different environments. NMV has been efficiently tested on waste water from a biogas plant, human urine, combustion experiments, industrial chimneys, excrements from farms etc. Ammonium doped vermiculite (ADV) is further developed for fertilizer use. Performed experiments have testified the usability of ADV as a fertilizer. At first step the NMV was processed with the reject water from a biogas plant, were it absorbed NH4+ into the lattice. At second, the ADV was used as nutrient source for garden plants. Geraniums and begonias were used as test plants of the work. Plant growth rate was evaluated based on plant weight. Results showed that significant increase of the growth of geraniums and of begonias were observed when comparing to those cultivations where plants have got normal fertilization. Moreover, ADV has been tested as a fertilizer in greenhouse experiments with spruces and pines. After five months, the weight of the plants that had grown in a substrate containing ADV was 10 times the weight of plants growing in the reference substrate.

  5. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  6. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  7. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  8. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  9. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  10. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) The additive is manufactured by the reaction of 99.5 percent ammonia gas and 99 percent formic acid in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food... labeled as containing ammonium formate. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. Diamond Head Revisited with Ammonium Dichromate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigoni, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The classroom demonstration using ammonium dichromate to simulate a volcanic eruption can be modified into a more dramatic and accurate representation of the geologic processes involved in the formation of a volcanic crater. The materials, demonstration setup, safety procedures, and applications to instruction are presented. (Author/WB)

  13. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-34-9) is the ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae..., § 170.3(n)(9) of this chapter 0.4 Stabilizer, thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. Fats and...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-34-9) is the ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae..., § 170.3(n)(9) of this chapter 0.4 Stabilizer, thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. Fats and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  20. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The additive is manufactured by the reaction of 99.5 percent ammonia gas and 99 percent formic acid in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food... labeled as containing ammonium formate. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the...

  1. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The additive is manufactured by the reaction of 99.5 percent ammonia gas and 99 percent formic acid in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food... labeled as containing ammonium formate. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the...

  2. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is manufactured by the reaction of 99.5 percent ammonia gas and 99 percent formic acid in a... safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food, Drug, and... ammonium formate. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required...

  3. Ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater by chemical precipitation recycle technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Xiong, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present research, we examined chemical precipitation recycle technology (CPRT) for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The pyrolysate resulting from magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) pyrogenation in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was recycled for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions for MAP pyrogenation and to characterize of MAP pyrolysate for its feasibility in recycling. Furthermore, MAP pyrolysate was characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MAP pyrolysate could be produced at the optimal condition of a hydroxyl (OH(-)) to ammonium molar ratio of 2:1, a heating temperature of 110 degrees C, and a heating time of 3h. Surface characterization analysis indicated that the main component of the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)). The pyrolysate could be recycled as a magnesium and phosphate source at an optimum pH of 9.5. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal ratio gradually decreased if the pyrolysate was used without supplementation. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency was not decreased if the added pyrolysate was supplemented with MgCl(2).6H(2)O plus Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O during treatment. A high ammonium nitrogen removal ratio was obtained by using pre-formed MAP as seeding material.

  4. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  5. Effects of organic matter content and composition on ammonium adsorption in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shengrui; Jiao, Lixin; Li, Yanping; Yang, Jiachun; Zhang, Rui; Feng, Shuang; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The nature of the influence of organic matter (OM) on ammonium adsorption in lake sediments remains disputed. In this study, the kinetics and thermodynamics of ammonium adsorption were investigated on sediment samples with different OM contents (ignoring the effects of OM mineralization) previously collected from Lake Wuli, a northern bay of Lake Taihu, a shallow lake in southern China. The mechanisms of ammonium adsorption in these samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the ammonium adsorption capacity of the sediments is highly correlated with their OM content and with the humic content of the OM. The ammonium adsorption capacity of OM varies with its composition, i.e., with the surface properties of the different functional groups present. Indeed, humic acid was found to have a greater ammonium adsorption capacity by itself than when mixed with kerogen and black carbon, the mixture of the latter two components proving a better adsorbent than pure black carbon.

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. Improvement in ammonium removal efficiency in wastewater treatment by mixed culture of Alcaligenes faecalis no. 4 and L1.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    To improve ammonium removal efficiency in wastewater treatment, a mixed culture of Alcaligenes faecalis no. 4 and its mutant L1, both of which have heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, was performed. In a batch culture, no. 4 has a higher denitrification ability than L1, but its ammonium removal rate was lower. In a mixed continuous culture in the ammonium loading range of 750 to 3500 mg-N/l/d, the average ammonium removal rate and the average denitrification ratio were 61 mg-N/l/h and 31%, respectively. In the mixed culture, the ammonium removal rate was twofold higher than that in a single culture of no. 4, the rate was similar to that in a single culture of L1, and the denitrification ratio was very high compared with that in the single culture of L1.

  8. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Contribution of ammonium ions to the lethality and antimetamorphic effects of ammonium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, James A

    2006-04-01

    Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a widespread military waste product in the United States and is a potent thyroid function disruptor in all vertebrates tested thus far. To determine the relative contribution of ammonium ions to the toxicity of AP, we exposed embryonic and larval Xenopus laevis to various concentrations of sodium perchlorate (SP) or ammonium chloride (AC). Ammonium perchlorate was significantly more lethal than SP; 5-d LC50s were 83 and 2,780 mg/L, respectively. To determine whether ammonium ions contribute to the antithyroid effects of AP, we exposed embryonic and larval X. laevis to two sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of AP or identical concentrations of AC or SP. At the smaller concentration, only AP delayed metamorphosis and reduced hindlimb growth. Sodium perchlorate and AP, but not AC, prevented metamorphosis and reduced hindlimb growth at the greater concentration. Although AP was slightly more effective in reducing outward manifestations of thyroid disruption, both perchlorate salts, unlike AC, caused profound histopathologic changes in the thyroid. Exposure to the higher concentration of either perchlorate salt produced a feminizing effect, resulting in a skewed sex ratio. We conclude that ammonium ions contribute significantly to the toxicity of AP but not to the direct antithyroid effects of perchlorate.

  12. Purification of IgG from serum with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation is not superior to ammonium sulphate precipitation alone.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, J G; Elazhary, Y

    1989-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from bovine serum raised against Aeromonas Salmonicida was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (ASP) or caprylic acid treatment followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (CAAS). Purity of IgG samples prepared by both methods were examined by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography, electrophoresis and antibody activity assay. Results suggest that IgG prepared by ASP is better than that obtained by CAAS method in terms of the yield of the IgG monomers and the recovery of the antibody activity.

  13. Electricity production coupled to ammonium in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen; Kan, Jinjun; Wang, Yanbing; Huang, Yuelong; Mansfeld, Florian; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2009-05-01

    The production of electricity from ammonium was examined using a rotating-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC). The addition of ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium phosphate (monobasic) resulted in electricity generation, while adding sodium chloride, nitrate, or nitrite did not cause any increase in current production. The peak current increased with increasing amount of ammonium addition up to 62.3 mM of ammonium chloride, suggesting that ammonium was involved in electricity generation either directly as the anodic fuel or indirectly as substrates for nitrifiers to produce organic compounds for heterotrophs. Adding nitrate or nitrite with ammonium increased current production compared to solely ammonium addition. Using 16S rRNA-linked molecular analyses, we found ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria on both the anode and cathode electrodes, whereas no anammox bacteria were detected. The dominant ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were closely related to Nitrosomonas europaea. The present MFC achieved an ammonium removal efficiency of 49.2 +/- 5.9 or 69.7 +/- 3.6%, depending on hydraulic retention time, but exhibited a very low Coulombic efficiency.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184.1141b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184.1141a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  4. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  6. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... antidumping duty order on certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or... Publication 4396 (May 2013), entitled Certain Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. Holographic materials composed by rosin with ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Perez-Cortes, Mario; Iturbe Castillo, Marcelo D.

    2000-03-01

    We present a new material with potential application in holography. We have used a film of mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborate in the laboratory. A phase grating in this material was recording using Argon-Ion laser at (lambda) equals 457 nm, showing good diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing 2,000 l/mm (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is their simplicity, takes approximately 25 seconds.

  12. Rosin (colophony) holograms sensitized with ammonium dichromate ®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ibarra-Torres, J. C.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Pérez-Cortés, M.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2005-12-01

    We report a photosensitive emulsion by mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborated. A phase grating in this material was recorded using an argon-ion laser at λ = 457 nm, shows a moderate diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of a high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing the order of 2000 l/mm (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is its simplicity that it takes approximately 25 s. It describes a hypothesis with respect to some mechanisms of photosensitivity in emulsions.

  13. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  14. Molecular characterization, function and regulation of ammonium transporters (Amt) and ammonium-metabolizing enzymes (GS, NADP-GDH) in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum.

    PubMed

    Javelle, Arnaud; Morel, Mélanie; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca-Rosa; Botton, Bernard; André, Bruno; Marini, Anne-Marie; Brun, Annick; Chalot, Michel

    2003-01-01

    External hyphae, which play a key role in nitrogen nutrition of trees, are considered as the absorbing structures of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we have cloned and characterized Hebeloma cylindrosporum AMT1, GLNA and GDHA genes, which encode a third ammonium transporter, a glutamine synthetase and an NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase respectively. Amt1 can fully restore the pseudohyphal growth defect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mep2 mutant, and this is the first evidence that a heterologous member of the Mep/Amt family complements this dimorphic change defect. Dixon plots of the inhibition of methylamine uptake by ammonium indicate that Amt1 has a much higher affinity than the two previously characterized members (Amt2 and Amt3) of the Amt/Mep family in H. cylindrosporum. We also identified the intracellular nitrogen pool(s) responsible for the modulation of expression of AMT1, AMT2, AMT3, GDHA and GLNA. In response to exogenously supplied ammonium or glutamine, AMT1, AMT2 and GDHA were downregulated and, therefore, these genes are subjected to nitrogen repression in H. cylindrosporum. Exogenously supplied nitrate failed to induce a downregulation of the five mRNAs after transfer of mycelia from a N-starved condition. Our results demonstrate that glutamine is the main effector for AMT1 and AMT2 repression, whereas GDHA repression is controlled by intracellular ammonium, independently of the intracellular glutamine or glutamate concentration. Ammonium transport activity may be controlled by intracellular NH4+. AMT3 and GLNA are highly expressed but not highly regulated. A model for ammonium assimilation in H. cylindrosporum is presented.

  15. Decomposition of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium.

    PubMed

    Katano, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohei; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Tsukatani, Toshihide

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium or amine compounds in aqueous solution was studied by the amperometry at a rotating Pt-disk electrode. The amperometric method can be applied to follow the concentration of free chlorine (c(Cl)) even in the presence of chloramine species. By addition of mono- and dibutylammonium to the solution containing free chlorine, the step-like decrease in c(Cl) was observed, indicating the rapid formation of the stable chloramine species. By addition of tributylammonium, the c(Cl) was decreased exponentially to nearly zero even if the free chlorine was present initially in excess. The c(Cl)-t curves can be explained by tributylammonium-species-catalyzed decomposition of free chlorine to chloride ion. The catalytic decomposition was observed also with the tertiary-ammonium-based anion-exchange resins. Furthermore, the anion-exchange resins exhibited the decomposition of not only free chlorine but also chloramines in water.

  16. Ammonium chloride poisoning in chronic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Donald L.; Knight, Allan

    1974-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a long history of renal stone disease and urinary tract infection presented to the emergency room with exhaustion and air hunger. Laboratory data confirmed profound metabolic acidosis. Unduly large quantities of bicarbonate and potassium were required for correction of the deficits. She had been taking 6 g daily of ammonium chloride as a urine-acidifying agent for a period of six months in addition to agents directed against urinary tract infection. The combination of impaired renal function and effective hydrogen ion loading resulted in profound systemic acidosis. The metabolic derangements associated with the administration of ammonium chloride and its use as a therapeutic agent are discussed. PMID:4850503

  17. Ammonium-induced calcium mobilization in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hillmann, Petra; Koese, Meryem; Soehl, Kristina; Mueller, Christa E.

    2008-02-15

    High blood levels of ammonium/ammonia (NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NH{sub 3}) are associated with severe neurotoxicity as observed in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Astrocytes are the main targets of ammonium toxicity, while neuronal cells are less vulnerable. In the present study, an astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 and a neuroblastoma glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 were used as model systems for astrocytes and neuronal cells, respectively. Ammonium salts evoked a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in astrocytoma (EC{sub 50} = 6.38 mM), but not in NG108-15 cells. The ammonium-induced increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was due to an intracellular effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NH{sub 3} and was independent of extracellular calcium. Acetate completely inhibited the ammonium effect. Ammonium potently reduced calcium signaling by G{sub q} protein-coupled receptors (H{sub 1} and M3) expressed on the cells. Ammonium (5 mM) also significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. While mRNA for the mammalian ammonium transporters RhBG and RhCG could not be detected in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, both transporters were expressed in NG108-15 cells. RhBG and RhBC in brain may promote the excretion of NH{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} from neuronal cells. Cellular uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NH{sub 3} was mainly by passive diffusion of NH{sub 3}. Human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells appear to be an excellent, easily accessible human model for studying HE, which can substitute animal studies, while NG108-15 cells may be useful for investigating the role of the recently discovered Rhesus family type ammonium transporters in neuronal cells. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of pathologic ammonium effects in different brain cells, and to the treatment of hyperammonemia.

  18. Corrosion and repairs of ammonium carbamate decomposers

    SciTech Connect

    De Romero, M.F.; Galban, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Corrosion-erosion problems occurred in the carbon steel base metal of the ammonium carbamate decomposers in an urea extraction process lined with type 316L (UNS S31603) urea grade stainless steel. The cladding was replaced by weld overlay using a semiautomatic gas metal arc welding process. The first layer was alloy 25%Cr-15%Ni-2%Mo (UNS W30923); the second layer was alloy 25%Cr-22%Ni-2%Mo (UNS W31020).

  19. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  20. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  1. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  2. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  3. Ammonium Ion Currents in the Squid Giant Axon

    PubMed Central

    Binstock, Leonard; Lecar, Harold

    1969-01-01

    Voltage-clamp studies on intact and internally perfused squid giant axons demonstrate that ammonium can substitute partially for either sodium or potassium. Ammonium carries the early transient current with 0.3 times the permeability of sodium and it carries the delayed current with 0.3 times the potassium permeability. The conductance changes observed in voltage clamp show approximately the same time course in ammonium solutions as in the normal physiological solutions. These ammonium ion permeabilities account for the known effects of ammonium on nerve excitability. Experiments with the drugs tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tetraethyl ammonium chloride (TEA) demonstrate that these molecules block the early and late components of the current selectively, even when both components are carried by the same ion, ammonium. PMID:5767336

  4. Regulation of length and density of Arabidopsis root hairs by ammonium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Vatter, Thomas; Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Stetter, Markus; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Root hairs expand the effective root surface to increase the uptake of nutrients and water from the soil. Here the local effects of the two major nitrogen sources, ammonium and nitrate, on root hairs were investigated using split plates. In three contrasting accessions of A. thaliana, namely Col-0, Tsu-0 and Sha, root hairs were differentially affected by the nitrogen forms and their concentration. Root hairs in Sha were short in the absence of nitrate. In Col-0, hair length was moderately decreased with increasing nitrate or ammonium. In all accessions, the root hair density was insensitive to 1,000-fold changes in the ammonium concentrations, when supplied locally as the exclusive nitrogen form. In contrast, the root hair density generally increased with nitrate as the exclusive local nitrogen source. The nitrate sensitivity was reduced at mM concentrations in a loss-of-function mutant of the nitrate transporter and sensor gene NRT1;1 (NPF6.3). Little differences with respect to ammonium were found in a mutant lacking four high affinity AMT-type ammonium transporters, but interestingly, the response to high nitrate was reduced and may indicate a general defect in nitrogen signaling in that mutant. Genetic diversity and the presence of the nitrogen transceptor NRT1;1 explain heterogeneity in the responses of root hairs to different nitrogen forms in Arabidopsis accessions.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from an aerobic granular sludge system treating low-strength ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Yang, Sen; Wang, Mingyu; Wang, Xin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is a promising technology in wastewater treatment process. Its special microorganism structure could make the emissions of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) more complicated. This study investigated the N2O emissions from a batch-fed aerobic granular sludge system during nitrification of low-strength synthetic ammonium wastewater. The N2O emission was 2.72 ± 0.52% of the oxidized ammonium during the whole anoxic-oxic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) cycle. Under nitrification batch test with sole ammonium substrate (50 mg N/L), N2O emission factor was 1.82% (N2ON/NH4(+)-Nox) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was the responsible microorganism. The presence of high ammonium concentration (or high ammonium oxidation rate (AOR)) and accumulation of nitrite would lead to significant N2O emissions. AOB denitrification pathway was speculated to contribute more to the N2O emissions under nitrification conditions. While under simultaneous nitrification and denitrification condition with carbon source of 500 mg COD/L, the N2O emission factor increased to 2.76%. Both AOB and heterotrophic denitrifiers were responsible for N2O emission and heterotrophic denitrification enhances N2O emission. Step feeding of organic carbon source declined N2O emission factor to 1.60%, which underlined the role of storage substance consumption in N2O generation during denitrification.

  6. Cardioprotective effect of ammonium glycyrrhizinate against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Munish; Singhal, Tinku; Sharma, Hitender

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of herbal bioactive compound ammonium glycyrrhizinate against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy, in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Ammonium glycyrrhizinate (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for four weeks in albino rats. Cardiomyopathy was induced with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg i.p. of doxorubicin on 1th, 7th, 14th, 21th, 28th day in the experimental animals. At the end of the experiment, on 29th day, serum and heart tissues were collected and hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Results: Administration of doxorubicin in normal rats showed significant (P < 0.001) changes in body weight, feed intake, urine output, hemodynamic parameters like (blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output) and in lipid profile (cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein) indicating cardiomyopathy symptoms. Animals treated with ammonium glycyrrhizinate significantly (P < 0.05) decreased triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Moreover, high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels increased in rats treated with ammonium glycyrrhizinate as compared with the normal group. Conclusion: Ammonium glycyrrhizinate is effective in controlling serum lipid profile and cardiac complications in experimentally induced cardiomyopathy in animals. PMID:25298583

  7. Low sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to quaternary ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Mereghetti, L; Quentin, R; Marquet-Van Der Mee, N; Audurier, A

    2000-11-01

    Ninety-seven epidemiologically unrelated strains of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated for their sensitivities to quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide). The MICs for seven serogroup 1/2 strains were high. Three came from the environment and four came from food; none were isolated from human or animal samples. All 97 strains carried the mdrL gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump, and the orfA gene, a putative transcriptional repressor of mdrL. The absence of plasmids in four of the seven resistant strains and the conservation of resistance after plasmid curing suggested that the resistance genes are not plasmid borne. Moreover, PCR amplification and Southern blot hybridization experiments failed to find genes phylogenetically related to the qacA and smr genes, encoding multidrug efflux systems previously described for the genus Staphylococcus. The high association between nontypeability by phages and the loss of sensitivity to quaternary ammonium compounds are suggestive of an intrinsic resistance due to modifications in the cell wall.

  8. Regulation by ammonium of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bogonez, E; Satrústegui, J; Machado, A

    1985-06-01

    The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.4.1.4; NADP-GDH) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is decreased under conditions in which intracellular ammonia concentrations increases. A high internal ammonia concentration can be obtained (a) by increasing the ammonium sulphate concentration in the culture medium, and (b) by growing the yeast either in acetate + ammonia media, where the pH of the medium rises during growth, or in heavily buffered glucose + ammonia media at pH 7.5. Under these conditions cellular oxoglutarate concentrations do not vary and changes in NADP-GDH activity appear to provide a constant rate of oxoglutarate utilization. The following results suggest that the decrease in NADP-GDH activity in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells is brought about by repression of synthesis: (i) after a shift to high ammonium sulphate concentrations, the number of units of activity per cell decreased as the inverse of cell doubling; and (ii) the rate of degradation of labelled NADP-GDH was essentially the same in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells and in controls, whereas the synthesis constant was much lower in the ammonia-accumulating cells than in the controls.

  9. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl‐Stabilised Ammonium Ylide‐Mediated Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The key factors for carbonyl‐stabilised ammonium ylide‐mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine‐based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions. PMID:27381752

  10. Chiral ammonium betaine-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction of oxindoles

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Masahiro; Kato, Kohsuke; Uraguchi, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Summary A highly diastereo- and enantioselective Mannich-type reaction of 3-aryloxindoles with N-Boc aldimines was achieved under the catalysis of axially chiral ammonium betaines. This catalytic method provides a new tool for the construction of consecutive quaternary and tertiary stereogenic carbon centers on biologically intriguing molecular frameworks with high fidelity. PMID:27829916

  11. Partial nitrification in an air-lift reactor with long-term feeding of increasing ammonium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Ali, Mohammad; Min, Xiao-Bo; Song, Yu-Xia; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Hai-Ying; Yu, Cheng; Yang, Zhi-Hui

    2015-06-01

    The partial nitrification (PN) performance under high ammonium concentrations was evaluated in an airlift reactor (ALR). The ALR was operated for 253days with stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration to 1400mg/L corresponding nitrogen loading rate of 2.1kg/m(3)/d. The ammonium removal rate was finally developed to 2.0kg/m(3)/d with average removal efficiency above 91% and nitrite accumulation percentage of 80%. Results showed that the combined effect of limited DO, high bicarbonate, pH and free ammonia (FA) contributed to the stable nitrite accumulation substantially. The biomass in the ALR was improved with the inception of granulation. Precipitates on biomass surface was unexpectedly experienced which might improve the settleability of PN biomass. Organic functional groups attached to the PN biomass suggested the possible absorbability to different types of pollutant. The results provided important evidence for the possibility of applying an ALR to treat high strength ammonium wastewater.

  12. Diastereoselective aziridination of chiral electron-deficient olefins with N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuta; Takeda, Youhei; Minakata, Satoshi

    2011-08-05

    Chiral quaternary ammonium salt-catalyzed diastereoselective aziridination of electron-deficient olefins that possess a chiral auxiliary with N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates was developed. The key to high stereoselectivity was found to be the employment of the "matching" stereochemical combination of chiral auxiliary/ammonium salt. For example, when 3-phenyl-(4R,7S)-4-methyl-7-isopropyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazole (L-menthopyrazole) as a chiral auxiliary and a cinchonidine-derived chiral ammonium salt as a catalyst were applied to the reaction system, perfect diastereoselectivity was realized. Furthermore, the preparation of enantiomerically pure aziridines by removal of the chiral auxiliary was demonstrated.

  13. Impact of Ammonium on Syntrophic Organohalide-Respiring and Fermenting Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Kegerreis, Kylie L.; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Syntrophic interactions between organohalide-respiring and fermentative microorganisms are critical for effective bioremediation of halogenated compounds. This work investigated the effect of ammonium concentration (up to 4 g liter−1 NH4+-N) on trichloroethene-reducing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and Geobacteraceae in microbial communities fed lactate and methanol. We found that production of ethene by D. mccartyi occurred in mineral medium containing ≤2 g liter−1 NH4+-N and in landfill leachate. For the partial reduction of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) at ≥1 g liter−1 NH4+-N, organohalide-respiring dynamics shifted from D. mccartyi and Geobacteraceae to mainly D. mccartyi. An increasing concentration of ammonium was coupled to lower metabolic rates, longer lag times, and lower gene abundances for all microbial processes studied. The methanol fermentation pathway to acetate and H2 was conserved, regardless of the ammonium concentration provided. However, lactate fermentation shifted from propionic to acetogenic at concentrations of ≥2 g liter−1 NH4+-N. Our study findings strongly support a tolerance of D. mccartyi to high ammonium concentrations, highlighting the feasibility of organohalide respiration in ammonium-contaminated subsurface environments. IMPORTANCE Contamination with ammonium and chlorinated solvents has been reported in numerous subsurface environments, and these chemicals bring significant challenges for in situ bioremediation. Dehalococcoides mccartyi is able to reduce the chlorinated solvent trichloroethene to the nontoxic end product ethene. Fermentative bacteria are of central importance for organohalide respiration and bioremediation to provide D. mccartyi with H2, their electron donor, acetate, their carbon source, and other micronutrients. In this study, we found that high concentrations of ammonium negatively correlated with rates of trichloroethene reductive dehalogenation and

  14. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  15. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  16. High Frequency Migraine Is Associated with Lower Acute Pain Sensitivity and Abnormal Insula Activity Related to Migraine Pain Intensity, Attack Frequency, and Pain Catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Moayedi, Massieh; Keaser, Michael L.; Khan, Shariq A.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful), we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds nor in pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients did have aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Brain imaging showed that, compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain vs. mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS); bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA) and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula, associated with indices

  17. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hoeft, R.; Blevins, F.Z.; Achron, F.

    1994-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility for producing commercial-grade ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum produced as part of limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This is a cooperative effort among the ISGS, the UIUC, AlliedSignal, SE-ME, Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co. (IP), and Central Illinois Public Services (CIPS). Bench-scale experiments will be conducted to obtain process engineering data for manufacture of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economical feasibility of the process. Controlled greenhouse experiments will be conducted at UIUC to evaluate the chemical impact of the produced ammonium sulfate on soil properties. A process flow sheet will be proposed and market demand for the products will be established. An engineering team at IP will provide an independent review of the economics of the process. AlliedSignal will be involved in testing and quality evaluation of ammonium sulfate samples and is interested in an agreement to market the finished product. CIPS will provide technical assistance and samples of FGD-gypsum for the project. In this quarter, a literature study that should give detailed insight into the chemistry, process schemes, and costs of producing ammonium sulfate from gypsum is in progress at the ISGS. Acquisition of a high quality FGD-gypsum sample was completed. Collecting of the other lower grade sample was scheduled to be conducted in December. Characterization of these feed materials is in progress.

  18. Phosphate-dependent glutaminase in enterocyte mitochondria and its regulation by ammonium and other ions.

    PubMed

    Masola, B; Zvinavashe, E

    2003-06-01

    The effects of ammonium and other ions on phosphate dependent glutaminase (PDG) activity in intact rat enterocyte mitochondria were investigated. Sulphate and bicarbonate activated the enzyme in absence and presence of added phosphate. In presence of 10 mM phosphate, ammonium at concentrations <1 mM inhibited the enzyme. This inhibition was reversed by increased concentration of phosphate or sulphate. The inhibition of PDG by ammonium in presence of 10 mM phosphate was biphasic with respect to glutamine concentration, its effect being through a lowering of V(max) at glutamine concentration of Ammonium and bicarbonate ions may therefore be important physiological regulators of PDG. It is suggested that phosphate and other polyvalent ions may function by preventing product inhibition of the enzyme through promotion of PDG dimer formation. The dimerized enzyme may have a high affinity for glutamine and reduced sensitivity to inhibition by ammonium ions.

  19. Characteristics of simultaneous ammonium and phosphate adsorption from hydrolysis urine onto natural loess.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanqing; Wang, Xiaochang; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Honglei

    2016-02-01

    Nutrient recovery from human urine is a promising pretreatment of domestic wastewater and provides a sustainable recyclability of N and P. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to identify the characteristics of natural loess (NL) for the adsorption and recovery of ammonium and phosphate from hydrolysis urine (HU). The adsorption mechanisms, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms, as well as the major influencing factors, such as pH and temperature, were investigated. Results revealed that adsorption of ammonium occurred by means of ion exchange and molecule adsorption with the ≡ Si-OH groups, while phosphate adsorption was based on the calcium phosphate precipitation reaction and formation of inner-sphere complexes with ≡ M-OH groups. The adsorption processes of ammonium and phosphate were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model. Adsorption of phosphate was endothermic, while ammonium adsorption was exothermic. Furthermore, the maximum ammonium and phosphate adsorption capacities of NL was 23.24 mg N g(-1) and 4.01 mg P g(-1) at an initial pH of 9 and 10, respectively. Results demonstrated that nutrient-adsorbed NL used as compound fertilizer or conventional fertilizer superaddition was feasible for its high contents of N and P as well as its environmental friendliness.

  20. Population Ecology of Nitrifiers in a Stream Receiving Geothermal Inputs of Ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A. Bryce

    1983-01-01

    The distribution, activity, and generic diversity of nitrifying bacteria in a stream receiving geothermal inputs of ammonium were studied. The high estimated rates of benthic nitrate flux (33 to 75 mg of N · m−2 · h−1) were a result of the activity of nitrifiers located in the sediment. Nitrifying potentials and ammonium oxidizer most probable numbers in the sediments were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in the waters. Nitrifiers in the oxygenated surface (0 to 2 cm) sediments were limited by suboptimal temperature, pH, and substrate level. Nitrifiers in deep (nonsurface) oxygenated sediments did not contribute significantly to the changes measured in the levels of inorganic nitrogen species in the overlying waters and presumably derived their ammonium supply from ammonification within the sediment. Ammonium-oxidizing isolates obtained by a most-probable number nonenrichment procedure were species of either Nitrosospira or Nitrosomonas, whereas all those obtained by an enrichment procedure (i.e., selective culture) were Nitrosomonas spp. The efficiency of the most-probable-number method for enumerating ammonium oxidizers was calculated to be between 0.05 and 2.0%, suggesting that measurements of nitrifying potentials provide a better estimate of nitrifying populations. PMID:16346261

  1. Resistance of Pseudomonas to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. I. Growth in Benzalkonium Chloride Solution

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Frank W.; Geftic, Sam G.; Gelzer, Justus

    1969-01-01

    Resistant cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a waterborne Pseudomonas sp. (strain Z-R) were able to multiply in nitrogen-free minimal salts solution containing various concentrations of commercially prepared, ammonium acetate-buffered benzalkonium chloride (CBC), a potent antimicrobial agent. As the CBC concentration increased, growth increased until a point was reached at which the extent of growth leveled off or was completely depressed. Minimal salts solutions of pure benzalkonium chloride (PBC) containing no ammonium acetate did not support bacterial growth. When ammonium acetate was added to PBC solutions in the same concentrations found in CBC solutions, growth patterns developed that were comparable to those found with CBC. Likewise, (NH4)2SO4 added to PBC solutions supported growth of both organisms. P. aeruginosa was initially resistant to CBC levels of 0.02% and it was adapted to tolerate levels as high as 0.36%. Strain Z-R was naturally resistant to 0.4% CBC. Since ammonium acetate, carried over by the CBC used in drug formulations and disinfectant solutions, has the potential to support the growth of resistant bacteria and thus make possible the risk of serious infection, it is suggested that regulations allowing the presence of ammonium acetate in CBC solution be reconsidered. PMID:4984761

  2. A single-cell view of ammonium assimilation in coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Meibom, Anders; Van Den Heuvel, Annamieke; Kopp, Christophe; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen from nutrient-poor tropical seas is an essential challenge for the endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates. Despite the clear evidence that reef-building corals can use ammonium as inorganic nitrogen source, the dynamics and precise roles of host and symbionts in this fundamental process remain unclear. Here, we combine high spatial resolution ion microprobe imaging (NanoSIMS) and pulse-chase isotopic labeling in order to track the dynamics of ammonium incorporation within the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Acropora aspera and its dinoflagellate symbionts. We demonstrate that both dinoflagellate and animal cells have the capacity to rapidly fix nitrogen from seawater enriched in ammonium (in less than one hour). Further, by establishing the relative strengths of the capability to assimilate nitrogen for each cell compartment, we infer that dinoflagellate symbionts can fix 14 to 23 times more nitrogen than their coral host cells in response to a sudden pulse of ammonium-enriched seawater. Given the importance of nitrogen in cell maintenance, growth and functioning, the capability to fix ammonium from seawater into the symbiotic system may be a key component of coral nutrition. Interestingly, this metabolic response appears to be triggered rapidly by episodic nitrogen availability. The methods and results presented in this study open up for the exploration of dynamics and spatial patterns associated with metabolic activities and nutritional interactions in a multitude of organisms that live in symbiotic relationships.

  3. Accurate Measurement of the in vivo Ammonium Concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Ten Pierick, Angela; Heijnen, Sef J; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2016-04-23

    Ammonium (NH₄⁺) is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH₄⁺ transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts to measure the in vivo concentration of this metabolite. In this article, we present a sensitive and accurate analytical method to quantify the in vivo intracellular ammonium concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on standard rapid sampling and metabolomics techniques. The method validation experiments required the development of a proper sample processing protocol to minimize ammonium production/consumption during biomass extraction by assessing the impact of amino acid degradation-an element that is often overlooked. The resulting cold chloroform metabolite extraction method, together with quantification using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IDMS), was not only more sensitive than most of the existing methods but also more accurate than methods that use electrodes, enzymatic reactions, or boiling water or boiling ethanol biomass extraction because it minimized ammonium consumption/production during sampling processing and interference from other metabolites in the quantification of intracellular ammonium. Finally, our validation experiments showed that other metabolites such as pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate (αKG) need to be extracted with cold chloroform to avoid measurements being biased by the degradation of other metabolites (e.g., amino acids).

  4. Ammonium nitrate as an oxidizer in solid composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manelis, G. B.; Lempert, D. B.

    2009-09-01

    Despite the fact that ammonium nitrate (AN) has the highest hydrogen content and fairly high oxygen balance (compared to other oxidizers), its extremely low formation enthalpy and relatively low density makes it one of the worst power oxidizers in solid composite propellants (SCP). Nevertheless, AN has certain advantages - the combustion of the compositions containing AN is virtually safe, its combustion products are ecologically clean, it is very accessible and cheap, and also very thermostable (far more stable than ammonium dinitramide (ADN)). Besides, its low density stops being a disadvantage if the propellant has to be used in deep space and therefore, must be carried there with other rocket carriers. The low cost of AN may also become a serious advantage in the AN application even in lower stages of multistage space launchers as well as in one-stage space launchers with low mass fraction of the propellant. The main specific features relevant to the creation of AN-based SCPs with the optimal energetic characteristics are discussed. The use of metals and their hydrides and proper fuel-binders as well as the recent successes in phase stabilization of AN are described.

  5. Advanced regeneration and fixed-bed study of ammonium and potassium removal from anaerobic digested wastewater by natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Zeng, Larry; Jin, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient regeneration of natural zeolite was developed in conjunction with the removal of high concentrations of ammonia and potassium from the reverse osmosis effluent of anaerobic-digested wastewater by fixed-bed ion exchange. The elution and uptake behavior of ammonium and potassium in the fixed bed were studied. Both batch desorption tests and on-column regeneration were conducted to develop an optimum regeneration condition compatible with the wastewater requirements. The effectiveness of ammonium elution increased with increasing alkaline concentration. The increase of salt dose significantly enhanced the ammonium maximum in the elution solution. Complete ammonium elution was achieved in 6 bed volumes (BV) when the alkaline and salt concentrations were respectively 0.1 mol/L and 18.6 g/L at a flow rate of 2.5-3.0 BV/hr. Due to the higher affinity of potassium with natural clinoptilolite, complete potassium elution was not achieved in all cases.

  6. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness.

  7. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  8. Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Versatile Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Zubris, Deanna L; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (polyQACs) comprise a broad class of materials with applications in medical implants, food processing, and surface sanitizing, amongst many others. These polymeric substances are especially promising due to their potent antibacterial activity and limited hemolytic toxicity. In particular, many polyQACs have superior therapeutic indices and a lower likelihood of developing antibacterial resistance in comparison to their monomers, making them ideal materials for wound dressings, catheters, and other biomedical applications. This review outlines the history and development, previous successes, current state of the research, and future directions of polyQACs in society.

  9. Ammonium ion binding to DNA G-quadruplexes: do electrospray mass spectra faithfully reflect the solution-phase species?

    PubMed Central

    Balthasart, Françoise; Plavec, Janez; Gabelica, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplex nucleic acids can bind ammonium ions in solution and these complexes can be detected by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). However, because ammonium ions are volatile, the extent to which ESI-MS quantitatively could provide an accurate reflection of such solution-phase equilibria is unclear. Here we studied five G-quadruplexes having known solution-phase structure and ammonium ion binding constants: the bimolecular G-quadruplexes (dG4T4G4)2, (dG4T3G4)2 and (dG3T4G4)2, and the intramolecular G-quadruplexes dG4(T4G4)3 and dG2T2G2TGTG2T2G2 (thrombin binding aptamer). We found that not all mass spectrometers are equally suited to reflect the solution phase species. Ion activation can occur in the electrospray source, or in a high-pressure travelling wave ion mobility cell. When the softest instrumental conditions are used, ammonium ions bound between G-quartets, but also additional ammonium ions bound at specific sites outside the external G-quartets can be observed. However, even specifically bound ammonium ions are in some instances too labile to be fully retained in the gas phase structures, and although the ammonium ion distribution observed by ESI-MS shows biases at specific stoichiometries, the relative abundances in solution are not always faithfully reflected. Ion mobility spectrometry results show that all inter-quartet ammonium ions are necessary to preserve the G-quadruplex fold in the gas phase. Ion mobility experiments therefore help assigning the number of inner ammonium ions in the solution phase structure. PMID:23132414

  10. SNPs altering ammonium transport activity of human Rhesus factors characterized by a yeast-based functional assay.

    PubMed

    Deschuyteneer, Aude; Boeckstaens, Mélanie; De Mees, Christelle; Van Vooren, Pascale; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the conserved Mep-Amt-Rh family, including mammalian Rhesus factors, mediate transmembrane ammonium transport. Ammonium is an important nitrogen source for the biosynthesis of amino acids but is also a metabolic waste product. Its disposal in urine plays a critical role in the regulation of the acid/base homeostasis, especially with an acid diet, a trait of Western countries. Ammonium accumulation above a certain concentration is however pathologic, the cytotoxicity causing fatal cerebral paralysis in acute cases. Alteration in ammonium transport via human Rh proteins could have clinical outcomes. We used a yeast-based expression assay to characterize human Rh variants resulting from non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) with known or unknown clinical phenotypes and assessed their ammonium transport efficiency, protein level, localization and potential trans-dominant impact. The HsRhAG variants (I61R, F65S) associated to overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (OHSt), a disease affecting erythrocytes, proved affected in intrinsic bidirectional ammonium transport. Moreover, this study reveals that the R202C variant of HsRhCG, the orthologue of mouse MmRhcg required for optimal urinary ammonium excretion and blood pH control, shows an impaired inherent ammonium transport activity. Urinary ammonium excretion was RHcg gene-dose dependent in mouse, highlighting MmRhcg as a limiting factor. HsRhCG(R202C) may confer susceptibility to disorders leading to metabolic acidosis for instance. Finally, the analogous R211C mutation in the yeast ScMep2 homologue also impaired intrinsic activity consistent with a conserved functional role of the preserved arginine residue. The yeast expression assay used here constitutes an inexpensive, fast and easy tool to screen nsSNPs reported by high throughput sequencing or individual cases for functional alterations in Rh factors revealing potential causal variants.

  11. SNPs Altering Ammonium Transport Activity of Human Rhesus Factors Characterized by a Yeast-Based Functional Assay

    PubMed Central

    Deschuyteneer, Aude; Boeckstaens, Mélanie; De Mees, Christelle; Van Vooren, Pascale; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the conserved Mep-Amt-Rh family, including mammalian Rhesus factors, mediate transmembrane ammonium transport. Ammonium is an important nitrogen source for the biosynthesis of amino acids but is also a metabolic waste product. Its disposal in urine plays a critical role in the regulation of the acid/base homeostasis, especially with an acid diet, a trait of Western countries. Ammonium accumulation above a certain concentration is however pathologic, the cytotoxicity causing fatal cerebral paralysis in acute cases. Alteration in ammonium transport via human Rh proteins could have clinical outcomes. We used a yeast-based expression assay to characterize human Rh variants resulting from non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) with known or unknown clinical phenotypes and assessed their ammonium transport efficiency, protein level, localization and potential trans-dominant impact. The HsRhAG variants (I61R, F65S) associated to overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (OHSt), a disease affecting erythrocytes, proved affected in intrinsic bidirectional ammonium transport. Moreover, this study reveals that the R202C variant of HsRhCG, the orthologue of mouse MmRhcg required for optimal urinary ammonium excretion and blood pH control, shows an impaired inherent ammonium transport activity. Urinary ammonium excretion was RHcg gene-dose dependent in mouse, highlighting MmRhcg as a limiting factor. HsRhCGR202C may confer susceptibility to disorders leading to metabolic acidosis for instance. Finally, the analogous R211C mutation in the yeast ScMep2 homologue also impaired intrinsic activity consistent with a conserved functional role of the preserved arginine residue. The yeast expression assay used here constitutes an inexpensive, fast and easy tool to screen nsSNPs reported by high throughput sequencing or individual cases for functional alterations in Rh factors revealing potential causal variants. PMID:23967154

  12. Characteristics of ammonium removal by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis No. 4.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

    2005-08-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis no. 4 has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities. By taking the nitrogen balance under different culture conditions, 40-50% of removed NH4+-N was denitrified and about one-half of removed NH4+-N was converted to intracellular nitrogen. The maximum ammonium removal rate of no. 4 (28.9 mg-N/l/h) and its denitrification rate at high-strength NH4+-N of about 1200 ppm in aerated batch experiments at a C/N ratio of 10 were 5-40 times higher than those of other bacteria with the same ability. Only a few percent of the removed ammonium was converted to nitrite, and the main denitrification process was speculated to be via hydroxylamine which was produced by ammonium oxidation.

  13. Ammonium-induced internalisation of UapC, the general purine permease from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Taubas, Javier; Harispe, Laura; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Gorfinkiel, Lisette; Rosa, Alberto L

    2004-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans UapC protein is a high-affinity, moderate-capacity, uric acid-xanthine transporter, which also displays a low transport capacity for hypoxanthine, adenine, and guanine. It has been previously shown that a functional UapC-GFP fusion protein localises at the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source, dramatically changes the subcellular distribution of UapC. After addition of ammonium, UapC-GFP is removed from the plasma membrane and is concentrated into the vacuolar compartment. A chimeric gene construct in which an inducible promoter, insensitive to nitrogen repression, drives the expression of UapC-GFP, allowed us to demonstrate that the ammonium-dependent redistribution of UapC can be dissociated from the transcriptional repression of the gene. These results provide further support for the occurrence of endocytosis and the lysosomal-endosomal function of the vacuolar compartment in A. nidulans.

  14. Review of congenital inner ear abnormalities on CT temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Yiin, R S Z; Tang, P H; Tan, T Y

    2011-09-01

    The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician's management of the condition. This pictorial essay illustrates the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear on high resolution CT temporal bone images and correlation with developmental arrest during embryology.

  15. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  16. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Laura A.; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B.; Bertagnolli, Anthony D.; Wright, Jody J.; Hallam, Steven J.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (<10 nmol⋅L−1) is therefore essential for understanding and modeling nitrogen loss in OMZs. We determined rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidation in the seasonal OMZ off Concepcion, Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L−1 and 20 μmol⋅L−1. Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5–33 nmol⋅L−1 O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L−1 O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L−1 O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis–Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss. PMID:27601665

  17. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Laura A; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B; Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Wright, Jody J; Hallam, Steven J; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-09-20

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (<10 nmol⋅L(-1)) is therefore essential for understanding and modeling nitrogen loss in OMZs. We determined rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidation in the seasonal OMZ off Concepcion, Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L(-1) and 20 μmol⋅L(-1) Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5-33 nmol⋅L(-1) O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis-Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss.

  18. Influence of dissolved oxygen conditions on toxicity of ammonium nitrate to larval natterjack toads.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Marco, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    Temporary ponds, where many amphibians from temperate regions breed, show an annual cycle with a maximum water volume in spring followed by a progressive desiccation throughout late spring and summer. This desiccation leads to a decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in nitrogen levels, which can additionally increase because of anthropogenic sources such as chemical fertilizers. We analyzed the toxicity posed by environmentally relevant levels of a common nitrogenous fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, at different conditions of oxygen availability to Bufo calamita tadpoles, which typically develop in ephemeral ponds. Ammonium nitrate (90.3 mg N-NO3NH4/l) and hypoxic conditions (initial dissolved oxygen 4.53 ± 0.40 mg/l) caused significant lethal effects after 7 and 12 days of exposure, respectively. At the end of experiment (16 days), mortality rates were 32.5 % in individuals exposed to the fertilizer and 15 % in those growing under hypoxic conditions. When both stressors were combined, they showed an additive effect on tadpole survival. Malformations, such as oedemas and spinal curvatures, and locomotory abnormalities, were detected after 12 days of experiment in >90 % of individuals exposed to 45.2 mg N-NO3NH4/l under hypoxic conditions, whereas none of these stressors by separate related to abnormality rates >35 %. Delayed development was also observed in tadpoles exposed to ammonium nitrate with hypoxia affecting developmental rate only after 12 days of exposure. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms linking negative effects of both factors as well as in terms of potential alterations of the ecological plasticity that often allows amphibians to survive in unpredictable environments.

  19. Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Protein solubility is affected by ions. At low ion concentrations (<0.5 M), protein solubility increases along with ionic strength. Ions in the solution shield protein molecules from the charge of other protein molecules in what is known as 'salting-in'. At a very high ionic strength, protein solubility decreases as ionic strength increases in the process known as 'salting-out'. Thus, salting out can be used to separate proteins based on their solubility in the presence of a high concentration of salt. In this protocol, ammonium sulfate will be added incrementally to an E. coli cell lysate to isolate a recombinantly over-expressed protein of 20 kDa containing no cysteine residues or tags.

  20. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, H; Gopi, M; Arumugam, A

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate.

  1. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production.

  2. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

    PubMed

    Oommen; Jain

    1999-06-30

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  4. The pathway of in-situ ammonium removal from aerated municipal solid waste bioreactor: nitrification/denitrification or air stripping?

    PubMed

    Hao, Yong-Jun; Ji, Min; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Hao, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Guang; Liu, Han-Qiao

    2010-12-01

    In-situ ammonium removal from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is an attractive method due to its economic advantages. In this study, two simulated MSW bioreactors with different degrees of initial bio-stabilization were utilized to investigate the effects of intermittent aeration mode and the addition of activated sludge on the removal of ammonium. The results showed that up to 90% of ammonium could be removed and the amount of NO(x)-N produced was less than 1% of NH4 (+)-N removed in both reactors. The pH values increased rapidly and finally arrived at a high level of 8.5-8.8. The efficiency of ammonium removal was improved by increasing the continuous aeration time, but it was not affected by the addition of activated sludge. A portion of liquid escaped from the reactors in the form of vapour, and as high as 195-258 mg L(-1) of NH(4) ( +)-N was detected in the vapour collector. According to calculation, nitrification was inhibited by the high level of free ammonia in the bioreactors. As a result, air stripping was enhanced and became the primary pathway of ammonium removal. Therefore, controlling free ammonia concentration was essential in ammonium removal from the aerated MSW bioreactor.

  5. Molecular profiling of gene copy number abnormalities in key regulatory genes in high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency and their association with clinicopathological findings in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prerana; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2017-05-01

    Genes related to key cellular pathways are frequently altered in B cell ALL and are associated with poor survival especially in high-risk (HR) subgroups. We examined gene copy number abnormalities (CNA) in 101 Indian HR B cell ALL patients and their correlation with clinicopathological features by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, CNA were detected in 59 (59%) cases, with 26, 10 and 23% of cases harboring 1, 2 or +3 CNA. CNA were more prevalent in BCR-ABL1 (60%), pediatric (64%) and high WCC (WBC count) (63%) patients. Frequent genes deletions included CDNK2A/B (26%), IKZF1 (25%), PAX5 (14%), JAK2 (7%), BTG1 (6%), RB1 (5%), EBF1 (4%), ETV6 (4%), while PAR1 region genes were predominantly duplicated (20%). EBF1 deletions selectively associated with adults, IKZF1 deletions occurred frequently in high WCC and BCR-ABL1 cases, while PAR1 region gains significantly associated with MLL-AF4 cases. IKZF1 haploinsufficiency group was predominant, especially in adults (65%), high WCC (60%) patients and BCR-ABL1-negative (78%) patients. Most cases harbored multiple concurrent CNA, with IKZF1 concomitantly occurring with CDNK2A/B, PAX5 and BTG1, while JAK2 occurred with CDNK2A/B and PAX5. Mutually exclusive CNA included ETV6 and IKZF1/RB1, and EBF1 and JAK2. Our results corroborate with global reports, aggregating molecular markers in Indian HR B-ALL cases. Integration of CNA data from rapid methods like MLPA, onto background of existing gold-standard methods detecting significant chromosomal abnormalities, provides a comprehensive genetic profile in B-ALL.

  6. Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene.

    PubMed

    Nehls, U; Ecke, M; Hampp, R

    1999-03-01

    The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.

  7. Synthesis of hierarchical zeolites using an inexpensive mono-quaternary ammonium surfactant as mesoporogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Rohling, Roderigh; Filonenko, Georgy; Mezari, Brahim; Hofmann, Jan P; Asahina, Shunsuke; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-12-04

    A simple amphiphilic surfactant containing a mono-quaternary ammonium head group (N-methylpiperidine) is effective in imparting substantial mesoporosity during synthesis of SSZ-13 and ZSM-5 zeolites. Highly mesoporous SSZ-13 prepared in this manner shows greatly improved catalytic performance in the methanol-to-olefins reaction compared to bulk SSZ-13.

  8. Microwave-assisted deacylation of unactivated amides using ammonium-salt-accelerated transamidation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuhei; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Ming; Ohshima, Takashi

    2012-08-20

    The combination of an ammonium salt and ethylenediamine promotes deacylation of a variety of unactivated amides to give the corresponding amines in high yields without the use of strong acids or bases. The reactions proceed without special care regarding air and moisture, and tolerate a wide range of functional groups.

  9. Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals in Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, T. V. V.; Clark, R. N.; Calvin, W. M.; Sherman, D. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals was found on the surface of the largest asteroid Ceres. The presence of ammonium-bearing clays suggests that Ceres has experienced a period of alteration by substantial amounts of an ammonium-bearing fluid. The presence of the ammonium-bearing clays does not preclude Ceres maintaining a volatile inventory in the core or in a volatile-rich zone at some distance below the surface. Telescopic observations of Ceres, using the 3.0 meter NASA Infrared telescope facility prompted this reevaluation of its surface mineralogy.

  10. CCNE1 amplification and centrosome number abnormality in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: further evidence supporting its role as a precursor of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Wang, Tian-Li; Doberstein, Kai; Bahadirli-Talbott, Asli; Ayhan, Ayse; Sehdev, Ann Smith; Drapkin, Ronny; Kurman, Robert J; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Aberration in chromosomal structure characterizes almost all cancers and has profound biological significance in tumor development. It can be facilitated by various mechanisms including overexpression of cyclin E1 and centrosome amplification. As ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma has pronounced chromosomal instability, in this study we sought to determine whether increased copy number of CCNE1 which encodes cyclin E1 and centrosome amplification (>2 copies) occurs in its putative precursor, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. We found CCNE1 copy number gain/amplification in 8 (22%) of 37 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas and 12 (28%) of 43 high-grade serous carcinomas. There was a correlation in CCNE1 copy number between serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and high-grade serous carcinoma in the same patients (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of CCNE1 gain/amplification between serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and high-grade serous carcinoma (P=0.61). Centrosome amplification was recorded in only 5 (14%) of 37 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas, and in 10 (40%) of 25 high-grade serous carcinomas. The percentage of cells with centrosome amplification was higher in high-grade serous carcinoma than in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (P<0.001). Induced expression of cyclin E1 increased the percentage of fallopian tube epithelial cells showing centrosome amplification. Our findings suggest that gain/amplification of CCNE1 copy number occurs early in tumor progression and precedes centrosome amplification. The more prevalent centrosome amplification in high-grade serous carcinoma than in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma supports the view that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma precedes the development of many high-grade serous carcinomas.

  11. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination.

  12. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater.

  13. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  14. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infections with High Viral Loads Are Associated with Cervical Lesions but Do Not Differentiate Grades of Cervical Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Depuydt, Christophe; Benoy, Ina; Bogers, Johannes; Antoine, Jerome; Arbyn, Marc; Pawlita, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in smears of different grades of cervical neoplasia. Describing the association between multiple infections and cervical disease is important in generating hypotheses regarding its pathogenesis. We analyzed the prevalence of multiple HPV infections and their attribution to cervical disease in a screening population of 999 consecutive BD SurePath liquid-based cervical cytology samples enriched with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (n = 100), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (n = 100), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) (n = 97). HPV genotyping was performed only on cytology specimens using a broad-spectrum GP5+/6+-PCR/multiplex HPV genotyping (BSGP5+/6+-PCR/MPG) assay that detects and quantifies 51 HPV genotypes and 3 subtypes. Using a recently defined high viral load cutoff, the quantitative data were scored as high or low viral load. In the 36-month follow-up, 79 histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) cases were identified. In the screening population, there was a trend of having more multiple infections at a younger age. Multiple HPV infections were common. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in LSIL (75.9% of HPV positives), followed by HSIL (65.5%), ASCUS (64.6%), and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) (36.8%). On average, 3.2 and 2.5 HPV types were detected per LSIL and HSIL sample, respectively. Multiple HPV types with high viral loads were most prevalent in LSIL (62.6% of high viral load positives), followed by HSIL (51.9%), ASCUS (40.7%), and NILM (19.3%). Patients with multiple high viral loads showed a 4- to 6-fold-higher risk of having cervical precancerous cytological lesions than did patients with single high viral loads. Compared to NILM, multiple infections, especially with multiple high viral

  15. Exploring ammonium tolerance in a large panel of Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sarasketa, Asier; González-Moro, María Begoña; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Plants are dependent on exogenous nitrogen (N) supply. Ammonium (NH4 +), together with nitrate (NO3 –), is one of the main nitrogenous compounds available in the soil. Paradoxically, although NH4 + assimilation requires less energy than that of NO3 –, many plants display toxicity symptoms when grown with NH4 + as the sole N source. However, in addition to species-specific ammonium toxicity, intraspecific variability has also been shown. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the intraspecific ammonium tolerance in a large panel of Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions. Plants were grown with either 1mM NO3 – or NH4 + as the N source, and several parameters related to ammonium tolerance and assimilation were determined. Overall, high variability was observed in A. thaliana shoot growth under both forms of N nutrition. From the parameters determined, tissue ammonium content was the one with the highest impact on shoot biomass, and interestingly this was also the case when N was supplied as NO3 –. Enzymes of nitrogen assimilation did not have an impact on A. thaliana biomass variation, but the N source affected their activity. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) aminating activity was, in general, higher in NH4 +-fed plants. In contrast, GDH deaminating activity was higher in NO3 –-fed plants, suggesting a differential role for this enzyme as a function of the N form supplied. Overall, NH4 + accumulation seems to be an important player in Arabidopsis natural variability in ammonium tolerance rather than the cell NH4 + assimilation capacity. PMID:25205573

  16. Ammonium sorption to channel and riparian sediments: A transient storage pool for dissolved inorganic nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Triska, Frank J.; Jackman, Alan P.; Duff, John H.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment (0.5 mm–2.0 mm grain size) was incubated in nylon bags (200 μm mesh) below the water table in the channel and in two transects of shallow wells perpendicular to the banks (to 18 m) of a third-order stream during August, 1987. One transect of wells drained steep old-growth forest, and the other a steep 23 year-old clear-cut partially regenerated in alder. At approximately 6-week intervals between October, 1987, and June, 1988, bags were retrieved. Total exchangeable ammonium was determined on sediment, and dissolved oxygen, nitrate and ammonium were determined in stream and well water. Exchangeable ammonium ranged from 10 μeq/100 g of sediment in the stream where nitrification potential and subsurface exchange with stream water were high, to 115 μeq/100 g sediment 18 m inland where channel water-groundwater mixing and nitrification potential were both low. Sorbed ammonium was highest during summer/autumn base flow and lowest during winter storm flow. Both channel and well water contained measurable dissolved oxygen at all times. Ammonium concentration was typically < 10 μg-N/L in channel water, increased with distance inland, but did not exceed 365 μg-N/L at any site. Nitrate concentration was typically higher in well water than channel water. Nitrate levels increased dramatically in wells at the base of the clear-cut following the onset of autumn rains. The results indicate a potential for temporary storage of ammonium on riparian sediments which may influence biotic nitrogen cycling, and alter the timing and form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen transport from the watershed.

  17. Oral (drinking water) developmental toxicity study of ammonium perchlorate in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    York, R G; Brown, W R; Girard, M F; Dollarhide, J S

    2001-01-01

    This developmental toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenic potential of ammonium perchlorate in New Zealand White [Hra:(NZW)SPF] rabbits. Pregnant rabbits were given continual access to ammonium perchlorate in drinking water at target doses of 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, 30.0, and 100.0 mg/kg-day on gestation days 6 through 28. The actual consumed doses in the study were 0, 0.1, 0.9, 10.4, 30.3, and 102.3 mg/kg-day. The rabbits were sacrificed on gestation day 29, and fetuses were examined for developmental alterations. In addition, blood was collected from does for determination of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and the thyroid was subjected to histopathologic examination. No maternal deaths were attributed to perchlorate exposure. Ammonium perchlorate as high as 100.0 mg/kg-day did not affect caesarean sectioning or litter parameters studied, and all values were found to be within the historical ranges of the laboratory. The litter averages for corpora lutea, implantations, litter sizes, live and dead fetuses, percent dead or resorbed conceptuses, and fetal body weights were comparable and also did not differ significantly in the six dose groups. All placentae appeared normal and no dam had a litter consisting of only resorbed conceptuses. The maternal thyroid was the target organ for ammonium perchlorate in this study. Increased incidence of thyroid follicular hypertrophy was observed in does treated with > or =10 mg/kg-day perchlorate and significantly decreased T4 was observed in does treated with > or =30 mg/kg-day. Based on these data, the maternal no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for ammonium perchlorate was 1.0 mg/kg-day. The developmental NOAEL for ammonium perchlorate was found to be 100.0 mg/kg-day for rabbits.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  20. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  1. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  2. Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Obłąk, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Krasowska, Anna; Luczyński, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium chlorides and bromides with various alkyl chain and spacer lengths was synthesized. The most active compounds against fungi were chlorides with 10 carbon atoms within the hydrophobic chain. Among these compounds were few with no hemolytic activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations. None of the tested compounds were cytotoxic and mutagenic. Cationic gemini surfactants poorly reduced the adhesion of microorganisms to the polystyrene plate, but inhibited the filamentation of Candida albicans. One of the tested compounds eradicated C. albicans and Rodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm, what could be important in overcoming catheter-associated infections. It was also shown that gemini surfactants enhanced the sensitivity of C. albicans to azoles and polyenes, thus they might be potentially used in combined therapy against fungi.

  3. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  5. THE MASS ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOL. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mass transfer rate of pure ammonium nitrate between the aerosol and gas phases was
    quantified experimentally by the use of the tandem differential mobility analyzer/scanning mobility
    particle sizer (TDMA/SMPS) technique. Ammonium nitrate particles 80-220 nm in diameter<...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  7. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  8. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  9. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  10. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  11. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measuring the sum of glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl) monoammonium...-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propanoic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid equivalents... below is to be determined by measuring the sum of glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid,...

  12. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...-propionic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid equivalents, in or on the... ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)-, monoammonium salt and its metabolite,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1140 Ammonium citrate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium citrate, dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1140 Ammonium citrate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium citrate, dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  18. Racer (Ammonium Nonanoate) weed control evaluation for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer has been labeled as a herbicide for food use and is currently under consideration as an organic herbicide for organically grown food crops. The main component (40%) of Racer is ammonium nonanoate (ammonium pelargonate), which occurs in nature and primarily formed from biodegradation of higher...

  19. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  20. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...