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Sample records for abnormally high ammonium

  1. Abnormally high ammonium of natural origin in a coastal aquifer-aquitard system in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Wang, Ya; Cherry, John A; Wang, Xusheng; Zhi, Bingfa; Du, Haiyan; Wen, Dongguang

    2010-10-01

    High-nitrogen loadings of rivers and aquifers systems are a major concern because of potential effects on human health and water quality impacts such as eutrophication of lakes and coastal zones. This nitrogen enrichment is commonly attributed to anthropogenic sources such as sewage and agricultural and industrial wastes. The aims of this study were to delineate spatial distribution of groundwater ammonium in the coastal aquifer system in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China and to identify the origin of the abnormally high ammonium. A total of 40 boreholes were drilled to collect core samples of the aquitard and groundwater samples in the basal aquifer. The core samples were used for extraction of pore water for centrifugation and bulk chemical analyses in laboratory. Unlike previous studies which focused mainly on the aquifer, this study treated the aquifer-aquitard system as a hydrogeochemical continuum. The results show that the aquifer-aquitard system contains an exceptionally large total ammonium mass. Ammonium occurred at concentrations up to 390 mg/L in the basal sand Pleistocene aquifer 20-50 m deep, the largest concentration reported for groundwater globally. This ammonium was natural, areally extensive (1600 km(2)) and originated in the overlying Holocene-Pleistocene aquitard and entered the aquifer by groundwater transport and diffusion. Total ammonium in the aquifer (190 × 10(6) kg) was exceeded by total ammonium in the aquitard (8600 × 10(6) kg) by a factor of 45. Much organic nitrogen remained in the aquitard available for conversion to ammonium. This natural ammonium in the aquifer was slowly transported into the PRD river channels and the estuary of the South China Sea. The rate of this contribution will likely be greatly increased by sand dredging in the river channels and estuary. Although the ammonium in PRD groundwater occurred in the largest concentrations and mass reported globally, the literature shows no reports of other delta aquitards having

  2. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  3. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Urakaev, F.K.

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  4. Acclimation and toxicity of high ammonium concentrations to unicellular algae.

    PubMed

    Collos, Yves; Harrison, Paul J

    2014-03-15

    A literature review on the effects of high ammonium concentrations on the growth of 6 classes of microalgae suggests the following rankings. Mean optimal ammonium concentrations were 7600, 2500, 1400, 340, 260, 100 μM for Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Diatomophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Dinophyceae respectively and their tolerance to high toxic ammonium levels was 39,000, 13,000, 2300, 3600, 2500, 1200 μM respectively. Field ammonium concentrations <100 μM would not likely reduce the growth rate of most microalgae. Chlorophytes were significantly more tolerant to high ammonium than diatoms, prymnesiophytes, dinoflagellates, and raphidophytes. Cyanophytes were significantly more tolerant than dinoflagellates which were the least tolerant. A smaller but more complete data set was used to estimate ammonium EC₅₀ values, and the ranking was: Chlorophyceae>Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Diatomophyceae, and Raphidophyceae. Ammonia toxicity is mainly attributed to NH₃ at pHs >9 and at pHs <8, toxicity is likely associated with the ammonium ion rather than ammonia. PMID:24533997

  5. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  6. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  7. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density.

  8. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Aas, Wenche; Hellsten, Sofie; Akselsson, Cecilia; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Nihlgård, Bengt

    2013-05-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition of ammonium were detected at one low altitude site and several high altitude sites in north Sweden. The occurrence of the high ammonium in throughfall differed between the summer months 2006, most likely related to the timing of precipitation events. The ammonia dry deposition may have contributed to unusual visible injuries on the tree vegetation in northern Fennoscandia that occurred during 2006, in combination with high ozone concentrations. It is concluded that long-range transport of ammonium from large-scale biomass burning may contribute substantially to the nitrogen load at northern latitudes. PMID:23416271

  9. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and

  10. Repeated use of MAP decomposition residues for the removal of high ammonium concentration from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    He, Shilong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Du, Wenli; Harada, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    The residues of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) decomposed by heating under alkali conditions were repeatedly used as the sources of phosphate and magnesium for the removal of high ammonium concentration from landfill leachate. Up to 96% of ammonium in MAP powder could be released under the following conditions: NH4(+):OH- molar ratio, 1:1; temperature, 90 degrees C; heating time, 2 h. Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction analysis of MAP before and after heating demonstrated that MAP was mainly transformed to amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO4), which makes it possible for the NH4(+) to replace Na+ in MgNaPO4 to form more stable struvite. Successful ammonium removal was achieved by using the MAP decomposition residues as the sole phosphate and magnesium sources. The ammonium removal decreased gradually following the increase of MAP reuse cycles, and in the 6th cycle, ammonium removals of 84% and 62% were achieved for synthetic wastewater and landfill leachate, respectively. Analysis of the surfaces of MAP powders acquired at different reuse cycles using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray suggested that the existence of calcium, kalium and aluminum ions in landfill leachate might have inhibited the formation of MAP through competition with ammonium ions for phosphate ions. It is estimated that reuse of MAP for 3 cycles could save about 44% chemical costs.

  11. High irradiance improves ammonium tolerance in wheat plants by increasing N assimilation.

    PubMed

    Setién, Igor; Fuertes-Mendizabal, Teresa; González, Azucena; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro Ma; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, María Begoña; Estavillo, José María

    2013-05-15

    Ammonium is a paradoxical nutrient ion. Despite being a common intermediate in plant metabolism whose oxidation state eliminates the need for its reduction in the plant cell, as occurs with nitrate, it can also result in toxicity symptoms. Several authors have reported that carbon enrichment in the root zone enhances the synthesis of carbon skeletons and, accordingly, increases the capacity for ammonium assimilation. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that increasing the photosynthetic photon flux density is a way to increase plant ammonium tolerance. Wheat plants were grown in a hydroponic system with two different N sources (10mM nitrate or 10mM ammonium) and with two different light intensity conditions (300 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1) and 700 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1)). The results show that, with respect to biomass yield, photosynthetic rate, shoot:root ratio and the root N isotopic signature, wheat behaves as a sensitive species to ammonium nutrition at the low light intensity, while at the high intensity, its tolerance is improved. This improvement is a consequence of a higher ammonium assimilation rate, as reflected by the higher amounts of amino acids and protein accumulated mainly in the roots, which was supported by higher tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. Glutamate dehydrogenase was a key root enzyme involved in the tolerance to ammonium, while glutamine synthetase activity was low and might not be enough for its assimilation.

  12. Slow strain rate fracture of high-strength steel at controlled electrochemical potentials in ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and ammonium nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Daniels, R.D.

    1992-08-15

    Slow strain rate testing has been undertaken to determine the effects of individual chemical species on the fracture process of high-strength 4340 steel. Test environments included potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium chloride at concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mole por liter at ambient temperature. Tests were performed at cathodic and anodic controlled potentials, as well as at the open-circuit potential, to delineate the stress corrosion cracking range.

  13. Use of aerobic granules for treating synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Wan, Chunli; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mature aerobic granules were utilized to treat synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters with chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratios of 3.9-6.9. The contributions of various mechanisms to the removal of ammonium were determined. Ammonium levels of 600-2000 mg-N l-1 had little adverse effect on the COD removal rate (91.6%-95.3%) with an influent COD of 4490-9860 mg l-1. The TN removal rate was slightly reduced from 71.3% to 59.6% as the influent ammonium concentration was increased from 600 to 2000 mg-N l-1. Experimental results indicated that aerobic granules removed 94.5% of COD and 59.6% of TN in the treatment of synthetic high-strength wastewater (9860 mg-COD l-1 and 2000 mg NH+4-Nl-1) during a 12 h cycle. Granular adsorption, air stripping and conversion by nitrification/denitrification were responsible for removing 9%, 15% and 76%, respectively, of the total removed NHf -N. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was a useful process indicator of the biological reactions in the treatment of high-level ammonium wastewaters.

  14. Mechanistic aspects of the solid-state transformation of ammonium cyanate to urea at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Méreau, Raphael; Desmedt, Arnaud; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2007-04-19

    The chemical transformation of ammonium cyanate into urea has been of interest to many generations of scientists since its discovery by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. Although widely studied both experimentally and theoretically, several mechanistic aspects of this reaction remain to be understood. In this paper, we apply computational methods to investigate the behavior of ammonium cyanate in the solid state under high pressure, employing a theoretical approach based on the self-consistent-charges density-functional tight-binding method (SCC-DFTB). The ammonium cyanate crystal structure was relaxed under external pressure ranging from 0 to 700 GPa, leading to the identification of five structural phases. Significantly, the phase at highest pressure (above 535 GPa) corresponds to the formation of urea molecules. At ca. 25 GPa, there is a phase transition of ammonium cyanate (from tetragonal P4/nmm to monoclinic P21/m) involving a rearrangement of the ammonium cyanate molecules. This transformation is critical for the subsequent transformation to urea. The crystalline phase of urea obtained above 535 GPa also has P21/m symmetry (Z = 2). This polymorph of urea has never been reported previously. Comparisons to the known (tetragonal) polymorph of urea found experimentally at ambient pressure suggests that the new polymorph is more stable above ca. 8 GPa. Our computational studies show that the transformation of ammonium cyanate into urea is strongly exothermic (enthalpy change -170 kJ mol-1 per formula unit between 530 and 535 GPa). The proposed mechanism for this transformation involves the transfer of two hydrogen atoms of the ammonium cation toward nitrogen atoms of neighboring cyanate anions, and the remaining NH2 group creates a C-NH2 bond with the cyanate unit. PMID:17388562

  15. Mechanistic aspects of the solid-state transformation of ammonium cyanate to urea at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Méreau, Raphael; Desmedt, Arnaud; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2007-04-19

    The chemical transformation of ammonium cyanate into urea has been of interest to many generations of scientists since its discovery by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. Although widely studied both experimentally and theoretically, several mechanistic aspects of this reaction remain to be understood. In this paper, we apply computational methods to investigate the behavior of ammonium cyanate in the solid state under high pressure, employing a theoretical approach based on the self-consistent-charges density-functional tight-binding method (SCC-DFTB). The ammonium cyanate crystal structure was relaxed under external pressure ranging from 0 to 700 GPa, leading to the identification of five structural phases. Significantly, the phase at highest pressure (above 535 GPa) corresponds to the formation of urea molecules. At ca. 25 GPa, there is a phase transition of ammonium cyanate (from tetragonal P4/nmm to monoclinic P21/m) involving a rearrangement of the ammonium cyanate molecules. This transformation is critical for the subsequent transformation to urea. The crystalline phase of urea obtained above 535 GPa also has P21/m symmetry (Z = 2). This polymorph of urea has never been reported previously. Comparisons to the known (tetragonal) polymorph of urea found experimentally at ambient pressure suggests that the new polymorph is more stable above ca. 8 GPa. Our computational studies show that the transformation of ammonium cyanate into urea is strongly exothermic (enthalpy change -170 kJ mol-1 per formula unit between 530 and 535 GPa). The proposed mechanism for this transformation involves the transfer of two hydrogen atoms of the ammonium cation toward nitrogen atoms of neighboring cyanate anions, and the remaining NH2 group creates a C-NH2 bond with the cyanate unit.

  16. Suppression of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers under high organic content in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chong-jian; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Cai-hua; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2010-03-01

    The effect of organic matter on the nitrogen removal performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor fed with nitrogen loading rate of 13.92 kg Nm(-3)day(-1) at an HRT of 0.83 h. Mass balance showed that the heterotrophic denitrification prevailed in the UASB reactor, and became the dominant reactions when high influent COD/NO(2)(-)-N ratios of 2.92 were applied. The Anammox bacterial growth was significantly suppressed by denitrifying communities under high organic matter content due to the weaker competition for nitrite (electron acceptor) and living space. Long-term operation of the Anammox UASB reactor under relatively high organic content resulted in weak recovery performance.

  17. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1).

  18. Effects of high ammonium level on biomass accumulation of common duckweed Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Yang, Chuang; Tang, Xiaoyu; Gu, Xinjiao; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; Ma, Danwei

    2014-12-01

    Growing common duckweed Lemna minor L. in diluted livestock wastewater is an alternative option for pollutants removal and consequently the accumulated duckweed biomass can be used for bioenergy production. However, the biomass accumulation can be inhibited by high level of ammonium (NH4 (+)) in non-diluted livestock wastewater and the mechanism of ammonium inhibition is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of high concentration of NH4 (+) on L. minor biomass accumulation was investigated using NH4 (+) as sole source of nitrogen (N). NH4 (+)-induced toxicity symptoms were observed when L. minor was exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) after a 7-day cultivation. L. minor exposed to the NH4 (+)-N concentration of 840 mg l(-1) exhibited reduced relative growth rate, contents of carbon (C) and photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. Ammonium irons were inhibitory to the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused C/N imbalance in L. minor. These symptoms could further cause premature senescence of the fronds, and restrain their reproduction, growth and biomass accumulation. L. minor could grow at NH4 (+)-N concentrations of 7-84 mg l(-1) and the optimal NH4 (+)-N concentration was 28 mg l(-1). PMID:25056754

  19. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  20. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  1. Alkyl ammonium cation stabilized biocidal polyiodides with adaptable high density and low pressure.

    PubMed

    He, Chunlin; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-05-26

    The effective application of biocidal species requires building the active moiety into a molecular back bone that can be delivered and decomposed on demand under conditions of low pressure and prolonged high-temperature detonation. The goal is to destroy storage facilities and their contents while utilizing the biocidal products arising from the released energy to destroy any remaining harmful airborne agents. Decomposition of carefully selected iodine-rich compounds can produce large amounts of the very active biocides, hydroiodic acid (HI) and iodine (I2). Polyiodide anions, namely, I3(-), I5(-), which are excellent sources of such biocides, can be stabilized through interactions with large, symmetric cations, such as alkyl ammonium salts. We have designed and synthesized suitable compounds of adaptable high density up to 3.33 g cm(-3) that are low-pressure polyiodides with various alkyl ammonium cations, deliverable iodine contents of which range between 58.0-90.9%.

  2. A nitrogen-dependent switch in the high affinity ammonium transport in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Straub, Daniel; Ludewig, Uwe; Neuhäuser, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are crucial for the high affinity primary uptake and translocation of ammonium in plants. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the genomic set of AMT-type ammonium transporters comprises eight members. Only four genes were abundantly expressed in young seedlings, both in roots and shoots. While the expression of all AMTs in the shoot was not affected by the nitrogen availability, the dominating MtAMT1;1 gene was repressed by nitrogen in roots, despite that cellular nitrogen concentrations were far above deficiency levels. A contrasting de-repression by nitrogen was observed for MtAMT1;4 and MtAMT2;1, which were both expressed at intermediate level. Weak expression was found for MtAMT1;2 and MtAMT2;3, while the other AMTs were not detected in young seedlings. When expressed from their endogenous promoters, translational fusion proteins of MtAMT1;1 and MtAMT2;1 with green fluorescent protein were co-localized in the plasma membrane of rhizodermal cells, but also detected in cortical root layers. Both transporter proteins similarly functionally complemented a yeast strain that is deficient in high affinity ammonium transport, both at acidic and neutral pH. The uptake into yeast mediated by these transporters saturated with Km AMT1;1 = 89 µM and Km AMT2;1 = 123 µM, respectively. When expressed in oocytes, MtAMT1;1 mediated much larger (15)N-ammonium uptake than MtAMT2;1, but NH4 (+) currents were only recorded for MtAMT1;1. These currents saturated with a voltage-dependent Km = 90 µM at -80 mV. The cellular localization and regulation of the AMTs suggests that MtAMT1;1 encodes the major high affinity ammonium transporter gene in low nitrogen grown young M. truncatula roots and despite the similar localization and substrate affinity, MtAMT2;1 appears functionally distinct and more important at higher nitrogen supply. PMID:25164101

  3. [High frequency of thyroid abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calvar, Cecilia E; Bengolea, Sonia V; Deutsch, Susana I; Hermes, Ricardo; Ramos, Gustavo; Loyato, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities (TA) has not been sufficiently assessed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to evaluate this relationship. In this prospective study 194 women were included. The PCOS group consisted of 142 patients (diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and the control group included 52 age-matched healthy women. Fasting blood samples were drawn for free T4, thyrotropin, thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), fasting insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were calculated. A total of 52 PCOS patients had either autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT+) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism (HSC) (36.6%) (thyroid abnormalities:TA+) compared with 7 women of the control group (13.5%), accounting for more than a five fold higher prevalence of TA in PCOS patients, compared with the age-matched controls (adjusted odds ratio: 5.6; CI 95%: 2.1 -14.9; p<0.001). TA+ patients had significantly higher FI and HOMA-IR values than patients without thyroid abnormalities (p<0.05). These results demonstrate a high rate of TA in young PCOS women, associated with higher levels of FI and HOMA-IR. As PCOS, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity may have a profound impact on reproductive health, our data indicate that PCOS patients should be screened for TA. PMID:26339875

  4. High pressure structural, elastic and vibrational properties of green energetic oxidizer ammonium dinitramide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Ghule, Vikas D.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonium DiNitramide (ADN) is one of the most promising green energetic oxidizers for future rocket propellant formulations. In the present work, we report a detailed theoretical study on structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of the emerging oxidizer under hydrostatic compression using various dispersion correction methods to capture weak intermolecular (van der Waals and hydrogen bonding) interactions. The calculated ground state lattice parameters, axial compressibilities, and equation of state are in good accord with the available experimental results. Strength of intermolecular interactions has been correlated using the calculated compressibility curves and elastic moduli. Apart from this, we also observe discontinuities in the structural parameters and elastic constants as a function of pressure. Pictorial representation and quantification of intermolecular interactions are described by the 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D finger print maps. In addition, the computed infra-red (IR) spectra at ambient pressure reveal that ADN is found to have more hygroscopic nature over Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) due to the presence of strong hydrogen bonding. Pressure dependent IR spectra show blue- and red-shift of bending and stretching frequencies which leads to weakening and strengthening of the hydrogen bonding below and above 5 GPa, respectively. The abrupt changes in the calculated structural, mechanical, and IR spectra suggest that ADN might undergo a first order structural transformation to a high pressure phase around 5-6 GPa. From the predicted detonation properties, ADN is found to have high and low performance characteristics (DCJ = 8.09 km/s and PCJ = 25.54 GPa) when compared with ammonium based energetic oxidizers (DCJ = 6.50 km/s and PCJ = 17.64 GPa for AP, DCJ = 7.28 km/s and PCJ = 18.71 GPa for ammonium nitrate) and well-known secondary explosives for which DCJ = ˜8-10 km/s and PCJ = ˜30-50 GPa, respectively.

  5. Nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots from ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Xu, Minghan; Liu, Yun; He, Fengjiao; Gao, Feng; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis.

  6. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  7. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight...

  8. The high-affinity poplar ammonium importer PttAMT1.2 and its role in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Selle, Anita; Willmann, Martin; Grunze, Nina; Gessler, Arthur; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2005-12-01

    One way to elucidate whether ammonium could act as a nitrogen (N) source delivered by the fungus in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is to investigate plant ammonium importers. Expression analysis of a high-affinity ammonium importer from Populus tremulax tremuloides (PttAMT1.2) and of known members of the AMT1 gene family from Populus trichocarpa was performed. In addition, PttAMT1.2 function was studied in detail by heterologous expression in yeast. PttAMT1.2 expression proved to be root-specific, affected by N nutrition, and strongly increased in a N-independent manner upon ectomycorrhiza formation. The corresponding protein had a K(M) value for ammonium of c. 52 microm. From the seven members of the AMT1 gene family, one gene was exclusively expressed in roots while four genes were detectable in all poplar organs but with varying degrees of expression. Ectomycorrhiza formation resulted in a strong upregulation of three of these genes. Our results indicate an increased ammonium uptake capacity of mycorrhized poplar roots and suggest, together with the expression of putative ammonium exporter genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria, that ammonium could be a major N source delivered from the fungus towards the plant in symbiosis.

  9. Nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots from ammonium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Xu, Minghan; Liu, Yun; He, Fengjiao; Gao, Feng; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis.The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The curve of photoluminescence and absorbance of N-doped CDs and quinine sulfate, and the table showing XPS detailed information. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05380f

  10. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments.

  11. Tetranitroacetimidic acid: a high oxygen oxidizer and potential replacement for ammonium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thao T; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-08-27

    Considerable work has been focused on developing replacements for ammonium perchlorate (AP), a primary choice for solid rocket and missile propellants, due to environmental concerns resulting from the release of perchlorate into groundwater systems [corrected]. Additionally, the generation of hydrochloric acid contributes to high concentrations of acid rain and to ozone layer depletion. En route to synthesizing salts that contain cationic FOX-7, a novel, high oxygen-containing oxidizer, tetranitroacetimidic acid (TNAA), has been synthesized and fully characterized. The properties of TNAA were found to be exceptional, with a calculated specific impulse exceeding that of AP, leading to its high potential as a replacement for AP. TNAA can be synthesized easily in a one-step process by the nitration of FOX-7 in high yield (>93%). The synthesis, properties, and chemical reactivity of TNAA have been examined.

  12. Ammonium carbamates as highly active transdermal permeation enhancers with a dual mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Michal; Klimentová, Jana; Janůšová, Barbora; Palát, Karel; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2011-03-10

    Transdermal permeation enhancers are compounds that temporarily increase drug flux through the skin by interacting with constituents of the stratum corneum. Transkarbam 12 (T12) is a highly active, broad-spectrum, biodegradable enhancer with low toxicity and low dermal irritation. We show here that T12 acts by a dual mechanism of action. The first part of this activity is associated with its ammonium carbamate polar head as shown by its pH-dependent effects on the permeation of two model drugs. Once this ammonium carbamate penetrates into the stratum corneum intercellular lipids, it rapidly decomposes releasing two molecules of protonated dodecyl 6-aminohexanoate (DDEAC) and carbon dioxide. This was observed by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. This step of T12 action influences drug permeation through lipidic pathways, not through the aqueous pores (polar pathway) as shown by its effects on various model drugs and electrical impedance. Consequently, protonated DDEAC released in the stratum corneum is also an active enhancer. It broadens the scope of T12 action since it is also able to increase permeation of hydrophilic drugs that prefer the pore pathway. Thus, this dual effect of T12 is likely responsible for its favorable properties, which make it a good candidate for prospective clinical use.

  13. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  14. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  15. Ammonium removal from high-strength aqueous solutions by Australian zeolite.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Sommer, Sven G; Jayasinghe, Guttila Y; J Scales, Peter; Chen, Deli

    2016-07-01

    Removal of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) particularly from sources which are highly rich in nitrogen is important for addressing environmental pollution. Zeolites, aluminosilicate minerals, are commonly used as commercial adsorbents and ion-exchange medium in number of commercial applications due to its high adsorption capacity of ammonium (NH4(+)). However, detailed investigations on NH4(+) adsorption and ion exchange capacities of Australian natural zeolites are rare, particularly under higher NH4(+) concentrations in the medium. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine NH4(+) adsorption characteristics of Australian natural zeolites at high NH4(+) concentrations with and without other chemical compounds in an aqueous solution. Results showed that initial NH4(+) concentration, temperature, reaction time, and pH of the solution had significant effects on NH4(+) adsorption capacity of zeolite. Increased retention time and temperature generally had a positive impact on adsorption. Freundlich model fitted well with adsorption process of Australian natural zeolites; however, Langmuir model had best fitted for the adsorption process of sodium (Na(+)) treated zeolites. NaCl treatment increased the NH4(+) adsorption capacity of Australian zeolites by 25% at 1000 mg-N, NH4(+) solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of both natural Australian zeolites and Na(+) treated zeolites were estimated as 9.48 and 11.83 mg-N/g, respectively, which is lower than many zeolites from other sources. Compared to the NH4(+) only medium, presence of other competitive ions and acetic acid in the medium (resembling composition in digested swine manure slurries) reduced NH4(+) removal of natural and Na(+) treated zeolites by 44% and 57%, respectively. This suggests detailed investigations are required to determine practically achievable NH4(+) -N removal potential of zeolites for applications in complex mediums such as animal manure slurries.

  16. Molecular Detection of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria in High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Chen, Shuo; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle of the worldwide anoxic and mesophilic habitats. Recently, the existence and activity of anammox bacteria have been detected in some thermophilic environments, but their existence in the geothermal subterranean oil reservoirs is still not reported. This study investigated the abundance, distribution and functional diversity of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 high-temperature oil reservoirs by molecular ecology analysis. High concentration (5.31–39.2 mg l−1) of ammonium was detected in the production water from these oilfields with temperatures between 55°C and 75°C. Both 16S rRNA and hzo molecular biomarkers indicated the occurrence of anammox bacteria in nine out of 17 samples. Most of 16S rRNA gene phylotypes are closely related to the known anammox bacterial genera Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia, while hzo gene phylotypes are closely related to the genera Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Scalindua, and Candidatus Jettenia. The total bacterial and anammox bacterial densities were 6.4 ± 0.5 × 103 to 2.0 ± 0.18 × 106 cells ml−1 and 6.6 ± 0.51 × 102 to 4.9 ± 0.36 × 104 cell ml−1, respectively. The cluster I of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed distant identity (<92%) to the known Candidatus Scalindua species, inferring this cluster of anammox bacteria to be a new species, and a tentative name Candidatus “Scalindua sinooilfield” was proposed. The results extended the existence of anammox bacteria to the high-temperature oil reservoirs. PMID:20740282

  17. High pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering studies of ammonium azide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Cui, Hang; Zhang, Jian; Cong, Ridong; Zhu, Hongyang; Cui, Qiliang

    2013-03-01

    Ammonium azide (NH4N3) has been studied by in situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering at room temperature. NH4N3 exhibits strong hydrogen bonding features with compression. The hydrogen bond weaken with increasing pressure due to the bending of N-H…N bond, leading to the increase of N-H stretch frequency and rotation of azide anions at 2b and 4h Wyckoff positions up to 2.9 GPa. The orientation of azide anions obviously influences the compressibility properties of NH4N3. The phase transition involves rotation of azide anions and a proximity of a and c, temporally assigned as a reversible second-order orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition.

  18. Phase diagram of ammonium perchlorate: Raman spectroscopic constrains at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-06-01

    We present the pressure-temperature (PT) induced physical and chemical transformations in ammonium perchlorates (APs) up to 50 GPa and 450 °C, using diamond anvil cells and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, which provide new constraints for the phase diagram of AP. The results show spectral evidences for three new polymorphs (III, IV, and VI) of AP, in addition to two previously known phases (I and II), at various PT conditions with varying degrees of hydrogen bonding and lack of strong spectral evidence for previously known high-temperature cubic phase (phase V). Upon further heating, AP chemically decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O. The present phase diagram is, therefore, in sharp contrast to the previous one, underscoring a rich polymorphism, a large stability field for solids, and a replacement of the melt with a decomposition line.

  19. Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kumar; Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    High-performance electrochemical capacitors will drive the next-generation portable, flexible and wearable electronics. Unlike the conventional all-carbon supercapacitors (electric double layer capacitors, EDLC) with high power but poor energy density, pseudocapacitors capitalize the high energy density inherent to reversible redox reactions and provide a facile means to enhancing the energy ratings of supercapacitors. The high length-to-diameter ratio and anisotropic character of 1-D architecture makes them suitable for use in energy storage. For the first time, we report 1-D microrod structures (~ 36 nm width) of ammonium nickel phosphate hydrate (ANPmr) as a pseudocapacitor with high energy rating and power handling. To confirm the data, the ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor was subjected to various configurations (i.e., half-cell, symmetric, asymmetric, and flexible all-solid-state) and in each case it gave excellent values compared to any accessible literature to date. We clearly demonstrate that a flexible all-solid-state ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor achieved high areal capacitance of 66 mF cm(-2) with extra-ordinary energy (21.2 mWh cm(-2)) and power (12.7 mW cm(-2)) densities. This work opens doors for a facile, robust and scalable preparation strategy for low-cost, earth-abundant electrode materials for high-performance pseudocapacitors. PMID:26631578

  20. Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kumar; Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2015-12-03

    High-performance electrochemical capacitors will drive the next-generation portable, flexible and wearable electronics. Unlike the conventional all-carbon supercapacitors (electric double layer capacitors, EDLC) with high power but poor energy density, pseudocapacitors capitalize the high energy density inherent to reversible redox reactions and provide a facile means to enhancing the energy ratings of supercapacitors. The high length-to-diameter ratio and anisotropic character of 1-D architecture makes them suitable for use in energy storage. For the first time, we report 1-D microrod structures (~ 36 nm width) of ammonium nickel phosphate hydrate (ANPmr) as a pseudocapacitor with high energy rating and power handling. To confirm the data, the ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor was subjected to various configurations (i.e., half-cell, symmetric, asymmetric, and flexible all-solid-state) and in each case it gave excellent values compared to any accessible literature to date. We clearly demonstrate that a flexible all-solid-state ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor achieved high areal capacitance of 66 mF cm(-2) with extra-ordinary energy (21.2 mWh cm(-2)) and power (12.7 mW cm(-2)) densities. This work opens doors for a facile, robust and scalable preparation strategy for low-cost, earth-abundant electrode materials for high-performance pseudocapacitors.

  1. Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Kumar; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2015-12-01

    High-performance electrochemical capacitors will drive the next-generation portable, flexible and wearable electronics. Unlike the conventional all-carbon supercapacitors (electric double layer capacitors, EDLC) with high power but poor energy density, pseudocapacitors capitalize the high energy density inherent to reversible redox reactions and provide a facile means to enhancing the energy ratings of supercapacitors. The high length-to-diameter ratio and anisotropic character of 1-D architecture makes them suitable for use in energy storage. For the first time, we report 1-D microrod structures (~ 36 nm width) of ammonium nickel phosphate hydrate (ANPmr) as a pseudocapacitor with high energy rating and power handling. To confirm the data, the ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor was subjected to various configurations (i.e., half-cell, symmetric, asymmetric, and flexible all-solid-state) and in each case it gave excellent values compared to any accessible literature to date. We clearly demonstrate that a flexible all-solid-state ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor achieved high areal capacitance of 66 mF cm-2 with extra-ordinary energy (21.2 mWh cm-2) and power (12.7 mW cm-2) densities. This work opens doors for a facile, robust and scalable preparation strategy for low-cost, earth-abundant electrode materials for high-performance pseudocapacitors.

  2. Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kumar; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2015-01-01

    High-performance electrochemical capacitors will drive the next-generation portable, flexible and wearable electronics. Unlike the conventional all-carbon supercapacitors (electric double layer capacitors, EDLC) with high power but poor energy density, pseudocapacitors capitalize the high energy density inherent to reversible redox reactions and provide a facile means to enhancing the energy ratings of supercapacitors. The high length-to-diameter ratio and anisotropic character of 1-D architecture makes them suitable for use in energy storage. For the first time, we report 1-D microrod structures (~ 36 nm width) of ammonium nickel phosphate hydrate (ANPmr) as a pseudocapacitor with high energy rating and power handling. To confirm the data, the ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor was subjected to various configurations (i.e., half-cell, symmetric, asymmetric, and flexible all-solid-state) and in each case it gave excellent values compared to any accessible literature to date. We clearly demonstrate that a flexible all-solid-state ANPmr-based pseudocapacitor achieved high areal capacitance of 66 mF cm−2 with extra-ordinary energy (21.2 mWh cm−2) and power (12.7 mW cm−2) densities. This work opens doors for a facile, robust and scalable preparation strategy for low-cost, earth-abundant electrode materials for high-performance pseudocapacitors. PMID:26631578

  3. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720

  4. A differential protein solubility approach for the depletion of highly abundant proteins in plasma using ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Mills, Ian G; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-12-21

    Depletion of highly abundant proteins is an approved step in blood plasma analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we explored a precipitation and differential protein solubility approach as a fractionation strategy for abundant protein removal from plasma. Total proteins from plasma were precipitated with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, followed by differential solubilization in 55% and 35% saturated ammonium sulfate solutions. Using a four hour liquid chromatography (LC) gradient and an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer, a total of 167 and 224 proteins were identified from the 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate fractions, whereas 235 proteins were found in the remaining protein fractions with at least two unique peptides. SDS-PAGE and exclusive total spectrum counts from LC-MS/MS analyses clearly showed that majority of the abundant plasma proteins were solubilized in 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate solutions, indicating that the remaining protein fraction is of potential interest for identification of less abundant plasma proteins. Serum albumin, serotransferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transthyretin were the abundant proteins that were highly enriched in 55% ammonium sulfate fractions. Immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, and apolipoproteins were among other abundant plasma proteins that were enriched in 35% ammonium sulfate fractions. In the remaining protein fractions a total of 40 unique proteins were identified of which, 32 proteins were identified with at least 10 exclusive spectrum counts. According to PeptideAtlas, 9 of these 32 proteins were estimated to be present at low μg ml(-1) (0.12-1.9 μg ml(-1)) concentrations in the plasma, and 17 at low ng ml(-1) (0.1-55 ng ml(-1)) range.

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  6. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  7. Physiological responses of Egeriadensa to high ammonium concentration and nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shengqi, Su; Zhou, Yiming; Qin, Jian G; Wang, Wei; Yao, Weizhi; Song, Liang

    2012-02-01

    High ammonia (i.e. the total of NH(3) and NH(4)(+)) concentration or nitrogen deficiency in water can exert stress on growth and health of many aquatic plants. To investigate the physiological impacts of high ammonia-N (NH(4)Cl) concentration and nitrogen deficiency on plant physiology, apical shoots of submerged macrophyte Egeriadensa were first treated with five levels of nitrogen: 0, 1, 10, 30, 60 mg L(-1) ammonia-N (NH(4)Cl) for 5d. After having explored the stress range of ammonia-N, its effect on E. densa was further examined at three levels of ammonium (0, 1, 30 mg L(-1) ammonia-N) and at six exposure times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7d). In testing the concentration-dependent stress, the increase of ammonia-N reduced the amounts of total chlorophyll (chl a and b), soluble proteins and soluble carbohydrates, but increased the activity levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase in E. densa. In the N-free medium, total chlorophyll, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates and the activities of SOD and peroxidase in E. densa decreased significantly compared with the control (1 mg L(-1) ammonia-N). When comparing the ammonia-N impacts over time, the plants showed a declining trend in total chlorophyll, soluble proteins and soluble carbohydrates, but an rising trend in MDA, SOD, peroxidase and catalase in 30 mg L(-1) ammonia-N over 7d. Compared with the control, the N-free medium significantly decreased the amounts of total chlorophyll, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, SOD and peroxidase in E. densa over time. Our study indicates that high ammonium (ammonia-N ≥ 10 mg L(-1)) affects the growth of E. densa through inducing oxidative stress and inhibiting photosynthesis, and nitrogen deficiency can also induce an abiotic stress condition for the E. densa growth by reducing photosynthetic pigments, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22099536

  8. Metabolic adaptation of microbial communities to ammonium stress in a high solid anaerobic digester with dewatered sludge

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Yan, Han; Li, Ning; He, Jin; Ding, Yueling; Dai, Lingling; Dong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A high solid digester with dewatered sludge was operated for 110 days to ascertain the interactions between bacterial and archaeal communities under ammonium stress, as well as the corresponding changes in bio-degradation mechanisms. The volatile solids reduction (95% confidence intervals in mean) changed from 31.6 ± 0.9% in the stable period (day 40–55) to 21.3 ± 1.5% in the last period (day 71–110) when ammonium concentration was elevated to be within 5,000–6,000 mgN/L. Biogas yield dropped accordingly from 11.9 ± 0.3 to 10.4 ± 0.2 L/d and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously from 35.2% to 44.8%. Anaerobranca better adapted to the ammonium stress, while the initially dominant protein-degrading microbes-Tepidimicrobium and Proteiniborus were suppressed, probably responsible for the increase of protein content in digestate. Meanwhile, Methanosarcina, as the dominant Archaea, was resistant to ammonium stress with the constant relative abundance of more than 92% during the whole operation. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis was thus conducted which indicated that the gradually increased TAN dictated the bacterial clusters. The dominant Methanosarcina and the increased carbon dioxide content under ammonium stress suggested that, rather than the commonly acknowledged syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, only SAO pathway was enhanced during the initial ‘ammonium inhibition’. PMID:27312792

  9. Differential responses of two wetland graminoids to high ammonium at different pH values.

    PubMed

    van Diggelen, J M H; Smolders, A J P; Visser, E J W; Hicks, S; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced soil ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in wetlands often lead to graminoid dominance, but species composition is highly variable. Although NH4+ is readily taken up as a nutrient, several wetland species are known to be sensitive to high NH4+ concentrations or even suffer toxicity, particularly at low soil pH. More knowledge about differential graminoid responses to high NH4+ availability in relation to soil pH can help to better understand vegetation changes. The responses of two wetland graminoids, Juncus acutiflorus and Carex disticha, to high (2 mmol·l(-1) ) versus control (20 μmol·l(-1) ) NH4+ concentrations were tested in a controlled hydroponic set up, at two pH values (4 and 6). A high NH4+ concentration did not change total biomass for these species at either pH, but increased C allocation to shoots and increased P uptake, leading to K and Ca limitation, depending on pH treatment. More than 50% of N taken up by C. disticha was invested in N-rich amino acids with decreasing C:N ratio, but only 10% for J. acutiflorus. Although both species appeared to be well adapted to high NH4+ loadings in the short term, C. disticha showed higher classic detoxifying responses that are early warning indicators for decreased tolerance in the long term. In general, the efficient aboveground biomass allocation, P uptake and N detoxification explain the competitive strength of wetland graminoids at the expense of overall biodiversity at high NH4+ loading. In addition, differential responses to enhanced NH4+ affect interspecific competition among graminoids and lead to a shift in vegetation composition. PMID:26404423

  10. Differential responses of two wetland graminoids to high ammonium at different pH values.

    PubMed

    van Diggelen, J M H; Smolders, A J P; Visser, E J W; Hicks, S; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced soil ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in wetlands often lead to graminoid dominance, but species composition is highly variable. Although NH4+ is readily taken up as a nutrient, several wetland species are known to be sensitive to high NH4+ concentrations or even suffer toxicity, particularly at low soil pH. More knowledge about differential graminoid responses to high NH4+ availability in relation to soil pH can help to better understand vegetation changes. The responses of two wetland graminoids, Juncus acutiflorus and Carex disticha, to high (2 mmol·l(-1) ) versus control (20 μmol·l(-1) ) NH4+ concentrations were tested in a controlled hydroponic set up, at two pH values (4 and 6). A high NH4+ concentration did not change total biomass for these species at either pH, but increased C allocation to shoots and increased P uptake, leading to K and Ca limitation, depending on pH treatment. More than 50% of N taken up by C. disticha was invested in N-rich amino acids with decreasing C:N ratio, but only 10% for J. acutiflorus. Although both species appeared to be well adapted to high NH4+ loadings in the short term, C. disticha showed higher classic detoxifying responses that are early warning indicators for decreased tolerance in the long term. In general, the efficient aboveground biomass allocation, P uptake and N detoxification explain the competitive strength of wetland graminoids at the expense of overall biodiversity at high NH4+ loading. In addition, differential responses to enhanced NH4+ affect interspecific competition among graminoids and lead to a shift in vegetation composition.

  11. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  12. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  13. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  14. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  15. Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-11-08

    As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

  16. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments. PMID:26762390

  17. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  18. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  19. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  20. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  1. High durability and low toxicity antimicrobial coatings fabricated by quaternary ammonium silane copolymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairui; Bao, Hongqian; Bok, Ke Xin; Lee, Chi-Ying; Li, Bo; Zin, Melvin T; Kang, Lifeng

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion and subsequent growth of microorganisms on material surfaces are a major concern in many biomedical applications. Currently, various polymers are immobilized on material surfaces to prevent microbial colonization. However, there are several challenges with regard to the coating materials, including their inability to kill microorganisms, complexity of surface grafting, limited durability and toxicity towards humans. To address these challenges, we synthesize a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) antimicrobial copolymer to confer the antimicrobial effect via a simple thermal-curing coating process. The QAS copolymers were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than a commercial antimicrobial QAS monomeric agent, namely, dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]ammonium chloride (DTPAC). Moreover, the QAS coatings demonstrated superior antimicrobial efficacy and durability than those of the DTPAC coatings. In conclusion, the novel QAS copolymers are useful to prevent substrates from microbial infections, yet with low toxicity to humans and long durability. In addition, the synthetic process is potentially scalable for industrial applications.

  2. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  3. Inorganic nitrogen transformations in the treatment of landfill leachate with a high ammonium load: A case study.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Stephen D; Jolley, Dianne F; Wilson, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogen transformations occurring at a municipal waste leachate treatment facility were investigated. The treatment facility consisted of a collection well and an artificial wetland between two aeration ponds. The first aeration pond showed a decrease in ammonium (from 3480 (+/- 120) to 630(+/- 90) mg x L(-1)), a reduction in inorganic nitrogen load (3480 to 1680 mg N x L(-1)), and an accumulation of nitrite (< 1.3 mg-N x L(-1) in the collection well, to 1030 mg-N x L(-1)). Incomplete ammonium oxidation was presumably the result of the low concentration of carbonate alkalinity (approximately 2 mg x L(-1)), which may cause a limitation in the ammonium oxidation rate of nitrifiers. Low carbonate alkalinity levels may have been the result of stripping of CO(2) from the first aeration pond at the high aeration rates and low pH. Various chemodenitrification mechanisms are discussed as the reason for the reduction in the inorganic nitrogen load, including; the reduction of nitrite by iron (II) (producing various forms of gaseous nitrogen); and reactions involving nitrous acid. It is suggested that the accumulation of nitrite may be the result of inhibition of nitrite oxidizers by nitrous acid and low temperatures. Relative to the first aeration pond, the speciation and concentration of inorganic nitrogen was stable in the wetlands and 2nd aeration pond. The limited denitrification in the wetlands most probably occurred due to low concentrations of organic carbon, and short retention times.

  4. High-throughput genome sequencing of lichenizing fungi to assess gene loss in the ammonium transporter/ammonia permease gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer has shaped the evolution of the ammonium transporter/ammonia permease gene family. Horizontal transfers of ammonium transporter/ammonia permease genes into the fungi include one transfer from archaea to the filamentous ascomycetes associated with the adaptive radiation of the leotiomyceta. The horizontally transferred gene has subsequently been lost in most of the group but has been selectively retained in lichenizing fungi. However, some groups of lichens appear to have secondarily lost the archaeal ammonium transporter. Definitive assessment of gene loss can only be made via whole genome sequencing. Results Ammonium transporter/ammonia permease gene sequences were recovered from the assembled genomes of eight lichenizing fungi in key clades including the Caliciales, the Peltigerales, the Ostropomycetidae, the Acarosporomycetidae, the Verrucariales, the Arthoniomycetidae and the Lichinales. The genes recovered were included in a refined phylogenetic analysis. The hypothesis that lichens symbiotic with a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium as a primary photobiont or lichens living in high nitrogen environments lose the plant-like ammonium transporters was upheld, but did not account for additional losses of ammonium transporters/ammonia permeases in the lichens from the Acarosporomycetidae, Chaetotheriomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. In addition, the four ammonium transporter/ammonia permease genes from Cladonia grayi were shown to be functional by expressing the lichen genes in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which all three native ammonium transporters were deleted, and assaying for growth on limiting ammonia as a sole nitrogen source. Conclusions Given sufficient coverage, next-generation sequencing technology can definitively address the loss of a gene in a genome when using environmental DNA isolated from lichen thalli collected from their natural habitats. Lichen-forming fungi have been losing ammonium transporters

  5. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  6. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  7. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Management of non-high-density lipoprotein abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports the use of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB), and low-density lipoprotein particles as markers of atherogenic risk. Treatment guidelines also identify these as additional targets of lipid-modifying intervention in patients with elevated triglycerides (TG). Even when TG are only moderately elevated, many patients on statin monotherapy who have achieved targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) fail to reach non-HDL-C treatment goals, and even fewer reach apoB goals. Combination lipid-modifying therapy is therefore indicated for comprehensive lipid management, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in whom LDL-C levels are often considered 'optimal'. Of the available options, adding either a niacin, fibrate or omega-3 fatty acids provides greater opportunity to achieve non-HDL-C and apoB targets, given complementary profiles of lipid-modifying activity and supported by evidence from clinical studies. Improvement in lipid control and reduction in atherogenic risk could be anticipated to translate to benefits in clinical outcomes. PMID:19545870

  9. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  10. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg‑1; 20mg NO3‑-N kg‑1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3‑ and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg‑1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg‑1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3‑ pools, and spatial separation of NO3‑ formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to

  11. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1; 20mg NO3--N kg-1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3- and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg-1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3- pools, and spatial separation of NO3- formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to total N2O

  12. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2–VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear. All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed. A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001). The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  13. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  14. Nitrosomonas stercoris sp. nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha-like microbes are distributed in strongly eutrophic environments such as wastewater treatment plants and animal manure. In the present study, we isolated an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium tolerant of high ammonium levels, designated strain KYUHI-ST, from composted cattle manure. Unlike the other known Nitrosomonas species, this isolate grew at 1,000 mM ammonium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Nitrosomonas and formed a unique cluster with the uncultured ammonia oxidizers found in wastewater systems and animal manure composts, suggesting that these ammonia oxidizers contributed to removing higher concentrations of ammonia in strongly eutrophic environments. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic data presented here, we propose and call for the validation of the provisional taxonomic assignment Nitrosomonas stercoris, with strain KYUHI-S as the type strain (type strain KYUHI-ST = NBRC 110753T = ATCC BAA-2718T). PMID:26156554

  15. Effect of carbon source on acclimatization of nitrifying bacteria to achieve high-rate partial nitrification of wastewater with high ammonium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2014-08-01

    Experiments in two laboratory-scale sequential batch reactors were carried out to investigate the effect of heterotrophic bacteria on nitrifying bacteria using external carbon sources. Partial nitrification of ammonium-rich wastewater during short-term acclimatization enriched the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in both reactors. Heterotrophic bacteria exhibited a minor effect on nitrifying bacteria, and complete removal of ammonium occurred at a rate of 41 mg L-1 h-1 in both reactors. The main strategy of this research was to carry out partial nitrification using high-activity ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with a high concentration of free ammonia (70 mg L-1). The NO2 -/(NO3 - + NO2 -) ratio was greater than 0.9 in both reactors most of the time.

  16. Ammonium attenuation in aquifer material impacted with high levels of organic wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-08-01

    Total concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +1}) have been found to exceed the State of Wyoming ground water quality standard for Class 1 aquifers near Torrington, Wyoming. The cause of the NH{sub 4}{sup +1} contamination is thought to be associated with fertilizer use and/or the leaching of organics into the ground water from impoundments holding wastes from sugar beet processing. This type of contamination could be expected from other industrial processes, including those associated with the use of fossil fuels. In an initial step in understanding and solving the ground water contamination problem, Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a laboratory investigation to understand the aquifer system as it relates to the chemistry of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} as it moves through the aquifer material. The data collected during the attenuation tests do provide an indication that the attenuation of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} in the ground water system will occur. In addition, the results show the redox condition of the site and the possible chemical reactions that are influencing the ground water quality.

  17. On a problem of abnormal high local tsunami run-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaystrenko, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of tsunami height distributions along the coast shows that far tsunami sources give a rather homogeneous and smoothed distributions. On the contrary, we have many examples of abnormal high tsunami run-ups produced by the source near the coast. There are Urup tsunami at 20 October 1963, Nihonkai-Chubu tsunami 26 May 1983, Okushiri tsunami 12 July 1993, Indonesia tsunami 26 December 2004 and others. Investigation of Go (1993) showed that mechanism of its forming looks random. The term 'abnormal high' means abnormal high local tsunami run-up comparatively to the one on the nearest part of coast. There are several possible mechanisms of forming of abnormal tsunami height. It can be done by focusing bottom topography or non-linear interaction and other. All of these mechanisms are not investigated to the end. Additionally to it there is one smoothing mechanism which makes tsunami height distributions more homogeneous. We can show that homogeneous shelf is working as smoothing mechanism fir wave field. Tsunami propagation in the shelf zone except area near the coast can be described by linear wave equation ν tt=div(gh grad ν) where ν describes the disturbance of the sea level, g is the gravity acceleration and h is the sea depth.. Investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the shelf can give a result: there are no abnormal high local tsunami run-ups if tsunami source is locating out of homogeneous shelf zone. The work was supported by Russian foundation for basic research, grant 08-05-01096. REFERENCES Ch.N.Go. The limitation of tsunami wave height. TSUNAMI'93. Proceedings of the International Tsunami Symposium. Wakayama, Japan, August 23-27, 1993, pp. 87-93.

  18. Chromothripsis Is a Recurrent Genomic Abnormality in High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abáigar, María; Robledo, Cristina; Benito, Rocío; Ramos, Fernando; Díez-Campelo, María; Hermosín, Lourdes; Sánchez-del-Real, Javier; Alonso, Jose M.; Cuello, Rebeca; Megido, Marta; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; Aguilar, Carlos; Vargas, Manuel; Martín, Ana A.; García, Juan L.; Kohlmann, Alexander; del Cañizo, M. Consuelo; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. 301 patients diagnosed with MDS (n = 240) or MDS/MPN (n = 61) were studied at the time of diagnosis. A genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number abnormalities was performed. In addition, a mutational analysis of DNMT3A, TET2, RUNX1, TP53 and BCOR genes was performed by NGS in selected cases. 285 abnormalities were identified in 71 patients (23.6%). Three high-risk MDS cases (1.2%) displayed chromothripsis involving exclusively chromosome 13 and affecting some cancer genes: FLT3, BRCA2 and RB1. All three cases carried TP53 mutations as revealed by NGS. Moreover, in the whole series, the integrative analysis of aCGH and NGS enabled the identification of cryptic recurrent deletions in 2p23.3 (DNMT3A; n = 2.8%), 4q24 (TET2; n = 10%) 17p13 (TP53; n = 8.5%), 21q22 (RUNX1; n = 7%), and Xp11.4 (BCOR; n = 2.8%), while mutations in the non-deleted allele where found only in DNMT3A (n = 1), TET2 (n = 3), and TP53 (n = 4). These cryptic abnormalities were detected mainly in patients with normal (45%) or non-informative (15%) karyotype by conventional cytogenetics, except for those with TP53 deletion and mutation (15%), which had a complex karyotype. In addition to well-known copy number defects, the presence of chromothripsis involving chromosome 13 was a novel recurrent change in high-risk MDS patients. Array CGH analysis revealed the presence of cryptic abnormalities in genomic regions where MDS-related genes, such as TET2, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and BCOR, are located. PMID:27741277

  19. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  20. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  1. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  2. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  3. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Using ammonium-tolerant yeast isolates: Candida halophila and Rhodotorula glutinis to treat high strength fermentative wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Yang, M; Hei, L; Zheng, S

    2003-03-01

    Two ammonium-tolerant yeast strains were isolated from sludge samples contaminated with monosodium glutamate manufacturing wastewater and were identified as Candida haplophila and Rhodotorula glutinis. The tolerance of the two yeast isolates to ammonia and their chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal perfomances were evaluated under batch and bench-scale conditions. The mixture of the two isolates was found to grow well in an artificial medium containing 25% (NH4)2SO4 and could effectively remove COD from monosodium glutamate wastewater even when the concentrations of NH4+-N and free NH3-N reached as high as 18,977 and 879 mg l(-1) respectively. A fixed-bed yeast reactor, which was initially inoculated with the yeast mixture, permitted a constant COD removal rate of over 80% during a period of near 2-month continuous running even when the influent COD was increased from 8,000 to 25,000 mg l(-1). The effluent was accompanied with suspended solids (SS) of over 4,500 mg l(-1), which was mainly composed of yeast cells and could be considered as a source of animal forage additive. The residual COD of effluents from the yeast reactor could be further reduced to under 500 mg l(-1) by a combination process of activated sludge treatment and coagulation technologies.

  5. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  6. High Pressure Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman Scattering Studies of Ammonium Azide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongyang; Wu, Xiaoxin; Cui, Hang; Zhang, Jian; Cong, Ridong; Cui, Qiliang

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure in situ X-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering studies on NH4N3 have been conducted up to 50.5 GPa and 48 GPa, respectively. The compressibility of orthorhombic phase is isotropic due to the orientation of azide anions. The hydrogen bonding weaken with increasing pressure due to the bending of N -H . . . N bonding, leading to the increase of N -H stretch frequency and rotation of azide anions at 2b and 4h Wyckoff positions up to 2.9 GPa. The rotation of azide anions obviously influences the intermolecular interactions along c axis in orthorhombic phase. The pressure induced phase transition involves a proximity of a and c, temporally assigned as a reversible second-order orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition. The bulk modulus of the orthorhombic phases are determined to be KOT = 24.5 +/-3.5 GPa with KOT' = 3.4 +/-3.2.

  7. Abnormally high level of CA-19-9 in a benign ovarian cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Seung-Yeon; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    CA-19-9 antigen is mainly elevated in cases of gastrointestinal tract malignancy, including of the pancreas, colorectum, and biliary tract. CA 19-9 antigen can also be elevated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, however, as well as in many benign conditions. Markedly raised levels of more than 10,000 U/mL were almost observed in advanced stage of malignancy. We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with an abnormally high level of CA 19-9 antigen associated with benign mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26623421

  8. Abnormally high level of CA-19-9 in a benign ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Pyeon, Seung-Yeon; Park, Ji Young; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-11-01

    CA-19-9 antigen is mainly elevated in cases of gastrointestinal tract malignancy, including of the pancreas, colorectum, and biliary tract. CA 19-9 antigen can also be elevated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, however, as well as in many benign conditions. Markedly raised levels of more than 10,000 U/mL were almost observed in advanced stage of malignancy. We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with an abnormally high level of CA 19-9 antigen associated with benign mucinous cystadenoma.

  9. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  10. Abnormal High-Frequency Burst Firing of Cerebellar Neurons in Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fremont, Rachel; Calderon, D. Paola; Maleki, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the α3 isoform of the Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump) are responsible for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). Recently, a pharmacological model of DYT12 was generated implicating both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder. Notably, partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum was necessary and sufficient for induction of dystonia. Thus, a key question that remains is how partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum induces dystonia. In vivo recordings from dystonic mice revealed abnormal high-frequency bursting activity in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which comprise the bulk of cerebellar output. In the same mice, Purkinje cells, which provide strong inhibitory drive to DCN cells, also fired in a similarly erratic manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to sodium pump dysfunction that alters the intrinsic pacemaking of these neurons, resulting in erratic burst firing similar to that identified in vivo. This abnormal firing abates when sodium pump function is restored and dystonia caused by partial block of sodium pumps can be similarly alleviated. These findings suggest that persistent high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons caused by sodium pump dysfunction underlies dystonia in this model of DYT12. PMID:25164667

  11. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Phase transitions, prominent dielectric anomalies, and negative thermal expansion in three high thermally stable ammonium magnesium-formate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ran; Xu, Guan-Cheng; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2014-01-20

    We present three Mg-formate frameworks, incorporating three different ammoniums: [NH4][Mg(HCOO)3] (1), [CH3CH2NH3][Mg(HCOO)3] (2) and [NH3(CH2)4NH3][Mg2(HCOO)6] (3). They display structural phase transitions accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and anisotropic and negative thermal expansion. The temperature-dependent structures, covering the whole temperature region in which the phase transitions occur, reveal detailed structural changes, and structure-property relationships are established. Compound 1 is a chiral Mg-formate framework with the NH4(+) cations located in the channels. Above 255 K, the NH4(+) cation vibrates quickly between two positions of shallow energy minima. Below 255 K, the cations undergo two steps of freezing of their vibrations, caused by the different inner profiles of the channels, producing non-compensated antipolarization. These lead to significant negative thermal expansion and a relaxor-like dielectric response. In perovskite 2, the orthorhombic phase below 374 K possesses ordered CH3CH2NH3(+) cations in the cubic cavities of the Mg-formate framework. Above 374 K, the structure becomes trigonal, with trigonally disordered cations, and above 426 K, another phase transition occurs and the cation changes to a two-fold disordered state. The two transitions are accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and negative and positive thermal expansion, contributing to the large regulation of the framework coupled the order-disorder transition of CH3CH2NH3(+). For niccolite 3, the gradually enhanced flipping movement of the middle ethylene of [NH3(CH2)4NH3](2+) in the elongated framework cavity finally leads to the phase transition with a critical temperature of 412 K, and the trigonally disordered cations and relevant framework change, providing the basis for the very strong dielectric dispersion, high dielectric constant (comparable to inorganic oxides), and large negative thermal expansion. The spontaneous polarizations

  13. High frequency of p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway abnormalities in relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Wilkinson, Jane; O' Toole, Kieran; Wood, Katrina M.; Challen, Christine C.; Baker, Angela G.; Board, Julian R.; Evans, Laura; Cole, Michael; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Boos, Joachim; Köhler, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Lunec, John; Tweddle, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Most neuroblastomas initially respond to therapy but many relapse with chemoresistant disease. p53 mutations are rare in diagnostic neuroblastomas, but we have previously reported inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway in 9/17 (53%) neuroblastoma cell lines established at relapse. Hypothesis: Inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway develops during treatment and contributes to neuroblastoma relapse. Methods: Eighty-four neuroblastomas were studied from 41 patients with relapsed neuroblastoma including 38 paired neuroblastomas at different stages of therapy. p53 mutations were detected by automated sequencing, p14ARF methylation and deletion by methylation-specific PCR and duplex PCR respectively, and MDM2 amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation. Results: Abnormalities in the p53 pathway were identified in 20/41(49%) cases. Downstream defects due to inactivating missense p53 mutations were identified in 6/41 (15%) cases, 5 following chemotherapy and/or at relapse and 1 at diagnosis, post chemotherapy and relapse. The presence of a p53 mutation was independently prognostic for overall survival (hazard ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2, 9.9; p = 0.02). Upstream defects were present in 35% cases: MDM2 amplification in 3 cases, all at diagnosis & relapse and p14ARF inactivation in 12/41 (29%) cases: 3 had p14ARF methylation, 2 after chemotherapy, and 9 had homozygous deletions, 8 at diagnosis and relapse. Conclusions: These results show that a high proportion of neuroblastomas which relapse have an abnormality in the p53 pathway. The majority have upstream defects suggesting that agents which reactivate wild-type p53 would be beneficial, in contrast to those with downstream defects where p53 independent therapies are indicated. PMID:20145180

  14. Analysis of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection and unified calibration.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Anja; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Kogelnig, Daniel; Schiesel, Simone; Sturm, Martin; Galanski, Markus; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2008-10-31

    Several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) based on long-chain aliphatic ammonium- and phosphonium cations and selected aromatic anions were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) employing trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing additive to the acetonitrile-containing mobile phase and adopting a step-gradient elution mode. The coupling of charged aerosol detection (CAD) for the non-chromophoric aliphatic cations with diode array detection (DAD) for the aromatic anions allowed their simultaneous analysis in a set of new ILs derived from either tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride as precursors. Aliquat 336 is a mix of ammonium cations with distinct aliphatic chain lengths. In the course of the studies it turned out that CAD generates an identical detection response for all the distinct aliphatic cations. Due to lack of single component standards of the individual Aliquat 336 cation species, a unified calibration function was established for the quantitative analysis of the quaternary ammonium cations of the ILs. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines, which confirmed the validity of the unified calibration. The application of the method revealed molar ratios of cation to anion close to 1 indicating a quantitative exchange of the chloride ions of the precursors by the various aromatic anions in the course of the synthesis of new ILs. Anomalies of CAD observed for the detection of some aromatic anions (thiosalicylate and benzoate) are discussed.

  15. In situ measurement of ammonium utilization by phytoplankton in the Sacramento River to determine the impacts of high nutrient loading on the base of the food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    High concentrations of ammonium in the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary (SFE) have been hypothesized to inhibit the growth of larger phytoplankton such as diatoms, which are an important food source to zooplankton at the base of the pelagic food web. The goal of this research is to use stable isotope approaches to distinguish ammonium and nitrate utilization at the base of the food web in a range of habitats extending from freshwater portions of Sacramento River through San Pablo Bay. Preliminary results from transects sampled over a range of hydrologic conditions between 2007 and 2010 indicate shifts in the δ15N composition of the bulk particulate organic matter (POM) where ammonium concentrations increase downstream of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant and again where ammonium concentrations decrease near the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. However, interpretation of δ15N of bulk POM as a proxy for δ15N of phytoplankton is complicated by the fact that the C:N ratios of bulk POM often increase to values greater than 8 downstream of the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, suggesting that in this region of the estuary bulk POM includes a significant proportion of terrestrial detrital material. Given the interest in understanding nitrogen source utilization in this portion of the estuary, work is currently underway to isolate algae from bulk POM using flow cytometry prior to isotopic analysis. δ15N vales from isolated algal samples will allow downstream changes in nutrient source utilization to be distinguished from mixing of different POM sources. Because considerable bulk POM isotopic data have been collected over the last ten years, greater understanding of the relationship between δ15N-POM and δ15N of isolated algal and terrestrial fractions will allow for improved use of the bulk POM isotope record to understand the potential link between historical changes in phytoplankton nutrient

  16. High prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and apolipoprotein abnormalities in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Barbir, M; Wile, D; Trayner, I; Aber, V R; Thompson, G R

    1988-01-01

    Serum lipids and apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured in 174 men aged less than 60 with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease and in 572 healthy control men. Two thirds of the patients had raised age-corrected values of fasting serum cholesterol and/or triglyceride and/or a low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with the controls. Eighteen (30%) of the 61 normolipidaemic patients had a concentration of serum apolipoprotein A-I below the 5th percentile of 233 controls. In normolipidaemic patients on beta blockers the relative prevalence of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apolipoprotein B values above the 95th percentile of 339 controls was significantly increased. Discriminant function analysis showed that a raised concentration of serum triglyceride was the best discriminant between patients and controls, with raised LDL-apolipoprotein B and reduced apolipoprotein A-I coming second only to triglyceride in analyses where each was separately compared with all the lipid variables. These associations were highly significant and were independent of other influences, including beta blockade. These findings re-emphasise the importance of hypertriglyceridaemia as a risk factor and confirm that apolipoprotein abnormalities occur frequently in coronary disease, even in normolipidaemic patients. PMID:3203033

  17. An ARXPS and ERXPS study of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids: utilising a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Rebecca K; Delorme, Astrid E; Smith, Emily F; Licence, Peter

    2016-02-17

    A series of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids have been probed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a high energy Ag Lα' X-ray source. The capability of the Ag Lα' X-ray source for ionic liquid analysis is confirmed alongside the characterisation of previously undetected high energy core photoelectron emissions. Additionally, the utilisation of the Ag Lα' X-ray source as a depth profiling technique (ERXPS) to investigate the structure of the ionic liquid/vacuum interface has been demonstrated, with comparison made to angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS).

  18. Abnormalities of Neuronal Oscillations and Temporal Integration to Low and High Frequency Auditory Stimulation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jordan P.; Gilmore, Casey S.; Picchetti, Natalie A.M.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Electro- and magneto-encephalography (E/MEG) studies indicate among schizophrenia patients (SZ) abnormal, often reduced, entrained (steady-state; aSSR) and transient (N100/M100) neural responses to auditory stimuli. We complement this literature by focusing analyses on auditory cortices, assessing a wide range of stimulation frequencies with long driving periods, and evaluating relationships between aSSR and M100 reductions in SZ. Method Seventeen SZ and 17 healthy subjects (H) participated. Stimuli were 1500ms binaural broadband noise sequences modulated at 5, 20, 40, 80 or 160-Hz. MEG data were collected and co-registered with structural magnetic resonance images. aSSRs and M100s projected into brain space were analyzed as a function of hemisphere, stimulus density, and time. Results aSSR: At low (5-Hz) and high (80-Hz) modulation frequencies, SZ displayed weaker entrainment bilaterally. To 40-Hz stimuli, SZ showed weaker entrainment only in right auditory cortex. M100: While responses for H increased linearly with stimulus density, this effect was weaker or absent in SZ. Relationship: A principal components analysis of SZ deficits identified low (5-Hz entrainment and M100) and high (40–80-Hz entrainment) frequency components. Discriminant analysis indicated that the low frequency component uniquely differentiated SZ from H. The high frequency component correlated with negative symptoms among SZ. Conclusions SZ auditory cortices were unable to (i) generate healthy levels of theta- and high gamma-band (80Hz) entrainment (aSSR) and (ii) augment transient responses (M100s) to rapidly presented auditory information (an index of temporal integration). Only the latter was most apparent in left hemisphere, and may reflect a prominent neurophysiological deficit in schizophrenia. PMID:21216392

  19. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Baruth, Joshua M; Casanova, Manuel F; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

  20. Abnormal high-energy phosphate molecule metabolism during regional brain activation in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, C; Du, F; Ravichandran, C; Goldbach, J R; Thida, T; Lin, P; Dora, B; Gelda, J; O'Connor, L; Sehovic, S; Gruber, S; Ongur, D; Cohen, B M

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests bioenergetic abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD). In the brain, phosphocreatine (PCr) acts a reservoir of high-energy phosphate (HEP) bonds, and creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the transfer of HEP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to PCr and from PCr back to ATP, at times of increased need. This study examined the activity of this mechanism in BD by measuring the levels of HEP molecules during a stimulus paradigm that increased local energy demand. Twenty-three patients diagnosed with BD-I and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included. Levels of phosphorus metabolites were measured at baseline and during visual stimulation in the occipital lobe using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4T. Changes in metabolite levels showed different patterns between the groups. During stimulation, HC had significant reductions in PCr but not in ATP, as expected. In contrast, BD patients had significant reductions in ATP but not in PCr. In addition, PCr/ATP ratio was lower at baseline in patients, and there was a higher change in this measure during stimulation. This pattern suggests a disease-related failure to replenish ATP from PCr through CK enzyme catalysis during tissue activation. Further studies measuring the CK flux in BD are required to confirm and extend this finding.

  1. High phosphate feeding promotes mineral and bone abnormalities in mice with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wei Ling; Linnes, Michael; Chu, Emily Y.; Foster, Brian L.; Bartley, Bryan A.; Somerman, Martha J.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic syndrome characterized by imbalances in mineral homeostasis, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and ectopic calcification. The mechanisms underlying this syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not yet clear. Methods We examined the effect of normal phosphate (NP) or high phosphate (HP) feeding in the setting of CKD on bone pathology, serum biochemistry and vascular calcification in calcification-prone dilute brown non-agouti (DBA/2) mice. Results In both NP and HP-fed CKD mice, elevated serum parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were observed, but serum phosphorus levels were equivalent compared with sham controls. CKD mice on NP diet showed trabecular alterations in the long bone consistent with high–turnover ROD, including increased trabecular number with abundant osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Despite trabecular bone and serum biochemical changes, CKD/NP mice did not develop vascular calcification. In contrast, CKD/HP mice developed arterial medial calcification (AMC), more severe trabecular bone alterations and cortical bone abnormalities that included decreased cortical thickness and density, and increased cortical porosity. Cortical bone porosity and trabecular number strongly correlated with the degree of aortic calcification. Conclusions HP feeding was required to induce the full spectrum of CKD-MBD symptoms in CKD mice. PMID:23045434

  2. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  3. Benzylic Ammonium Ylide Mediated Epoxidations

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Lukas; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding synthesis of stilbene oxides using ammonium ylides has been developed. It turned out that the amine leaving group plays a crucial role as trimethylamine gives higher yields than DABCO or quinuclidine. The amine group also influences the diastereoselectivity, and detailed DFT calculations to understand the key parameters of these reactions have been carried out. PMID:27766017

  4. Abnormally high thromboxane biosynthesis in homozygous homocystinuria. Evidence for platelet involvement and probucol-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, G; Davì, G; Margaglione, M; Cirillo, F; Grandone, E; Ciabattoni, G; Catalano, I; Strisciuglio, P; Andria, G; Patrono, C

    1993-01-01

    Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation. PMID:8376592

  5. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Saito, Hiroaki; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/-) and Klotho(-/-) (Kl(-/-)) mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/-) mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/-) mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/-) (Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) or DKO) mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn) in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/-) mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-), but not of Fgf23(-/-) mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions

  6. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors. PMID:22563527

  7. Over-expression of OsPTR6 in rice increased plant growth at different nitrogen supplies but decreased nitrogen use efficiency at high ammonium supply.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaorong; Xie, Dan; Chen, Jingguang; Lu, Haiyan; Xu, Yanling; Ma, Cui; Xu, Guohua

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays a critical role in plant growth and productivity and PTR/NRT1 transporters are critical for rice growth. In this study, OsPTR6, a PTR/NRT1 transporter, was over-expressed in the Nipponbare rice cultivar by Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation using the ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter. Three single-copy T2 generation transgenic lines, named OE1, OE5 and OE6, were produced and subjected to hydroponic growth experiments in different nitrogen treatments. The results showed the plant height and biomass of the over-expression lines were increased, and plant N accumulation and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities were enhanced at 5.0mmol/L NH4(+) and 2.5mmol/L NH4NO3. The expression of OsATM1 genes in over-expression lines showed that the OsPTR6 over expression increased OsAMT1.1, OsATM1.2 and OsAMT1.3 expression at 0.2 and 5.0mmol/L NH4(+) and 2.5mmol/L NH4NO3. However, nitrogen utilisation efficiency (NUE) was decreased at 5.0mmol/LNH4(+). These data suggest that over-expression of the OsPTR6 gene could increase rice growth through increasing ammonium transporter expression and glutamine synthetase activity (GSA), but decreases nitrogen use efficiency under conditions of high ammonium supply.

  8. Cross-validation of the osmotic pressure based on Pitzer model with air humidity osmometry at high concentration of ammonium sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lan; Zhan, Ting-Ting; Zhan, Xian-Cheng; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Qu, Xiao-You; Wang, Xin-Yue; Li, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of ammonium sulfate solutions has been measured by the well-established freezing point osmometry in dilute solutions and we recently reported air humidity osmometry in a much wider range of concentration. Air humidity osmometry cross-validated the theoretical calculations of osmotic pressure based on the Pitzer model at high concentrations by two one-sided test (TOST) of equivalence with multiple testing corrections, where no other experimental method could serve as a reference for comparison. Although more strict equivalence criteria were established between the measurements of freezing point osmometry and the calculations based on the Pitzer model at low concentration, air humidity osmometry is the only currently available osmometry applicable to high concentration, serves as an economic addition to standard osmometry.

  9. Abnormal aortic fatty acid composition and small artery function in offspring of rats fed a high fat diet in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P; Bitsanis, D; Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A; Poston, L

    2001-01-01

    Disturbances of the in utero environment are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study we have determined whether abnormal vascular function in the adult offspring of rats fed a high saturated fat diet in pregnancy is associated with altered plasma lipids or vascular fatty acid content. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a breeding diet (4 % fat) or a diet high in saturated fat (20 % fat) for 10 days prior to and throughout pregnancy, and during weaning. Female offspring were then fed a maintenance diet (3 % fat) until 160 days of age. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was blunted in isolated branches of the femoral artery from 160-day-old female offspring of dams fed the saturated fat diet when compared with female offspring of dams fed the breeding diet. These offspring exhibited elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The fatty acid composition of the aortas was abnormal, with a marked reduction in the content of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. This study demonstrates that a high fat diet in pregnant rats produces abnormal vascular function, plasma lipid disturbances and altered vascular fatty acid content in their female offspring during adulthood. PMID:11410637

  10. CO2/ethylene oxide copolymerization and ligand variation for a highly active salen-cobalt(III) complex tethering 4 quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong Yeob; Lee, Jung Jae; Varghese, Jobi Kodiyan; Na, Sung Jae; Sujith, S; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong; Ok, Myung-Ahn; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2013-07-01

    A cobalt(III) complex (1) of a salcy-type ligand tethering 4 quaternary ammonium salts, which is thought to act as a highly active catalyst for CO2/propylene oxide (PO) copolymerization, also shows high activity (TOF, 25,900 h(-1); TON, 518,000; 2.72 kg polymer per g cat) and selectivity (>98%) for CO2/ethylene oxide (EO) copolymerization that results in high-molecular-weight polymers (M(n), 200,000-300,000) that have strictly alternating repeating units. The related cobalt(III) complexes 11-14 were prepared through variations of the ligand framework of 1 by replacing the trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane unit with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, trans-1,2-diaminocyclopentane, or 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine or by replacing the aldimine bond with ketimine. These ligand frameworks are thought to favour the formation of the cis-β configuration in complexation, and the formation of the cis-β configuration in 11-14 was confirmed through NMR studies or X-ray crystallographic studies of model complexes not bearing the quaternary ammonium salts. Complexes 11, 13, and 14, which adopt the cis-β configuration even in DMSO did not show any activity for CO2/PO copolymerization. Complex 12, which was constructed with trans-1,2-diaminocyclopentane and fluctuated in DMSO between the coordination and de-coordination of the acetate ligand as observed for 1, showed fairly high activity (TOF, 12,400 h(-1)). This fluctuating behaviour may play a role in polymerization. However, complex 12 did not compete with 1 in terms of activity, selectivity, and the catalyst cost.

  11. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  12. Do high blood folate concentrations exacerbate metabolic abnormalities in people with low vitamin B-12 status?123

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Scott, John M; Troendle, James F; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Kirke, Peadar N; Ueland, Per M; Brody, Lawrence C; Molloy, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Background: In elderly individuals with low serum vitamin B-12, those who have high serum folate have been reported to have greater abnormalities in the following biomarkers for vitamin B-12 deficiency: low hemoglobin and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). This suggests that folate exacerbates vitamin B-12–related metabolic abnormalities. Objective: We determined whether high serum folate in individuals with low serum vitamin B-12 increases the deleterious effects of low vitamin B-12 on biomarkers of vitamin B-12 cellular function. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 2507 university students provided data on medical history and exposure to folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplements. Blood was collected to measure serum and red blood cell folate (RCF), hemoglobin, plasma tHcy, and MMA, holotranscobalamin, and ferritin in serum. Results: In subjects with low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L), those who had high folate concentrations (>30 nmol/L; group 1) did not show greater abnormalities in vitamin B-12 cellular function in any area than did those with lower folate concentrations (≤30 nmol/L; group 2). Group 1 had significantly higher holotranscobalamin and RCF, significantly lower tHcy, and nonsignificantly lower (P = 0.057) MMA concentrations than did group 2. The groups did not differ significantly in hemoglobin or ferritin. Compared with group 2, group 1 had significantly higher mean intakes of folic acid and vitamin B-12 from supplements and fortified food. Conclusions: In this young adult population, high folate concentrations did not exacerbate the biochemical abnormalities related to vitamin B-12 deficiency. These results provide reassurance that folic acid in fortified foods and supplements does not interfere with vitamin B-12 metabolism at the cellular level in a healthy population. PMID:21653798

  13. High prevalence of abnormal adrenal response in girls with central precocious puberty at early pubertal stages.

    PubMed

    Lazar, L; Kauli, R; Bruchis, C; Nordenberg, J; Galatzer, A; Pertzelan, A

    1995-10-01

    Abnormal adrenal response is often observed in girls with precocious adrenarche (1). We studied the adrenal response in 112 girls with idiopathic true central precocious puberty (CPP) at early stages of puberty compared to that in 21 girls with normal puberty (controls). The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of abnormal adrenal response at early stages of puberty, the possible correlation of abnormal adrenal response with pubertal signs at onset of puberty and with plasma androgen levels, and a possible association with the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. All participants underwent a combined i.v. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test at Tanner stage 2-3: 62 of the CPP girls before and 50 during treatment with GnRH analog. The stimulated levels of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17OHPreg) and the stimulated 17OHPreg/17-hydroxyprogesterone ratio were analyzed and compared to previously reported norms. The result revealed three patterns of adrenal response: normal (17OHPreg < or = 24 nmol/l and 17OHPreg/17OHP ratio < or = 7) in 50/112 (44.6%) CPP patients and 17/21 (80.9%) controls; exaggerated (17OHPreg > 24 nmol/l, 17OHPreg/17OHP ratio < or = 7) in 50/112 (44.6%) CPP patients and 3/21 (14.3%) controls; and non-classical 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (17OHPreg > 24 nmol/l and 17OHPreg/17OHP ratio > 7) in 12/112 (10.8%) CPP patients and 1/21 (4.8%) controls. The clinical features at onset of puberty were comparable in all girls with the CPP in spite of the different adrenal response patterns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  15. Purification and Partial Kinetic and Physical Characterization of Two Chloroplast-Localized NADP-Specific Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Their Preferential Accumulation in Chlorella sorokiniana Cells Cultured at Low or High Ammonium Levels 1

    PubMed Central

    Bascomb, Newell F.; Schmidt, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two ammonium-inducible, chloroplast-localized NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity from Chlorella sorokiniana. These isoenzymes were homopolymers of either α- or β-subunits with molecular weights of 55,500 or 53,000, respectively. The α-isoenzyme was preferentially induced at low ammonium concentrations (2 millimolar or lower), whereas only the β-isoenzyme accumulated after cells were fully induced (120 minutes) at high ammonium concentrations (29 millimolar). Purification of isoenzymes was achieved by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel-filtration, anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, and affinity chromatography. The α- and β-isoenzymes were separated by their differential binding to Type 4 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-Sepharose. Both isoenzymes bound to an antibody affinity column to which purified antibody (prepared against β-isoenzyme) was covalently attached. Peptide mapping of the subunits showed them to have a high degree of sequence homology. Both subunits were synthesized in vitro from precursor protein(s) with a molecular weight of 58,500. Although the subunits have similar chemical, physical, and antigenic properties, their holoenzymes have strikingly different ammonium Km values. The ammonium Km of the β-isoenzyme remained constant at approximately 75 millimolar, whereas this Km of the α-isoenzyme ranged from 0.02 to 3.5 millimolar, depending upon nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16665219

  16. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  18. Negative Linear Compressibility in Organic Mineral Ammonium Oxalate Monohydrate with Hydrogen Bonding Wine-Rack Motifs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuancun; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Hongsheng; Yang, Ke; Zou, Bo

    2015-07-16

    Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon and rarely studied in organic systems. Here we provide the direct evidence of the persistent NLC in organic mineral ammonium oxalate monohydrate under high pressure using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurement reveals that ammonium oxalate monohydrate shows both positive and negative linear compressibility along b-axis before 11.5 GPa. The red shift of the external Raman modes and abnormal changes of several selected internal modes in high-pressure Raman spectra further confirmed the NLC. DFT calculations demonstrate that the N-H···O hydrogen bonding "wine-rack" motifs result in the NLC along b-axis in ammonium oxalate monohydrate. We anticipate the high-pressure study of ammonium oxalate monohydrate may represent a promising strategy for accelerating the pace of exploitation and improvement of NLC materials especially in organic systems. PMID:26266859

  19. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Amir A; Machaly, Shereen A; El-Dosoky, Mohammed E; El-Maghraby, Nermeen M

    2012-07-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and RA-lung disease in a group of Egyptian RA patients. Thirty-six RA patients were recruited; 34 females (94.4%) and 2 males (5.6%) with median age of 48.5 years, and none of them was smoker. Detailed medical and drug histories were obtained. PFT, plain X-ray of the chest, and HRCT were performed to all subjects involved. Nearly 64% of RA patients demonstrated abnormalities in PFT and 47% in HRCT. Mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern was the commonest. Nearly two-thirds of our patients reported one or more pulmonary symptom whether dyspnea, cough, wheezing, or phlegm. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Respiratory symptoms were statistically more common in patients with lung disease. The advanced age, high radiological score, and severity of rheumatoid disease were found to be predictive of lung involvement. Among respiratory symptoms, dyspnea and cough were associated with any pulmonary abnormalities. When specific pulmonary abnormalities were considered, only dyspnea was identified as predictor for restriction. For obstructive abnormality, both cough and wheezing provided valid prediction. We conclude that pulmonary involvement is a common manifestation in Egyptian RA patients, and the pattern of involvement is generally consistent with other studies that were performed worldwide. Specific respiratory symptoms could be used as practical, easy, and cost-effective method, especially in older and with more severe RA patients, to discriminate patients in need of subsequent PFT and HRCT imaging.

  20. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacter cloacae with High MICs of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in a Hematology Ward Associated with Contaminated Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Angélique; Amoureux, Lucie; Bador, Julien; Gavalas, Arthur; Siebor, Eliane; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Caillot, Denis; Janin, Marion; de Curraize, Claire; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit) of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France) between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized). Design: We performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing) and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. Results: We have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n = 43 clinical and n = 17 environmental) revealed that bla CTX−M15 was predominant (37 isolates) followed by bla CTX−M9 plus bla SHV−12 (20 isolates). We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs) in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs) in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens. PMID:27462306

  1. High Interstitial Fluid Pressure Is Associated with Tumor-Line Specific Vascular Abnormalities in Human Melanoma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Trude G.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Leinaas, Marit N.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is highly elevated in many solid tumors. High IFP has been associated with low radiocurability and high metastatic frequency in human melanoma xenografts and with poor survival after radiation therapy in cervical cancer patients. Abnormalities in tumor vascular networks have been identified as an important cause of elevated tumor IFP. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor IFP and the functional and morphological properties of tumor vascular networks. Materials and Methods A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanomas growing in dorsal window chambers in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as preclinical tumor models. Functional and morphological parameters of the vascular network were assessed from first-pass imaging movies and vascular maps recorded after intravenous bolus injection of 155-kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. IFP was measured in the center of the tumors using a Millar catheter. Angiogenic profiles of A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP cells were obtained with a quantitative PCR array. Results High IFP was associated with low growth rate and low vascular density in A-07-GFP tumors, and with high growth rate and high vascular density in R-18-GFP tumors. A-07-GFP tumors showed chaotic and highly disorganized vascular networks, while R-18-GFP tumors showed more organized vascular networks with supplying arterioles in the tumor center and draining venules in the tumor periphery. Furthermore, A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP cells differed substantially in angiogenic profiles. A-07-GFP tumors with high IFP showed high geometric resistance to blood flow due to high vessel tortuosity. R-18-GFP tumors with high IFP showed high geometric resistance to blood flow due to a large number of narrow tumor capillaries. Conclusions High IFP in A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanoma xenografts was primarily a consequence of high blood flow resistance caused by tumor-line specific vascular abnormalities. PMID

  2. Abnormally Low or High Ankle-Brachial Index Is Associated with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Lee, Yu-Li; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chang, Jer-Ming; Shin, Shyi–Jang

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have reported that low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients, it remains controversial as to which stage of DR. The aim of this study is to assess whether peripheral artery disease (PAD), indicated by abnormally low or high ABI, is associated with different stages of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and further evaluate the risk factors. A total of 2001 (858 men and 1143 women) patients with type 2 DM who underwent ABI measurement in an outpatient clinic were enrolled. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 in either leg. DR was classified as non-DR, nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR stages. The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 was 3.0%. Multivariate forward logistic regression analysis identified proliferative DR (vs. non-DR) was associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio, 1.718; 95% confidence interval, 1.152 to 2.562; p = 0.008), but nonproliferative DR was not. Furthermore, the presence of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, declining renal function and patients without diuretics use were associated with abnormal ABI in patients with proliferative DR. Our study in patients of type 2 DM demonstrated that PAD was associated with proliferative DR. We emphasize the recommendation of performing the ABI test in this population at risk. PMID:26230390

  3. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  4. Spontaneous intercalation of long-chain alkyl ammonium into edge-selectively oxidized graphite to efficiently produce high-quality graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liangming; Wu, Fei; Shi, Diwen; Hu, Changchen; Li, Xiaolin; Yuan, Weien; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Jiang; Geng, Huijuan; Wei, Hao; Wang, Ying; Hu, Nantao; Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of high-quality graphene nanosheets (GNs) is essential for practical applications. We report that oxidation of graphite by low concentration KMnO4 at relatively high temperature (60°C) leads to edge-selectively oxidized graphite (EOG) which preserves the high crystalline graphitic structure on its basal planes while the edges are functionalized by oxygen-containing groups. Long-chain tetradecyl-ammonium salt (C14N+) could be spontaneously intercalated into EOG to form intercalated EOG-C14N+ compounds. Gentle and short-time sonication of EOG-C14N+ in toluene can full exfoliate EOG into edge-oxidized graphene nanosheets (EOGNs) with concentration of 0.67 mg/ml, monolayer population up to 90% and lateral size from 1 μm to >100 μm. The EOG and EOGN films show excellent electrical conductance, which is far superior to their graphene oxide (GO) counterparts. Our method provides an efficient way to produce high-quality GNs, and the resultant EOG also can be directly used for production of multifunctional materials and devices. PMID:24022463

  5. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  6. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  7. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  8. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  9. Electrochemically and bioelectrochemically induced ammonium recovery.

    PubMed

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K; Andersen, Stephen J; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-22

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems.

  10. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. High frequency stimulation of the STN restored the abnormal high-voltage spindles in the cortex and the globus pallidus of 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jia-Rui; Chen, Lei; Ge, Shun-Nan; Wang, Jue-Lei; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ling; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-19

    Many studies showed that abnormal oscillations in the cortical-basal ganglia loop is involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to the well-studied beta synchronization, high-voltage spindles (HVSs), another type of abnormal oscillation observed in PD, are neglected. To explore the role of subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in HVSs regulation, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) in the globus pallidus (GP) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) in the primary motor cortex(M1) in freely moving 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned or control rats before, during, and after STN-DBS. Consistent with our previous study, HVSs occurrence, duration, and relative power and coherence between the M1 cortex and GP increased in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. We found that high but not low frequency stimulation restored the abnormal HVSs activity and motor deficit. These results suggest that the STN is involved in the abnormal oscillation between the M1 cortex and GP.

  12. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Su Shim, Chang; Kook Hong, Chang

    2015-06-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm-2 and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm-2) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs.

  13. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Shim, Chang Su; Hong, Chang Kook

    2015-06-22

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm(-2) and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm(-2)) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs.

  14. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-01

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W-1 and 5.08 × 1010 Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm-2. Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector.

  15. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-12

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W(-1) and 5.08 × 10(10) Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm(-2). Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector. PMID:26684002

  16. Stability enhancement of PbSe quantum dots via post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment for a high-performance infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunjie; Wang, Haowei; Song, Taojian; Zhang, Li; Li, Weile; He, Bo; sulaman, Muhammad; Yang, Shengyi; Zou, Bingsuo

    2016-02-12

    Infrared (IR) emission lead selenide (PbSe) quantum dots (QDs) have gained considerable attention in the last decade due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices. However, the comprehensive applications of PbSe QDs have not been realized yet due to their high susceptibility to oxidation in air. In this paper, we demonstrate the stability enhancement of PbSe colloidal QDs via a post-synthetic ammonium chloride treatment and its applications in a solution-processed high-performance IR photodetector with a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration by reversely fabricating the PbSe active layer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dielectric layer. The responsivity and the specific detectivity of the FET-based photodetector Au(source, drain)/PbSe(52 nm)/PMMA(930 nm)/Au(gate) reached 64.17 mA W(-1) and 5.08 × 10(10) Jones, respectively, under 980 nm laser illumination with an intensity of 0.1 mW cm(-2). Therefore, it provides a promising way to make a high-sensitivity near-IR/mid-IR photodetector.

  17. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Su Shim, Chang; Kook Hong, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm-2 and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm−2) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs. PMID:26094863

  18. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  19. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  20. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  1. Formation of a catalytically active complex between tRNAAsp and aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from yeast in high concentrations of ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Giegé, R; Lorber, B; Ebel, J P; Moras, D; Thierry, J C; Jacrot, B; Zaccai, G

    1982-05-01

    The interactions of yeast tRNAAsp with cognate aspartyl-tRNA synthetase have been studied in high concentrations of either sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate by fluorescence titration and small-angle neutron scattering. In solutions containing more than 1M NaCl no complex is formed and enzymatic activity is abolished. In strong contrast, however, the physical measurements showed the formation of a two-to-one tRNA-enzyme complex, with high affinity, in 1.6 M (NH4)2SO4. Aminoacylation assays under the same salt conditions showed the enzymatic fixation of aspartic acid to tRNAAsp to occur at an appreciable rate. The present study emphasizes that the effects of salts on protein-nucleic acid interactions do not depend only on ionic strength but also on the nature of the salt. This study has allowed a rational approach to the crystallisation of a functional tRNAAsp-aspartyl-tRNA synthetase complex (Giegé, Lorber, Ebel, Thierry and Moras (1980) C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série D, 291, 393-396). PMID:7049254

  2. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p < 0.001). EUROarray was concordant with other assays evaluated for detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively. PMID:27048314

  3. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries.

  4. The mechanical properties of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene grafted with 3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wang, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was modified with a zwitterion monomer with good biocompatibility of MPDSAH (3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) by UV irradiation and then hot pressed. The microstructure and mechanical properties of modified UHMWPE are investigated. The results show that the structure of powder and bulk materials has been changed. The modified powders have more filaments than that of untreated. The surface of modified bulk materials is more rough and displays the granular protuberances which have the random loose arrangement compared with untreated UHMWPE. The crystallinity, uniaxial tensile and compressive properties decreased after grafting. Ultimate elongations decrease with the increase of the monomer concentration and are higher than 300% which is recommended by ASTM and ISO except the sample with 0.45mol/L MPDSAH. The friction coefficient of modified UHMWPE is lower than that of the untreated UHMWPE and it decreases gradually with the increase of monomer concentration. The wear rates have been decreased and the wear resistance has been improved under saline and distilled water lubrication.

  5. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  6. Review: Mechanisms of ammonium toxicity and the quest for tolerance.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Ariz, Idoia; Cruz, Cristina; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Ammonium sensitivity of plants is a worldwide problem, constraining crop production. Prolonged application of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source may result in physiological and morphological disorders that lead to decreased plant growth and toxicity. The main causes of ammonium toxicity/tolerance described until now include high ammonium assimilation by plants and/or low sensitivity to external pH acidification. The various ammonium transport-related components, especially the non-electrogenic influx of NH3 (related to the depletion of (15)N) and the electrogenic influx of NH4(+), may contribute to ammonium accumulation, and therefore to NH3 toxicity. However, this accumulation may be influenced by increasing K(+) concentration in the root medium. Recently, new insights have been provided by "omics" studies, leading to a suggested involvement of GDP mannose-pyrophosphorylase in the response pathways of NH4(+) stress. In this review, we highlight the cross-talk signaling between nitrate, auxins and NO, and the importance of the connection of the plants' urea cycle to metabolism of polyamines. Overall, the tolerance and amelioration of ammonium toxicity are outlined to improve the yield of ammonium-grown plants. This review identifies future directions of research, focusing on the putative importance of aquaporins in ammonium influx, and on genes involved in ammonium sensitivity and tolerance. PMID:27181951

  7. Implications of perennial saline springs for abnormally high fluid pressures and active thrusting in western California

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, J.R.; Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.; Moores, E.M. )

    1992-05-01

    Perennial saline springs in the Rumsey Hills area, southwestern Sacramento Valley, California, locally discharge at high elevations and near ridgetops. The springs are cold, are commonly associated with natural gas seeps, and typically emerge along west-vergent thrust faults. Stable isotope analyses indicate that the spring waters are similar to oil-field formation fluids and they have had a significant residence time in the subsurface at moderate temperatures. The nonmeteoric character of the springs demonstrates that they are not being fed by perched water tables. The authors propose that these subsurface formation waters are being forced to the surface by anomalously high porefluid pressures. The Rumsey Hills area is one of Quaternary uplift, thrusting, and crustal shortening, and prospect wells drilled there have encountered anomalously high fluid pressures at shallow depths. They attribute these high fluid pressures to active tectonic compression and shortening of Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks. The widespread occurrence of anomalously high pore-fluid pressures and perennial saline springs in the Coast Ranges and western Great Valley suggests that much of western California may be characterized as a seismically active, overpressured thrust belt. The emergence of formation waters along thrust faults further suggests that patterns of subsurface fluid flow in western California may be similar to those in overpressured accretionary prisms, and that excess fluid pressures may also play a role in the distribution of seismicity.

  8. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  9. Chromium (D-phenylalanine)3 alleviates high fat-induced insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, M K; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (D-phenylalanine)(3) [Cr(D-Phe)(3)] on glucose and insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(D-Phe)(3) (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body-glucose and -insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up-take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[(3)H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-(32)P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)(3). These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling.

  10. Selective determination of ammonium ions by high-speed ion-exclusion chromatography on a weakly basic anion-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Ikedo, Mikaru; Ogura, Yutaka; Sato, Shinji; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi

    2003-05-16

    This paper describes an ion-exclusion chromatographic system for the rapid and selective determination of ammonium ion. The optimized ion-exclusion chromatographic system was established with a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange resin column (TSKgel DEAE-5PW) as the separation column, an aqueous solution containing 0.05 mM tetramethylammonium hydroxide (pH 9.10) as eluent with conductimetric detection for the analyte determination. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, ammonium ion was determined within 2.3 min with a detection limit (S/N=3) better than 0.125 microM. Ammonium ion in rain and river waters was precisely determined using this ion-exclusion chromatographic system.

  11. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. ); Stewart, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  12. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4(+) accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4(+)-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4(+) or 1 mM NO3(-) as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation.

  13. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  14. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  15. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract improves high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Mina; Kwon, Oran; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis is a bamboo leaf that is only grown on Jeju Island in South Korea. It is used as a bamboo tea that is consumed for therapeutic purposes, particularly for its anti-diabetic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of S. quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on high fat-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in rats. SQE supplementation significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as the atherogenic index. SQE restored levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were lowered by a high fat diet. Plasma and cardiac resistin levels were also significantly decreased by SQE supplementation. In adipose tissue, mRNA levels of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were suppressed in the SQE group. SQE supplementation decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, inflammatory cell infiltrations, levels of triglycerides, and total lipids in the liver and effectively down-regulated expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2). These results suggest that SQE may be a potential treatment for high fat-related disorders by improving lipid profiles and modulating lipid metabolism.

  16. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  17. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  18. Reversible Brain Abnormalities in People Without Signs of Mountain Sickness During High-Altitude Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cunxiu; Zhao, Yuhua; Yu, Qian; Yin, Wu; Liu, Haipeng; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming; Gesang, Luobu; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested. After 30-day HA exposure, the gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface areas significantly increased, with cortical thicknesses and curvatures changed in a wide spread regions; Anisotropy decreased with diffusivities increased in multiple sites of white matter tracts. Two months after HA exposure, cortical measurements returned to basal level. However, increased anisotropy with decreased diffusivities was observed. Behaviors and serum inflammatory factor did not significant changed during three time-point tests. NSE significantly decreased during HA but increased after HA exposure. Results suggest brain swelling occurred in people without neurological signs at HA, but no negative sequelae in cortical structures and neuropsychiatric functions were left after the return to lowlands. Reoxygenation changed white matter microstructure. PMID:27633944

  19. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site. PMID:16403014

  20. Reversible Brain Abnormalities in People Without Signs of Mountain Sickness During High-Altitude Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cunxiu; Zhao, Yuhua; Yu, Qian; Yin, Wu; Liu, Haipeng; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming; Gesang, Luobu; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested. After 30-day HA exposure, the gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface areas significantly increased, with cortical thicknesses and curvatures changed in a wide spread regions; Anisotropy decreased with diffusivities increased in multiple sites of white matter tracts. Two months after HA exposure, cortical measurements returned to basal level. However, increased anisotropy with decreased diffusivities was observed. Behaviors and serum inflammatory factor did not significant changed during three time-point tests. NSE significantly decreased during HA but increased after HA exposure. Results suggest brain swelling occurred in people without neurological signs at HA, but no negative sequelae in cortical structures and neuropsychiatric functions were left after the return to lowlands. Reoxygenation changed white matter microstructure. PMID:27633944

  1. Experimental observations of detonation in ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) surrounded by a high-sound speed, shockless, aluminum confiner

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could desensitize the explosive by crushing porosity required for shock initiation or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. As these phenomena are not well understood, most numerical explosive models are unable to account for them. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by an aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation front curvature, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Front curvature profiles display detonation acceleration near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness due to the additional inertial confinement of the reaction zone flow. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected which interfered with the front curvature measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation.

  2. New approach to optimize operational conditions for the biological treatment of a high-strength thiocyanate and ammonium waste: pH as key factor.

    PubMed

    Lay-Son, Meiling; Drakides, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Biological treatment of coke and steel-processing wastewaters has to satisfy both industrial economic needs and environmental protection regulations. Nevertheless, as some of the pollutants contained in these waters or produced during the treatment are highly toxic, an effective and safe treatment has proved to be difficult to obtain. This paper reports the study of a biological method for the treatment of wastewaters containing free cyanide, thiocyanate and ammonium (NH4). Laboratory-scale activated-sludge reactors were fed with a synthetic solution reproducing a steel-processing industrial wastewater and inoculated with the same industrial bacterial seeding used on-site (Ecosynergie Inc.). The results demonstrated that free cyanide and thiocyanate were efficiently degraded. Nevertheless, thiocyanate degradation and nitrification processes were actually inhibited by the free ammonia form (NH3) in place of the ionized NH4 form (NH4+) currently dosed and often unproperly named "ammonia" [IUPAC, 1997. In: McNaught, A.D., Wilkinson, A. (compilers). Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK]. Optimum degradation rates were obtained for very narrow ranges of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. This result can be explained by the role of pH, which mainly controls the NH3/NH4 equilibrium. Pollutants and NH3 concentrations influenced degradation rates of main pollutants. This influence was determined and expressed through elementary equations. Although the Michaelis-Menten equation could have been used to describe thiocyanate degradation, a Haldane-inhibition model was used to satisfactorily describe cyanide degradation. On the other hand, a slightly modified Haldane model was applied to describe both NH4 oxidation using NH3-N as substrate and thiocyanate degradation using NH3-N as inhibitor. These findings emphasize the role of pH on degradation rates and allow one to optimize operational conditions in the biological treatment of

  3. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  5. Prevalence of abnormal ECGs in male soccer players decreases with the Seattle criteria, but is still high.

    PubMed

    Berge, H M; Gjesdal, K; Andersen, T E; Solberg, E E; Steine, K

    2015-08-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography are mandatory in preparticipation cardiac screening in soccer players. Abnormal ECG findings usually require follow-up investigations. The main aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of abnormal ECG findings in male professional soccer players according to European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) recommendations and the Seattle criteria, and to assess the need for echocardiography. ECGs from 587 of 595 (99%) players were recorded with ClickECG, and measurements were derived with visually adjusted on-screen calipers on the computer-based averaged PQRST complex. Echocardiographic recordings were performed with Vivid 7/i and categorized according to reference values for athlete's heart. After the initial screening, 32 (5.5%) players were recommended for follow-up. The prevalence of abnormal ECGs was 29.3% vs 11.2% according to the ESC's recommendations and the Seattle criteria, respectively. None of the players with abnormal ECGs only according to the ESC's recommendations had abnormal echocardiograms. Echocardiography alone detected one player with abnormalities (athlete's heart). The Seattle criteria reduced the number of athletes with abnormal ECGs considerably compared with the ESC recommendations. Based on echocardiographic evaluations, this increased the specificity of the Seattle criteria, without increasing the number of false-negative ECGs. The need for mandatory echocardiography in soccer players seems limited.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of myocardial deformation indices for detecting high risk coronary artery disease in patients without regional wall motion abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Alireza; Shojaeifard, Maryam; Rezaei, Yousef; Dehghan, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) by conventional echocardiographic measurements is principally based on the estimation of ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). This study aimed to determine whether strain echocardiography of left ventricle measured by velocity vector imaging (VVI) method could detect patients with a high-risk CAD. Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 119 consecutive patients who were assessed for eligibility were categorized into three groups: (1) without CAD as normal (n=59), (2) 1- or 2-vessel disease as low-risk (n=29), and (3) left main and/or 3-vessel disease as high-risk (n=31). The peaks of systolic strain and strain rate from 18 curves of apical views were averaged as global longitudinal strain and strain rate (GLS and GLSR), respectively; the 6 systolic peaks of strain and strain rate at base- and mid-ventricular of short axis views were averaged as mean radial strain rate (MRSR). Results: GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of left ventricle were significantly lower in the high-risk group (P=0.047, P=0.004 and P=0.030, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve showed that the optimal values of GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR for detecting the severe CAD were -17%, -1 s-1, and 1.45 s-1 with the sensitivities of 77%, 71%, and 71% and the specificities of 63%, 67%, and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: Decrements in the GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of the left ventricle can detect the high-risk CAD cases among patients without RWMA at rest. PMID:26309603

  7. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  8. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  9. Multi-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition reveal the spatial constraints and biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system.

    PubMed

    Wells, Naomi S; Hakoun, Vivien; Brouyère, Serge; Knöller, Kay

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg N l(-1) ammonium (NH4(+)) and 300 mg N l(-1) nitrate (NO3(-)), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ∼1 mg l(-1) DIN ([DIN] = [NH4(+)N] + [NO3(-)N] + [NO2(-)N]). Mean δ(15)N-DIN increased from ∼2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4(+) sources (δ(15)NNH4(+) from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ(15)N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ(18)O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ(15)NNO2(-) values were 50‰-20‰ less than δ(15)NNH4(+) values in the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ(15)NNO2(-) was greater than δ(15)NNH4(+) in wells with the highest [NH4(+)] shows that an autotrophic NO2(-) reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4(+) oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex

  10. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  11. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Julia D.I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in ‘decoding’ mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state (‘mentalizing'versus ‘non-mentalizing’) in a 2 × 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  12. Reduction of low- and high-grade cervical abnormalities associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, K G J; Kavanagh, K; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Cruickshank, M; Palmer, T J; Nicoll, S; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Scotland, a national HPV immunisation programme began in 2008 for 12- to 13-year olds, with a catch-up campaign from 2008 to 2011 for those under the age of 18. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation on cervical disease at the population level, a programme of national surveillance was established. Methods: We analysed colposcopy data from a cohort of women born between 1988 and 1992 who entered the Scottish Cervical Screening Programme (SCSP) and were aged 20–21 in 2008–2012. Results: By linking datasets from the SCSP and colposcopy services, we observed a significant reduction in diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1; RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87; P=0.0008), CIN 2 (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.63; P<0.0001) and CIN 3 (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.58; P<0.0001) for women who received three doses of vaccine compared with unvaccinated women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to show a reduction of low- and high-grade CIN associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine at the population level. These data are very encouraging for countries that have achieved high HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25180766

  13. Abnormal White Matter Integrity Related to Head Impact Exposure in a Season of High School Varsity Football

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Elizabeth M.; Urban, Jillian E.; Espeland, Mark A.; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Powers, Alexander K.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:24786802

  14. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  15. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

  16. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects. PMID:24173620

  17. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects.

  18. Abnormal monsoon years and their control on erosion and sediment flux in the high, arid northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, Bodo; Thiede, Rasmus C.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2005-02-01

    The interplay between topography and Indian summer monsoon circulation profoundly controls precipitation distribution, sediment transport, and river discharge along the Southern Himalayan Mountain Front (SHF). The Higher Himalayas form a major orographic barrier that separates humid sectors to the south and arid regions to the north. During the Indian summer monsoon, vortices transport moisture from the Bay of Bengal, swirl along the SHF to the northwest, and cause heavy rainfall when colliding with the mountain front. In the eastern and central parts of the Himalaya, precipitation measurements derived from passive microwave analysis (SSM/I) show a strong gradient, with high values at medium elevations and extensive penetration of moisture along major river valleys into the orogen. The end of the monsoonal conveyer belt is near the Sutlej Valley in the NW Himalaya, where precipitation is lower and rainfall maxima move to lower elevations. This region thus comprises a climatic transition zone that is very sensitive to changes in Indian summer monsoon strength. To constrain magnitude, temporal, and spatial distribution of precipitation, we analyzed high-resolution passive microwave data from the last decade and identified an abnormal monsoon year (AMY) in 2002. During the 2002 AMY, violent rainstorms conquered orographic barriers and penetrated far into otherwise arid regions in the northwest Himalaya at elevations in excess of 3 km asl. While precipitation in these regions was significantly increased and triggered extensive erosional processes (i.e., debris flows) on sparsely vegetated, steep hillslopes, mean rainfall along the low to medium elevations was not significantly greater in magnitude. This shift may thus play an important role in the overall sediment flux toward the Himalayan foreland. Using extended precipitation and sediment flux records for the last century, we show that these events have a decadal recurrence interval during the present-day monsoon

  19. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2 nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  20. High-Performance Chemical Isotope Labeling Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Profiling the Metabolomic Reprogramming Elicited by Ammonium Limitation in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian; Zhao, Shuang; Huan, Tao; Sun, Difei; Friis, R Magnus N; Schultz, Michael C; Li, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Information about how yeast metabolism is rewired in response to internal and external cues can inform the development of metabolic engineering strategies for food, fuel, and chemical production in this organism. We report a new metabolomics workflow for the characterization of such metabolic rewiring. The workflow combines efficient cell lysis without using chemicals that may interfere with downstream sample analysis and differential chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (CIL LC-MS) for in-depth yeast metabolome profiling. Using (12)C- and (13)C-dansylation (Dns) labeling to analyze the amine/phenol submetabolome, we detected and quantified a total of 5719 peak pairs or metabolites. Among them, 120 metabolites were positively identified using a library of 275 Dns-metabolite standards, and 2980 metabolites were putatively identified based on accurate mass matches to metabolome databases. We also applied (12)C- and (13)C-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling to profile the carboxylic acid submetabolome and detected over 2286 peak pairs, from which 33 metabolites were positively identified using a library of 188 DmPA-metabolite standards, and 1595 metabolites were putatively identified. Using this workflow for metabolomic profiling of cells challenged by ammonium limitation revealed unexpected links between ammonium assimilation and pantothenate accumulation that might be amenable to engineering for better acetyl-CoA production in yeast. We anticipate that efforts to improve other schemes of metabolic engineering will benefit from application of this workflow to multiple cell types. PMID:26947805

  1. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  2. Do sleep abnormalities and misaligned sleep/circadian rhythm patterns represent early clinical characteristics for developing psychosis in high risk populations?

    PubMed

    Zanini, Marcio; Castro, Juliana; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Bittencourt, Lia; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Tufik, Sergio; Brietzke, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    Sleep architecture changes, such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) percentage variations and reductions in latency and density of rapid eye movement (REM), are found in most patients with schizophrenia and are considered to be an important part of the pathophysiology of the disorder. In addition to these sleep parameters changes, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and the sleep/circadian rhythm also occur in these patients. Sleep/circadian rhythm abnormalities negatively affect neocortical plasticity and cognition and often precede the diagnosis of the illness. Thus, it has been suggested that the sleep/circadian rhythm might be involved in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Recent advances in the identification of individuals at a high risk for developing schizophrenia allow us to investigate several neurobiological processes involved in the development of psychosis. In this article, we review the current evidence of the effects of sleep parameter abnormalities, disruptions in sleep homeostasis and misalignments of sleep circadian rhythm on the early stages of schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the preliminary evidence of sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during the prodromal stages of psychosis and propose that these abnormalities can be explored as potential predictors, as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis, of developing a psychotic disorder in at risk populations.

  3. Results of high-dose therapy for 1000 patients with multiple myeloma: durable complete remissions and superior survival in the absence of chromosome 13 abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Desikan, R; Barlogie, B; Sawyer, J; Ayers, D; Tricot, G; Badros, A; Zangari, M; Munshi, N C; Anaissie, E; Spoon, D; Siegel, D; Jagannath, S; Vesole, D; Epstein, J; Shaughnessy, J; Fassas, A; Lim, S; Roberson, P; Crowley, J

    2000-06-15

    High-dose therapy (HDT) has increased complete remission (CR) rates and survival in multiple myeloma (MM). We now report on continuous CR (CCR) and associated prognostic factors in 1000 consecutive patients receiving melphalan-based tandem HDT. Five-year CCR was 52% among 112 CR patients without chromosome 13 (triangle up13) abnormalities and with beta-2-microglobulin abnormalities, 35% enjoyed 5-year CCR but none of 54 with triangle up13 abnormalities. triangle up13 abnormalities, present in overall 16%, reduced 5-year event-free survival from 20% to 0% and overall survival from 44% to 16% (both P <.0001). CR and a second HDT cycle applied within 6 months both extended event-free and overall survival significantly, justifying further pursuit of HDT, especially toward curing non-triangle up13 MM. (Blood. 2000;95:4008-4010)

  4. Activity inhibition and its mitigation in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells: The role of phosphoric acid, ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, and polyvinylidene difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst-Olesen, Kaspar; Nesselberger, Markus; Perchthaler, Markus; Hacker, Viktor; Arenz, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    In the presented work we systematically study the influence of phosphoric acid, ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate (ATFMS), and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of carbon supported, Pt based catalysts. The influence of phosphoric acid is investigated in a mixed solution of perchloric acid with small amounts of phosphoric acid added. Thin-film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) measurements show that such a mixed electrolyte is advantageous as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is inhibited without influencing the oxygen solubility in the electrolyte. In contrast to previous reports it is seen when investigating additives that ATFMS acts as a catalyst poison; whereas the results provide evidence of a better performance in case of the PVDF incorporated catalysts as compared to reference samples without PVDF. The technological relevance of the PVDF improvements and its stability over prolonged time was validated by membrane electrode assembly (MEA) tests.

  5. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  6. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Asian adults constituted 4.9% of the U.S. population in 2012, corresponding to 15.4 million people (2). This group primarily comprises persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent. The prevalence of hypertension (defined as having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg or taking blood pressure-lowering medications) among non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over was 25.6%. As previously reported, this prevalence is similar to that of non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults but lower than that of non-Hispanic black adults (3). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of hypertension was higher among those who were older or had less education, similar to findings in U.S. adults overall (4,5). The prevalence of high total cholesterol (measured as cholesterol of at least 240 mg/dL) among non-Hispanic Asian adults was similar to that among adults of other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (measured as HDL less than 40 mg/dL) than Hispanic persons (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adult men were almost five times more likely than non-Hispanic Asian adult women to have low HDL cholesterol. While adult men in general are known to have a higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol than adult women (7), the sex difference was larger than in other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). The prevalence of high BMI among non-Hispanic Asian adults (38.6%) was much lower than that previously reported for non-Hispanic white adults (66.7%), non-Hispanic black adults (76.7%), and Hispanic adults (78.8%) (8). BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat. However, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. In particular, at a given BMI, Asian adults may have more body fat than white adults (9). Also, morbidity and mortality risk may be influenced by body composition and fat distribution in a manner that is

  7. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  8. Abnormally high body mass index and tobacco use are associated with poor sperm quality as revealed by reduced sperm binding to hyaluronan-coated slides.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Carole C; Clifford, Alicia L; Jilbert, Patricia M; Henry, Michael A; Gentry, William L

    2010-01-01

    Responses on a lifestyle questionnaire were correlated with results from traditional semen analysis and a newer functional sperm assay, namely, the ability of sperm to bind to a hyaluronan-coated slide. Increased percent normal morphology and motile sperm concentration were positively correlated with increased HA-binding score, whereas tobacco use (either current or previous history) and abnormally high body mass index were associated with lower binding scores.

  9. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  10. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Tang, Chong-jian; Jin, Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control. Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will accelerate application of the process in future. This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process. PMID:18500782

  11. Human papillomavirus genotyping as a predictor of high-grade cervical dysplasia in women with mildly cytologic abnormalities: a two-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lee-Wen; Lin, Yu-Hung; Pan, Hun-Shan; Seow, Kok-Min; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2012-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA testing has emerged as another testing modality for women with mildly cytologic abnormalities. We conducted a two-year follow-up study of 108 women with mildly abnormal cervical cytology for detection of CIN 2/3. A cervical swab sample was obtained for HPV genotyping by a HPV blot and histologic follow-up results were correlated with HR-HPV types. Of the 108 cases, 93 (86.1%) were positive for HR-HPV DNA. HPV-16 was detected in 45.1% of patients. CIN grade 2 or 3 was confirmed in 25 (23.1%) of the 108 women during the two-year follow-up period. The two-year cumulative incidence rates of CIN 2/3 were 38.6% (17/44) among HPV-16- positive women, but only 5.6% among HR-HPV-positive women without HPV-16 or HPV-18. The sensitivity of a positive HPV-16 test for CIN 2/3 was 68.0%, the specificity was 67.5%. Our results demonstrated that the type-specific HPV-16 test increased sensitivity of detecting high-grade cervical dysplasia for women who have mildly cytologic abnormalities. The implication of the present findings is that HPV genotyping may identify women with the greatest risk of high-grade CIN.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  13. Seasonal patterns of ammonium regeneration from size-fractionated microheterotrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguer, Jean-François; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Madec, Christian; Le Corre, Pierre

    1999-11-01

    Ammonium regeneration by size-fractionated plankton was measured for 1 year at a coastal station in the shallow well-mixed waters of the western English Channel. Rates of ammonium regeneration in the <200 μm fraction varied from 0.6 to 27 nmol N l -1 h -1. On the seasonal scale, these rates were relatively low (<7 nmol N l -1 h -1) in autumn and winter, increased steadily from March to attain a maximum (27 nmol N l -1 h -1) at the end of May and thereafter decreased steadily to the seasonal minimum in December. This pattern is distinctly different from that observed in deep well-mixed waters where the peak ammonium regeneration occurs in summer (Le Corre et al., 1996, Journal of Plankton Research, 18, 355-370). Total ammonium regenerated in a year by the microheterotrophs was 15 g N m -2, equivalent to about 60% of the total nitrogen uptake. Microplankton (200-15 μm) accounted for about 50% of the regeneration measured between early spring and late summer. Percent contribution of nanoplankton to total ammonium regeneration varied considerably between the seasons, from very high (83-88%) levels in winter to very low (2-13%) levels in summer. Contribution by picoplankton (<1 μm) was high (20-45%) in summer but was less than 20% in other seasons. Ammonium regeneration in micro- and nanoplankton fractions was mainly associated with ciliates and in the picoplankton fraction with bacteria. Macrozooplankton dynamics appears to regulate ammonium regeneration by ciliates and bacteria. Low macrozooplankton biomass in spring may favour a high growth of ciliates and an associated high in ammonium regeneration. In summer, the increase in macrozooplankton may exert a grazing pressure on ciliates. This, coupled with the fact that most of the flagellates are autotrophs, would, in turn, lower the grazing pressure on the bacteria, thus favouring their development and increasing the importance of their role in ammonium regeneration. This situation, where the macrozooplankton

  14. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  15. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin; Zhang, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  16. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  17. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou.

  18. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  19. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  7. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker... concentration of marker residues in the target tissue used to monitor for total drug residues in the...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  15. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 582.1137 Section 582.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  3. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  4. Effects of Krenite? brush control agent (fosamine ammonium) on embryonic development in mallards and bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fosamine ammonium (Krenite) is a highly water-soluble carbamoylphosphonate herbicide used to control woody brush. It has been reported to be teratogenic to avian embryos following spray application of the eggs. The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of Krenite was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). At 96 h of development, eggs were briefly immersed in distilled water or in Krenite formulation in distilled water at concentrations of 1.5, 6.5, or 30% fosamine ammonium. At 6.5% active ingredient (a.i.), Krenite reduced hatching success in bobwhite and mallards to 85 and 33% of that in the distilled-water controls. At 30% a.i., Krenite caused 95 to 100% mortality in both species by the time of hatching. Early embryonic growth was impaired by 30% Krenite in both species. There was no evidence of teratogenesis of the axial skeleton, as reported previously in chickens and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Most abnormal embryos had severe edema and some stunting. Mallard hatchlings from the 1.5 and 6.5% Krenite groups weighed significantly less than controls and had lower plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with elevated plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was unaffected by Krenite in embryos and hatchlings.

  5. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  6. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... high total cholesterol among non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign- ... Figure 3 ). The prevalence of high total cholesterol did not differ significantly by sex, age, education, or ...

  7. Bacterial Investigation of Ammonium-rich Sediment in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chunbo, H.; Jiao, J. J.; Jidong, G.

    2011-12-01

    similar bacteria presenting in comparable habits were found. Mutual effects between bacteria and environment widely exist through PRD aquifer-aquitard system, and abnormal high ammonium was probably released during organic nitrogen dissimilation coupled with sulfate reduction.
    Chemical Parameters of SD14

  8. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  9. High risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in the cervical lesions of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A cytohistomorphologic association in Bangladeshi women

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Urmila; Ahamad, M. Shahab Uddin; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Rahman, Zillur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16/18 infection in the cervical tissue of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear and to establish an association between hrHPV type 16/18 infection and cytohistomorphology. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 1699 patients who went through Pap smear examination. Prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was calculated. Forty eight of these women underwent routine histopathology and 47 were evaluated for human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Total 139 women revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Histopathology showed simple inflammation to malignancy. HPV type 16/18 infection was detected in 40.42% (19/47) of the patients. Individually type 16 and 18 were positive in 7 (14.9%) cases each and dual infection with type 16 and 18 were seen in 5 (10.6%) cases. While cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and < CIN 1 lesions showed 18.75% (3 out of 16) and 35% (7 out of 20) positivity respectively, ≥CIN 2 lesions revealed positivity of 81.82% (9 out of 11). Eighty percent HPV 16/18 positivity was seen in women of < 30 years of age. Conclusion: The findings of this study will contribute to HPV 16/18 knowledge in Bangladesh that will be useful in assessing the success of current vaccines with limited type spectra and augmenting cervical cancer screening strategies. PMID:23976895

  10. Decreased HCN2 expression in STN contributes to abnormal high-voltage spindles in the cortex and globus pallidus of freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jia-Rui; Chen, Lei; Ge, Shun-Nan; Wang, Ju-Lei; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ling; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-27

    Abnormal oscillation in the cortical-basal ganglia loop is involved in the pathophysiology of parkinsonism. High-voltage spindles (HVSs), one of the main type abnormal oscillations in Parkinson's disease, are regulated by dopamine D2-like receptors but not D1-like receptors. However, little is known about how dopamine D2-like receptors regulate HVSs and the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated2 (HCN2) in HVSs regulation. We simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) in globus pallidus (GP) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) in primary motor cortex (M1) in freely moving 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned or control rats. The expression of HCN2 and dopamine D2 receptor in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was examined by immunochemical staining and Western blotting. We also tested the role of HCN2 in HVSs regulation by using pharmacological and shRNA methodology. We found that dopamine D2-like receptor agonists suppressed the increased HVSs in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. HCN2 was co-expressed with dopamine D2 receptor in the STN, and dopamine depletion decreased the expression of HCN2 as well as dopamine D2 receptor which contribute to the regulation of HVSs. HCN2 was down regulated by HCN2 shRNA, which thereby led to an increase in the HVSs in naïve rats while HCN2 agonist reduced the HVSs in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. These results suggest that HCN2 in the STN is involved in abnormal oscillation regulation between M1 cortex and GP.

  11. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, A.; Pardo, J.P.; Ramirez, J.

    1987-03-01

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased (H+)ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity.

  12. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2  nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2  nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  13. Cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma: poor prognosis linked to concomitant detection in random and focal lesion bone marrow samples and associated with high-risk gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Nair, Bijay; Shaughnessy, John D; Cartron, Marie-Astrid; Haessler, Jeff; Anaissie, Elias; van Rhee, Frits; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

    2009-06-01

    The clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) present in randomly sampled (RS) or focal lesion (FL) bone marrow sites was examined in 419 untreated myeloma patients. Among 290 patients with gene expression profiling (GEP) data generated from RS sites, GEP-defined high-risk was present in 52% of the RS+/FL+ group but in only 9% of the remainder (P < 0.001). The RS+/FL+ constellation (18%) was an independent predictor of poor survival, also after adjusting for GEP-derived risk and TP53 status (Hazard ratio = 2.42, P = 0.004). The prevalence of high-risk myeloma in the RS+/FL+ group may reflect a dissemination-prone condition not shared by the other three groups. PMID:19344415

  14. High frequency of rare structural chromosome abnormalities at relapse of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3 internal tandem duplication.

    PubMed

    Gourdin, Theodore S; Zou, Ying; Ning, Yi; Emadi, Ashkan; Duong, Vu H; Tidwell, Michael L; Chen, Ching; Rassool, Feyruz V; Baer, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are present in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most commonly in those with a normal karyotype, and are associated with short relapse-free survival. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of FLT3-ITD cell lines have demonstrated reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA double-strand breaks and associated error-prone DNA repair as a mechanism of genomic instability, and we hypothesized that genomic instability might be manifested by cytogenetic changes at relapse of FLT3-ITD AML. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) FLT3-ITD AML treated at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, with attention to metaphase analysis results at relapse. Cytogenetic data were available from first and, when applicable, subsequent relapses for 15 patients diagnosed with CN FLT3-ITD AML. Among 12 patients with documented FLT3-ITD at first and, when applicable, subsequent relapse, 10 had cytogenetic changes, including nine with rare structural abnormalities. The high frequency of rare structural chromosome abnormalities at relapse in our case series supports a role of genomic instability in the genesis of relapse, and suggests that reactive oxygen species-generating and DNA repair pathways might be therapeutic targets in FLT3-ITD AML. PMID:25441683

  15. Simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids in multipurpose filters.

    PubMed

    Alkas, Deniz; Baykal, Bilsen Beler; Kinaci, Cumali

    2012-06-01

    A multipurpose filter in which sand and clinoptilolite are used together as filter material is suggested for the simultaneous removal of suspended solids and ammonium in one single unit. The capacity of the clinoptilolite used was determined as 10.4 mg/g for 20 mg/l initial ammonium concentration. In addition, a packed column ion exchanger with clinoptilolite and a classical sand filter were also investigated for comparison. Ammonium and suspended solids removal rates were observed and compared for all columns. The results of the column analysis have revealed that the ammonium removal rate, which was only 20% in the sand column, was increased to 100% by replacing 50% of the sand with clinoptilolite; similarly, the suspended solids removal, which was only 17% in the clinoptilolite column, was increased to 75% by replacing 50% of the clinoptilolite with sand. As such, when ion exchange and filtration processes were carried out in a multipurpose column, high removals for both parameters could be obtained simultaneously. Multipurpose columns could be an alternative both for the upgrading of existing treatment plants or for new plants for simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids, giving considerable savings in terms of land requirements.

  16. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  17. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  18. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  19. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26800576

  20. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  2. Root Environment Acidity as a Regulatory Factor in Ammonium Assimilation by the Bean Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Barker, A. V.; Volk, R. J.; Jackson, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Previous experiments have revealed a much greater efficiency of ammonium utilization by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) when the acidity of the ambient medium was maintained at near-neutral conditions with carbonates or hydroxides. The present investigation, in which 15N-labeled ammonium was used, permitted an assessment of the origin of nitrogen in tissue nitrogen pools with and without acidity control (CaCO3 treated and untreated, respectively) in the root environment. Control of acidity resulted in greater ammonium uptake and greater incorporation into the amino fraction, amide, and ethanol-insoluble nitrogen by the root tissue. These differences were clearly evident by the fifth day after ammonium nitrogen had been applied. Shoots of the untreated plants rapidly accumulated free ammonium and amino nitrogen. A substantial portion of both fractions came from pre-existing nitrogen in the plants, indicating significant protein degradation. No evidence was found for such degradation in the roots of the untreated plants or in either roots or shoots of CaCO3 treated plants. The data indicate that control of ambient acidity in the root environment during ammonium absorption enhanced the conversion of entering ammonium to organic nitrogen compounds in the root tissue thereby restricting movement of free ammonium to shoots. Consequently, the detrimental effects of high ammonium concentrations in the leaves were largely prevented. PMID:16656383

  3. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  4. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets.

  5. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamic study of solid-state transitions of ammonium nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyu; Duan, Defang; Liu, Hanyu; Yang, Ting; Tian, Fubo; Bao, Kuo; Li, Da; Zhao, Zhonglong; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure polymorphism and phase transitions have wide ranging consequences on the basic properties of ammonium nitrate. However, the phase diagram of ammonium nitrate at high pressure and high temperature is still under debate. This study systematically investigates the phase transitions and structural properties of ammonium nitrate at a pressure range of 5–60 GPa and temperature range of 250–400 K by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two new phases are identified: one corresponds to the experimentally observed phase IV’ and the other is named AN-X. Simultaneously, the lattice strains play a significant role in the formation and stabilization of phase IV’, providing a reasonable explanation for experimental observation of phase IV-IV’ transition which only appears under nonhydrostatic pressure. In addition, 12 O atoms neighboring the NH (N atom in ammonium cation) atom are selected as reference system to clearly display the tanglesome rotation of ammonium cation. PMID:26754622

  7. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  8. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools.

  9. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in estuarine sediments by LC-ToF-MS: very high positive mass defects of alkylamine ions provide powerful diagnostic tools for identification and structural elucidation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and robust method of analysis for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in marine sediments is presented. Methods for extraction, sample purification, and HPLC-Time-of-Flight-MS analysis were optimized, providing solutions to problems associated with analysis of QACs, such as dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) and benzalkonium (BAC) compounds experienced previously. Recognized in this study are the exceptionally high positive mass defects characteristic of alkylammonium or protonated alkylamine ions. No alternative and chemically-viable elemental formulas exist within 25.2 mDa when the number of double bond equivalents is low, effectively allowing facile discrimination of this compound class in complex mixtures. Accurate mass measurements of diagnostic collision induced dissociation fragment ions and heavy isotope peaks were obtained and also seen to be uniquely heavy compared to other elemental formulae. In the case of BACs, the ability to resolve masses of alkylamine fragment ions is greater than it is for molecular ions, opening up a wide range of potential applications. The power of utilizing a combination of approaches is illustrated with the identification of non-targeted DADMAC C8:C8 and C8:C10, two widely used biocides previously unreported in environmental samples. Concentrations of QACs in sewage-impacted estuarine sediments (up to 74 μg/g) were higher than concentrations of other organic contaminants measured in the same or nearby samples, suggesting further study is needed. PMID:19739657

  10. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Aili; Liang, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhuqing; Cai, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH4+ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants. PMID:25915023

  11. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity.

  12. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, P< 0·05). MI supplementation significantly reduced fatty acid synthase activity in epididymal WAT, which might explain its beneficial, but modest, effect on WAT accretion in HFD-fed mice. Finally, we found some abnormalities in inositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model. PMID:25990651

  13. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, P< 0·05). MI supplementation significantly reduced fatty acid synthase activity in epididymal WAT, which might explain its beneficial, but modest, effect on WAT accretion in HFD-fed mice. Finally, we found some abnormalities in inositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model.

  14. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  15. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  16. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  17. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  18. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  19. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Highly efficient ablation of metastatic breast cancer using ammonium-tungsten-bronze nanocube as a novel 1064 nm-laser-driven photothermal agent.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chongshen; Yu, Haijun; Feng, Bing; Gao, Weidong; Yan, Mei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping; Liu, Shaoqin

    2015-06-01

    Photothermal ablation (PTA) therapy has been viewed as an invasive option for cancer therapy with minimal deconstruction of healthy tissues. In this study, a potent candidate of (NH4)xWO3 nanocube was developed for PTA treatment of metastatic breast cancer in the second near-infrared (NIR) window. It was found that the as-synthesized (NH4)xWO3 nanocube had significant photoabsorption across the whole NIR window of 780-2500 nm and exhibited considerable photo-heat conversion efficiency. Moreover, the as-prepared (NH4)xWO3 nanocube displayed good biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiency through endocytosis pathway without nuclei entry. The PTA study employing 1064 nm laser in the second NIR window revealed that (NH4)xWO3 nanocubes induced significant cell necrosis and apoptosis by producing obviously hyperthermia effect inside cancer cells. Using an orthotopicly implanted breast tumor model, it demonstrated that the (NH4)xWO3 nanocube was a promising photothermal agent for effective ablation of solid tumors and suppressing their distant metastasis.

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  3. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  4. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations HMT Hazardous... ``Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Program'' on October 29, 2008. See 73 FR 64280. The ANPRM solicited... interacting with state and local governments regarding ammonium nitrate security. ] See 73 FR 64280,...

  5. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  6. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  7. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  8. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, ammonium formate, may be safely used in the... safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food, Drug,...

  9. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maduramicin ammonium. 558.340 Section 558.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles:...

  10. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tami R; Ward, John M

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  11. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tami R.; Ward, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  12. The Impact of High-Risk HPV Genotypes Other Than HPV 16/18 on the Natural Course of Abnormal Cervical Cytology: A Korean HPV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Jeong, Mi Seon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Kang, Chun; Cho, Chi Heum; Kim, Seok Mo; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Jong Sup; Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) other than HPV 16/18 on the natural course of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean HPV cohort (2010-2014). Women aged 20 to 60 who satisfied the criteria of having both HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology of either ASC-US or LSIL were recruited from five institutions nationwide. Enrolled patients underwent cervical cytology and HPV DNA testing every 6 months. Results A total of 1,158 patients were enrolled. The 10 most common HPV types were HPV 16 (12.3%), 58 (10.0%), 56 (8.8%), 53 (8.4%), 52 (7.7%), 39 (6.2%), 18 (6.0%), 51 (5.7%), 68 (5.1%), and 66 (4.6%). Among these patients, 636 women were positive for high-risk HPVs other than HPV 16 or 18, and 429 women were followed for more than 6 months. Cytology evaluations showed progression in 15.3% of women, no change in 22.6%, and regression in 62.1% of women at 12 months. In cases of HPV 58 single infection, a more highly significant progression rate, compared to other high-risk types, was observed at 6 months (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04 to 5.30; p < 0.001) and 12 months (RR, 5.03; 95% CI, 2.56 to 9.91; p < 0.001). Conclusion HPV genotypes numbered in the 50s were frequent in Korean women with ASC-US and LSIL. HPV 58 was the second most common type, with a high progression rate of cervical cytology. PMID:26987394

  13. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  14. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  15. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  16. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  17. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  18. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng

    2016-05-01

    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  19. Interaction between Ammonium Toxicity and Green Tide Development Over Seagrass Meadows: A Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Vergara, Juan J; Pérez-Llorens, J Lucas; Pedersen, Morten F; Brun, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication affects seagrasses negatively by increasing light attenuation through stimulation of biomass of fast-growing, bloom-forming algae and because high concentrations of ammonium in the water can be toxic to higher plants. We hypothesized nevertheless, that moderate amounts of nitrophilic macroalgae that coexists with seagrasses under eutrophic conditions, can alleviate the harmful effects of eutrophication on seagrasses by reducing ammonium concentrations in the seawater to non-toxic levels because such algae have a very large capacity to take up inorganic nutrients. We studied therefore how combinations of different ammonium concentrations (0, 25 and 50 μM) and different standing stocks of macroalgae (i.e. 0, 1 and 6 layers of Ulva sp.) affected survival, growth and net production of the seagrass Zostera noltei. In the absence of Ulva sp., increasing ammonium concentrations had a negative influence on the performance of Z. noltei. The presence of Ulva sp. without ammonium supply had a similar, but slightly smaller, negative effect on seagrass fitness due to light attenuation. When ammonium enrichment was combined with presence of Ulva sp., Ulva sp. ameliorated some of negative effects caused by high ammonium availability although Ulva sp. lowered the availability of light. Benthic microalgae, which increased in biomass during the experiment, seemed to play a similar role as Ulva sp.--they contributed to remove ammonium from the water, and thus, aided to keep the ammonium concentrations experienced by Z. noltei at relatively non-toxic levels. Our findings show that moderate amounts of drift macroalgae, eventually combined with increasing stocks of benthic microalgae, may aid seagrasses to alleviate toxic effects of ammonium under eutrophic conditions, which highlights the importance of high functional diversity for ecosystem resistance to anthropogenic disturbance.

  20. Interaction between Ammonium Toxicity and Green Tide Development Over Seagrass Meadows: A Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Vergara, Juan J.; Pérez-Llorens, J. Lucas; Pedersen, Morten F.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication affects seagrasses negatively by increasing light attenuation through stimulation of biomass of fast-growing, bloom-forming algae and because high concentrations of ammonium in the water can be toxic to higher plants. We hypothesized nevertheless, that moderate amounts of nitrophilic macroalgae that coexists with seagrasses under eutrophic conditions, can alleviate the harmful effects of eutrophication on seagrasses by reducing ammonium concentrations in the seawater to non-toxic levels because such algae have a very large capacity to take up inorganic nutrients. We studied therefore how combinations of different ammonium concentrations (0, 25 and 50 μM) and different standing stocks of macroalgae (i.e. 0, 1 and 6 layers of Ulva sp.) affected survival, growth and net production of the seagrass Zostera noltei. In the absence of Ulva sp., increasing ammonium concentrations had a negative influence on the performance of Z. noltei. The presence of Ulva sp. without ammonium supply had a similar, but slightly smaller, negative effect on seagrass fitness due to light attenuation. When ammonium enrichment was combined with presence of Ulva sp., Ulva sp. ameliorated some of negative effects caused by high ammonium availability although Ulva sp. lowered the availability of light. Benthic microalgae, which increased in biomass during the experiment, seemed to play a similar role as Ulva sp.–they contributed to remove ammonium from the water, and thus, aided to keep the ammonium concentrations experienced by Z. noltei at relatively non-toxic levels. Our findings show that moderate amounts of drift macroalgae, eventually combined with increasing stocks of benthic microalgae, may aid seagrasses to alleviate toxic effects of ammonium under eutrophic conditions, which highlights the importance of high functional diversity for ecosystem resistance to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27035662

  1. Interaction between Ammonium Toxicity and Green Tide Development Over Seagrass Meadows: A Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Vergara, Juan J; Pérez-Llorens, J Lucas; Pedersen, Morten F; Brun, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication affects seagrasses negatively by increasing light attenuation through stimulation of biomass of fast-growing, bloom-forming algae and because high concentrations of ammonium in the water can be toxic to higher plants. We hypothesized nevertheless, that moderate amounts of nitrophilic macroalgae that coexists with seagrasses under eutrophic conditions, can alleviate the harmful effects of eutrophication on seagrasses by reducing ammonium concentrations in the seawater to non-toxic levels because such algae have a very large capacity to take up inorganic nutrients. We studied therefore how combinations of different ammonium concentrations (0, 25 and 50 μM) and different standing stocks of macroalgae (i.e. 0, 1 and 6 layers of Ulva sp.) affected survival, growth and net production of the seagrass Zostera noltei. In the absence of Ulva sp., increasing ammonium concentrations had a negative influence on the performance of Z. noltei. The presence of Ulva sp. without ammonium supply had a similar, but slightly smaller, negative effect on seagrass fitness due to light attenuation. When ammonium enrichment was combined with presence of Ulva sp., Ulva sp. ameliorated some of negative effects caused by high ammonium availability although Ulva sp. lowered the availability of light. Benthic microalgae, which increased in biomass during the experiment, seemed to play a similar role as Ulva sp.--they contributed to remove ammonium from the water, and thus, aided to keep the ammonium concentrations experienced by Z. noltei at relatively non-toxic levels. Our findings show that moderate amounts of drift macroalgae, eventually combined with increasing stocks of benthic microalgae, may aid seagrasses to alleviate toxic effects of ammonium under eutrophic conditions, which highlights the importance of high functional diversity for ecosystem resistance to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27035662

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  3. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  4. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  6. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples.

  7. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6(-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6(-/-) and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6(-/-) mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6(-/-) mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6(-/-) mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  8. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  9. Ammonium and attachment of Rhodopirellula baltica.

    PubMed

    Frank, Carsten S; Langhammer, Philipp; Fuchs, Bernhard Maximilian; Harder, Jens

    2011-05-01

    A dimorphic life cycle has been described for the planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T), with juvenile motile, free-swimming cells and adult sessile, attached-living cells. However, attachment as a response to environmental factors was not investigated. We studied the response of R. baltica to nitrogen limitation. In batch cultures, ammonium limitation coincided with a dominance of free-swimming cells and a low number of aggregates. Flow cytometry revealed a quantitative shift with increasing ammonium availability, from single cells towards attached cells in large aggregates. During growth of R. baltica on glucose and ammonium in chemostats, an ammonium addition caused a macroscopic change of the growth behaviour, from homogeneous growth in the liquid phase to a biofilm on the borosilicate glass wall of the chemostat vessel. Thus, an ammonium limitation-a carbon to nitrogen supply ratio of 30:1-sustained free-living growth without aggregate formation. A sudden increase in ammonium supply induced sessile growth of R. baltica. These observations reveal a response of Rhodopirellula baltica cells to ammonium: they abandon the free-swimming life, attach to particles and form biofilms. PMID:21340506

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  14. Thermal storage in ammonium alum/ammonium nitrate eutectic for solar space heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Hsieh, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.; Klausner, J.F.; Srinivasan, N.

    1998-02-01

    Ammonium alum and ammonium nitrate in the weight ratio of 1:1 form a eutectic that melts at 53 C and solidifies at 48 C. The thermophysical properties of this eutectic were measured in detail and the eutectic was found to have properties desirable for energy storage for solar space heating applications. The eutectic was encapsulated in 0.0254-m diameter high-density polyethylene (HDPE) balls and packed into a cylindrical bed in a scale model for testing its heat transfer characteristics when exposed to an air flow. Test results indicate that the thermal extraction efficiency of the model was 89% with an uncertainty of {+-} 8.0%. The packed bed had a Stanton number value in close agreement with that predicted with an empirical equation for sensible heat extraction from the eutectic in the solid phase. This Stanton number was increased by about 74% for sensible heat extraction from the eutectic in the liquid phase, a phenomenon not previously reported in the literature.

  15. Stoichiometric analysis of ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate with nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, S.; Rao, S. Venugopal; Kiran, P. Prem; Tewari, Surya P.; Kumar, G. Manoj

    2010-04-01

    We present our results on the stoichiometric analysis of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium Perchlorate (AP) studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses. The LIBS spectra collected for AP and AN, without any gating and using a high resolution spectrometer, exhibited characteristic lines corresponding to O, N, H, C, and K. The Oxygen line at 777.38 nm and three Nitrogen lines (N1, N2, N3) at 742.54 nm, 744.64 nm, 747.12 nm were used for evaluating the Oxygen/Nitrogen ratios. The intensities were calculated using area under the peaks and normalized to their respective transition probabilities and statistical weights. The O/N1 ratios estimated from the LIBS spectra were ~4.94 and ~5.11 for AP and O/N3 ratios were ~1.64 and ~1.47 for AN obtained from two independent measurements. The intensity ratios show good agreement with the actual stoichiometric ratios - four for AP and one for AN.

  16. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  17. Post-translationally Abnormal Collagens of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase-2 Null Mice Offer a Pathobiological Mechanism for the High Myopia Linked to Human LEPREL1 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, David M.; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H.; Eyre, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2n/n) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2n/n mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. PMID:25645914

  18. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  19. Genetic Counseling for a Prenatal Diagnosis of Structural Chromosomal Abnormality with High-Resolution Analysis Using a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Akiko; Takeshita, Naoki; Kinoshita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46, XY, add(9)(p24). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing. PMID:27777709

  20. Ammonium reduces oxalate accumulation in different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) genotypes by inhibiting root uptake of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Lingli; Chen, Qiuhui; Ding, Wenya; Dai, Peibin; Hu, Yan; Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-11-01

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate negatively affects nutritional value of many vegetables, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Mixed solution of ammonium and nitrate could effectively reduce oxalate accumulation, while the mechanism involved remains unknown. High (Heizhenzhu) and low (Weilv) oxalate-accumulated spinach genotypes were used in this study to investigate the association of oxalate accumulation and root uptake of nitrogen. Exposure of increasing nitrate or mixed-nitrogen (nitrate:ammonium = 1:1) significantly increased leaf total and soluble oxalate contents. In contrast, increasing ammonium did not result in elevation of leaf oxalate. Correlation analysis confirmed that leaf oxalate accumulation was positively associated with root uptake of nitrate but not ammonium. Moreover, addition of ammonium significantly reduced nitrate uptake rate, and subsequently decreased leaf oxalate accumulation. The results suggest that oxalate synthesis in spinach leaves is associated with its root uptake of nitrate, and ammonium is able to reduce oxalate accumulation by inhibiting uptake of nitrate.

  1. G6PD deficiency, absence of alpha-thalassemia, and hemolytic rate at baseline are significant independent risk factors for abnormally high cerebral velocities in patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Bernaudin, Françoise; Verlhac, Suzanne; Chevret, Sylvie; Torres, Martine; Coic, Lena; Arnaud, Cécile; Kamdem, Annie; Hau, Isabelle; Grazia Neonato, Maria; Delacourt, Christophe

    2008-11-15

    Stroke is predicted by abnormally high cerebral velocities by transcranial doppler (TCD). This study aimed at defining predictive factors for abnormally high velocities (>/= 2 m/sec) based on the Créteil pediatric sickle cell anemia (SCA) cohort composed of 373 stroke-free SCA children. alpha genes and beta-globin haplotypes were determined. Biologic parameters were obtained at baseline. alpha-thalassemia was present in 155 of 325 and G6PD deficiency in 36 of 325 evaluated patients. TCD was abnormal in 62 of 373 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that G6PD deficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-10.33; P = .034), absence of alpha-thalassemia (OR = 6.45, 95% CI 2.21-18.87; P = .001), hemoglobin (OR per g/dL = 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.97; P = .038), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (OR per IU/L = 1.001, 95% CI 1.000-1.002; P = .047) were independent risk factors for abnormally high velocities. This study confirms the protective effect of alpha-thalassemia and shows for the first time that G6PD deficiency and hemolysis independently increase the risk of cerebral vasculopathy.

  2. Effects of nitrate and ammonium on larvae of Rana temporaria from the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Oromí, Neus; Sanuy, Delfí; Vilches, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrate and ammonium on the amphibians in a pasture zone of the Catalonian Pyrenees, larvae of Rana temporaria from several ponds were exposed to different concentrations of nitrate (0-500 mg/L) and ammonium (0-1.2 mg/L). High concentrations of nitrate in the water caused mortality and reduced larval size of R. temporaria, whereas no effects on larvae were observed in ammonium conditions. The results suggest that, if the levels of nitrate reach about 100 mg/L, the possibility of survival of R. temporaria larvae may be reduced.

  3. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  4. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  5. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  6. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  7. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  8. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1296 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric...

  11. Preparation of nanodispersed titania using stabilized ammonium nitrate melts

    SciTech Connect

    Raciulete, Monica; Kachina, Anna; Puzenat, Eric; Afanasiev, Pavel

    2010-10-15

    An expedite one-step approach using simple precursors has been proposed to obtain metallic oxide compounds and exemplified by preparation of highly dispersed TiO{sub 2}. The technique consists in heating to 400-500 {sup o}C of molten ammonium nitrate stabilized with an organic nitrogen-containing compound (urea, melamine, ammonium oxalate) and containing dissolved metal salt precursor (TiOCl{sub 2}). The crystallites of the resulting TiO{sub 2} demonstrated variable size and shape as a function of stabilizer used. Their activity in photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid also depends on the nature of the stabilizer. The catalysts as-prepared showed high photocatalytic performance, superior to that of the Degussa P25 reference. Nitrogen containing stabilizers play a double role of increasing the process safety and modifying the properties of the solid products. - Graphical abstract: Ammonium nitrate melts stabilized by nitrogen-containing organic molecules can be applied for expedite one-step preparation of highly dispersed oxides, as exemplified by synthesis of titania photocatalysts.

  12. The Measurement of Hot-Spots in Granulated Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, W. G.

    2002-07-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is one of the components of the most widely used explosive in the world namely, ammonium nitrate: fuel oil mixtures (ANFO). By itself, it is an oxygen positive explosive with a large critical diameter. Hot-spots are produced in explosives by various means including gas space collapse, localised shear or friction. If these hot-spots reach critical conditions of size, temperature and duration reaction can grow. This deflagration stage may eventually transition to detonation. This paper describes high-speed image-intensified photography study in which the number and growth of hot spots in granular AN are monitored for a range of different impact pressures. The results can be used in detonation codes to provide a more accurate and realistic description of the initiation process.

  13. The Measurement of Hot-spots in Granulated Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, William; Field, John

    2001-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is one of the components of the most widely used explosive in the world ammonium nitrate: fuel oil mixtures (ANFO). By itself, it is an oxygen negative explosive with a large critical diameter. Hot-spots are produced in explosives by various means including gas space collapse, localised shear or friction. If these hot-spots reach critical conditions of size, temperature and duration size reaction can grow. This deflagration stage may eventually transition to detonation. This paper describes a system and presents results where high-speed image intensified photography is used to monitor the number and growth of hot spots in granular AN under a range of different impact pressures. The results can be used in detonation codes to provide a more accurate and realistic description of the initiation process.

  14. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability.

  15. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability. PMID:27180820

  16. Use of a Novel High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography Protocol to Detect Abnormal Dorsal Root Ganglia in Sjögren Patients With Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C.; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional “stocking-and-glove” distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system—the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients

  17. Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

  18. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  19. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    PubMed

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M; Schneider, Jay R; Heisey, Dennis M; Johnson, Christopher J; Asher, David M; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE) in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE) did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE). The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE). Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE) was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE) demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE) was more permissive than human PrP(TSE) in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE) from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE) signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE) from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  20. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  1. Perinatal Exposure to Glufosinate Ammonium Herbicide Impairs Neurogenesis and Neuroblast Migration through Cytoskeleton Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Herzine, Ameziane; Laugeray, Anthony; Feat, Justyne; Menuet, Arnaud; Quesniaux, Valérie; Richard, Olivier; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Perche, Olivier; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). During this process, newly generated neurons migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to replace granule cells and periglomerular neurons. This neuronal migration is pivotal not only for neuronal plasticity but also for adapted olfactory based behaviors. Perturbation of this highly controlled system by exogenous chemicals has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We reported recently that perinatal exposure to low dose herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA), leads to long lasting behavioral defects reminiscent of Autism Spectrum Disorder-like phenotype in the offspring (Laugeray et al., 2014). Herein, we demonstrate that perinatal exposure to low dose GLA induces alterations in neuroblast proliferation within the SVZ and abnormal migration from the SVZ to the olfactory bulbs. These disturbances are not only concomitant to changes in cell morphology, proliferation and apoptosis, but are also associated with transcriptomic changes. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that perinatal exposure to low dose GLA alters SVZ neurogenesis. Jointly with our previous work, the present results provide new evidence on the link between molecular and cellular consequences of early life exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of ASD-like phenotype later in life. PMID:27555806

  2. Perinatal Exposure to Glufosinate Ammonium Herbicide Impairs Neurogenesis and Neuroblast Migration through Cytoskeleton Destabilization.

    PubMed

    Herzine, Ameziane; Laugeray, Anthony; Feat, Justyne; Menuet, Arnaud; Quesniaux, Valérie; Richard, Olivier; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Perche, Olivier; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). During this process, newly generated neurons migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to replace granule cells and periglomerular neurons. This neuronal migration is pivotal not only for neuronal plasticity but also for adapted olfactory based behaviors. Perturbation of this highly controlled system by exogenous chemicals has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We reported recently that perinatal exposure to low dose herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA), leads to long lasting behavioral defects reminiscent of Autism Spectrum Disorder-like phenotype in the offspring (Laugeray et al., 2014). Herein, we demonstrate that perinatal exposure to low dose GLA induces alterations in neuroblast proliferation within the SVZ and abnormal migration from the SVZ to the olfactory bulbs. These disturbances are not only concomitant to changes in cell morphology, proliferation and apoptosis, but are also associated with transcriptomic changes. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that perinatal exposure to low dose GLA alters SVZ neurogenesis. Jointly with our previous work, the present results provide new evidence on the link between molecular and cellular consequences of early life exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of ASD-like phenotype later in life. PMID:27555806

  3. Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Lehotay, Steven J; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate and other nonvolatile compounds for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed and evaluated three new different versions of the QuEChERS method using more volatile salts (ammonium chloride and ammonium formate and acetate buffers) to induce phase separation and extraction of 43 representative pesticide analytes of different classes. Fast low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS were used for analysis. The QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01 was also tested for comparison purposes. Of the studied methods, formate buffering using 7.5g of ammonium formate and 15mL of 5% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction of 15g of sample (5g for wheat grain) provided the best performance and practical considerations. Method validation was carried out with and without the use of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup, and no significant differences were observed for the majority of pesticides. The method was demonstrated in quantitative analysis for GC- and LC-amenable pesticides in 4 representative food matrices (apple, lemon, lettuce, and wheat grain). With the typical exceptions of certain pH-dependent and labile pesticides, 90-110% recoveries and <10% RSD were obtained. Detection limits were mostly <5ng/g, which met the general need to determine pesticide concentrations as low as 10ng/g for monitoring purposes in food applications. PMID:25047819

  4. Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Lehotay, Steven J; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate and other nonvolatile compounds for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed and evaluated three new different versions of the QuEChERS method using more volatile salts (ammonium chloride and ammonium formate and acetate buffers) to induce phase separation and extraction of 43 representative pesticide analytes of different classes. Fast low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS were used for analysis. The QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01 was also tested for comparison purposes. Of the studied methods, formate buffering using 7.5g of ammonium formate and 15mL of 5% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction of 15g of sample (5g for wheat grain) provided the best performance and practical considerations. Method validation was carried out with and without the use of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup, and no significant differences were observed for the majority of pesticides. The method was demonstrated in quantitative analysis for GC- and LC-amenable pesticides in 4 representative food matrices (apple, lemon, lettuce, and wheat grain). With the typical exceptions of certain pH-dependent and labile pesticides, 90-110% recoveries and <10% RSD were obtained. Detection limits were mostly <5ng/g, which met the general need to determine pesticide concentrations as low as 10ng/g for monitoring purposes in food applications.

  5. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. PMID:27483019

  6. Airborne ammonia and ammonium within the Northern Adriatic area, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana

    2008-08-01

    Determination of airborne ammonia started in the early 1980s, as a part of air pollution monitoring of industrial plants. Due to high emissions, the city of Rijeka was one of the most polluted in Croatia in the mid-1980s. Considerable reductions in SO2 and NO(x) emissions led to lower airborne levels of these pollutants in the mid 1990s. In spite of the coke plant closure in 1994, there was only a weak decline in airborne ammonia over the period 1980--2005, with annual means in the range of 12-20 microg m(-3) at urban Site 1 and 6-28 microg m(-3) at suburban Site 2. Similar behaviour has been observed with ammonium in bulk rainwater samples since 1996. Higher and approximately equal deposition of nitrogen as ammonium (N-NH4+) were obtained for the urban Site 1 and the mountainous Site 4, but with different causative facts. Ammonium's contribution to total nitrogen (NO3(-)+NH4+) deposition is approximately two thirds, even for a remote Site 3.

  7. Nanomodified vermiculite NMV - a new material for recycling ammonium nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, Miradije; Laiho, Taina; Eklund, Olav; Lehto, Kirsi; Shebanov, Alex; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Vermiculites ((Mg,Fe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O) are naturally occurring minerals from hydromica group with a high cation exchange capacity and large surface area. Since vermiculite is a hydrated mineral, its structure can be changed with heat. In this study vermiculite samples were heated in an oven until the interlayer distance of them diminished from 14 Å to 11.7 Å. This method for improving vermiculites intake of ammonium ions by heating, is an invention made at the University of Turku. Nanomodified vermiculite (NMV) is able to absorb up to 4.7 wt% of ammonium. NMV can be used as an efficient filter and immobilizer of ammonium in different environments. NMV has been efficiently tested on waste water from a biogas plant, human urine, combustion experiments, industrial chimneys, excrements from farms etc. Ammonium doped vermiculite (ADV) is further developed for fertilizer use. Performed experiments have testified the usability of ADV as a fertilizer. At first step the NMV was processed with the reject water from a biogas plant, were it absorbed NH4+ into the lattice. At second, the ADV was used as nutrient source for garden plants. Geraniums and begonias were used as test plants of the work. Plant growth rate was evaluated based on plant weight. Results showed that significant increase of the growth of geraniums and of begonias were observed when comparing to those cultivations where plants have got normal fertilization. Moreover, ADV has been tested as a fertilizer in greenhouse experiments with spruces and pines. After five months, the weight of the plants that had grown in a substrate containing ADV was 10 times the weight of plants growing in the reference substrate.

  8. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  9. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  10. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  11. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Drisdell, Walter S; Saykally, Richard J; Cohen, Ronald C

    2009-11-10

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 +/- 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

  12. Supercritical water oxidation of ammonium picrate

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G.

    1994-11-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy ammonium picrate. Analyses of reactor effluent composition at various temperatures, residence times, and oxidant concentrations were used to design an improved reactor configuration for achieving destruction with minimum corrosion. The engineering evaluation reactor, a room-sized laboratory scale reactor, was reconfigured to incorporate this design change. Destruction of ammonium picrate with minimized corrosion was demonstrated on this reconfigured reactor. Factors that must be considered in scaling up to pilot plant size are discussed.

  13. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

  14. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste.

  15. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. PMID:22366608

  16. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  17. [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Safranow, K

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical method for the analysis of purine derivatives in urinary calculi using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method presented herein includes extraction of purine derivatives from urinary stones, followed by chromatography on a reversed-phase column with UV detection. A simpler isocratic method was applied to quantitate 6 purines known to be components of urinary stones, namely uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, oxypurinol and allopurinol. Gradient method separated 10 additional peaks representing methyl derivatives of uric acid or xanthine (1-, 3-, 7-, and 9-methyluric acid, 1,3-,1,7-, and 3,7-dimethyluric acid, and 1-, 3-, and 7-methylxanthine) (Fig. 1). Detection limits for individual compounds ranged from 25 to 140 micrograms purine per g stone weight and precision (RSD%) was 0.5-2.4%. Both methods were next used to analyze purine derivatives in urinary calculi from 48 residents of Western Pomerania. Uric acid was the main component of 9 stones. All of the uric acid stones showed admixtures of 9 other purine derivatives: natural metabolites (hypoxanthine, xanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine) and methyl derivatives of uric acid (1-,3-, and 7-methyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3-, and 7-methylxanthine) originating from the metabolism of exogenous methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) (Tab. 1,2). Methyl derivatives of uric acid and xanthine, with a maximal content in stones of 1.7%, have hitherto not been considered constituents of urinary calculi. Statistical analysis of the results revealed strong positive correlations between the level of uric acid and of other purine derivatives in stones (Fig. 2). Correlations were also found between levels of some purines and inorganic compounds (Tab. 3). The sensitivity and specificity of HPLC with UV detection satisfy the requirements of a reference method for the analysis of purines in urinary stones. Isocratic

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Methods to Stabilize and Destabilize Ammonium Borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Besenbacher, Fleming; Jensen, Torben R.; Autrey, Thomas

    2013-01-21

    Ammonium borohydride, NH4BH4, has a high hydrogen content of ρm = 24.5 wt% H2 and releases 18 wt% H2 below T = 160 °C. However, the half-life of bulk NH4BH4 at ambient temperatures, ~6 h, is insufficient for practical applications. The decomposition of NH4BH4 (ABH2) was studied at variable hydrogen and argon back pressures to investigate possible pressure mediated stabilization effects. The hydrogen release rate from solid ABH2 at ambient temperatures is reduced by ~16 % upon increasing the hydrogen back pressure from 5 to 54 bar. Similar results were obtained using argon pressure and the observed stabilization may be explained by a positive volume of activation in the transition state leading to hydrogen release. Nanoconfinement in mesoporous silica, MCM-41, was investigated as alternative means to stabilize NH4BH4. However, other factors appear to significantly destabilize NH4BH4 and it rapidly decomposes at ambient temperatures into [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] (DADB) in accordance with the bulk reaction scheme. The hydrogen desorption kinetics from nanoconfined [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] is moderately enhanced as evidenced by a reduction in the DSC decomposition peak temperature of ΔT = -13 °C as compared to the bulk material. Finally, we note a surprising result, storage of DADB at temperature < -30 °C transformed, reversibly, the [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] into a new low temperature polymorph as revealed by both XRD and solid state MAS 11B MAS NMR. TA & AK are thankful for support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle.

  20. Diamond Head Revisited with Ammonium Dichromate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigoni, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The classroom demonstration using ammonium dichromate to simulate a volcanic eruption can be modified into a more dramatic and accurate representation of the geologic processes involved in the formation of a volcanic crater. The materials, demonstration setup, safety procedures, and applications to instruction are presented. (Author/WB)

  1. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles:...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been... neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a dough strengthener as defined in §...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  8. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Department previously announced a series of public meetings on the same topic on October 2, 2011 (see 76 FR... public comment on August 3, 2011. See 73 FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908... SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security Program...

  9. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908 (notice of proposed rulemaking...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security.... SUMMARY: The National Protection and Programs Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  20. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  1. Effects of Grazing by Flagellates on Competition for Ammonium between Nitrifying and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Frank J. M.; Duyts, Hendrik; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    1993-01-01

    The enhanced mineralization of immobilized nitrogen by bacteriophagous protozoa has been thought to favor the nitrification process in soils in which nitrifying bacteria must compete with heterotrophic bacteria for the available ammonium. To obtain more insight into this process, the influence of grazing by the flagellate Adriamonas peritocrescens on the competition for ammonium between the chemolithotrophic species Nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species Arthrobacter globiformis in the presence of Nitrobacter winogradskyi was studied in soil columns, which were continuously percolated with media containing 5 mM ammonium and different amounts of glucose at a dilution rate of 0.007 h-1 (liquid volumes). A. globiformis won the competition for ammonium. The grazing activities of the flagellates had two prominent effects on the competition between N. europaea and A. globiformis. First, the distribution of ammonium over the profile of the soil columns was more uniform in the presence of flagellates than in their absence. In the absence of flagellates, relatively high amounts of ammonium accumulated in the upper layer (0 to 3 cm), whereas in the underlying layers the ammonium concentrations were low. In the presence of flagellates, however, considerable amounts of ammonium were found in the lower layers, whereas less ammonium accumulated in the upper layer. Second, the potential ammonium-oxidizing activity of N. europaea was stimulated in the presence of flagellates. The numbers of N. europaea at different glucose concentrations in the presence of flagellates were comparable to those in the absence of protozoa. However, in the presence of flagellates, the potential ammonium-oxidizing activities were four to five times greater than those in the absence of protozoa. PMID:16348988

  2. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  4. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  5. Lack of Evidence for Regional Brain Volume or Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Youths at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Paul; Zhou, Juan; Lim, Joseph K W; Poh, Joann S; Zheng, Hui; Tng, Han Ying; Krishnan, Ranga; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S E; Adcock, R Alison; Wood, Stephen J; Fornito, Alex; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-11-01

    There is cumulative evidence that young people in an "at-risk mental state" (ARMS) for psychosis show structural brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas, comparable to, but less extensive than those reported in established schizophrenia. However, most available data come from ARMS samples from Australia, Europe, and North America while large studies from other populations are missing. We conducted a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study from a relatively large sample of 69 ARMS individuals and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) recruited from Singapore as part of the Longitudinal Youth At-Risk Study (LYRIKS). We used 2 complementary approaches: a voxel-based morphometry and a surface-based morphometry analysis to extract regional gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) and cortical thickness (CT). At the whole-brain level, we did not find any statistically significant difference between ARMS and HC groups concerning total GMV and WMV or regional GMV, WMV, and CT. The additional comparison of 2 regions of interest, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes, did not return any significant difference either. Several characteristics of the LYRIKS sample like Asian origins or the absence of current illicit drug use could explain, alone or in conjunction, the negative findings and suggest that there may be no dramatic volumetric or CT abnormalities in ARMS. PMID:25745033

  6. Ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater by chemical precipitation recycle technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Xiong, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present research, we examined chemical precipitation recycle technology (CPRT) for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The pyrolysate resulting from magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) pyrogenation in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was recycled for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions for MAP pyrogenation and to characterize of MAP pyrolysate for its feasibility in recycling. Furthermore, MAP pyrolysate was characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MAP pyrolysate could be produced at the optimal condition of a hydroxyl (OH(-)) to ammonium molar ratio of 2:1, a heating temperature of 110 degrees C, and a heating time of 3h. Surface characterization analysis indicated that the main component of the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)). The pyrolysate could be recycled as a magnesium and phosphate source at an optimum pH of 9.5. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal ratio gradually decreased if the pyrolysate was used without supplementation. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency was not decreased if the added pyrolysate was supplemented with MgCl(2).6H(2)O plus Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O during treatment. A high ammonium nitrogen removal ratio was obtained by using pre-formed MAP as seeding material.

  7. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  8. Glufosinate ammonium--some aspects of its mode of action in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hack, R; Ebert, E; Ehling, G; Leist, K H

    1994-05-01

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glufosinate ammonium is a structural analogue of glutamate and acts in plants by inhibition of glutamine synthetase leading to a complete breakdown of ammonia metabolism. Owing to the structural analogy of glufosinate ammonium to glutamate, its effect on various glutamate-utilizing systems needed to be investigated in mammals. Although in laboratory animals glufosinate ammonium causes an inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity in different tissues, this inhibition led to slight increases of glutamate and ammonia levels at high sublethal and lethal doses only. After oral administration for 28 days, glufosinate ammonium had no effect on glutathione and carbohydrate metabolism and no effect on biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids in rats and dogs. Glufosinate ammonium does not interfere with various neurotransmitter receptors in vitro and does not influence the catecholamine neurotransmitter tissue concentrations after iv application. The results of these studies show that--in contrast to the plant metabolism--in mammals the inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity in various tissues does not lead to a breakdown of ammonia metabolism. The mammalian metabolism obviously compensates for this inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity by various other metabolic pathways. It is concluded that under the conditions of recommended use of glufosinate ammonium as an active ingredient in herbicides, a detrimental effect on the health of both users and consumers is extremely unlikely.

  9. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  10. Ultrasensitive quantification of endogenous brassinosteroids in milligram fresh plant with a quaternary ammonium derivatization reagent by pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ting; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2016-07-22

    Determination of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in limited sample amount is vital to elucidating their tissue- and even local tissue-specific signaling pathway and physiological effects on plant growth and development. In this work, an ultra-sensitive quantification method was established for endogenous BRs in milligram fresh plant by using pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (PT-SPE-UPLC-MS/MS), in which a quaternary ammonium phenyl boronic acid, 4-borono-N,N,N-trimethylbenzenaminium iodide (BTBA) was first developed for chemical derivatization of BRs. Due to the cationic quaternary ammonium group of BTBA, the ionization efficiencies of the BRs chelates with BTBA (BTBA-BRs) were enhanced by 1190-448785 times, which is the highest response enhancement factor among all derivatization reagents reported for BRs. In addition, PT-SPE packed with C18 sorbent was first used for purifying BRs from plant extracts, so the required sample amount was minimized, and recoveries higher than 91% were achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the minimal detectable amounts (MDA) of five target BRs were in the range of 27-94 amol, and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) were >0.9985 over four orders of magnitude. The relative recoveries of 75.8-104.9% were obtained with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 18.7% and 19.6%, respectively. Finally, three BRs were successfully quantified in only 5mg fresh rice plant samples, and 24-epiBL can even be detected in only 0.5mg FW rice leaf segments. It is the first time that the BRs content in sub-milligram fresh plant sample has been quantified.

  11. Ultrasensitive quantification of endogenous brassinosteroids in milligram fresh plant with a quaternary ammonium derivatization reagent by pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ting; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2016-07-22

    Determination of endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in limited sample amount is vital to elucidating their tissue- and even local tissue-specific signaling pathway and physiological effects on plant growth and development. In this work, an ultra-sensitive quantification method was established for endogenous BRs in milligram fresh plant by using pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (PT-SPE-UPLC-MS/MS), in which a quaternary ammonium phenyl boronic acid, 4-borono-N,N,N-trimethylbenzenaminium iodide (BTBA) was first developed for chemical derivatization of BRs. Due to the cationic quaternary ammonium group of BTBA, the ionization efficiencies of the BRs chelates with BTBA (BTBA-BRs) were enhanced by 1190-448785 times, which is the highest response enhancement factor among all derivatization reagents reported for BRs. In addition, PT-SPE packed with C18 sorbent was first used for purifying BRs from plant extracts, so the required sample amount was minimized, and recoveries higher than 91% were achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the minimal detectable amounts (MDA) of five target BRs were in the range of 27-94 amol, and the correlation coefficients (R(2)) were >0.9985 over four orders of magnitude. The relative recoveries of 75.8-104.9% were obtained with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 18.7% and 19.6%, respectively. Finally, three BRs were successfully quantified in only 5mg fresh rice plant samples, and 24-epiBL can even be detected in only 0.5mg FW rice leaf segments. It is the first time that the BRs content in sub-milligram fresh plant sample has been quantified. PMID:27338695

  12. Comparison of PapType to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche linear array, and Amplicor for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in women with previous abnormal pap smears.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Stevens, Matthew P; Khan, Zaheer A; Chow, Conan; Devitt, Martin A; Garland, Suzanne M

    2012-08-01

    PapType human papillomavirus (HPV) assay was compared to Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Amplicor (Amp), and Linear Array (LA) HPV tests in 894 women undergoing management for a high-grade Pap smear abnormality. The sensitivity in detection of underlying high-grade histological diagnosis by PapType was 90.3% and by HC2 was 79.8%, while by Amp and LA it was 92.4% and 91.6%, respectively. The specificities were 52.5%, 55.3%, 49.4%, and 51.7% for PapType, HC2, Amp, and LA, respectively.

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  3. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  7. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  19. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  1. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  6. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards].

    PubMed

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. PMID:25812396

  7. N-Chlorotaurine and ammonium chloride: an antiseptic preparation with strong bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Waldemar; Arnitz, Roland; Nagl, Markus

    2007-04-20

    The bactericidal activity of the endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine (NCT) is significantly enhanced in the presence of ammonium chloride which induces the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) whose strong bactericidal activity is well known. In this study the properties of NCT plus ammonium chloride have been investigated. The reaction of active chlorine compounds like chloramine-T (N-chlorotoluene-sulfonamide sodium), chloroisocyanuric acid derivatives, hypochlorites (NaOCl, CaOCl(2)) with ammonium chloride did not stop at the stage of monochloramine, and the pungent smelling by-products di- and trichloramine, NHCl(2) and NCl(3), were also formed. This was not the case with NCT where only monochloramine was generated. The equilibrium constant of the reaction of NCT with ammonium was found to be [Formula: see text] , which allows to estimate the equilibrium concentration of monochloramine in aqueous solutions of NCT and ammonium chloride. At concentrations each ranging between 0.01% and 1.0% it comes to [NH(2)Cl]=3.5-254 ppm. As an unexpected result the monochloramine containing formulation turned out to be most stable in plain water without buffer additives. Quantitative killing assays revealed complete inactivation of 10(6) to 10(7)CFU/mL of seven bacterial strains by 0.1% NCT plus 0.1% ammonium chloride within 5 min, while with plain 0.1% NCT an incubation time of 2-4h was needed to achieve the same effect. The highly significant increase of bactericidal activity (200-300-fold) could be assigned to the presence of monochloramine which could be isolated by vacuum distillation. Aqueous solutions of NCT and ammonium chloride provide a highly effective and well tolerable antiseptic preparation appropriate to a treatment cycle of at least 1 month if stored in the refrigerator.

  8. 3-Quaternary ammonium 1-carba-1-dethiacephems.

    PubMed

    Cook, G K; McDonald, J H; Alborn, W; Boyd, D B; Eudaly, J A; Indelicato, J M; Johnson, R; Kasher, J S; Pasini, C E; Preston, D A

    1989-11-01

    A series of structurally unique 1-carba-1-dethiacephems is described. The structural stability of the 1-carba-1-dethiacephem nucleus was essential for the preparation of this series of 3-quaternary ammonium carbacephems. The known p-nitrobenzyl 7 beta-(phenoxyacetamido)- 3-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem- 4-carboxylate served as both a quaternization substrate as well as a precursor to derivatives such as allyl 7 beta-[[2-[allyloxy)carbonyl]amino-4- thiazoly] (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-3-[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl] oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem-4-carboxylate. Quaternization of these enol triflates was accomplished either by dissolution in acetonitrile containing the base or by dissolution in the base, with or without warning to 50 degrees C. Bases nucleophilic enough to displace the triflate include a variety of substituted pyridines and N-methylimidazole. Deprotection then produced a very active series of 1-[7 beta-[(2-amino- 4-thiazolyl)(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-2-carboxy-8-oxo- 1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl] quaternary ammonium hydroxide inner salts. These compounds were extremely potent antibacterials against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria including constitutive cephalosporinase producers, such as Enterobacter cloacae. The compounds exhibit similar hydrolysis kinetics and pharmacokinetics to the analogous cephalosporin-3'-quaternary ammonium salts.

  9. DETECTION OF THE AMMONIUM ION IN SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Fuente, A.; Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Pearson, J.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the detection of a narrow feature at 262816.73 MHz toward Orion and the cold prestellar core B1-bS which we attribute to the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} line of the deuterated ammonium ion, NH{sub 3}D{sup +}. The observations were performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. The carrier has to be a light molecular species as it is the only feature detected over 3.6 GHz of bandwidth. The hyperfine structure is not resolved, indicating a very low value for the electric quadrupolar coupling constant of nitrogen which is expected for NH{sub 3}D{sup +} as the electric field over the N nucleus is practically zero. Moreover, the feature is right at the predicted frequency for the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} transition of the ammonium ion, 262817 {+-} 6 MHz (3{sigma}), using rotational constants derived from new infrared data obtained in our laboratory in Madrid. The estimated column density is (1.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a deuterium enhancement similar to that of NH{sub 2}D, we derive N(NH{sub 4}{sup +}) {approx_equal} 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, i.e., an abundance for ammonium of a few 10{sup -11}.

  10. Genotypic variation in nitrogen isotope discrimination in Populus balsamifera L. clones grown with either nitrate or ammonium.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A; Guy, Robert D

    2016-08-20

    Intraspecific variability in nitrogen use has not been comprehensively assessed in a natural poplar species. Here, a nitrogen isotope mass balance approach was used to assess variability in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and allocation traits in 25 genotypes from five climatically dispersed provenances of Populus balsamifera L. grown hydroponically with either nitrate or ammonium. Balsam poplar was able to grow well with either ammonium or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Variation within provenances exceeded significant provenance level variation. Interestingly, genotypes with rapid growth on nitrate achieved similar growth with ammonium. In most cases, the root:shoot ratio was greater in plants grown with ammonium. However, there were genotypes where root:shoot ratio was lower for some genotypes grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. Tissue nitrogen concentration was greater in the leaves and stems but not the roots for plants grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. There was extensive genotypic variation in organ-level nitrogen isotope composition. Root nitrogen isotope discrimination was greater under nitrate than ammonium, but leaf nitrogen isotope discrimination was not significantly different between plants on different sources. This can indicate variation in partitioning of nitrogen assimilation, efflux/influx (E/I) and root or leaf assimilation rates. The proportion of nitrogen assimilated in roots was lower under nitrate than ammonium. E/I was lower for nitrate than ammonium. With the exception of E/I, genotype-level variations in nitrogen-use traits for nitrate were correlated with the same traits when grown with ammonium. Using the nitrogen isotope mass balance model, a high degree of genotypic variation in nitrogen use traits was identified at both the provenance and, more extensively, the genotypic level. PMID:27423015

  11. Genotypic variation in nitrogen isotope discrimination in Populus balsamifera L. clones grown with either nitrate or ammonium.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A; Guy, Robert D

    2016-08-20

    Intraspecific variability in nitrogen use has not been comprehensively assessed in a natural poplar species. Here, a nitrogen isotope mass balance approach was used to assess variability in nitrogen uptake, assimilation and allocation traits in 25 genotypes from five climatically dispersed provenances of Populus balsamifera L. grown hydroponically with either nitrate or ammonium. Balsam poplar was able to grow well with either ammonium or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Variation within provenances exceeded significant provenance level variation. Interestingly, genotypes with rapid growth on nitrate achieved similar growth with ammonium. In most cases, the root:shoot ratio was greater in plants grown with ammonium. However, there were genotypes where root:shoot ratio was lower for some genotypes grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. Tissue nitrogen concentration was greater in the leaves and stems but not the roots for plants grown with ammonium compared to nitrate. There was extensive genotypic variation in organ-level nitrogen isotope composition. Root nitrogen isotope discrimination was greater under nitrate than ammonium, but leaf nitrogen isotope discrimination was not significantly different between plants on different sources. This can indicate variation in partitioning of nitrogen assimilation, efflux/influx (E/I) and root or leaf assimilation rates. The proportion of nitrogen assimilated in roots was lower under nitrate than ammonium. E/I was lower for nitrate than ammonium. With the exception of E/I, genotype-level variations in nitrogen-use traits for nitrate were correlated with the same traits when grown with ammonium. Using the nitrogen isotope mass balance model, a high degree of genotypic variation in nitrogen use traits was identified at both the provenance and, more extensively, the genotypic level.

  12. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  13. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  14. Ammonium-induced calcium mobilization in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hillmann, Petra; Koese, Meryem; Soehl, Kristina; Mueller, Christa E.

    2008-02-15

    High blood levels of ammonium/ammonia (NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NH{sub 3}) are associated with severe neurotoxicity as observed in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Astrocytes are the main targets of ammonium toxicity, while neuronal cells are less vulnerable. In the present study, an astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 and a neuroblastoma glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 were used as model systems for astrocytes and neuronal cells, respectively. Ammonium salts evoked a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in astrocytoma (EC{sub 50} = 6.38 mM), but not in NG108-15 cells. The ammonium-induced increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was due to an intracellular effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NH{sub 3} and was independent of extracellular calcium. Acetate completely inhibited the ammonium effect. Ammonium potently reduced calcium signaling by G{sub q} protein-coupled receptors (H{sub 1} and M3) expressed on the cells. Ammonium (5 mM) also significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. While mRNA for the mammalian ammonium transporters RhBG and RhCG could not be detected in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, both transporters were expressed in NG108-15 cells. RhBG and RhBC in brain may promote the excretion of NH{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} from neuronal cells. Cellular uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NH{sub 3} was mainly by passive diffusion of NH{sub 3}. Human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells appear to be an excellent, easily accessible human model for studying HE, which can substitute animal studies, while NG108-15 cells may be useful for investigating the role of the recently discovered Rhesus family type ammonium transporters in neuronal cells. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of pathologic ammonium effects in different brain cells, and to the treatment of hyperammonemia.

  15. Ammonium uptake by phytoplankton regulates nitrification in the sunlit ocean.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason M; Chavez, Francisco P; Francis, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, is a central part of the nitrogen cycle. In the ocean's surface layer, the process alters the distribution of inorganic nitrogen species available to phytoplankton and produces nitrous oxide. A widely held idea among oceanographers is that nitrification is inhibited by light in the ocean. However, recent evidence that the primary organisms involved in nitrification, the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), are present and active throughout the surface ocean has challenged this idea. Here we show, through field experiments coupling molecular genetic and biogeochemical approaches, that competition for ammonium with phytoplankton is the strongest regulator of nitrification in the photic zone. During multiday experiments at high irradiance a single ecotype of AOA remained active in the presence of rapidly growing phytoplankton. Over the course of this three day experiment, variability in the intensity of competition with phytoplankton caused nitrification rates to decline from those typical of the lower photic zone (60 nmol L-1 d-1) to those in well-lit layers (<1 nmol L-1 d-1). During another set of experiments, nitrification rates exhibited a diel periodicity throughout much of the photic zone, with the highest rates occurring at night when competition with phytoplankton is lowest. Together, the results of our experiments indicate that nitrification rates in the photic zone are more strongly regulated by competition with phytoplankton for ammonium than they are by light itself. This finding advances our ability to model the impact of nitrification on estimates of new primary production, and emphasizes the need to more strongly consider the effects of organismal interactions on nutrient standing stocks and biogeochemical cycling in the surface of the ocean.

  16. Regulation of length and density of Arabidopsis root hairs by ammonium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Vatter, Thomas; Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Stetter, Markus; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Root hairs expand the effective root surface to increase the uptake of nutrients and water from the soil. Here the local effects of the two major nitrogen sources, ammonium and nitrate, on root hairs were investigated using split plates. In three contrasting accessions of A. thaliana, namely Col-0, Tsu-0 and Sha, root hairs were differentially affected by the nitrogen forms and their concentration. Root hairs in Sha were short in the absence of nitrate. In Col-0, hair length was moderately decreased with increasing nitrate or ammonium. In all accessions, the root hair density was insensitive to 1,000-fold changes in the ammonium concentrations, when supplied locally as the exclusive nitrogen form. In contrast, the root hair density generally increased with nitrate as the exclusive local nitrogen source. The nitrate sensitivity was reduced at mM concentrations in a loss-of-function mutant of the nitrate transporter and sensor gene NRT1;1 (NPF6.3). Little differences with respect to ammonium were found in a mutant lacking four high affinity AMT-type ammonium transporters, but interestingly, the response to high nitrate was reduced and may indicate a general defect in nitrogen signaling in that mutant. Genetic diversity and the presence of the nitrogen transceptor NRT1;1 explain heterogeneity in the responses of root hairs to different nitrogen forms in Arabidopsis accessions. PMID:26008190

  17. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  18. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  19. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  20. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  1. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  2. Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by chemical precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Z. . Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering); Zhao, Q.L. . School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering); Hao, X.D. . The Research Center of Ecological Economics and Environmental Technology)

    1999-01-01

    The landfill leachate in Hong Kong usually contains quite high NH[sub 4][sup +]-N concentration, which is well known to inhibit nitrification in biological treatment processes. A common pre-treatment for reducing high strength of ammonium (NH[sub 4][sup +]-N) is by an air-stripping process. However, there are some operational problems such as carbonate calling in the process of stripping. For this reason, some technical alternatives for NH[sub 4][sup +]-N removal from leachate need to be studied. In this study, a bench-scale experiment was initiated to investigate the feasibility of selectively precipitating NH[sub 4][sup +]-N in the leachate collected from a local landfill in Hong Kong as magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP). In the experiment, three combinations of chemicals, MgCl[sub 2] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O+Na[sub 2]HPO[sub 4] [center dot] 12H[sub 2]O, MgO + 85% H[sub 3]PO[sub 4], and Ca(H[sub 2]PO[sub 4])[sub 2] [center dot] H[sub 2]O + MgSO[sub 4] [center dot] 7H[sub 2]O, were used with the different stoichiometric ratios to generate the MAP precipitate effectively.

  3. Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by chemical precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Z.; Zhao, Q.L.; Hao, X.D.

    1999-11-01

    The landfill leachate in Hong Kong usually contains quite high NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N concentration, which is well known to inhibit nitrification in biological treatment processes. A common pre-treatment for reducing high strength of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N) is by an air-stripping process. However, there are some operational problems such as carbonate calling in the process of stripping. For this reason, some technical alternatives for NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N removal from leachate need to be studied. In this study, a bench-scale experiment was initiated to investigate the feasibility of selectively precipitating NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N in the leachate collected from a local landfill in Hong Kong as magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP). In the experiment, three combinations of chemicals, MgCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O+Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} {center_dot} 12H{sub 2}O, MgO + 85% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + MgSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, were used with the different stoichiometric ratios to generate the MAP precipitate effectively.

  4. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  6. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    PubMed

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  7. High Frequency Migraine Is Associated with Lower Acute Pain Sensitivity and Abnormal Insula Activity Related to Migraine Pain Intensity, Attack Frequency, and Pain Catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Moayedi, Massieh; Keaser, Michael L.; Khan, Shariq A.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful), we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds nor in pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients did have aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Brain imaging showed that, compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain vs. mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS); bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA) and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula, associated with indices

  8. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    PubMed

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  9. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  10. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl-Stabilised Ammonium Ylide-Mediated Epoxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-08-01

    The key factors for carbonyl-stabilised ammonium ylide-mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine-based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions. PMID:27381752

  11. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl-Stabilised Ammonium Ylide-Mediated Epoxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-08-01

    The key factors for carbonyl-stabilised ammonium ylide-mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine-based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions.

  12. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl-Stabilised Ammonium Ylide-Mediated Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The key factors for carbonyl-stabilised ammonium ylide-mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine-based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions. PMID:27381752

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  14. Diastereoselective aziridination of chiral electron-deficient olefins with N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuta; Takeda, Youhei; Minakata, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    Chiral quaternary ammonium salt-catalyzed diastereoselective aziridination of electron-deficient olefins that possess a chiral auxiliary with N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates was developed. The key to high stereoselectivity was found to be the employment of the "matching" stereochemical combination of chiral auxiliary/ammonium salt. For example, when 3-phenyl-(4R,7S)-4-methyl-7-isopropyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazole (L-menthopyrazole) as a chiral auxiliary and a cinchonidine-derived chiral ammonium salt as a catalyst were applied to the reaction system, perfect diastereoselectivity was realized. Furthermore, the preparation of enantiomerically pure aziridines by removal of the chiral auxiliary was demonstrated.

  15. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  16. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  17. Impact of Ammonium on Syntrophic Organohalide-Respiring and Fermenting Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Anca G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Kegerreis, Kylie L; Parameswaran, Prathap; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Syntrophic interactions between organohalide-respiring and fermentative microorganisms are critical for effective bioremediation of halogenated compounds. This work investigated the effect of ammonium concentration (up to 4 g liter(-1) NH4 (+)-N) on trichloroethene-reducing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and Geobacteraceae in microbial communities fed lactate and methanol. We found that production of ethene by D. mccartyi occurred in mineral medium containing ≤2 g liter(-1) NH4 (+)-N and in landfill leachate. For the partial reduction of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) at ≥1 g liter(-1) NH4 (+)-N, organohalide-respiring dynamics shifted from D. mccartyi and Geobacteraceae to mainly D. mccartyi. An increasing concentration of ammonium was coupled to lower metabolic rates, longer lag times, and lower gene abundances for all microbial processes studied. The methanol fermentation pathway to acetate and H2 was conserved, regardless of the ammonium concentration provided. However, lactate fermentation shifted from propionic to acetogenic at concentrations of ≥2 g liter(-1) NH4 (+)-N. Our study findings strongly support a tolerance of D. mccartyi to high ammonium concentrations, highlighting the feasibility of organohalide respiration in ammonium-contaminated subsurface environments. IMPORTANCE Contamination with ammonium and chlorinated solvents has been reported in numerous subsurface environments, and these chemicals bring significant challenges for in situ bioremediation. Dehalococcoides mccartyi is able to reduce the chlorinated solvent trichloroethene to the nontoxic end product ethene. Fermentative bacteria are of central importance for organohalide respiration and bioremediation to provide D. mccartyi with H2, their electron donor, acetate, their carbon source, and other micronutrients. In this study, we found that high concentrations of ammonium negatively correlated with rates of trichloroethene reductive dehalogenation and

  18. Impact of Ammonium on Syntrophic Organohalide-Respiring and Fermenting Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Kegerreis, Kylie L.; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Syntrophic interactions between organohalide-respiring and fermentative microorganisms are critical for effective bioremediation of halogenated compounds. This work investigated the effect of ammonium concentration (up to 4 g liter−1 NH4+-N) on trichloroethene-reducing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and Geobacteraceae in microbial communities fed lactate and methanol. We found that production of ethene by D. mccartyi occurred in mineral medium containing ≤2 g liter−1 NH4+-N and in landfill leachate. For the partial reduction of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) at ≥1 g liter−1 NH4+-N, organohalide-respiring dynamics shifted from D. mccartyi and Geobacteraceae to mainly D. mccartyi. An increasing concentration of ammonium was coupled to lower metabolic rates, longer lag times, and lower gene abundances for all microbial processes studied. The methanol fermentation pathway to acetate and H2 was conserved, regardless of the ammonium concentration provided. However, lactate fermentation shifted from propionic to acetogenic at concentrations of ≥2 g liter−1 NH4+-N. Our study findings strongly support a tolerance of D. mccartyi to high ammonium concentrations, highlighting the feasibility of organohalide respiration in ammonium-contaminated subsurface environments. IMPORTANCE Contamination with ammonium and chlorinated solvents has been reported in numerous subsurface environments, and these chemicals bring significant challenges for in situ bioremediation. Dehalococcoides mccartyi is able to reduce the chlorinated solvent trichloroethene to the nontoxic end product ethene. Fermentative bacteria are of central importance for organohalide respiration and bioremediation to provide D. mccartyi with H2, their electron donor, acetate, their carbon source, and other micronutrients. In this study, we found that high concentrations of ammonium negatively correlated with rates of trichloroethene reductive dehalogenation and

  19. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network.

  20. Crystal structure of ammonium bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 +·NH4 +·2Cl−, the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  1. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  2. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  3. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  4. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  5. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  6. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hoeft, R.; Blevins, F.Z.; Achron, F.

    1994-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility for producing commercial-grade ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum produced as part of limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This is a cooperative effort among the ISGS, the UIUC, AlliedSignal, SE-ME, Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co. (IP), and Central Illinois Public Services (CIPS). Bench-scale experiments will be conducted to obtain process engineering data for manufacture of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economical feasibility of the process. Controlled greenhouse experiments will be conducted at UIUC to evaluate the chemical impact of the produced ammonium sulfate on soil properties. A process flow sheet will be proposed and market demand for the products will be established. An engineering team at IP will provide an independent review of the economics of the process. AlliedSignal will be involved in testing and quality evaluation of ammonium sulfate samples and is interested in an agreement to market the finished product. CIPS will provide technical assistance and samples of FGD-gypsum for the project. In this quarter, a literature study that should give detailed insight into the chemistry, process schemes, and costs of producing ammonium sulfate from gypsum is in progress at the ISGS. Acquisition of a high quality FGD-gypsum sample was completed. Collecting of the other lower grade sample was scheduled to be conducted in December. Characterization of these feed materials is in progress.

  7. Characteristics of simultaneous ammonium and phosphate adsorption from hydrolysis urine onto natural loess.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanqing; Wang, Xiaochang; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Honglei

    2016-02-01

    Nutrient recovery from human urine is a promising pretreatment of domestic wastewater and provides a sustainable recyclability of N and P. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to identify the characteristics of natural loess (NL) for the adsorption and recovery of ammonium and phosphate from hydrolysis urine (HU). The adsorption mechanisms, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms, as well as the major influencing factors, such as pH and temperature, were investigated. Results revealed that adsorption of ammonium occurred by means of ion exchange and molecule adsorption with the ≡ Si-OH groups, while phosphate adsorption was based on the calcium phosphate precipitation reaction and formation of inner-sphere complexes with ≡ M-OH groups. The adsorption processes of ammonium and phosphate were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model. Adsorption of phosphate was endothermic, while ammonium adsorption was exothermic. Furthermore, the maximum ammonium and phosphate adsorption capacities of NL was 23.24 mg N g(-1) and 4.01 mg P g(-1) at an initial pH of 9 and 10, respectively. Results demonstrated that nutrient-adsorbed NL used as compound fertilizer or conventional fertilizer superaddition was feasible for its high contents of N and P as well as its environmental friendliness. PMID:26432267

  8. Population Ecology of Nitrifiers in a Stream Receiving Geothermal Inputs of Ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A. Bryce

    1983-01-01

    The distribution, activity, and generic diversity of nitrifying bacteria in a stream receiving geothermal inputs of ammonium were studied. The high estimated rates of benthic nitrate flux (33 to 75 mg of N · m−2 · h−1) were a result of the activity of nitrifiers located in the sediment. Nitrifying potentials and ammonium oxidizer most probable numbers in the sediments were at least one order of magnitude higher than those in the waters. Nitrifiers in the oxygenated surface (0 to 2 cm) sediments were limited by suboptimal temperature, pH, and substrate level. Nitrifiers in deep (nonsurface) oxygenated sediments did not contribute significantly to the changes measured in the levels of inorganic nitrogen species in the overlying waters and presumably derived their ammonium supply from ammonification within the sediment. Ammonium-oxidizing isolates obtained by a most-probable number nonenrichment procedure were species of either Nitrosospira or Nitrosomonas, whereas all those obtained by an enrichment procedure (i.e., selective culture) were Nitrosomonas spp. The efficiency of the most-probable-number method for enumerating ammonium oxidizers was calculated to be between 0.05 and 2.0%, suggesting that measurements of nitrifying potentials provide a better estimate of nitrifying populations. PMID:16346261

  9. Antennal-Expressed Ammonium Transporters in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Pulous, Fadi E.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    The principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae remains a significant threat to human health. In this anthropophagic species, females detect and respond to a range of human-derived volatile kairomones such as ammonia, lactic acid, and other carboxylic acids in their quest for blood meals. While the molecular underpinnings of mosquito olfaction and host seeking are becoming better understood, many questions remain unanswered. In this study, we have identified and characterized two candidate ammonium transporter genes, AgAmt and AgRh50 that are expressed in the mosquito antenna and may contribute to physiological and behavioral responses to ammonia, which is an important host kairomone for vector mosquitoes. AgAmt transcripts are highly enhanced in female antennae while a splice variant of AgRh50 appears to be antennal-specific. Functional expression of AgAmt in Xenopus laevis oocytes facilitates inward currents in response to both ammonium and methylammonium, while AgRh50 is able to partially complement a yeast ammonium transporter mutant strain, validating their conserved roles as ammonium transporters. We present evidence to suggest that both AgAmt and AgRh50 are in vivo ammonium transporters that are important for ammonia sensitivity in An. gambiae antennae, either by clearing ammonia from the sensillar lymph or by facilitating sensory neuron responses to environmental exposure. Accordingly, AgAmt and AgRh50 represent new and potentially important targets for the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:25360676

  10. Structural Modifications to Quaternary Ammonium Polymer Coagulants to Inhibit N-Nitrosamine Formation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Li, Russell Jingxian; Mitch, William A

    2016-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (Epi-DMA), are commonly used by water utilities to enhance removal of particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from raw waters. Unfortunately, chloramination of waters treated with quaternary ammonium polymers leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In this study, two approaches were developed to modify polyDADMAC and Epi-DMA to inhibit N-nitrosamine formation. The first approach involved treatment of polymers with methyl iodide (MeI), an alkylating agent, to convert polymer-bound tertiary amine groups to less chloramine-reactive quaternary ammonium groups. The second approach involved synthesis of polymers bearing less chloramine-reactive quaternary ammonium groups with dipropylamino (DPA) substituents. Treatment with MeI reduced NDMA formation from polymers by ∼75%, while synthesis of DPA-based polymers eliminated NDMA formation and formed N-nitrosodipropylamine, which is 10-fold less carcinogenic than NDMA, at 20-fold lower yields. Bench-scale jar tests demonstrated that both MeI-treated and DPA-based polymers achieved similar removal of particles and DOM as the original polyDADMAC and Epi-DMA at both low and high doses, but formed significantly less N-nitrosamines. This work demonstrates two approaches for modifying quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, which may enable water utilities to meet potential future regulations on N-nitrosamines while maintaining polymer usage to meet existing regulations. PMID:27096602

  11. Characteristics of simultaneous ammonium and phosphate adsorption from hydrolysis urine onto natural loess.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanqing; Wang, Xiaochang; Yang, Shengjiong; Shi, Honglei

    2016-02-01

    Nutrient recovery from human urine is a promising pretreatment of domestic wastewater and provides a sustainable recyclability of N and P. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to identify the characteristics of natural loess (NL) for the adsorption and recovery of ammonium and phosphate from hydrolysis urine (HU). The adsorption mechanisms, the adsorption kinetics and isotherms, as well as the major influencing factors, such as pH and temperature, were investigated. Results revealed that adsorption of ammonium occurred by means of ion exchange and molecule adsorption with the ≡ Si-OH groups, while phosphate adsorption was based on the calcium phosphate precipitation reaction and formation of inner-sphere complexes with ≡ M-OH groups. The adsorption processes of ammonium and phosphate were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model. Adsorption of phosphate was endothermic, while ammonium adsorption was exothermic. Furthermore, the maximum ammonium and phosphate adsorption capacities of NL was 23.24 mg N g(-1) and 4.01 mg P g(-1) at an initial pH of 9 and 10, respectively. Results demonstrated that nutrient-adsorbed NL used as compound fertilizer or conventional fertilizer superaddition was feasible for its high contents of N and P as well as its environmental friendliness.

  12. Biomechanical factors and physical examination findings in osteoarthritis of the knee: associations with tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography and high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to explore the associations between knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography (CR) and by high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as biomechanical factors and findings from physical examination in patients with knee OA. Methods This was an explorative cross-sectional study of 105 patients with knee OA. Index knees were imaged using CR and MRI. Multiple features from CR and MRI (cartilage, osteophytes, bone marrow lesions, effusion and synovitis) were related to biomechanical factors (quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, proprioceptive accuracy and varus-valgus laxity) and physical examination findings (bony tenderness, crepitus, bony enlargement and palpable warmth), using multivariable regression analyses. Results Quadriceps weakness was associated with cartilage integrity, effusion, synovitis (all detected by MRI) and CR-detected joint space narrowing. Knee joint laxity was associated with MRI-detected cartilage integrity, CR-detected joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation. Multiple tissue abnormalities including cartilage integrity, osteophytes and effusion, but only those detected by MRI, were found to be associated with physical examination findings such as crepitus. Conclusion We observed clinically relevant findings, including a significant association between quadriceps weakness and both effusion and synovitis, detected by MRI. Inflammation was detected in over one-third of the participants, emphasizing the inflammatory component of OA and a possible important role for anti-inflammatory therapies in knee OA. In general, OA-related tissue abnormalities of the knee, even those detected by MRI, were found to be discordant with biomechanical and physical examination features. PMID:23039323

  13. High-grade cervical abnormalities and cervical cancer in women following a negative Pap smear with and without an endocervical component: a cohort study with 10 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Farhana; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A; Canfell, Karen; Gertig, Dorota M; Saville, Marion

    2014-09-01

    The proportion of Pap smears containing an endocervical component (ECC) has been declining in Australia. Given that ECC negative (ECC-) smears may be associated with reduced sensitivity, we undertook a retrospective cohort study to estimate rates of histologically confirmed high-grade cervical abnormality (HGA) and cancer in women with negative Pap smears with and without an ECC. Women 18-69 years with at least two Pap smears between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010 with the first smear in that period (index smear) showing no abnormality were eligible. Follow-up ended at date of the first abnormal smear, date of histological diagnosis, date of hysterectomy, date of death, or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. ECC status was treated as a time varying exposure. Follow-up was split at each smear after the index smear. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) by ECC status. The incidence rate of histologically confirmed HGA was significantly lower following ECC- smears than after ECC+ smears (adjusted IRR: 0.69, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 0.62-0.77), particularly at older ages (interaction between ECC status and age, p = 0.001). In contrast, the overall rate of invasive cancer was not significantly different after ECC- than after ECC+ smears (IRR: 1.27, 95%CI 0.90-1.77). In conclusion, women had a lower rate of confirmed HGA and no significant increase in the rate of invasive cervical cancer following ECC- smears. This study does not support differential (accelerated) follow-up in women with a negative smear without an endocervical component.

  14. Shock Initiation and Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David; Sheffield, Steve; Dattelbaum, Dana; Chellappa, Raja; Velisavljevic, Nenad

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive commonly found in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil. Neat AN is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities approaching 4 km/s. Previously, we reported a thermodynamically-complete equation of state for AN based on its maximum density, and showed that near-full density AN did not initiate when subjected to shock input conditions up to 22 GPa. In this work, we extend these initial results, by presenting new Hugoniot data for intermediate density neat AN obtained from gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. AN at densities from 1.8 to 1.5 g/cm3 were impacted into LiF windows using a two-stage light gas gun. Dual VISARs were used to measure the interfacial particle velocity wave profile as a function of time following impact. The new Hugoniot data, in addition to updates to thermodynamic parameters derived from structural analysis and vibrational spectroscopy measurements in high pressure diamond anvil cell experiments, are used to refine the unreacted EOS for AN. Furthermore, shock initiation of neat AN was observed as the initial porosity increased (density decreased). Insights into the relationship(s) between initial density and shock initiation sensitivity are also presented, from evidence of shock initiation in the particle velocity profiles obtained for the lower density AN samples.

  15. Ammonium nitrate as an oxidizer in solid composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manelis, G. B.; Lempert, D. B.

    2009-09-01

    Despite the fact that ammonium nitrate (AN) has the highest hydrogen content and fairly high oxygen balance (compared to other oxidizers), its extremely low formation enthalpy and relatively low density makes it one of the worst power oxidizers in solid composite propellants (SCP). Nevertheless, AN has certain advantages - the combustion of the compositions containing AN is virtually safe, its combustion products are ecologically clean, it is very accessible and cheap, and also very thermostable (far more stable than ammonium dinitramide (ADN)). Besides, its low density stops being a disadvantage if the propellant has to be used in deep space and therefore, must be carried there with other rocket carriers. The low cost of AN may also become a serious advantage in the AN application even in lower stages of multistage space launchers as well as in one-stage space launchers with low mass fraction of the propellant. The main specific features relevant to the creation of AN-based SCPs with the optimal energetic characteristics are discussed. The use of metals and their hydrides and proper fuel-binders as well as the recent successes in phase stabilization of AN are described.

  16. Growth Layers on Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Torgesen, J L; Jackson, R W

    1965-05-14

    Microscopic observations of growth layers and etch pits on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystals reveal screw dislocations on the {100} face generating elliptical spirals that change rapidly but reversibly to rectangular shape when chromium-ion impurity is added. The effects of the impurity on crystal habit are judged to be secondary to changes in the morphology of the growth layers. No sources of growth are observed on the {101} faces; the layers spread inward from the edges and at times are mutually annihilating so that, temporarily, no steps are observed. Similar behavior is recorded for the {1011} faces of NaNO(3).

  17. Ammonium-induced internalisation of UapC, the general purine permease from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Taubas, Javier; Harispe, Laura; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Gorfinkiel, Lisette; Rosa, Alberto L

    2004-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans UapC protein is a high-affinity, moderate-capacity, uric acid-xanthine transporter, which also displays a low transport capacity for hypoxanthine, adenine, and guanine. It has been previously shown that a functional UapC-GFP fusion protein localises at the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source, dramatically changes the subcellular distribution of UapC. After addition of ammonium, UapC-GFP is removed from the plasma membrane and is concentrated into the vacuolar compartment. A chimeric gene construct in which an inducible promoter, insensitive to nitrogen repression, drives the expression of UapC-GFP, allowed us to demonstrate that the ammonium-dependent redistribution of UapC can be dissociated from the transcriptional repression of the gene. These results provide further support for the occurrence of endocytosis and the lysosomal-endosomal function of the vacuolar compartment in A. nidulans.

  18. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium.

  19. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  20. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970`s. In the late 1970`s and early 1980`s, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC`s current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC`s current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  1. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970's. In the late 1970's and early 1980's, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC's current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC's current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  2. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

    PubMed

    Oommen; Jain

    1999-06-30

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production.

  4. Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Protein solubility is affected by ions. At low ion concentrations (<0.5 M), protein solubility increases along with ionic strength. Ions in the solution shield protein molecules from the charge of other protein molecules in what is known as 'salting-in'. At a very high ionic strength, protein solubility decreases as ionic strength increases in the process known as 'salting-out'. Thus, salting out can be used to separate proteins based on their solubility in the presence of a high concentration of salt. In this protocol, ammonium sulfate will be added incrementally to an E. coli cell lysate to isolate a recombinantly over-expressed protein of 20 kDa containing no cysteine residues or tags.

  5. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Laura A; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B; Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Wright, Jody J; Hallam, Steven J; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-09-20

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (<10 nmol⋅L(-1)) is therefore essential for understanding and modeling nitrogen loss in OMZs. We determined rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidation in the seasonal OMZ off Concepcion, Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L(-1) and 20 μmol⋅L(-1) Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5-33 nmol⋅L(-1) O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis-Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss.

  6. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Laura A; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B; Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Wright, Jody J; Hallam, Steven J; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-09-20

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (<10 nmol⋅L(-1)) is therefore essential for understanding and modeling nitrogen loss in OMZs. We determined rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidation in the seasonal OMZ off Concepcion, Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L(-1) and 20 μmol⋅L(-1) Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5-33 nmol⋅L(-1) O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis-Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss. PMID:27601665

  7. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, H.; Gopi, M.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate. PMID:25484533

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  9. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination.

  10. Stability and economics of solar ponds using ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of ammonium salts in salt gradient solar ponds eliminates the environmental problems associated with NaCl by incorporating the salt discharge from the solar pond into the fertilizer cycle of an agricultural system. An examination of thermophysical properties of several ammonium salts suggests that both ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate can provide hydrodynamic stability equivalent to NaCl. The cost of the fertilizer salt is based on the real interest for holding the fertilizer in inventory. Costs are independent of the rate at which the salt is cycled through the pond, which makes desirable a maintenance scheme that minimizes the thickness of the upper convecting zone.

  11. Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals in Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, T. V. V.; Clark, R. N.; Calvin, W. M.; Sherman, D. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals was found on the surface of the largest asteroid Ceres. The presence of ammonium-bearing clays suggests that Ceres has experienced a period of alteration by substantial amounts of an ammonium-bearing fluid. The presence of the ammonium-bearing clays does not preclude Ceres maintaining a volatile inventory in the core or in a volatile-rich zone at some distance below the surface. Telescopic observations of Ceres, using the 3.0 meter NASA Infrared telescope facility prompted this reevaluation of its surface mineralogy.

  12. The pathway of in-situ ammonium removal from aerated municipal solid waste bioreactor: nitrification/denitrification or air stripping?

    PubMed

    Hao, Yong-Jun; Ji, Min; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Hao, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Guang; Liu, Han-Qiao

    2010-12-01

    In-situ ammonium removal from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is an attractive method due to its economic advantages. In this study, two simulated MSW bioreactors with different degrees of initial bio-stabilization were utilized to investigate the effects of intermittent aeration mode and the addition of activated sludge on the removal of ammonium. The results showed that up to 90% of ammonium could be removed and the amount of NO(x)-N produced was less than 1% of NH4 (+)-N removed in both reactors. The pH values increased rapidly and finally arrived at a high level of 8.5-8.8. The efficiency of ammonium removal was improved by increasing the continuous aeration time, but it was not affected by the addition of activated sludge. A portion of liquid escaped from the reactors in the form of vapour, and as high as 195-258 mg L(-1) of NH(4) ( +)-N was detected in the vapour collector. According to calculation, nitrification was inhibited by the high level of free ammonia in the bioreactors. As a result, air stripping was enhanced and became the primary pathway of ammonium removal. Therefore, controlling free ammonia concentration was essential in ammonium removal from the aerated MSW bioreactor.

  13. Synthesis of hierarchical zeolites using an inexpensive mono-quaternary ammonium surfactant as mesoporogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Rohling, Roderigh; Filonenko, Georgy; Mezari, Brahim; Hofmann, Jan P; Asahina, Shunsuke; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-12-01

    A simple amphiphilic surfactant containing a mono-quaternary ammonium head group (N-methylpiperidine) is effective in imparting substantial mesoporosity during synthesis of SSZ-13 and ZSM-5 zeolites. Highly mesoporous SSZ-13 prepared in this manner shows greatly improved catalytic performance in the methanol-to-olefins reaction compared to bulk SSZ-13. PMID:25316609

  14. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the enamel. This can cause color changes. Metabolic diseases may ... or coffee Genetic defects that affect the tooth enamel, such as ... from environmental sources (natural high water fluoride levels) ...

  15. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2013-08-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  16. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater. PMID:27060247

  17. Exploring ammonium tolerance in a large panel of Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sarasketa, Asier; González-Moro, María Begoña; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Plants are dependent on exogenous nitrogen (N) supply. Ammonium (NH4 +), together with nitrate (NO3 –), is one of the main nitrogenous compounds available in the soil. Paradoxically, although NH4 + assimilation requires less energy than that of NO3 –, many plants display toxicity symptoms when grown with NH4 + as the sole N source. However, in addition to species-specific ammonium toxicity, intraspecific variability has also been shown. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the intraspecific ammonium tolerance in a large panel of Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions. Plants were grown with either 1mM NO3 – or NH4 + as the N source, and several parameters related to ammonium tolerance and assimilation were determined. Overall, high variability was observed in A. thaliana shoot growth under both forms of N nutrition. From the parameters determined, tissue ammonium content was the one with the highest impact on shoot biomass, and interestingly this was also the case when N was supplied as NO3 –. Enzymes of nitrogen assimilation did not have an impact on A. thaliana biomass variation, but the N source affected their activity. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) aminating activity was, in general, higher in NH4 +-fed plants. In contrast, GDH deaminating activity was higher in NO3 –-fed plants, suggesting a differential role for this enzyme as a function of the N form supplied. Overall, NH4 + accumulation seems to be an important player in Arabidopsis natural variability in ammonium tolerance rather than the cell NH4 + assimilation capacity. PMID:25205573

  18. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  19. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  20. Adsorption and desorption of ammonium by maple wood biochar as a function of oxidation and pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lehmann, Johannes; Hanley, Kelly; Hestrin, Rachel; Enders, Akio

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the retention mechanisms of ammonium in aqueous solution by using progressively oxidized maple wood biochar at different pH values. Hydrogen peroxide was used to oxidize the biochar to pH values ranging from 8.1 to 3.7, with one set being adjusted to a pH of 7 afterwards. Oxidizing the biochars at their lowered pH did not increase their ability to adsorb ammonium. However, neutralizing the oxygen-containing surface functional groups on oxidized biochar to pH 7 increased ammonia adsorption two to three-fold for biochars originally at pH 3.7-6, but did not change adsorption of biochars oxidized to pH 7 and above. The adsorption characteristics of ammonium are well described by the Freundlich equation. Adsorption was not fully reversible in water, and less than 27% ammonium was desorbed in water in two consecutive steps than previously adsorbed, for biochars with a pH below 7, irrespective of oxidation. Recovery using an extraction with 2M KCl increased from 34% to 99% of ammonium undesorbed by both preceding water extractions with increasing oxidation, largely irrespective of pH adjustment. Unrecovered ammonium in all extractions and residual biochar was negligible at high oxidation, but increased to 39% of initially adsorbed amounts at high pH, likely due to low amounts adsorbed and possible ammonia volatilization losses.

  1. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=сΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  2. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=cΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  3. Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P

    1995-09-01

    Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis.

  4. PCDD/Fs' suppression by sulfur-amine/ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian-Ying; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-03-01

    Three distinct -S and -NH2 or NH4(+) containing compounds, including ammonium thiosulfate, aminosulfonic acid and thiourea, were studied as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) inhibitors. All these three -S and -N containing compounds tested show strong suppression of PCDD/Fs formation, especially for thiourea which has not been studied before. With a (S+N)/Cl molar ratio of only 0.47, thiourea could inhibit 97.3% of PCDD/Fs and even 99.8% of I-TEQ. At an unusually high de novo test temperature (650 °C), the PCDD/Fs' formation was still very low but also the inhibition capacity of thiourea was weak, with an efficiency of 59% for PCDD/Fs when with a (S+N)/Cl molar ratio of 1.40. The results also revealed that the inhibition capability of the combined -S/-NH2 or -S/NH4(+) suppressant was strongly influenced by both the nature of the functional group of nitrogen and the value of the molar ratio (S+N)/Cl. The amine functional group -NH2 tends to be more efficient than ammonium NH4(+) and within a certain range a higher (S+N)/Cl value leads to a higher inhibition efficiency. Moreover, the emission of gases was continuously monitored: the Gasmet results revealed that SO2, HCN and NH3 were the most important decomposition products of thiourea. Thiourea is non-toxic, environment-friendly and can be sprayed into the post-combustion zone in form of powder or aqueous solution. The cost of thiourea at least can be partially compensated by its high inhibition efficiency. Therefore, the application of thiourea in a full-scale incinerator system is promising and encouraging. PMID:25481352

  5. Abnormal energetics and ATP depletion in pressure-overload mouse hearts: in vivo high-energy phosphate concentration measures by noninvasive magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Chacko, V P; Weiss, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers a unique means to noninvasively quantify the major cardiac high-energy phosphates, creatine phosphate (PCr) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), that are critical for normal myocardial contractile function and viability. Spatially localized (31)P MRS has been used to quantify the in vivo PCr-to-ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) of murine hearts, including those with pressure-overload hypertrophy induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). To date, there has been no approach for measuring the absolute tissue concentrations of PCr and ATP in the in vivo mouse heart that promise a better understanding of high-energy metabolism. A method to quantify in vivo murine myocardial concentrations of PCr and ATP using an external reference is described, validated, and applied to normal and TAC hearts. This new method does not prolong the scan times in mice beyond those previously required to measure PCr/ATP. The new method renders an [ATP] of 5.0 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- SD) and [PCr] of 10.4 +/- 1.4 micromol/g wet wt in normal mouse hearts (n = 7) and significantly lower values in TAC hearts (n = 10) of 4.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.7 +/- 2.0 micromol/g wet wt for [ATP] (P < 0.04) and [PCr] (P < 0.001), respectively. The in vivo magnetic resonance [ATP] results are in good agreement with those obtained using an in vitro enzyme luminescent assay of perchloric acid extracts of the same hearts. In conclusion, a validated (31)P MRS method for quantifying [ATP] and [PCr] in the in vivo mouse heart using spatial localization and an external reference is described and used to demonstrate significant reductions in not only PCr/ATP but [ATP] in hypertrophied TAC hearts.

  6. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  16. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  18. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...-propionic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid equivalents, in or on the... ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)-, monoammonium salt and its metabolite,...

  19. THE MASS ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOL. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mass transfer rate of pure ammonium nitrate between the aerosol and gas phases was
    quantified experimentally by the use of the tandem differential mobility analyzer/scanning mobility
    particle sizer (TDMA/SMPS) technique. Ammonium nitrate particles 80-220 nm in diameter<...

  20. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...