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Sample records for abnormally high values

  1. Precursor times of abnormal b-values prior to mainshocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa; Chen, Kou-Cheng; Leu, Peih-Lin; Chang, Chien-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Seismic observations exhibit the presence of abnormal b-values prior to numerous earthquakes. The time interval from the appearance of abnormal b-values to the occurrence of mainshock is called the precursor time. There are two kinds of precursor times in use: the first one denoted by T is the time interval from the moment when the b-value starts to increase from the normal one to the abnormal one to the occurrence time of the forthcoming mainshock, and the second one denoted by T p is the time interval from the moment when the abnormal b-value reaches the peak one to the occurrence time of the forthcoming mainshock. Let T* be the waiting time from the moment when the abnormal b-value returned to the normal one to the occurrence time of the forthcoming mainshock. The precursor time, T (usually in days), has been found to be related to the magnitude, M, of the mainshock expected in a linear form as log( T) = q + rM where q and r are the coefficient and slope, respectively. In this study, the values of T, T p , and T* of 45 earthquakes with 3 ≤ M ≤ 9 occurred in various tectonic regions are compiled from or measured from the temporal variations in b-values given in numerous source materials. The relationships of T and T p , respectively, versus M are inferred from compiled data. The difference between the values of T and T p decreases with increasing M. In addition, the plots of T*/ T versus M, T* versus T, and T* versus T- T* will be made and related equations between two quantities will be inferred from given data.

  2. Normal values for morphological abnormalities in school children.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; Ozgen, Heval M; Cluitmans, Theresia L M; van der Burg-van Rijn, Jaqueline M; Cobben, Jan Maarten; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2006-10-01

    Clinical morphology has proven to be a strong tool in the delineation of many syndromes and a helpful instrument in molecular studies. Numerous studies have been performed investigating the prevalence of minor anomalies in various disorders; all concluding that minor anomalies can well be utilized as indicators of altered embryonic differentiation. However, for adequate evaluation, normal values for phenotypic abnormalities are essential. So far, only few studies on the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in the normal population have been done having one thing in common: all were performed in newborn infants. We studied morphological characteristics in a group of 1,007 school children, representative for the Dutch population, through a body surface examination using detailed definitions for all morphological findings. The region of study and distribution of children over various school types was chosen in such a way that it represented the general Dutch population. The median age of the studied children was 11 years (range 8-14 years), sex ratio (M:F) was 0.93. Nine hundred twenty-three children were of Caucasian descent, 84 others of mixed ethnic backgrounds. The reliability of the examinations was tested by independent scoring of 111 children by two observers, showing a kappa score of 0.85. Normal values for the morphological findings are presented together with their age-adjusted classification. These normal values provide a valuable source for validation of classifications of phenotypic abnormalities, especially those that are depending on frequency, that is, minor anomalies and common variants. Furthermore, they will allow a proper evaluation of patterns of phenotypic abnormalities found in patient groups with specific disorders. PMID:16838341

  3. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  4. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  5. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  6. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) which was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction. PMID:22775285

  7. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Barbosa, Tânia Wanderley Paes; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher's test), particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001) and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. PMID:24339460

  8. The value of Bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-03-01

    The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. PMID:25784058

  9. Values-Oriented Public Policy Forums: Active Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevern, Vincent W.

    Students in an undergraduate course in abnormal psychology annually employ a cooperative active learning model to conduct a 4- to 6-day, values-oriented public policy forum (PPF) within the class itself on a general topic of concern to the field of mental health. A comprehensive and structured five-phase model for a PPF is detailed for course…

  10. The value of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the prognosis of pulmonary embolism: a consensus paper.

    PubMed

    Digby, Geneviève C; Kukla, Piotr; Zhan, Zhong-Qun; Pastore, Carlos A; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Zareba, Wojciech; Bayés de Luna, Antonio; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian M

    2015-05-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are being increasingly characterized and mounting evidence suggests that ECG plays a valuable role in prognostication for PE. We review the historical 21-point ECG prognostic score for the severity of PE and examine the updated evidence surrounding the utility of ECG abnormalities in prognostication for severity of acute PE. We performed a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed up to February 2015. Article titles and abstracts were screened, and articles were included if they were observational studies that used a surface 12-lead ECG as the instrument for measurement, a diagnosis of PE was confirmed by imaging, arteriography or autopsy, and analysis of prognostic outcomes was performed. Thirty-six articles met our inclusion criteria. We review the prognostic value of ECG abnormalities included in the 21-point ECG score, including new evidence that has arisen since the time of its publication. We also discuss the potential prognostic value of several ECG abnormalities with newly identified prognostic value in the setting of acute PE. PMID:25994548

  11. A Novel Scoring System to Measure Radiographic Abnormalities and Related Spirometric Values in Cured Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; López-Arteaga, Yesenia; Bizarrón-Muro, Alma; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; García-García, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. Objective To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. Results The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA) showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67–0.95) and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65–0.92), for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71–0.95), and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58–0.90). The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04); -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50); and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05); -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97) respectively, in the patients studied. Conclusion The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values, and

  12. High incidence of MYC and BCL2 abnormalities in mantle cell lymphoma, although only MYC abnormality predicts poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengwen; Zhong, Shizhen; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zengjun; Xiong, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Liu, Enbin; Cui, Rui; Ru, Kun; Zhang, Peihong; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Lv, Rui; Qi, Junyuan; Wang, Jianxiang; Cheng, Tao; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prognostic role of MYC and BCL2 rearrangements in mature B-cell lymphomas have been extensively studied, except the infrequent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we analyzed the MYC and BCL2 abnormalities and other cytogenetic aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 50 MCL patients with bone marrow involvement. Eighteen patients (36.0%) had MYC gains and/or amplifications, and twelve patients (24.0%) had BCL2 gains and/or amplifications. Among the 18 patients with MYC abnormality, four had simultaneous MYC translocations, but no BCL2 translocation was detected among patients with BCL2 abnormality. Only two patients (4.0%) had both MYC and BCL2 abnormalities. The patients with a MYC abnormality had a significantly higher tumor burden, a higher percentage of medium/high risk MIPI group and genomic instability compared to those without this abnormality. However, no significant difference was observed between patients with or without a BCL2 abnormality in terms of clinical and cytogenetic factors. Patients with a MYC abnormality had poorer progress-free survival (PFS) (9.0 vs. 48.0 months, p = .000) and overall survival (OS) (12.0 vs. 94.5 months, p = .000), but the presence of a BCL2 abnormality did not significantly influence either PFS or OS. In multivariate analysis, the MYC abnormality was the independent adverse factor for both PFS and OS, and intensive chemotherapy did not improve the outcome of these patients. Thus, the presence of a MYC but not BCL2 abnormality predicted the poor survival of MCL patients, and a new treatment strategy should be developed for these patients. PMID:26517511

  13. Effects of expected-value information and display format on recognition of aircraft subsystem abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Abbott, Kathy H.

    1994-01-01

    This study identifies improved methods to present system parameter information for detecting abnormal conditions and to identify system status. Two workstation experiments were conducted. The first experiment determined if including expected-value-range information in traditional parameter display formats affected subject performance. The second experiment determined if using a nontraditional parameter display format, which presented relative deviation from expected value, was better than traditional formats with expected-value ranges included. The inclusion of expected-value-range information onto traditional parameter formats was found to have essentially no effect. However, subjective results indicated support for including this information. The nontraditional column deviation parameter display format resulted in significantly fewer errors compared with traditional formats with expected-value-ranges included. In addition, error rates for the column deviation parameter display format remained stable as the scenario complexity increased, whereas error rates for the traditional parameter display formats with expected-value ranges increased. Subjective results also indicated that the subjects preferred this new format and thought that their performance was better with it. The column deviation parameter display format is recommended for display applications that require rapid recognition of out-of-tolerance conditions, especially for a large number of parameters.

  14. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  15. Prognostic value of serum tumor abnormal protein in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    LAN, FENG; ZHU, MING; QI, QIUFENG; ZHANG, YAPING; LIU, YONGPING

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of protein occurs in nearly all types of cancers and has been confirmed to be associated with tumor progression, metastasis and the survival rate of patients. The present study aimed to explore the prognostic value of tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in gastric cancer patients. TAP was detected in the blood of 42 gastric cancer patients and 56 healthy volunteers by using the TAP testing kit. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of TAP. In total, 64.3% of gastric cancer patients were positive for TAP, and TAP was significantly correlated with poor prognosis [progression-free survival (PFS), 4.2 vs. 12.6 months; P=0.043]. TAP [hazard ratio (HR), 64.487; P<0.01), differentiation (HR, 17.279; P<0.01) and TNM stage (HR, 45.480; P<0.01) were found to be independent predictive factors for PFS. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that TAP is associated with a reduced PFS in gastric cancer patients. The results of the present study therefore indicated that the TAP test has significant prognostic value for gastric cancer patients. PMID:27330802

  16. Meta-analysis of the prognostic value of abnormally expressed lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhen; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Yin, Chang-Qing; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be abnormally expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and may have the potential to serve as prognostic markers. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in HCC. Eligible literatures were systematically collected from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (up to December 30, 2015). The main outcomes including overall survival, relapse-free survival, and disease-free survival were analyzed. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. A total of 2,991 patients with HCC in People’s Republic of China from 27 studies were included in the analysis. The level of lncRNAs showed a significant association with clinical outcomes. Abnormally elevated lncRNA transcription level predicted poor overall survival (HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20–2.34, P=0.002; I2=75.5%, P=0.000) and relapse-free survival (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.65–2.61, P<0.001; I2=24.0%, P=0.215), while no association was observed with disease-free survival of HCC patients (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.51–3.78, P=0.524; I2=81.3%, P=0.005). Subgroup analysis further showed that lncRNA transcription level was significantly associated with tumor size (relative risk [RR]: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01–1.39, P=0.035), microvascular invasion (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.10–1.89, P=0.009), and portal vein tumor thrombus (RR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03–2.20, P=0.036). Publication bias and sensitivity analysis further confirmed the stability of our results. Our present meta-analysis indicates that abnormal lncRNA transcription level may serve as a promising indicator for prognostic evaluation of patients with HCC in People’s Republic of China. PMID:27574455

  17. Meta-analysis of the prognostic value of abnormally expressed lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Yin, Chang-Qing; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be abnormally expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and may have the potential to serve as prognostic markers. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in HCC. Eligible literatures were systematically collected from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library (up to December 30, 2015). The main outcomes including overall survival, relapse-free survival, and disease-free survival were analyzed. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. A total of 2,991 patients with HCC in People's Republic of China from 27 studies were included in the analysis. The level of lncRNAs showed a significant association with clinical outcomes. Abnormally elevated lncRNA transcription level predicted poor overall survival (HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20-2.34, P=0.002; I (2)=75.5%, P=0.000) and relapse-free survival (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.65-2.61, P<0.001; I (2)=24.0%, P=0.215), while no association was observed with disease-free survival of HCC patients (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 0.51-3.78, P=0.524; I (2)=81.3%, P=0.005). Subgroup analysis further showed that lncRNA transcription level was significantly associated with tumor size (relative risk [RR]: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39, P=0.035), microvascular invasion (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.10-1.89, P=0.009), and portal vein tumor thrombus (RR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.03-2.20, P=0.036). Publication bias and sensitivity analysis further confirmed the stability of our results. Our present meta-analysis indicates that abnormal lncRNA transcription level may serve as a promising indicator for prognostic evaluation of patients with HCC in People's Republic of China. PMID:27574455

  18. The paper punched disc technique for lead in blood samples with abnormal haemoglobin values.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, G F

    1978-01-01

    A series of 15 blood samples with haemoglobin levels ranging from 4-6--16-1 g/dl were spotted on to Whatman No. 4 filter paper. Blood samples with low haemoglobin concentrations spread over a greater area of the filter paper than did those with high haemoglobin concentrations. This was further investigated by studying the performance of laboratory-prepared samples, and any effect on the estimation of blood lead value. Blood lead values assayed by the punched disc method on blood samples with low haemoglobin values were unreliable unless the estimated value was adjusted with respect to the area over which the blood had spread. Images PMID:698139

  19. Methodology to automatically detect abnormal values of vital parameters in anesthesia time-series: Proposal for an adaptable algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lamer, Antoine; Jeanne, Mathieu; Marcilly, Romaric; Kipnis, Eric; Schiro, Jessica; Logier, Régis; Tavernier, Benoît

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal values of vital parameters such as hypotension or tachycardia may occur during anesthesia and may be detected by analyzing time-series data collected during the procedure by the Anesthesia Information Management System. When crossed with other data from the Hospital Information System, abnormal values of vital parameters have been linked with postoperative morbidity and mortality. However, methods for the automatic detection of these events are poorly documented in the literature and differ between studies, making it difficult to reproduce results. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the automatic detection of abnormal values of vital parameters. This methodology uses an algorithm allowing the configuration of threshold values for any vital parameters as well as the management of missing data. Four examples illustrate the application of the algorithm, after which it is applied to three vital signs (heart rate, SpO2, and mean arterial pressure) to all 2014 anesthetic records at our institution. PMID:26817405

  20. Relationship between paravascular abnormalities and foveoschisis in highly myopic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamal-Salah, R; Morillo-Sanchez, M J; Rius-Diaz, F; Garcia-Campos, J M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of paravascular abnormalities in highly myopic patients and its relationship with myopic foveoschisis (MF). Methods Cross-sectional study of 250 highly myopic eyes. All of the patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination that included optical coherence tomography . Results Optical coherence tomography images showed 170 eyes (68%) with paravascular microfolds (PM), 121 eyes (48.4%) presented paravascular retinal cysts (PC), and 35 eyes (14%) with paravascular lamellar holes . All the eyes with PCs had PMs. Out of the 250 eyes, 48 (19.2%) had paravascular retinoschisis (PR). All the eyes (100%) with PR had paravascular cysts and PMs. Sixteen eyes (6.4%) had foveoschis. The spherical equivalent (P<0.00), PR (P=0.01), and the presence of tractional structures (P<0.00) were associated with increased risk for foveoschsis in the multivariate study. Conclusions PMs were the lesions most often observed in the paravascular area in highly myopic eyes. MF would be a result of the action of different forces (intra- and extra-ocular forces), specially tractional structures, on precursor lesions (paravascular cyst and paravascular restinoschisis). Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25359287

  1. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature.

  2. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  3. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  4. Abnormally high expression of proteasomes in human leukemic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kumatori, A; Tanaka, K; Inamura, N; Sone, S; Ogura, T; Matsumoto, T; Tachikawa, T; Shin, S; Ichihara, A

    1990-01-01

    Proteasomes are eukaryotic ring-shaped or cylindrical particles with multicatalytic protease activities. To clarify the involvement of proteasomes in tumorigenesis of human blood cells, we compared their expression in human hematopoietic malignant tumor cells with that in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed considerably increased concentrations of proteasomes in leukemic cells from the bone marrow of patients with various types of leukemia and the predominant localization of these proteasomes in the nuclei. Moreover, enzyme immunoassay and Northern blot analysis indicated that the concentrations of proteasomes and their mRNA levels were consistently much higher in a variety of malignant human hematopoietic cell lines than in resting peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes from healthy adults. Proteasome expression was also greatly increased in normal blood mononuclear cells during blastogenic transformation induced by phytohemagglutinin; their expression increased in parallel with induction of DNA synthesis and returned to the basal level with progress of the cell cycle. Thus, abnormally high expression of proteasomes may play an important role in transformation and proliferation of blood cells and in specific functions of hematopoietic tumor cells. Images PMID:2205851

  5. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720

  6. Diagnostic value of terminal ileum biopsies in patients with abnormal terminal ileum mucosal appearance

    PubMed Central

    Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Enes Arıkan, A.; Kağan Zengin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the necessity of obtaining routine ileal biopsy during colonoscopy in the patients with abnormal terminal ileum mucosal appearance if the inflammatory bowel disease is not considered. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for 57 patients who were referred to a private hospital for colonoscopy between January 2008 and February 2009, in whom terminal ileum intubation was achieved and an abnormal appearance was observed. Results: There were 33 men and 24 women; the mean age was 44.12±11.42 years. In 22 patients, the abnormality was ulcers and/or erosions. In 10 patients, there were mucosal nodularity and in 24, the finding was erythema. The time to reach to ileum from cecum was 28.78±24.30 s. The mean length of the examined ileum was 12.93±6.05 cm. There was no difference between groups according to distance covered in the ileum for diagnostic yield, but going further than 2 cm was important. Conclusion: There should be no need to obtain routine biopsy in patients with abnormal terminal ileum mucosa appearance, when inflammatory bowel disease is not considered. In these patients, histopathology also reveals non-specific ileitis. Furthermore, in these patients, the macroscopic pathological diagnosis overlaps the histopathology, and it has a low diagnostic yield and lower clinical significance. PMID:26504419

  7. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  8. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  9. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  10. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  11. 14 CFR 91.144 - Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. 91.144 Section 91.144 Aeronautics and Space... flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions. (a) Special flight restrictions. When any information indicates that barometric pressure on the route of flight currently exceeds...

  12. The value of computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of pediatric mediastinal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.J.; Sagel, S.S.; Reed, K.

    1982-01-01

    The utility of computed tomography (CT) in evaluation of mediastinal abnormalities was assessed in 23 pediatric patients. By comparison with standard chest radiography, CT provided additional diagnostic information in 82% of the patients. In 65%, the CT findings contributed to a change in clinical management. CT was most useful in documenting a benign process (near-water-density mass or a normal vascular or soft-tissue structure) and in demonstrating the full extent of a malignant tumor.

  13. Method of curved surface abnormal holes vision measurement based on high precision turntable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Laipeng; Bi, Chao; Fang, Jianguo; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    For solving the difficult problem that there is no effective way to measure abnormal holes located at blade erection loop of aero-engine case, an image measurement system based on high precision air-bearing turntable is established in this paper. The issue that monocular vision can't measure curved surface has overcome by using high precision turntable to make sure high positioning accuracy of the surface abnormal holes and high-resolution microscope lens which is used to image local tiny features. Besides, an algorithm of determining the boundary points of a trailing edge on the contour of abnormal hole is proposed to achieve a rapid fitting and accuracy. After experiments and analysis, results show that the system can be used to measure local tiny features on curved surfaces validly and efficiently.

  14. Inversion of the western Pacific subtropical high dynamic model and analysis of dynamic characteristics for its abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Zhang, R.; Li, J. X.; Ge, J. J.; Liu, K. F.

    2013-02-01

    Based on time series data of 500 hPa potential field from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Forecast of American/National Center for Atmospheric Research), a novel consideration of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) time-space separation and dynamic system reconstruction for time series is introduced. This method consists of two parts: first, the dynamical model inversion and model parameter optimization are carried out on the EOF time coefficient series using the genetic algorithm (GA), and, second, a nonlinear dynamic model representing the subtropical high (SH) activity and its abnormality is established. The SH activity and its abnormal mechanism is studied using the developed dynamical model. Results show that the configuration and diversification of the SH equilibriums have good correspondence with the actual short-medium term abnormal activity of the SH. Change of SH potential field brought by the combination of equilibriums is more complex than that by mutation, and their exhibition patterns are different. The mutation behavior from high-value to low-value equilibriums of the SH in summer corresponds with the southward drop of the SH in the observed weather process. The combination behavior of the two steady equilibriums corresponds with disappearance of the "double-ridge" phenomenon of the SH. Dynamical mechanisms of these phenomena are explained.

  15. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  16. An Algorithm for the Segmentation of Highly Abnormal Hearts Using a Generic Statistical Shape Model.

    PubMed

    Alba, Xenia; Pereanez, Marco; Hoogendoorn, Corne; Swift, Andrew J; Wild, Jim M; Frangi, Alejandro F; Lekadir, Karim

    2016-03-01

    Statistical shape models (SSMs) have been widely employed in cardiac image segmentation. However, in conditions that induce severe shape abnormality and remodeling, such as in the case of pulmonary hypertension (PH) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a single SSM is rarely capable of capturing the anatomical variability in the extremes of the distribution. This work presents a new algorithm for the segmentation of severely abnormal hearts. The algorithm is highly flexible, as it does not require a priori knowledge of the involved pathology or any specific parameter tuning to be applied to the cardiac image under analysis. The fundamental idea is to approximate the gross effect of the abnormality with a virtual remodeling transformation between the patient-specific geometry and the average shape of the reference model (e.g., average normal morphology). To define this mapping, a set of landmark points are automatically identified during boundary point search, by estimating the reliability of the candidate points. With the obtained transformation, the feature points extracted from the patient image volume are then projected onto the space of the reference SSM, where the model is used to effectively constrain and guide the segmentation process. The extracted shape in the reference space is finally propagated back to the original image of the abnormal heart to obtain the final segmentation. Detailed validation with patients diagnosed with PH and HCM shows the robustness and flexibility of the technique for the segmentation of highly abnormal hearts of different pathologies. PMID:26552082

  17. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  18. Erythrocyte echinocytosis in liver disease. Role of abnormal plasma high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, J S; Brown, D J; Harry, D S; McIntyre, N; Beaven, G H; Isenberg, H; Gratzer, W B

    1985-01-01

    Echinocytes were frequently found in patients with liver disease when their blood was examined in wet films, but rarely detected in dried, stained smears. When normal erythrocytes (discocytes) were incubated with physiologic concentrations of the abnormal high density lipoproteins (HDL) from some jaundiced patients, echinocytosis developed within seconds. Other plasma fractions were not echinocytogenic. There was a close correlation between the number of echinocytes found in vivo and the ability of the corresponding HDL to induce discocyte-echinocyte transformation. On incubation with normal HDL, echinocytes generated in vitro rapidly reverted to a normal shape, and echinocytes from patients showed a similar trend. Echinocytosis occurred without change in membrane cholesterol content, as did its reversal, and was not caused by membrane uptake of lysolecithin or bile acids. Abnormal, echinocytogenic HDL showed saturable binding to approximately 5,000 sites per normal erythrocyte with an association constant of 10(8) M-1. Nonechinocytogenic patient HDL and normal HDL showed only nonsaturable binding. Several minor components of electrophoretically separated erythrocyte membrane proteins bound the abnormal HDL; pretreatment of the cells with trypsin or pronase reduced or eliminated binding. Echinocytosis by abnormal HDL required receptor occupancy, rather than transfer of constituents to or from the membrane, because cells reversibly prefixed in the discoid shape by wheat germ agglutinin, and then exposed to abnormal HDL, did not become echinocytes when the HDL and lectin were successively removed. Binding did not cause dephosphorylation of spectrin. We conclude that the echinocytes of liver disease are generated from discocytes by abnormal HDL, and we infer that the shape change is mediated by cell-surface receptors for abnormal HDL molecules. Images PMID:4077979

  19. Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ≥65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

  20. Predictive Value of Echocardiographic Abnormalities and the Impact of Diastolic Dysfunction on In-hospital Major Cardiovascular Complications after Living Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jung; Chang, Suyon; Kim, So Yeon; Huh, Kyu Ha; Kang, Soojeong; Choi, Yong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show characteristic abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. We evaluated the influence of these abnormalities on adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes after living donor kidney transplantation in patients with valid preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation. We then observed any development of major postoperative cardiovascular complications and pulmonary edema until hospital discharge. In-hospital major cardiovascular complications were defined as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, newly-onset atrial fibrillation, clinical pulmonary edema requiring endotracheal intubation or dialysis. Among the 242 ESRD study patients, 9 patients (4%) developed major cardiovascular complications, and 39 patients (16%) developed pulmonary edema. Diabetes, ischemia-reperfusion time, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), left atrium volume index (LAVI), and high E/E' ratios were risk factors of major cardiovascular complications, while age, LVEDd, LVMI, LAVI, and high E/E' ratios were risk factors of pulmonary edema. The optimal E/E' cut-off value for predicting major cardiovascular complications was 13.0, showing 77.8% sensitivity and 78.5% specificity. Thus, the patient's E/E' ratio is useful for predicting in-hospital major cardiovascular complications after kidney transplantation. We recommend that goal-directed therapy employing E/E' ratio be enacted in kidney recipients with baseline diastolic dysfunction to avert postoperative morbidity. (http://Clinical Trials.gov number: NCT02322567) PMID:27499694

  1. Predictive Value of Echocardiographic Abnormalities and the Impact of Diastolic Dysfunction on In-hospital Major Cardiovascular Complications after Living Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Chang, Suyon; Kim, So Yeon; Huh, Kyu Ha; Kang, Soojeong; Choi, Yong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show characteristic abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. We evaluated the influence of these abnormalities on adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes after living donor kidney transplantation in patients with valid preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation. We then observed any development of major postoperative cardiovascular complications and pulmonary edema until hospital discharge. In-hospital major cardiovascular complications were defined as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, newly-onset atrial fibrillation, clinical pulmonary edema requiring endotracheal intubation or dialysis. Among the 242 ESRD study patients, 9 patients (4%) developed major cardiovascular complications, and 39 patients (16%) developed pulmonary edema. Diabetes, ischemia-reperfusion time, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), left atrium volume index (LAVI), and high E/E' ratios were risk factors of major cardiovascular complications, while age, LVEDd, LVMI, LAVI, and high E/E' ratios were risk factors of pulmonary edema. The optimal E/E' cut-off value for predicting major cardiovascular complications was 13.0, showing 77.8% sensitivity and 78.5% specificity. Thus, the patient's E/E' ratio is useful for predicting in-hospital major cardiovascular complications after kidney transplantation. We recommend that goal-directed therapy employing E/E' ratio be enacted in kidney recipients with baseline diastolic dysfunction to avert postoperative morbidity. (http://Clinical Trials.gov number: NCT02322567). PMID:27499694

  2. An abnormal pK{sub a} value of internal histidine of the insulin molecule revealed by neutron crystallographic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Morimoto, Yukio; Maeda, Mitsuru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-11-07

    Insulin is stored in pancreatic {beta}-cell as hexameric form with Zn{sup 2+} ions, while the hormonally active form is monomer. The hexamer requires the coordination of Zn{sup 2+} ions to the HisB10. In order to reveal the mechanism of the hexamerization of insulin, we investigated the Zn{sup 2+} free insulin at pD6.6 and pD9 by neutron crystallographic analyses. HisB10 is doubly protonated not only at pD6.6 but also at pD9, indicating an abnormal pK{sub a} of this histidine. It is suggested that HisB10 acts on a strong cation capture and contributes to the high stability of the hexameric form in pancreas.

  3. Prognostic value of quantitative high-speed myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Ryo; Berman, Daniel S.; Gransar, Heidi; Hyun, Mark; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Kite, Faith C.; Hayes, Sean W.; Thomson, Louise E.J.; Friedman, John D.; Rozanski, Alan; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies have reported using semi-quantitative analysis to assess the prognostic utility of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Thus we studied the prognostic value of fully automated quantitative analysis software applied to new solid-state, high-speed (HS) SPECT-MPI. Methods 1613 consecutive patients undergoing exercise or adenosine HS-MPI were followed for 2.6±0.5 years for all-cause mortality (ACM). Automated quantitative software was used for assessing stress total perfusion deficit (sTPD) and was compared to semi-quantitative visual analysis. MPI was characterized as 0% (normal); 1–4% (minimal perfusion defect); 5–10% (mildly abnormal); and >10% (moderately/severely abnormal). Results During follow-up, 79 patients died (4.9%). Annualized ACM increased with progressively increasing sTPD; 0% (0.87%), 1–4% (1.94%), 5–10% (3.10%) and >10% (5.33%) (log-rank p<0.0001). While similar overall findings were observed with visual analysis, only sTPD demonstrated increased risk in patients with minimal perfusion defects. In multivariable analysis, sTPD >10% was a mortality predictor (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.30–7.09, p=0.01). Adjusted mortality rate was substantial in adenosine MPI, but low in exercise MPI (9.0% versus 1.0%, p<0.0001). Conclusions By quantitative analysis, ACM increases with increasing perfusion abnormality among patients undergoing stress HS-MPI. These findings confirm previous results obtained with visual analysis using conventional Anger camera imaging systems. PMID:23065414

  4. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  5. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  6. Nicotine in Combination With a High-Fat Diet Causes Intramyocellular Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C.; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lee, Desean; Ivey, Rasheed

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be exaggerated by obesity. We hypothesize that nicotine when combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) can also cause ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, similar to recently observed hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice-daily ip injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight) or saline for 10 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy of the gastrocnemius muscle revealed substantial intramyocellular lipid accumulation in close association with intramyofibrillar mitochondria along with intramyofibrillar mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization in nicotine-treated mice on an HFD compared with mice on an HFD treated with saline. These abnormalities were reversed by acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis. Mechanistically, the detrimental effect of nicotine plus HFD on skeletal muscle was associated with significantly increased oxidative stress, plasma free fatty acid, and muscle triglyceride levels coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase and activation of its downstream target, acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. We conclude that 1) greater oxidative stress together with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediates the effect of nicotine on skeletal muscle abnormalities in diet-induced obesity and 2) adipose tissue lipolysis is an important contributor of muscle steatosis and mitochondrial abnormalities. PMID:24424058

  7. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system. PMID:26195163

  8. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  9. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  10. Abnormal effective connectivity and psychopathological symptoms in the psychosis high-risk state

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Smieskova, Renata; Simon, Andor; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; McGuire, Philip K.; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Aston, Jacqueline; Lang, Undine E.; Walter, Marc; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence has revealed abnormal functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing in patients with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, it still remains unclear whether abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in the psychosis high-risk state and whether the connection strengths are related to psychopathological outcomes. Methods Healthy controls and antipsychotic-naive individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) performed an n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Effective connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing were characterized using dynamic causal modelling. Results Our study included 19 controls and 27 individuals with an ARMS. In individuals with an ARMS, we found significantly lower task performances and reduced activity in the right superior parietal lobule and middle frontal gyrus than in controls. Furthermore, the working memory–induced modulation of the connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right superior parietal lobule was significantly reduced in individuals with an ARMS, while the extent of this connectivity was negatively related to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score. Limitations The modest sample size precludes a meaningful subgroup analysis for participants with a later transition to psychosis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in individuals with an ARMS and is related to psychiatric symptoms. Thus, our results provide further insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the psychosis high-risk state by linking functional brain imaging, computational modelling and psychopathology. PMID:24506946

  11. Polyisocyanurate's high R-value attracting users

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.

    1982-05-31

    The higher insulating value of polyisocyanurate rigid foam boards that can be installed over existing walls is attracting customers despite their 20% higher cost per square foot than fiberglass insulation. Other plastic foam boards compare in cost, but have a lower R value. The less flammable polycyanurate boards do not require additional perlite or other fire-retardant boards to meet building fire codes. A directory lists 81 major suppliers of roof and wall insulation. (DCK)

  12. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Left-Hemispheric Microstructural Abnormalities in Children With High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Daniel; Mahajan, Rajneesh; Crocetti, Deana; Mejia, Amanda; Mostofsky, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Current theories of the neurobiological basis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) posit an altered pattern of connectivity in large-scale brain networks. Here we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging to investigate the microstructural properties of the white matter that mediates inter-regional connectivity in 36 high-functioning children with ASD (HF-ASD), as compared to 37 controls. By employing an atlas-based analysis using LDDMM registration, a widespread, but left-lateralized pattern of abnormalities was revealed. The Mean Diffusivity (MD) of water in the white matter of HF-ASD children was significantly elevated throughout the left hemisphere, particularly in the outer-zone cortical white matter. Across diagnostic groups there was a significant effect of age on left hemisphere MD, with a similar reduction in MD during childhood in both TD and HF-ASD children. The increased MD in children with HF-ASD suggests hypomyelination, and may reflect increased short-range cortico-cortical connections subsequent to early white matter overgrowth. These findings also highlight left hemispheric connectivity as relevant to the pathophysiology of ASD, and indicate that the spatial distribution of microstructural abnormalities in HF-ASD is widespread, and left-lateralized. This altered left-hemispheric connectivity may contribute to deficits in communication and praxis observed in ASD. PMID:25256103

  14. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the presence of soft-tissue infection and radiologic evidence of osseous abnormalities: Value of leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.F.; Harley, J.D.; Lipsky, B.A.; Pecoraro, R.E. )

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of 111In-leukocyte scintigraphy for identifying osteomyelitis in the presence of soft-tissue infection, the author prospectively studied 45 bone sites adjacent to soft-tissue infection in patients with abnormal findings on radiographs and 99mTc bone scans that were suggestive of osteomyelitis. 111In-leukocyte scans were analyzed in terms of the intensity of abnormal uptake and its location relative to bone. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis was established from results of percutaneous bone biopsy culture (n = 35), histologic examination of surgical specimens (n = 8), and clinical follow-up (n = 2). Osteomyelitis was present at 22 sites, including 16 of 18 sites with increased leukocyte uptake in bone, resulting in a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 91%, and positive predictive value of 89% for this finding. Osteomyelitis was present at four of 17 sites with predominantly soft-tissue localization of leukocyte activity in the region of bone, none of seven sites with normal leukocyte scans, and two of three sites with diminished leukocyte uptake in bone. Although not helpful in distinguishing infectious from noninfectious bone abnormalities, 3- and especially 24-hr bone scans viewed in conjunction with leukocyte studies provided important correlation to aid in estimating the location of focal abnormal leukocyte uptake. The finding of soft-tissue infection with increased uptake of labeled leukocytes that extends to involve adjacent bone strongly suggests concurrent osteomyelitis. When the presence of abnormal leukocyte uptake in bone is uncertain, additional imaging and possibly biopsy may be required to establish or exclude the diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

  15. The integrated method to select drilling muds for abnormally high pressure formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorev, V. S.; Dmitriev, A. Yu; Boyko, I. A.; Kayumova, N. S.; Rakhimov, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the method for choosing a drilling mud for drilling abnormally high pressure formations. A carefully selected drilling mud formulation would not only enhance an array of interrelated fluid properties, but also minimize the impact on the pay zones when the drill bit first penetrates the pay. To ensure a better assessment of drilling mud impact on the pay zone, it is reasonable to carry out the study focused on the analysis of technological parameters, involving filtration, acid and drilling mud tests, as well as formation damage analysis. This would enable evaluating the degree of mudding off, reservoirs acid fracturing effect and the risks of pipe sticking at significant depth. The article presents the results of the above-described study with regard to the currently used drilling mud and new experimental formulations developed at National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Laboratory).

  16. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  17. Network Mechanisms Generating Abnormal and Normal Hippocampal High-Frequency Oscillations: A Computational Analysis1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gliske, Stephen; Catoni, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are an intriguing potential biomarker for epilepsy, typically categorized according to peak frequency as either ripples (100–250 Hz) or fast ripples (>250 Hz). In the hippocampus, fast ripples were originally thought to be more specific to epileptic tissue, but it is still very difficult to distinguish which HFOs are caused by normal versus pathological brain activity. In this study, we use a computational model of hippocampus to investigate possible network mechanisms underpinning normal ripples, pathological ripples, and fast ripples. Our results unify several prior findings regarding HFO mechanisms, and also make several new predictions regarding abnormal HFOs. We show that HFOs are generic, emergent phenomena whose characteristics reflect a wide range of connectivity and network input. Although produced by different mechanisms, both normal and abnormal HFOs generate similar ripple frequencies, underscoring that peak frequency is unable to distinguish the two. Abnormal ripples are generic phenomena that arise when input to pyramidal cells overcomes network inhibition, resulting in high-frequency, uncoordinated firing. In addition, fast ripples transiently and sporadically arise from the precise conditions that produce abnormal ripples. Lastly, we show that such abnormal conditions do not require any specific network structure to produce coherent HFOs, as even completely asynchronous activity is capable of producing abnormal ripples and fast ripples in this manner. These results provide a generic, network-based explanation for the link between pathological ripples and fast ripples, and a unifying description for the entire spectrum from normal ripples to pathological fast ripples. PMID:26146658

  18. High frequency of p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway abnormalities in relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Wilkinson, Jane; O' Toole, Kieran; Wood, Katrina M.; Challen, Christine C.; Baker, Angela G.; Board, Julian R.; Evans, Laura; Cole, Michael; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Boos, Joachim; Köhler, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Lunec, John; Tweddle, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Most neuroblastomas initially respond to therapy but many relapse with chemoresistant disease. p53 mutations are rare in diagnostic neuroblastomas, but we have previously reported inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway in 9/17 (53%) neuroblastoma cell lines established at relapse. Hypothesis: Inactivation of the p53/MDM2/p14ARF pathway develops during treatment and contributes to neuroblastoma relapse. Methods: Eighty-four neuroblastomas were studied from 41 patients with relapsed neuroblastoma including 38 paired neuroblastomas at different stages of therapy. p53 mutations were detected by automated sequencing, p14ARF methylation and deletion by methylation-specific PCR and duplex PCR respectively, and MDM2 amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation. Results: Abnormalities in the p53 pathway were identified in 20/41(49%) cases. Downstream defects due to inactivating missense p53 mutations were identified in 6/41 (15%) cases, 5 following chemotherapy and/or at relapse and 1 at diagnosis, post chemotherapy and relapse. The presence of a p53 mutation was independently prognostic for overall survival (hazard ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2, 9.9; p = 0.02). Upstream defects were present in 35% cases: MDM2 amplification in 3 cases, all at diagnosis & relapse and p14ARF inactivation in 12/41 (29%) cases: 3 had p14ARF methylation, 2 after chemotherapy, and 9 had homozygous deletions, 8 at diagnosis and relapse. Conclusions: These results show that a high proportion of neuroblastomas which relapse have an abnormality in the p53 pathway. The majority have upstream defects suggesting that agents which reactivate wild-type p53 would be beneficial, in contrast to those with downstream defects where p53 independent therapies are indicated. PMID:20145180

  19. Abnormal high-Q modes of coupled stadium-shaped microcavities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jung-Wan; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Inbo; Choi, Muhan; Hentschel, Martina; Kim, Sang Wook

    2014-07-15

    It is well known that the strongly deformed microcavity with fully chaotic ray dynamics cannot support high-Q modes due to its fast chaotic diffusion to the critical line of refractive emission. Here, we investigate how the Q factor is modified when two chaotic cavities are coupled, and show that some modes, whose Q factor is about 10 times higher than that of the corresponding single cavity, can exist. These abnormal high-Q modes are the result of an optimal combination of coupling and cavity geometry. As an example, in the coupled stadium-shaped microcavities, the mode pattern extends over both cavities such that it follows a whispering-gallery-type mode at both ends, whereas a big coupling spot forms at the closest contact of the two microcavities. The pattern of such a "rounded bow tie" mode allows the mode to have a high-Q factor. This mode pattern minimizes the leakage of light at both ends of the microcavities as the pattern at both ends is similar to the whispering gallery mode. PMID:25121685

  20. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of an Abnormal High Density Lipoprotein in Tangier Disease

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Gerd; Herbert, Peter N.; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Forte, Trudy

    1977-01-01

    The nature of the high density lipoproteins has been investigated in five patients homozygous for Tangier disease (familial high density lipoprotein deficiency). It has been established that Tangier high density lipoproteins, as isolated by ultracentrifugation, are morphologically heterogenous and contain several proteins (Apo B, albumin, and Apo A-II). An abnormal lipoprotein has been isolated from the d = 1.063-1.21 g/ml ultracentrifugal fraction by agarose-column chromatography which contains apoprotein A-II as the sole protein constituent. In negative-stain electron microscopy, these lipoproteins appeared as spherical particles 55-75 Å in diameter. By a variety of criteria (immunochemical, polyacrylamide electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and fluorescence measurements), apoprotein A-I the major apoprotein of normal high density lipoproteins and the C apoproteins were absent from this lipoprotein. As demonstrated by 125I very low density lipoprotein incubation experiments with Tangier plasma, C apoproteins did not associate with lipoproteins of d = 1.063-1.21 g/ml. Tangier apoprotein A-II, isolated to homogeneity by delipidation of the apoprotein A-II-containing lipoprotein or Sephadex G-200 guanidine-HCl chromatography of the d = 1.063-1.21 g/ml fraction, was indistinguishable from control apoprotein A-II with respect to amino acid composition and migration of tryptic peptides in urea-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The ability of Tangier apoprotein A-II to bind phospholipid was demonstrated by in vitro reconstitution experiments and morphological and chemical analysis of lipid-protein complexes. It is concluded that normal high density lipoproteins, as defined by polypeptide composition and morphological appearance, are absent from Tangier plasma and that as a consequence, the impairment of C apoprotein metabolism contributes to the hypertriglyceridemia and fasting chylomicronemia observed in these patients. Images PMID:194920

  2. Abnormal Adrenal Responsiveness and Angiotensin II Dependency in High Renin Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dluhy, Robert G.; Bavli, Sam Z.; Leung, Frank K.; Solomon, Harold S.; Moore, Thomas J.; Hollenberg, Norman K.; Williams, Gordon H.

    1979-01-01

    Adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin II (AII) and the diastolic blood pressure responses to saralasin were studied in 19 patients with high renin essential hypertension (HREH) on a 10-meq Na+/100 meq K+ diet. The increment in plasma renin activity (PRA) between supine and upright positions was used as an estimate of the acute stimulation of the adrenal gland by endogenous AII; the normal increment in plasma aldosterone divided by the increment in PRA was >3.8. 7 of 19 had abnormal upright posture responses with significantly greater mean PRA increments (24±6 ng/ml per h) and significantly smaller plasma aldosterone increments 47 ± 16 ng/dl) (P < 0.036) compared to the increments observed in HREH patients with normal adrenal responsiveness (PRA = 15 ± 1 ng/ml per h; plasma aldosterone = 87 ± 17 ng/dl). When AII was infused at doses of 0.1-3 ng/kg per min, only patients with normal posture responses had normal plasma aldosterone increments; plasma aldosterone levels failed to significantly increase even at the highest infusion rate in the patients with the abnormal upright posture responses. The AII competitive inhibitor, saralasin (0.3-30 μg/kg per min) was then infused to study the occurrence of angiotensinogenic hypertension in both HREH subgroups. The mean decline in diastolic blood pressure to saralasin in the subnormal adrenal responsive patients (−15 ± 3 mm Hg) was significantly greater than in the normal adrenal responsive group (−3 ± 2 mm Hg) (P < 0.02). It is concluded that patients with HREH are not a homogeneous population; approximately one-third have AII-dependent hypertension. In these patients, the mechanism responsible for the elevated renin and blood pressure could be a compensatory increase secondary to decreased adrenal responsiveness to AII. In the remainder, the high PRA levels have little, if any, causal role in the pathogenesis of the hypertension but could reflect a marker of other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:500810

  3. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  4. High prevalence of anterolateral ligament abnormalities in magnetic resonance images of anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees.

    PubMed

    Claes, Steven; Bartholomeeusen, Stijn; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the newly described anterolateral ligament of the human knee on magnetic resonance imaging and to describe its eventual radiological abnormalities in anterior cruciate ligament-injured subjects. A retrospective cohort study on a series of consecutive subjects undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery was performed. The MR images of 206 included knees were studied and the status of the anterolateral ligament status was judged to be either "non-visualized", "normal" or "abnormal". Of all the visualized anterolateral ligaments, 44 (21.3%) were considered uninjured, while 162 (78.8%) knees demonstrated radiological ALL abnormalities. The majority of ALL abnormalities were situated in the distal part of the ligament (77.8%). In conclusion, the anterolateral ligament can be identified on classic knee magnetic resonance images. Although anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects often demonstrated associated anterolateral ligament lesions, further research is needed in order to establish the clinical relevance of these highly frequent radiological abnormalities. PMID:24873084

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of myocardial deformation indices for detecting high risk coronary artery disease in patients without regional wall motion abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Alireza; Shojaeifard, Maryam; Rezaei, Yousef; Dehghan, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) by conventional echocardiographic measurements is principally based on the estimation of ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). This study aimed to determine whether strain echocardiography of left ventricle measured by velocity vector imaging (VVI) method could detect patients with a high-risk CAD. Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 119 consecutive patients who were assessed for eligibility were categorized into three groups: (1) without CAD as normal (n=59), (2) 1- or 2-vessel disease as low-risk (n=29), and (3) left main and/or 3-vessel disease as high-risk (n=31). The peaks of systolic strain and strain rate from 18 curves of apical views were averaged as global longitudinal strain and strain rate (GLS and GLSR), respectively; the 6 systolic peaks of strain and strain rate at base- and mid-ventricular of short axis views were averaged as mean radial strain rate (MRSR). Results: GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of left ventricle were significantly lower in the high-risk group (P=0.047, P=0.004 and P=0.030, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve showed that the optimal values of GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR for detecting the severe CAD were -17%, -1 s-1, and 1.45 s-1 with the sensitivities of 77%, 71%, and 71% and the specificities of 63%, 67%, and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: Decrements in the GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of the left ventricle can detect the high-risk CAD cases among patients without RWMA at rest. PMID:26309603

  6. VALUES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARR, SARA G.; THOMPSON, ORVILLE E.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE PERSONAL VALUES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR TEACHERS. EVIDENCE OF CHANGES IN PERSONAL VALUES AND VALUE PATTERNS WERE SOUGHT IN AN ATTEMPT TO REVEAL IMPACTS FROM TEACHERS, CERTAIN SOCIOECONOMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS, AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES. STUDENTS WERE TESTED AS FRESHMEN,…

  7. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  8. High Goblet Cell Count Is Inversely Associated with Ploidy Abnormalities and Risk of Adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carissa A.; Liu, Karen; Fong, Pui Yee; Li, Xiaohong; Cowan, David S.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Reid, Brian J.; Blount, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Goblet cells may represent a potentially successful adaptive response to acid and bile by producing a thick mucous barrier that protects against cancer development in Barrett's esophagus (BE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between goblet cells (GC) and risk of progression to adenocarcinoma, and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, in BE patients. Experimental Design Baseline mucosal biopsies (N=2988) from 213 patients, 32 of whom developed cancer during the follow up period, enrolled in a prospective dynamic cohort of BE patients were scored in a blinded fashion, for the total number (#) of GC, mean # of GC/crypt (GC density), # of crypts with ≥ 1 GC, and the proportion of crypts with ≥1 GC, in both dysplastic and non-dysplastic epithelium separately. The relationship between these four GC parameters and DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities and adenocarcinoma outcome was compared, after adjustment for age, gender, and BE segment length. Results High GC parameters were inversely associated with DNA content flow cytometric abnormalities, such as aneuploidy, ploidy >2.7N, and an elevated 4N fraction > 6%, and with risk of adenocarcinoma. However, a Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total # of GC and the total # crypts with ≥1 GC were the only significant GC parameters (p<0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study show, for the first time, an inverse relationship between high GC counts and flow cytometric abnormalities and risk of adenocarcinoma in BE. Further studies are needed to determine if GC depleted foci within esophageal columnar mucosa are more prone to neoplastic progression or whether loss of GC occurs secondary to underlying genetic abnormalities. PMID:26230607

  9. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. High consumption of pulses is associated with lower risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in women in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, M.; Söderberg, S.; Uusitalo, U.; Tuomilehto, J.; Shaw, J. E.; Zimmet, P. Z.; Kowlessur, S.; Pauvaday, V.; Magliano, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate if consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism, increases in body weight and increases in waist circumference in a multi-ethnic cohort in Mauritius. Methods Population-based surveys were performed in Mauritius in 1992 and in 1998. Pulse consumption was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire in 1992 and outcomes were measured in 1998. At both time points, anthropometry was undertaken and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results Mauritian women with the highest consumption of pulses (highest tertile) had a reduced risk of developing abnormal glucose metabolism [odds ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.99) compared with those with the lowest consumption, and also after multivariable adjustments. In women, a high consumption of pulses was associated with a smaller increase in BMI. Conclusions High consumption of pulses was associated with a reduced risk of abnormal glucose metabolism and a smaller increase in BMI in Mauritian women. Promotion of pulse consumption could be an important dietary intervention for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mauritius and should be examined in other populations and in clinical trials. PMID:25346062

  11. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages. PMID:10174449

  12. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  13. Abnormally Low or High Ankle-Brachial Index Is Associated with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Lee, Yu-Li; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chang, Jer-Ming; Shin, Shyi–Jang

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have reported that low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients, it remains controversial as to which stage of DR. The aim of this study is to assess whether peripheral artery disease (PAD), indicated by abnormally low or high ABI, is associated with different stages of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and further evaluate the risk factors. A total of 2001 (858 men and 1143 women) patients with type 2 DM who underwent ABI measurement in an outpatient clinic were enrolled. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 in either leg. DR was classified as non-DR, nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR stages. The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of ABI < 0.9 or ≧ 1.3 was 3.0%. Multivariate forward logistic regression analysis identified proliferative DR (vs. non-DR) was associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio, 1.718; 95% confidence interval, 1.152 to 2.562; p = 0.008), but nonproliferative DR was not. Furthermore, the presence of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, declining renal function and patients without diuretics use were associated with abnormal ABI in patients with proliferative DR. Our study in patients of type 2 DM demonstrated that PAD was associated with proliferative DR. We emphasize the recommendation of performing the ABI test in this population at risk. PMID:26230390

  14. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  15. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  16. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  17. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  18. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  19. Diagnostic testing: a key component of high-value care.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Lucien J

    2016-01-01

    This is the fourth article of a series on fundamental concepts in biostatistics and research. In this article, the author reviews the fundamental concepts in diagnostic testing, sensitivity, and specificity and how they relate to the concept of high-value care. The topics are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and mathematics, and with clinical examples. Emphasis is given to conceptual understanding. A companion article will follow focusing on predictive value and prior probability. PMID:27406456

  20. Diagnostic testing: a key component of high-value care

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Lucien J.

    2016-01-01

    This is the fourth article of a series on fundamental concepts in biostatistics and research. In this article, the author reviews the fundamental concepts in diagnostic testing, sensitivity, and specificity and how they relate to the concept of high-value care. The topics are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and mathematics, and with clinical examples. Emphasis is given to conceptual understanding. A companion article will follow focusing on predictive value and prior probability. PMID:27406456

  1. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  2. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  3. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  4. On Doing a Values Study of a High Court Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    The application of cultural jurisprudence as a mode of inquiry into high court decisions is the subject of this paper, which includes a discussion of how to do a values study. The discussion centers on a Supreme Court case--Ingraham v. Wright--a 1977 decision that upheld the use of corporal punishment in public schools. The author discusses his…

  5. Canadian employees place high value on health care benefits.

    PubMed

    Fine, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Canadian employees place such a high value on their employer-sponsored health care benefits, that most would not trade the benefits for extra vacation time or even significant amounts of cash, according to the 2004 Aventis Healthcare Survey. PMID:15702564

  6. Mapping of Genetic Abnormalities of Primary Tumours from Metastatic CRC by High-Resolution SNP Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Sayagués, José María; Fontanillo, Celia; Abad, María del Mar; González-González, María; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; del Carmen Chillon, Maria; Garcia, Eva; Bengoechea, Oscar; Fonseca, Emilio; Gonzalez-Diaz, Marcos; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Background For years, the genetics of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have been studied using a variety of techniques. However, most of the approaches employed so far have a relatively limited resolution which hampers detailed characterization of the common recurrent chromosomal breakpoints as well as the identification of small regions carrying genetic changes and the genes involved in them. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we applied 500K SNP arrays to map the most common chromosomal lesions present at diagnosis in a series of 23 primary tumours from sporadic CRC patients who had developed liver metastasis. Overall our results confirm that the genetic profile of metastatic CRC is defined by imbalanced gains of chromosomes 7, 8q, 11q, 13q, 20q and X together with losses of the 1p, 8p, 17p and 18q chromosome regions. In addition, SNP-array studies allowed the identification of small (<1.3 Mb) and extensive/large (>1.5 Mb) altered DNA sequences, many of which contain cancer genes known to be involved in CRC and the metastatic process. Detailed characterization of the breakpoint regions for the altered chromosomes showed four recurrent breakpoints at chromosomes 1p12, 8p12, 17p11.2 and 20p12.1; interestingly, the most frequently observed recurrent chromosomal breakpoint was localized at 17p11.2 and systematically targeted the FAM27L gene, whose role in CRC deserves further investigations. Conclusions/Significance In summary, in the present study we provide a detailed map of the genetic abnormalities of primary tumours from metastatic CRC patients, which confirm and extend on previous observations as regards the identification of genes potentially involved in development of CRC and the metastatic process. PMID:21060790

  7. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  8. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  9. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  10. [Value of endoluminal high-resolution ultrasound in urology].

    PubMed

    Klotz, T; Homann, H; Mathers, M J; Vorreuther, R; Engelmann, U

    1994-08-01

    The clinical use of endoluminal high resolution ultrasound in urology was investigated in 14 patients using miniature transducer-containing catheters (20 MHz 8 F and 10 MHz 10 F). For imaging the ureter, an 8 F flexible ultrasound probe was used. Using this technique, exact 360 degrees cross sections of the ureter and periureteral tissue were obtained. Differentiation between normal and abnormal structures including embedded stones and aberrant vessels is possible and impacts on surgical approach. Wall thickness of the ureterovesical junction was observed in patients with vesicoureteral reflux compared to the other patients. Therefore, a reliable measurement and differentiation of anatomical structures in the urinary tract was possible. The 20 MHz device revealed a better discrimination of anatomical and pathological structures than the widely used systems with lower frequencies e.g. 10 MHz. However, for the exact staging of superficial urothelial carcinomas, the method failed. Ultrasound devices with higher frequencies, e.g. 30 MHz and more, will most likely allow a more exact staging of these tumours. PMID:7973590

  11. Maternal high-fat hypercaloric diet during pregnancy results in persistent metabolic and respiratory abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Pamela S.; Walton, Cheryl; Samsell, Lennie; Perez, Miriam K.; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have shown in a previous population-based study significant correlation between childhood asthma and early abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism. This study's specific aim was to determine whether maternal nutrition in pregnancy affects postnatal metabolic and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. Methods: On gestation day 1, dams were switched from standard chow to either high-fat hypercaloric diet or control diet. Terminal experiments were performed on newborn and weanling offspring of dams fed the study diet during gestation and lactation, and on adult offspring maintained on the same diet as their mother. Results: Pups born from high-fat hypercaloric diet (HFD) dams developed metabolic abnormalities persistent throughout development. Cytokine expression analysis of lung tissues from newborns born to HFD dams revealed a strong proinflammatory pattern. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors was upregulated in lungs of weanlings born to HFD dams, and this was associated to higher respiratory system resistance and lower compliance at baseline, as well as hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Furthermore, HFD dams delivered pups prone to develop more severe disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Conclusion: Maternal nutrition in pregnancy is a critical determinant of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in offspring and also increases risk for bronchiolitis independent from prepregnancy nutrition. PMID:26539661

  12. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26800576

  13. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p < 0.001). EUROarray was concordant with other assays evaluated for detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively. PMID:27048314

  14. Anomalously high δD values in the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Deloule, Etienne; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Chen, Dao-Gong; Cheng, Hao

    2002-11-01

    Hydrogen isotopic compositions of four amphibole grains from three lherzolite xenoliths hosted in Cenozoic basanites of Nushan, eastern China have been analyzed by ion microprobe. δD values of all analyzed points range from -94 to +46‰. Large heterogeneities of D/H ratios within single grains have been observed with variations of δD up to 80‰ on the scale of less than 400 μm. Neither correlation between δD values and water contents of the analyzed points nor regular variation between δD values and positions of analyzed points within the same grain can be found, implying that the scatter of δD values could not result from a late shallow process such as hydrogen loss or hydrothermal alterations and should be considered as inherited from the source at depth. Chemical compositions of Nushan amphiboles are very homogeneous, excluding the possibility that the scatter of δD values could arise from variable fractionation factors between a single fluid source and minerals. Therefore, metasomatic fluids responsible for the formation of Nushan amphiboles should have variable and unusually high hydrogen isotopic compositions. We suggest that this variation in the metasomatic fluids could be related to melt degassing in the mantle source.

  15. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  16. Quantification of the DNA content of structurally abnormal X chromosomes and X chromosome aneuploidy using high resolution bivariate flow karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Trask, B; van den Engh, G; Nussbaum, R; Schwartz, C; Gray, J

    1990-01-01

    Quantification of the Hoechst and chromomycin A3 fluorescence intensities of mitotic human chromosomes isolated from karyotypically normal and abnormal cells was performed with a dual beam flow cytometer. The resultant flow karyotypes contain information about the relative DNA content and base composition of chromosomes and their relative frequencies in the mitotic cell sample. The relative copy number of X and Y chromosomes was determined for 38 normal males and females and 6 cell lines with X or Y chromosome aneuploidy. Flow karyotype diagnoses corresponded with conventional cytogenetic results in all cases. We show that chromosome DNA content can be derived from peak position in Hoechst vs. chromomycin flow karyotypes. These values are linearly related to propidium iodide staining intensity as measured with flow cytometry and to the binding of gallocyanin chrome alum to phosphate groups as measured with slide-based scanning photometry. Cell lines with deleted or dicentric X chromosomes ranging in length from 0.53 to 1.95 times normal were analyzed by using flow cytometry. The measured difference in DNA content between a normal X and each of the structurally abnormal chromosomes was linearly correlated to the difference predicted from cytogenetics and/or probe analyses. Deletions of 3-5 Mb, which were at and below the detection limits of conventional cytogenetics, could be quantified by flow karyotyping in individuals with X-linked diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, choroideremia, and ocular albinism/ichthyosis. The results show that the use of flow karyotyping to quantify the size of restricted regions of the genome can complement conventional cytogenetics and other physical mapping techniques in the study of genetic disorders. PMID:2106419

  17. High ozone values near ground caused by silent discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duetsch, H. U.; Graber, W.; Wyss, A.

    Continuous ozone monitoring near the top of a 120 m high idle smoke stack had shown a very frequent occurrence of mixing ratios suggesting air of stratospheric origin. In order to investigate whether these events could instead have been due to ozone production by silent discharge in the locally very strong electric field, an experiment was designed which measured point discharge current close to the intake and ozone at the same level using an electrically shielded intake. This second sensor did not show the high ozone values of the first and there was a high correlation between point discharge current above a certain threshold and unusual ozone peaks. Silent discharge was thus in almost all the cases responsible for the high ozone peaks at this site.

  18. Prognostic Value of Abnormal p53 Expression in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated With Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy: A Study Based on RTOG 9202

    SciTech Connect

    Che Mingxin DeSilvio, Michelle; Pollack, Alan; Grignon, David J.; Venkatesan, Varagur Mohan; Hanks, Gerald E.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to verify the significance of p53 as a prognostic factor in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9202, which compared short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) with radiation therapy (RT) to long-term androgen deprivation + RT in men with locally advanced prostate cancer (Pca). Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue was sufficient for p53 analysis in 777 cases. p53 status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Abnormal p53 expression was defined as 20% or more tumor cells with positive nuclei. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationships of p53 status to patient outcomes. Results: Abnormal p53 was detected in 168 of 777 (21.6%) cases, and was significantly associated with cause-specific mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 - 3.14; p = 0.014) and distant metastasis (adjusted HR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.13-2.62; p = 0.013). When patients were divided into subgroups according to assigned treatment, only the subgroup of patients who underwent STAD + RT showed significant correlation between p53 status and cause-specific mortality (adjusted HR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.32-4.49; p = 0.0044). When patients were divided into subgroups according to p53 status, only the subgroup of patients with abnormal p53 showed significant association between assigned treatment and cause-specific mortality (adjusted HR = 3.81; 95% CI 1.40-10.37; p = 0.0087). Conclusions: Abnormal p53 is a significant prognostic factor for patients with prostate cancer who undergo short-term androgen deprivation and radiotherapy. Long-term androgen deprivation may significantly improve the cause-specific survival for those with abnormal p53.

  19. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  20. Taking High Conservation Value from Forests to Freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Robin; Morgan, Siân K.; Morgan, Alexis J.

    2015-07-01

    The high conservation value (HCV) concept, originally developed by the Forest Stewardship Council, has been widely incorporated outside the forestry sector into companies' supply chain assessments and responsible purchasing policies, financial institutions' investment policies, and numerous voluntary commodity standards. Many, if not most, of these newer applications relate to production practices that are likely to affect freshwater systems directly or indirectly, yet there is little guidance as to whether or how HCV can be applied to water bodies. We focus this paper on commodity standards and begin by exploring how prominent standards currently address both HCVs and freshwaters. We then highlight freshwater features of high conservation importance and examine how well those features are captured by the existing HCV framework. We propose a new set of freshwater `elements' for each of the six values and suggest an approach for identifying HCV Areas that takes out-of-fence line impacts into account, thereby spatially extending the scope of existing methods to define HCVs. We argue that virtually any non-marine HCV assessment, regardless of the production sector, should be expanded to include freshwater values, and we suggest how to put those recommendations into practice.

  1. High Fat Diet Produces Brain Insulin Resistance, Synaptodendritic Abnormalities and Altered Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R.; Carlson, Gregory C.; Browne, Carolyn A.; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F.; Kim, Sangwon F.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17 days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8 weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS616), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304

  2. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  3. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles.

    PubMed

    Hunt, W A; Joseph, J A; Rabin, B M

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied. PMID:11537313

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Walter A.; Joseph, James A.; Rabin, Bernard M.

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  5. Current source imaging for high spatial resolution magnetocardiography in normal and abnormal rat cardiac muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Iramina, K.; Goto, K.; Ueno, S.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the current source produced by acute ischemia and infarction. We measured magnetocardiograms (MCG) and electrocardiograms (ECG) of five male rats using a high-resolution dc superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer in a magnetically shielded room after performing coronary artery occlusion. The spatial resolution of the detecting magnetic field of our system is higher than the typical system, thus permitting the measurement of magnetic fields in small animals. Distribution of the magnetic fields B(t) and distribution of |rot B(t)|, which corresponded to the distribution of the current source, were imaged by 12-channel MCGs. As a result, the distribution of current source changes in the affected area of the myocardium during the ST segment, and amplitude of the peak significantly increased after occlusion. Our system can be used to help clarify the mechanism of the ST shift related to severe heart disease.

  6. Behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities after exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high-energy iron particles (600 MeV/amu) has been found to alter behavior after doses as low as 10 rads. The performance of a task that measures upper body strength was significantly degraded after irradiation. In addition, an impairment in the regulation of dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (a motor center in the brain), lasting at least 6 months, was also found and correlated with the performance deficits. A general indication of behavioral toxicity and an index of nausea and emesis, the conditioned taste aversion, was also evident. The sensitivity to iron particles was 10-600 times greater than to gamma photons. These results suggest that behavioral and neurobiological damage may be a consequence of exposure to low doses of heavy particles and that this possibility should be extensively studied.

  7. High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zara, Janette N.; Siu, Ronald K.; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M.; Ting, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The major Food and Drug Association–approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  8. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL. PMID:21247344

  9. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract improves high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Mina; Kwon, Oran; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis is a bamboo leaf that is only grown on Jeju Island in South Korea. It is used as a bamboo tea that is consumed for therapeutic purposes, particularly for its anti-diabetic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of S. quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on high fat-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in rats. SQE supplementation significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as the atherogenic index. SQE restored levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were lowered by a high fat diet. Plasma and cardiac resistin levels were also significantly decreased by SQE supplementation. In adipose tissue, mRNA levels of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were suppressed in the SQE group. SQE supplementation decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, inflammatory cell infiltrations, levels of triglycerides, and total lipids in the liver and effectively down-regulated expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2). These results suggest that SQE may be a potential treatment for high fat-related disorders by improving lipid profiles and modulating lipid metabolism. PMID:24738745

  10. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site. PMID:16403014

  11. Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by a High-Fat Diet Is Associated with Mitochondrial Abnormality and Adenosine Triphosphate Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki-Woon; Kim, Ok-Soon; Chin, Jung Yeon; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yu Jeong; Shin, Jong Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae; Lim, Do-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is well-known as a risk factor for heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction. However, this mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiac dysfunction develops when rats are fed with a HFD for 10 weeks; additionally, we sought to investigate the association between mitochondrial abnormalities, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and cardiac dysfunction. Methods We examined myocardia in Wistar rats after 10 weeks of HFD (45 kcal% fat, n=6) or standard diet (SD, n=6). Echocardiography, histomorphologic analysis, and electron microscopy were performed. The expression levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit genes, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC1α) and anti-oxidant enzymes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial DNA copy number and myocardial ATP level were also examined. Results After 10 weeks, the body weight of the HFD group (349.6±22.7 g) was significantly higher than that of the SD group (286.8±14.9 g), and the perigonadal and epicardial fat weights of the HFD group were significantly higher than that of the SD group. Histomorphologic and electron microscopic images were similar between the two groups. However, in the myocardium of the HFD group, the expression levels of OXPHOS subunit NDUFB5 in complex I and PGC1α, and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were decreased and the oxidative stress damage marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased, accompanied by reduced ATP levels. Conclusion Diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by the mitochondrial abnormality and reduced ATP levels in the myocardium of 10 weeks-HFD-induced rats. PMID:26790384

  12. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Studies on Abnormally High Ammonium of Natural Origin in A Coastal Aquifer-aquitard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiao, J. J.; Cherry, J.

    2010-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen concentration in water bodies is regarded as an environmental contamination because of its possible harm to human bodies and significant ecological effects. Previous studies commonly concerned on elevated nitrogen in water of anthropogenic origins, such as agricultural, domestic, sewage and industrial discharges, because people realize that it is necessary to manage negative influences of human being to the natural environment. Understanding contamination sources of nitrogen is crucial for both waste discharge management and pollutants cleanup. This study was aimed to 1) understand the spatial distribution of abnormally high ammonium groundwater in the Quaternary basalt aquifer in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China; 2) to distinguish sources of recharge to the basalt aquifer; and 3) to identify the origin of the ammonium in the aquitard and aquifer system. Total 40 boreholes were drilled, and approximately 1000 deposit samples from the aquitard and over 200 groundwater samples from the Quaternary basalt aquifer were collected. A cluster of 7 piezometers was installed in Minzhong Town to study the hydraulic relationships between the aquitard and the basalt aquifer. The results demonstrated that the greater groundwater ammonium concentrations were preserved in the aquifer buried deeper. The ammonium concentration up to 390 mg/L was observed in the basalt sand and gravel Pleistocene aquifer of 20-50m deep, and this is the greatest concentration ever reported for natural groundwater globally. The Quaternary aquitard, which contained abundant sedimentary organic matter and was mainly composed of silt and clay, provided a strict anaerobic environment for sedimentary organic matter mineralization and ammonium preservation. Ammonium concentrations in the aquifer were predominantly controlled by the aquitard ammonium content. This naturally occurring abnormally high ammonium in the Quaternary sediments is areally extensive (over 1600 km2). Great

  13. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  14. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  15. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. PMID:26153056

  16. Wheat straw biomass: a resource for high-value chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Morris; Monreal, Carlos M; Powell, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for increasing the commercial value of wheat straw based on its chemical constituents. The first method involves the determination and extraction of the major organic components of wheat straw, and the second involves those found and extracted in the aqueous and viscous biooils derived from the straw by fast pyrolysis. We used pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry to identify the fine chemicals, which have high commercial values. The most abundant organic compounds in the wheat straw and biooil used as precursors for green chemicals are N-heterocycles (16 to 29% of the Total Ion Intensities, TII) and fatty acids (19 to 26% of TIIs), followed by phenols and lignins (12 to 23% of TIIs). Other important precursors were carbohydrates and amino acids (1 to 8% TIIs), n-alkyl benzenes (3 to 5% of TIIs), and diols (4 to 9% TIIs). Steroids and flavonoids represented 1 to 5% of TIIs in the three materials. Examples of valuable chemical compounds that can be extracted from the wheat straw and biooils are m/z 256, 270, 278, 280, 282 and 284, which are the n-C16 and n-C17 fatty acids respectively, and the C18:3, C18:2 and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the C18:2 (linoleic acid) is present at a concentration of 1.7% of TIIs. Pyrazole, pyrazine, pyridine, indoles, quinolines, carbazoles, and their identified derivatives are found in relatively high concentrations (1 to 8% of TIIs). Other useful compounds are sterols such as m/z 412 (stigmasterol), m/z 414 (β-sitosterol), and steroids such m/z 394 (stigmastatriene), m/z 398 (stigmastene) and m/z 410 (stigmastadienone). Relative to the wheat straw, the relative concentration of all flavonoids such as m/z 222 (flavone) and m/z 224 (flavonone) doubled in the biooils. The conversion of wheat straw by fast pyrolysis, followed by chemical characterization with mass spectrometry, and extraction of fine chemicals, opens up new possibilities for increasing the monetary value of crop residues

  17. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Julia D.I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in ‘decoding’ mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state (‘mentalizing'versus ‘non-mentalizing’) in a 2 × 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  18. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sam J; Meuwese, Julia D I; Towgood, Karren J; Frith, Christopher D; Burgess, Paul W

    2009-04-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in 'decoding' mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state ('mentalizing'versus 'non-mentalizing') in a 2 x 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  19. Potential therapeutic value of antioxidants for abnormal prolongation of QT interval and the associated arrhythmias in a rabbit model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Sun, Xuelin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jingxiong; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Zhiguo

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal QT prolongation is the major cardiac electrical disorder and a predictor of mortality in diabetic patients. Our previous studies suggest that dysfunction of delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) is the main cause for the problem. Here we report the potential therapeutic role and mechanisms of vitamin E in the rabbit model of diabetes. The QT interval and action potential duration were considerably prolonged with frequent occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in diabetic rabbits. Administration of vitamin E corrected the abnormal QT prolongation and abolished the arrhythmic incidence. I(Kr) was found markedly reduced resulting in slowing of cardiac repolarization thereby QT prolongation in diabetic hearts. The diabetic depression of I(Kr) is primarily ascribed to oxidative damages to the cardiac membrane and proteins, as indicated by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species leading to severe lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Moreover, I(Kr) depression is most likely due to the dysfunction of HERG K(+) channel, the major subunit underlying native I(Kr), in response to oxidative stress, for peroxide anion-generating system produced similar depression of HERG channels. Vitamin E restored the depressed I(Kr) and HERG by its antioxidant actions which likely underlie its beneficial effects on diabetic QT prolongation and the associated arrhythmias. The data indicate that an antioxidant is sufficient for reversing the I(Kr)/I(HERG) dysfunction and the consequent electrical disorders in diabetic hearts. Our study also conceptually simplifies the complex nature of diabetic electrical disorders to primarily oxidative stress, and should stimulate interest in antioxidants as a therapeutic strategy for diabetic QT prolongation. PMID:21865852

  20. Reduction of low- and high-grade cervical abnormalities associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, K G J; Kavanagh, K; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Cruickshank, M; Palmer, T J; Nicoll, S; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Scotland, a national HPV immunisation programme began in 2008 for 12- to 13-year olds, with a catch-up campaign from 2008 to 2011 for those under the age of 18. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation on cervical disease at the population level, a programme of national surveillance was established. Methods: We analysed colposcopy data from a cohort of women born between 1988 and 1992 who entered the Scottish Cervical Screening Programme (SCSP) and were aged 20–21 in 2008–2012. Results: By linking datasets from the SCSP and colposcopy services, we observed a significant reduction in diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1; RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87; P=0.0008), CIN 2 (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.63; P<0.0001) and CIN 3 (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.58; P<0.0001) for women who received three doses of vaccine compared with unvaccinated women. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to show a reduction of low- and high-grade CIN associated with high uptake of the HPV bivalent vaccine at the population level. These data are very encouraging for countries that have achieved high HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:25180766

  1. Creating a high-value delivery system for health care.

    PubMed

    Teisberg, Elizabeth O; Wallace, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Health care reform that focuses on improving value enhances both the well-being of patients and the professional satisfaction of physicians. Value in health care is the improvement in health outcomes achieved for patients relative to the money spent. Dramatic and ongoing improvement in the value of health care delivered will require fundamental restructuring of the system. Current efforts to improve safety and reduce waste are truly important but not sufficient. The following three structural changes will drive simultaneous improvement in outcomes and efficiency: (1) reorganizing care delivery into clinically integrated teams defined by patient needs over the full cycle of care; (2) measuring and reporting patient outcomes by clinical teams, across the cycle of care and for identified clusters of medical circumstances; and (3) enabling reimbursement tied to value rather than to quantity of services. Many of these changes require physician leadership. We discuss steps on the journey to value-based care delivery. PMID:19632561

  2. Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p < 0.05) effects. The [T] elicited a 2-way interaction (p < 0.05), as men incurred a significant 14% increase over time, but women's values were unchanged. Yet multivariate regression revealed that 3 predictor variables (body mass and average and maximum torques) did not account for a significant amount of variance associated with the rise in male [T]. Changes in [C] were not significant. In conclusion, changes in [T] concur with the results from other studies that showed significant elevations in male [T], despite the brevity of current workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point. PMID:22310520

  3. Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, P.E.; Shuaib, F.M.; Jiang, Y.; Preko, P.; Baidoo, J.; Stiles, J.K.; Wang, J.-S.; Phillips, T.D.; Williams, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between certain clinical factors and aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct (AF-ALB) levels in HIV-positive people. Plasma samples collected from 314 (155 HIV-positive and 159 HIV-negative) people were tested for AF-ALB levels, viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, liver function profile, malaria parasitaemia, and hepatitis B and C virus infections. HIV-positive participants were divided into high and low groups based on their median AF-ALB of 0.93 pmol mg−1 albumin and multivariable logistic and linear regression methods used to assess relationships between clinical conditions and AF-ALB levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed statistically significant increased odds of having higher HIV viral loads (OR=2.84; 95% CI=1.17–7.78) and higher direct bilirubin levels (OR=5.47; 95% CI=1.03–22.85) among HIV-positive participants in the high AF-ALB group. There were also higher levels of total bilirubin and lower levels of albumin in association with high AF-ALB. Thus, aflatoxin exposure may contribute to high viral loads and abnormal liver function in HIV-positive people and so promote disease progression. PMID:21749228

  4. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  5. High and abnormal forms of aggression in rats with extremes in trait anxiety--involvement of the dopamine system in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Reber, Stefan O; Havasi, Andrea; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2012-12-01

    A better neurobiological understanding of high and abnormal aggression based on adequate animal models is essential for novel therapy and prevention. Selective breeding of rats for extremes in anxiety-related behavior resulted in two behavioral phenotypes with high and abnormal forms of aggression. Rats bred for low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) consistently show highest levels of aggression and little social investigation in the resident-intruder (RI) test, compared with non-selected low-aggressive (NAB) rats. High anxiety-related (HAB) rats also show higher levels of aggression than NAB rats, but to a lesser extent than LAB rats. Accordingly, extremes in inborn anxiety in both directions are linked to an increased aggression level. Further, both LAB and HAB, but not NAB males, display abnormal aggression (attacks towards vulnerable body parts, females or narcotized males), which is particularly prominent in LABs. Also, only in LAB rats, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was found to be strongly activated in response to the RI test as reflected by increased c-fos and zif268 mRNA expression, and higher local dopamine release compared with NAB males, without differences in local dopamine receptor binding. Consequently, local pharmacological manipulation by infusion of an anesthetic (lidocaine, 20 μg/μl) or a dopamine D2 (haloperidol, 10 ng/μl), but not D1 (SCH-23390 10 ng/μl), receptor antagonist significantly reduced high aggression in LAB rats. Thus, LAB rats are an adequate model to study high and abnormal aggression. In LAB males, this is likely to be linked to hyper-activation of the reward system, as found in psychopathic patients. Specifically, activation of the accumbal dopamine system is likely to underlie the high aggression observed in LAB rats. PMID:22608548

  6. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. PMID:24106132

  7. Is abnormal non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol a gender-specific predictor for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia taking second-generation antipsychotics?

    PubMed

    Lin, Esther Ching-Lan; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Yang, Hsin-Ju; Yen, Miaofen; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wu, Pei-Chun; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-01

    Evidence supports an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and schizophrenia. However, specific risk factors for MetS and gender differences in patients with schizophrenia taking second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have not been well explored. A cross-sectional cohort of 329 Han Chinese patients was recruited in a psychiatric hospital in central Taiwan. Using the definitions of the International Diabetes Federation for Chinese, the prevalence of MetS was 23.7% (men: 25.7%; women: 21.2%). Logistic regression analyses showed that patients with a BMI ≥ 24 and an abnormal non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to develop MetS. A BMI ≥ 24 was a significant risk factor in men (OR: 6.092, p < 0.001) and women (OR: 5.886, p < 0.001). An abnormal non-HDL-C was a significant specific risk factor for men with MetS (OR: 4.127, p < 0.001), but not for women. This study supports a greater prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia taking SGAs than in the general population. Abnormal BMI and non-HDL-C were significantly associated with developing MetS, and an abnormal non-HDL-C was a specific risk factor for men. Future development of specific interventions and regular monitoring for MetS is imperative for early identification and prevention. PMID:25034455

  8. Patients with MCI and N400 or P600 abnormalities are at very high risk for conversion to dementia

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, J.M.; Taylor, J.R.; Gatherwright, J.; Salmon, D.P.; Bressler, A.J.; Kutas, M.; Iragui-Madoz, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought cognitive event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers of disease progression and subsequent conversion to dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Background Two ERP components, the P600 and N400, are sensitive to abnormal episodic/declarative memory and semantic processing. When congruous category-exemplars are repeated, smaller P600s (relative to initial presentation) are normally elicited. Repetitions of semantically incongruous words yield smaller N400 amplitude. In mild Alzheimer disease (AD), abnormalities of both the N400 and P600 repetition effects are present, suggesting a wide-spread failure of synaptic plasticity. Methods Patients with amnestic MCI (n = 32) were longitudinally studied annually with an ERP paradigm in which semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous target words are repeated 10 to 140 seconds after initial presentation. ERP data were analyzed to contrast MCI-to-AD converters (within 3 years) vs nonconverters, using split-plot analyses of variance. Results A statistically significant P600 congruous word repetition effect was found only in the nonconverter group (F = 9.9, p = 0.005 vs MCI converters). This effect correlated with verbal memory measures. Repetition of incongruous words produced a significant N400 amplitude attenuation (across right-hemisphere sites) in nonconverters, but not in converters. Patients with MCI with abnormal/reduced N400 or P600 word repetition effects had an 87 to 88% likelihood of dementia within 3 years while those with normal/spared N400 and P600 repetition effects had only an 11 to 27% likelihood. Conclusions Abnormalities of the P600 or N400 in mild cognitive impairment are associated with an increased risk of subsequent conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD). These event-related potential components may offer useful biomarkers for the detection and staging of very early AD. PMID:18077800

  9. High-value renewable energy from prairie grasses.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, S B; de la Torre Ugarte, D G; Garten, C T; Lynd, L R; Sanderson, M A; Tolbert, V R; Wolf, D D

    2002-05-15

    Projected economic benefits of renewable energy derived from a native prairie grass, switchgrass, include nonmarket values that can reduce net fuel costs to near zero. At a farm gate price of $44.00/dry Mg, an agricultural sector model predicts higher profits for switchgrass than conventional crops on 16.9 million hectares (ha). Benefits would include an annual increase of $6 billion in net farm returns, a $1.86 billion reduction in government subsidies, and displacement of 44-159 Tg/year (1 Tg = 1012 g) of greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporating these values into the pricing structure for switchgrass bioenergy could accelerate commercialization and provide net benefits to the U.S. economy. PMID:12038820

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  11. Technology for the detection of airborne intruders approaching the high-security high-value asset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1995-05-01

    Security plans to protect high-value assets usually concentrate on stopping potential ground intruders before they reach the asset. Barriers, such as fences, are the first line of defense against the found intruder, providing a delay mechanism. The sight of 10 to 12 foot high fencing topped with razor wire, guard towers, and roving patrols also serves as a psychological deterrent to the potential ground intrusion sensors between an outer and an inner barrier. This visible 'hardness' of a high-value asset makes airborne penetration more attractive, even though the airborne intruder may require training in the use of an aircraft or other airborne conveyance system. Certain airborne intrusion scenarios allow an adversary to penetrate much deeper and faster through delay and defense systems designed to deter the ground intruder. Since an airborne intruder can quickly reach the high-value asset, early detection critical to asset defense. Early detection of the airborne intruder also ensures appropriate use of the deadly force doctrine because the guard force has time to coordinate the response.

  12. Long-Term (>10 Years) Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in a High-Risk Cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Sijde, Johannes N; Boiten, Henk J; van Domburg, Ron T; Schinkel, Arend F L

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) at >10-year follow-up is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the very long-term prognostic value of DSE in a high-risk cohort of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. This prospective, single-center study included 3,381 patients who underwent DSE from January 1990 to January 2003. Two-dimensional echocardiographic images were acquired at rest, during dobutamine stress, and during recovery. Follow-up events were collected and included overall mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization. The incremental value of DSE in the prediction of selected end points was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. During a mean follow-up of 13 ± 3.2 years (range 7.3 to 20.5 years), there were 1,725 deaths (51%), of which 1,128 (33%) were attributed to cardiac causes. Patients with an abnormal DSE had a higher mortality rate (44% vs 35% at 15-year follow-up, p <0.001) than those with a normal DSE. When comparing echocardiographic variables at rest to variables at maximum dose dobutamine, the chi-square of the test improved from 842 to 870 (p <0.0001) and from 684 to 740 (p <0.0001) for all-cause mortality and cardiac death, respectively. DSE provided incremental value in predicting all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and hard cardiac events. There seems, however, to be a "warranty period" of approximately 7 years, when the survival curves of a normal and abnormal DSE no longer diverge. PMID:26839054

  13. Value, but high costs in post-deposition data curation.

    PubMed

    ten Hoopen, Petra; Amid, Clara; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Pafilis, Evangelos; Bravakos, Panos; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M; Gibson, Richard; Kahlke, Tim; Legaki, Aglaia; Narayana Murthy, Kada; Papastefanou, Gabriella; Pereira, Emiliano; Rossello, Marc; Luisa Toribio, Ana; Cochrane, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Discoverability of sequence data in primary data archives is proportional to the richness of contextual information associated with the data. Here, we describe an exercise in the improvement of contextual information surrounding sample records associated with metagenomics sequence reads available in the European Nucleotide Archive. We outline the annotation process and summarize findings of this effort aimed at increasing usability of publicly available environmental data. Furthermore, we emphasize the benefits of such an exercise and detail its costs. We conclude that such a third party annotation approach is expensive and has value as an element of curation, but should form only part of a more sustainable submitter-driven approach. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena. PMID:26861660

  14. Value, but high costs in post-deposition data curation

    PubMed Central

    ten Hoopen, Petra; Amid, Clara; Luigi Buttigieg, Pier; Pafilis, Evangelos; Bravakos, Panos; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M.; Gibson, Richard; Kahlke, Tim; Legaki, Aglaia; Narayana Murthy, Kada; Papastefanou, Gabriella; Pereira, Emiliano; Rossello, Marc; Luisa Toribio, Ana; Cochrane, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Discoverability of sequence data in primary data archives is proportional to the richness of contextual information associated with the data. Here, we describe an exercise in the improvement of contextual information surrounding sample records associated with metagenomics sequence reads available in the European Nucleotide Archive. We outline the annotation process and summarize findings of this effort aimed at increasing usability of publicly available environmental data. Furthermore, we emphasize the benefits of such an exercise and detail its costs. We conclude that such a third party annotation approach is expensive and has value as an element of curation, but should form only part of a more sustainable submitter-driven approach. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena PMID:26861660

  15. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  16. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  17. 48 CFR 52.246-24 - Limitation of Liability-High-Value Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-High-Value Items. 52.246-24 Section 52.246-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.246-24 Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items. As prescribed in 46.805, insert the following clause: Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items (FEB 1997) (a) Except as provided...

  18. 48 CFR 52.246-24 - Limitation of Liability-High-Value Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-High-Value Items. 52.246-24 Section 52.246-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.246-24 Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items. As prescribed in 46.805, insert the following clause: Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items (FEB 1997) (a) Except as provided...

  19. 48 CFR 52.246-24 - Limitation of Liability-High-Value Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-High-Value Items. 52.246-24 Section 52.246-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.246-24 Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items. As prescribed in 46.805, insert the following clause: Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items (FEB 1997) (a) Except as provided...

  20. 48 CFR 52.246-24 - Limitation of Liability-High-Value Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-High-Value Items. 52.246-24 Section 52.246-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.246-24 Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items. As prescribed in 46.805, insert the following clause: Limitation of Liability—High-Value Items (FEB 1997) (a) Except as provided...

  1. Clinical Pathways: Driving High-Reliability and High-Value Care.

    PubMed

    Buchert, Andrew R; Butler, Gabriella A

    2016-04-01

    Health care in the United States is plagued by errors, inconsistencies, and inefficiencies. It is also extremely costly. Clinical pathways can drive high-value care and high reliability within a health care organization. Clinical pathways are much more than just guidelines or order sets as a part of a protocol of care, however; they must incorporate multiple elements that are critical to their successful implementation and sustainability. Additionally, clinical pathways can be utilized to accomplish strategic goals of the organization while fulfilling the quality, safety, and clinical aspects of the organization's mission. PMID:27017038

  2. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  3. Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Cervical Cytological Abnormalities or Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Incidence Area of Esophageal Carcinoma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Jinhui; Peng, Yanyan; Chen, Lechuan; Mai, Ruiqin; Zhang, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical cytology abnormalities, and ISCC, respectively. The three most common HPV types were HPV-52 (1.76%), HPV-16 (1.28%), and HPV-58 (0.97%) in women with normal cytology, whereas the most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (16.85%), followed by HPV-52 (9.55%) and HPV-58 (7.83%) in women with cervical cytology abnormalities. Specifically, HPV-16 had the highest frequency in ASC-H (24.16%, 36/149) and HSIL (35.71%, 110/308), while HPV-52 was the most common type in ASC-US (8.28%, 53/640) and LSIL (16.80%, 41/244). HPV-16 (75.78%), HPV18 (10.31%), and HPV58 (9.87%) were the most common types in women with ISCC. These data might contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and providing the guide for vaccine selection for women in Shantou. PMID:27610364

  4. Capturing the real value in high-tech acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, S; Tabrizi, B

    1999-01-01

    Eager to stay ahead of fast-changing markets, more and more high-tech companies are going outside for competitive advantage. Last year in the United States alone, there were 5,000 high-tech acquisitions, but many of them yielded disappointing results. The reason, the authors contend, is that most managers have a shortsighted view of strategic acquisitions--they focus on the specific products or market share. That focus might make sense in some industries, where those assets can confer substantial advantages, but in high tech, full-fledged technological capabilities--tied to skilled people--are the key to long-term success. Instead of simply following the "buzz," successful acquires systematically assess their own capability needs. They create product road maps to identify holes in their product line. While the business group determines if it can do the work in-house, the business development office scouts for opportunities to buy it. Once business development locates a candidate, it conducts an expanded due diligence, which goes beyond strategic, financial, and legal checks. Successful acquires are focused on long-term capabilities, so they make sure that the target's products reflect a real expertise. They also look to see if key people would be comfortable in the new environment and if they have incentives to stay on board. The final stage of a successful acquisition focuses on retaining the new people--making sure their transition goes smoothly and their energies stay focused. Acquisitions can cause great uncertainty, and skilled people can always go elsewhere. In short, the authors argue, high-tech acquisitions need a new orientation around people, not products. PMID:10621263

  5. Abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by Catharanthus roseus treatments.

    PubMed

    Rasineni, Karuna; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2013-09-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups C and C+CR) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (groups F and F+CR) were fed with high-fructose (66 %) diet. C. roseus leaf powder suspension in water (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CR and group F+CR. At the end of a 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. roseus treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F was significantly decreased with C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that C. roseus treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it. PMID:23334857

  6. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  7. Social value of high bandwidth networks: creative performance and education.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Robin; Foresta, Don

    2016-03-01

    This paper considers limitations of existing network technologies for distributed theatrical performance in the creative arts and for symmetrical real-time interaction in online learning environments. It examines the experience of a multidisciplinary research consortium that aimed to introduce a solution to latency and other network problems experienced by users in these sectors. The solution builds on the Multicast protocol, Access Grid, an environment supported by very high bandwidth networks. The solution is intended to offer high-quality image and sound, interaction with other network platforms, maximum user control of multipoint transmissions, and open programming tools that are flexible and modifiable for specific uses. A case study is presented drawing upon an extended period of participant observation by the authors. This provides a basis for an examination of the challenges of promoting technological innovation in a multidisciplinary project. We highlight the kinds of technical advances and cultural and organizational changes that would be required to meet demanding quality standards, the way a research consortium planned to engage in experimentation and learning, and factors making it difficult to achieve an open platform that is responsive to the needs of users in the creative arts and education sectors. PMID:26809576

  8. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  9. The high reutilization value potential of high-salinity anchovy fishmeal wastewater through microbial degradation.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Juan Gerardo Santoyo; Jung, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2015-10-01

    To provide an option for the reutilization of high-salinity anchovy fishmeal wastewater (FMW), generated during the anchovy fishmeal manufacturing processes, its potential for biodegradation was assessed in 1-l five-neck flasks using a halotolerant and proteolytic microbial consortium. During the first 41 h of biodegradation, the pH, DO, ORP, and dry-sludge weight decreased as the total cell number of the microbial consortium increased steadily; the COD(Cr)/TN ratios remained between 4.0 and 5.5, respectively, indicating the stable metabolic degradation of organic matter. The ORP tended to increase after 41 h, and the unpleasant fishy smell disappeared once positive ORP values were achieved. The removal percentages of COD(Cr) and TN were 59.0 and 54.4%, respectively, and the dry-sludge weight decreased from 115.5 to 68.0 g, with a degradation rate of 0.59 g h(-1), during the 80 h experiment. The supernatant from the culture of the anchovy FMW at 70 h (culture supernatant) was phytotoxin-free, and the level of total amino acids was 8.04 g 100 g(-1), comparable to that of commercial fertilizers. In hydroponic cultures containing red bean and barley, the culture supernatant demonstrated a good fertilizing ability. The culture supernatant also exhibited a high degree of antioxidant activity, with a 52.3% hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and 0.16 reducing power (at OD 700 nm). Moreover, the culture supernatant inhibited DNA damage from hydroxyl radicals, enhancing the reutilization value of anchovy FMW. This report presents the first description of high-salinity anchovy FMW possessing a high reutilization value potential both for agriculture and medicine. PMID:26201424

  10. Palpable pediatric thyroid abnormalities – diagnostic pitfalls necessitate a high index of clinical suspicion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Klopper, Joshua P; McDermott, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with a 4 year history of an enlarged, firm thyroid gland. On exam, her thyroid was firm and fixed and an enlarged cervical lymph node was palpable as well. Though a thyroid ultrasound prior to referral was read as thyroiditis, clinical suspicion for thyroid carcinoma mandated continued investigation. The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer was established and her workup revealed lymph node metastases as well as a tremendous burden of pulmonary metastases. Pediatric thyroid cancer is extremely rare, but often presents with aggressive disease. Palpable thyroid abnormalities in an individual under 20-years-old should be viewed with suspicion and should be thoroughly investigated to rule out malignancy even in the face of negative diagnostic procedures. Though pediatric papillary thyroid cancer often presents with loco-regional and even distant metastatic disease, mortality rates in follow-up for as long as 20 years are very favorable. PMID:17587454

  11. [An acute severe heat stroke patient showing abnormal diffuse high intensity of the cerebellar cortex in diffusion weighted image: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yusuke; Yasui, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Akira; Sobue, Gen

    2009-10-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of general convulsion, loss of consciousness and hyperthermia. A diagnosis of acute heat stroke was made clinically and neuroradiologically. As the consciousness level ameliorated, he developed severe abulia and mutism, then cerebellar ataxic syndrome (viz. truncal ataxia, hypermetria, ataxic speech and nystagmus). An MRI (diffusion weighted image; DWI) disclosed abnormal diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Two months later after the onset, truncal ataxia and dysarthria significantly improved, while dysmetria of the extremities rather worsened. At that time, the abnormal signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex disappeared, and the cerebellum became atrophic. The cerebellar blood flow was significantly decreased on brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD). The abnormal DWI signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex in the present patient may represent the cytotoxic edema of Purkinje cells resulting from heat stroke-related hyperthermia It is essential to repeat MRI examination for cerebellar pathology and to obtain better insight into sequelae in patients with acute heat stroke. Protirelin tartrate seemed to be valid for improvement of abulia in the present patient. Further study is indicated. PMID:19999144

  12. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  13. Superior cost-effectiveness in flue gas desulfurization via high-volume, high value byproduct generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, W.

    1998-07-01

    Current worldwide advancements in application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization, (FGD), in electric utility service, motivated in part by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate output, are detailed. This new direction in FGD process selection and in the design of flue gas cleaning installations achieves major performance advancements herein reviewed. Attractive cost effectiveness, achieved in the face of substantial capital cost, is quantified. Favorable process economics, superior to that of all available alternatives for high-capacity, high-sulfur, powerplant service, is made possible through substantial value added in conversion of ammonia reagent consumed to agglomerated byproduct, principally ammonium sulfate. This low-nitrogen-content compound, the poor man's fertilizer of times past, is now in great and growing demand for use as sulfur blending stock in worldwide, commercial NPKS, (nitrogen/phosphorus/ potassium/sulfur), chemical fertilizer manufacture.

  14. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  15. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  16. The Attitudes of Israeli Arab and Jewish High School Students towards Extrinsic and Intrinsic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the attitudes of Israeli Arab (n = 259) and Jewish (n = 259) high school students toward extrinsic and intrinsic values. A questionnaire, which consisted of eight value scales in two groups--extrinsic and intrinsic values--was administered. Participants were asked to state whether they agreed or…

  17. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  18. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  19. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... high total cholesterol among non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign- ... Figure 3 ). The prevalence of high total cholesterol did not differ significantly by sex, age, education, or ...

  20. Abnormal Functional Specialization within Medial Prefrontal Cortex in High-Functioning Autism: A Multi-Voxel Similarity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in "decoding" mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males)…

  1. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  2. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  3. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  4. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  5. Task Values and Ability Beliefs as Predictors of High School Literacy Choices: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durik, Amanda M.; Vida, Mina; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how competence beliefs and task values predict high school achievement choices related to literacy. Students' task beliefs (self-concept of ability, intrinsic value, and importance) about reading in the 4th grade and English in the 10th grade were tracked over time. Task beliefs, school performance, and gender were used to…

  6. An Examination of the Humane Values Education Program on a Group of Science High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan; Eksi, Halil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether the humane values education program has produced any changes on the students' level of humane values. The research was conducted with the first- and second-grade students in Konya Meram Science High School in the 2006-2007 academic year. Thirty students participated in the study. Half of the…

  7. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets. PMID:25212469

  8. Neuroanatomic and Cognitive Abnormalities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Era of “High Definition” Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future “high definition” clinical datasets. PMID:25212469

  9. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Barbara; Wu, Nian; Gyapon-Quast, Frederick; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Fuming; Pickering, Matthew C; Linhardt, Robert J; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-07-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. (1)H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  10. Abnormally High Content of Free Glucosamine Residues Identified in a Preparation of Commercially Available Porcine Intestinal Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous in animal tissues as components of proteoglycans, and they participate in many important biological processes. HS carbohydrate chains are complex and can contain rare structural components such as N-unsubstituted glucosamine (GlcN). Commercially available HS preparations have been invaluable in many types of research activities. In the course of preparing microarrays to include probes derived from HS oligosaccharides, we found an unusually high content of GlcN residue in a recently purchased batch of porcine intestinal mucosal HS. Composition and sequence analysis by mass spectrometry of the oligosaccharides obtained after heparin lyase III digestion of the polysaccharide indicated two and three GlcN in the tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide fractions, respectively. 1H NMR of the intact polysaccharide showed that this unusual batch differed strikingly from other HS preparations obtained from bovine kidney and porcine intestine. The very high content of GlcN (30%) and low content of GlcNAc (4.2%) determined by disaccharide composition analysis indicated that N-deacetylation and/or N-desulfation may have taken place. HS is widely used by the scientific community to investigate HS structures and activities. Great care has to be taken in drawing conclusions from investigations of structural features of HS and specificities of HS interaction with proteins when commercial HS is used without further analysis. Pending the availability of a validated commercial HS reference preparation, our data may be useful to members of the scientific community who have used the present preparation in their studies. PMID:27295282

  11. Thermal plasma process for recovering monomers and high value carbons from polymeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Richard; Grossmann, Elihu D.; Guddeti, Ravikishan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of recycling polymeric waste products into monomers and high value forms of carbon by pyrolytic conversion using an induction coupled RF plasma heated reactor.

  12. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. PMID:26362887

  13. Abnormalities in myo-inositol metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes in mice fed a high-fat diet: benefits of a dietary myo-inositol supplementation.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Géloën, Alain; Soulage, Christophe O

    2015-06-28

    We previously reported that a chronic supplementation with myo-inositol (MI) improved insulin sensitivity and reduced fat accretion in mice. We then tested the potency of such dietary intervention in the prevention of insulin resistance in C57BL/6 male mouse fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, some abnormalities in inositol metabolism were reported to be associated with insulin resistance in several animal and human studies. We then investigated the presence of such anomalies (i.e. inosituria and an inositol intra-tissue depletion) in this diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, as well as the potential benefit of a MI supplementation for inositol intra-tissue deficiency correction. HFD (60 % energy from fat) feeding was associated with inosituria and inositol intra-tissue depletion in the liver and kidneys. MI supplementation (0·58 mg/g per d) restored inositol pools in kidneys (partially) and liver (fully). HFD feeding for 4 months induced ectopic lipid redistribution to liver and muscles, fasting hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and obesity that were not prevented by MI supplementation, despite a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity parameter K insulin tolerance test and a reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass ( - 17 %, P< 0·05). MI supplementation significantly reduced fatty acid synthase activity in epididymal WAT, which might explain its beneficial, but modest, effect on WAT accretion in HFD-fed mice. Finally, we found some abnormalities in inositol metabolism in association with a diabetic phenotype (i.e. insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycaemia) in a DIO mouse model. Dietary MI supplementation was efficient in the prevention of inositol intra-tissue depletion, but did not prevent insulin resistance or obesity efficiently in this mouse model. PMID:25990651

  14. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Automation -- The passageway to high value services for industrial and commercial customers

    SciTech Connect

    Stec, W.E.

    1999-11-01

    The deregulation of the electric industry provides an opportunity as well as a challenge for industrial and commercial power users. The challenge is especially formidable for those entities with large facilities or multiple facilities throughout the United States. Their choices will be made based on value received. The focus of this paper is on how automation by the electric industry can provide high value to industrial and commercial electric users. The key is that information obtained for use by the host utility and other information agents can be of high value to the industrial and commercial power users. This high value can be provided as both a transfer of critical information to the end users and by the use of information to provide a higher level of service.

  16. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 2. High haematocrit values in juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; van Der Klis, J D; Kwakernaak, C; Buys, N; Decuypere, E

    2003-07-01

    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of differences in haematocrit values in 12-d-old chickens on the development of ascitic symptoms. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FRC) were measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks. The birds were kept at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock 32 birds with the highest (High Ht) and 32 birds with the lowest (Low Ht) haematocrit values in venous blood were selected at 12 d of age for an examination on susceptibility for the ascites syndrome at 5 weeks. 3. At 2 weeks 448 birds per stock (including High Ht and Low Ht birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (1 High Ht and 1 Low Ht in each pen). Venous blood samples were taken weekly in High Ht and Low Ht birds for haematocrit measurements and at week 5 also thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma were measured. At 5 weeks all High Ht and Low Ht birds were examined post-mortem and arterial pressure index, heart weight, lung weight and liver weight (all relative to body weight) were recorded. High values for arterial pressure index, relative heart and liver weights and low values for relative lung weights and plasma thyroid hormone were considered to be indicators for ascites susceptibility. 4. Stock A, with the highest ascites mortality, had lower values for BWG and FCR than stock B. Throughout, a clear difference in Ht values between High Ht and Low Ht birds was maintained. No significant effects of 12-d haematocrit values were found on the incidence of ascitic symptoms until week 5. High Ht values tended to correlate with low relative lung weights and low plasma T3 concentrations in High Ht birds. 5. Within the groups of selected birds, there was an effect of stock on ascitic symptoms (arterial pressure index, relative heart weight and T3

  17. The Values in Four Selected American Novels and Suggested Uses of These Values in High School English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Theodore Wallace

    The first purpose of this study was to discover and analyze the values in "The Red Badge of Courage,""Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""The Catcher in the Rye," and "To Kill a Mockingbird." The values--conscious or unconscious motivators and justifiers of characters' actions and judgments--were classified according to H. S. Broudy's "Building a…

  18. The Value of Business Education: Perceptions of High School Guidance Counselors, Principals, and Boards of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, Barbara; Hite, Nancy Groneman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of business education at the secondary school level as perceived by three groups of people who have great impact on course offerings, student advisement, and teacher hiring decisions. Specifically, high school counselors, high school principals, and local board of education presidents in a…

  19. Furosemide Pharmacokinetics in Adult Rats become Abnormal with an Adverse Intrauterine Environment and Modulated by a Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Barent N; Pearson, Jacob; Mahmood, Tahir; Thornburg, Kent; Cherala, Ganesh

    2016-06-01

    Adult individuals born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have physiological maladaptations that significantly increase risk of chronic disease. We suggested that such abnormalities in organ function would alter pharmacokinetics throughout life, exacerbated by environmental mismatch. Pregnant and lactating rats were fed either a purified control diet (18% protein) or low-protein diet (9% protein) to produce IUGR offspring. Offspring were weaned onto either laboratory chow (11% fat) or high-fat diet (45% fat). Adult offspring (5 months old) were dosed with furosemide (10 mg/kg i.p.) and serum and urine collected. The overall exposure profile in IUGR males was significantly reduced due to a ~35% increase in both clearance and volume of distribution. Females appeared resistant to the IUGR phenotype. The effects of the high-fat diet trended in the opposite direction to that of IUGR, with increased drug exposure due to decreases in both clearance (31% males, 46% females) and volume of distribution (24% males, 44% females), with a 10% longer half-life in both genders. The alterations in furosemide pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were explained by changes in the expression of renal organic anion transporters 1 and 3, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter-2. In summary, this study suggests that IUGR and diet interact to produce subpopulations with similar body-weights but dissimilar pharmacokinetic profiles; this underlines the limitation of one-size-fits-all dosing which does not account for physiological differences in body composition resulting from IUGR and diet. PMID:26550796

  20. Discussion of the Z-value to use in calculating the F0-value for high-temperature sterilization processes.

    PubMed

    Pflug, I J

    1996-01-01

    The appropriate z-value to use in integrating heat process time-temperature data in the temperature range of 120.0-140.0 degrees C (248.0-284.0 degrees F) is discussed. We conclude that for control of Clostridium botulinum there is little risk in extrapolating a public health F0-value for C. botulinum to temperatures in the 132.0-138.0 degrees C (270.0-280.0 degrees F) range using a z-value of 10.0 degrees C (18.0 degrees F). It would seem prudent, at this time, when extrapolating data to conditions in the 132.0-138.0 degrees C (270.0-280.0 degrees F) range, that as a starting point an F0-value of 3.0 minutes be used as the minimum public health process. A design z-value of 10.0 degrees C (18.0 degrees F) is appropriate for Clostridium sporogenes to temperatures of 140.0 degrees C (284.0 degrees F). To control thermophilic microorganisms such as Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus coagulans with processes at temperatures from 120.0-140.0 degrees C (248.0-284.0 degrees F), the effective z-value will be in the range of 7.0-8.0 degrees C (12.6-14.4 degrees F) instead of 10.0 degrees C (18.0 degrees F). This means that when we design and calculate processes at temperatures from 120.0-140.0 degrees C (248.0-284.0 degrees F), using a z-value of 10.0 degrees C (18.0 degrees F), the lethal effect against these organisms will be much larger than indicated by the F0-value of the process. PMID:8846059

  1. Scaling Up High-Value Retrieval to Medium-Volume Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Hamish; Hanbury, Allan; Rüger, Stefan

    We summarise the scientific work presented at the first Information Retrieval Facility Conference [3] and argue that high-value retrieval with medium-volume data, exemplified by patent search, is a thriving topic in a multidisciplinary area that sits between Information Retrieval, Natural Language Processing and Semantic Web Technologies. We analyse the parameters that condition choices of retrieval technology for different sizes and values of document space, and we present the patent document space and some of its characteristics for retrieval work.

  2. Role of Health Services Research in Producing High-Value Rehabilitation Care.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Sean D; Goode, Adam P; Friedly, Janna L; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Sullivan, Sean D; Bresnahan, Brian W

    2015-12-01

    The concept of value is receiving greater attention in rehabilitation and the broader health care environment. The overall purpose of this article is to present a framework to help clinicians, researchers, educators, and policy makers better understand the role of health services research in developing and evaluating evidence on value in rehabilitation. Value in health care is a multidimensional concept and may be defined differently by various stakeholders, but assessing value typically involves considering a combination of several health and economic outcomes. However, health care stakeholders often lack sufficient information on these outcomes to make well-informed decisions. Health services approaches such as comparative effectiveness research, patient-centered outcomes research, and health economics assessments are some ways to evaluate value. The evidence generated from such studies directly informs decision making and health policy. Rehabilitation professionals have a great opportunity to increase their engagement in describing, evaluating, delivering, and disseminating high-value care, but there are several barriers they need to consider to be most successful. Embracing health services research best practices is essential for advancing appropriate rehabilitation practice, research, and policy and for addressing challenges to implementing high-value care. PMID:26316531

  3. Role of Health Services Research in Producing High-Value Rehabilitation Care

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Adam P.; Friedly, Janna L.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Sullivan, Sean D.; Bresnahan, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of value is receiving greater attention in rehabilitation and the broader health care environment. The overall purpose of this article is to present a framework to help clinicians, researchers, educators, and policy makers better understand the role of health services research in developing and evaluating evidence on value in rehabilitation. Value in health care is a multidimensional concept and may be defined differently by various stakeholders, but assessing value typically involves considering a combination of several health and economic outcomes. However, health care stakeholders often lack sufficient information on these outcomes to make well-informed decisions. Health services approaches such as comparative effectiveness research, patient-centered outcomes research, and health economics assessments are some ways to evaluate value. The evidence generated from such studies directly informs decision making and health policy. Rehabilitation professionals have a great opportunity to increase their engagement in describing, evaluating, delivering, and disseminating high-value care, but there are several barriers they need to consider to be most successful. Embracing health services research best practices is essential for advancing appropriate rehabilitation practice, research, and policy and for addressing challenges to implementing high-value care. PMID:26316531

  4. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  7. Value-based cost sharing in the United States and elsewhere can increase patients' use of high-value goods and services.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sarah; Schang, Laura; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews efforts in the United States and several other member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to encourage patients, through cost sharing, to use goods such as medications, services, and providers that offer better value than other options--an approach known as value-based cost sharing. Among the countries we reviewed, we found that value-based approaches were most commonly applied to drug cost sharing. A few countries, including the United States, employed financial incentives, such as lower copayments, to encourage use of preferred providers or preventive services. Evidence suggests that these efforts can increase patients' use of high-value services--although they may also be associated with high administrative costs and could exacerbate health inequalities among various groups. With careful design, implementation, and evaluation, value-based cost sharing can be an important tool for aligning patient and provider incentives to pursue high-value care. PMID:23569050

  8. PSA Screening for Prostate Cancer: Why Saying No is a High-Value Health Care Choice.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Timothy J; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Enthusiasm for cancer screening and treatment of screen-detected cancer has led to widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, a marked increase in prostate cancer incidence, and high use of surgical, radiation, and androgen deprivation treatment for screen-detected disease. This has occurred in advance of a full understanding of the clinical and financial tradeoffs. Although questions remain whether lifetime benefits outweigh harms and costs, data indicate that this balance is not favorable through at least 15 years. This article outlines a conceptual framework for determining the value of screening strategies according to screening and treatment intensity. We describe 4 main cancer screening goals and examine whether PSA screening and treatment achieve these goals and thus provide high-value care. Available evidence demonstrates that PSA screening provides at best a small reduction in prostate cancer mortality, and no reduction in all-cause mortality. High-intensity PSA screening and treatment currently practiced in the United States result in substantial harms and large health care expenditures-it is low-value care. The health importance of prostate cancer and the financial costs to patients and society require improved detection and treatment strategies that produce greater value to patients. We propose lower-intensity, higher-value options. However, until evidence supports a higher-value alternative to current PSA screening strategies, physicians should recommend against PSA screening, policymakers should encourage reduced screening, and most men should say no to the PSA test. PMID:26656523

  9. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    PubMed

    Golden, Christopher D; Rasolofoniaina, B J Rodolph; Anjaranirina, E J Gasta; Nicolas, Lilien; Ravaoliny, Laurent; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency). The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the conservation of tropical

  10. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  11. Recovery of high-value metals from geothermal sites by biosorption and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Han, Yin-Lung; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-05-01

    Generation of geothermal energy is associated with a significant amount of geothermal fluids, which may be abundant in high-value metals, such as lithium, cesium, rubidium, and other precious and rare earth metals. The recovery of high-value metals from geothermal fluids would thus have both economic and environmental benefits. The conventional technologies applied to achieve this are mostly physicochemical, which may be energy intensive, pose the risk of secondary pollution whilst being inefficient in recovering metals from dilute solutions. Biological methods, based on biosorption or bioaccumulation, have recently emerged as alternative approaches, as they are more environmentally friendly, cost effective, and suitable for treating wastewater with dilute metal contents. This article provides a comprehensive review of the related biological technologies used to recover the high-value metals present in geothermal fluids as well as critical discussion on the key issues that are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of those methods. PMID:24581863

  12. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  14. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  15. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation.

  16. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6(-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6(-/-) and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6(-/-) mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6(-/-) mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6(-/-) mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  17. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  18. Revalidation and rationale for high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J Donald; Mukerjee, Pasupati

    2007-01-01

    Background Our prior solvent partition analysis, published in 1992, yielded pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin of about 8.1 and 8.4, but these results have been challenged and studies by other methods have suggested pKa values below 5.0. Methods We repeated our published solvent partition studies, using 14C-unconjugated bilirubin highly purified by extraction of residual labeled impurities from CHCl3 into an aqueous buffer, pH 7.0. Partition ratios at six pH values from 5.0 to 9.0 were determined by radioassay and compared with our prior values obtained by diazo assay. Results At pH values ranging from 4.8 to 9.2, stable aqueous/chloroform 14C-partition ratios did not differ significantly from our published partition ratios based on diazo assay. Conclusion These results support the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin, above 8.0, derived from our earlier solvent partition study. In both studies, our measurements were based on the rapid analysis of clearly under-saturated solutions of highly-purified bilirubin over a wide pH range, using properly purified and preserved solvents. No previous direct estimate of the aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin meets all these preconditions. Three theoretical factors acting in combination, each related to the unique, extensive internal H-bonding of the -COOH groups, are proposed to support high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin in water: a) donation of an H-bond from the -OH moiety of the -COOH group, which is broken on ionization; b) hindered solvation of the -COO- group after ionization; and c) restricted rotation of the -COO- and -COOH groups. Our findings and rationale rebut methodological and theoretical criticisms leveled against our prior work. High pKa values for unconjugated bilirubin dictate that: a) bilirubin diacid, which readily diffuses across membranes and can cause neurotoxicity, is the dominant unbound bilirubin species of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma at physiological pH; b) at the near

  19. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 < b < 2.0. For the time period analysed, they are rarely lower than b = 1. Our results confirm that these volcano-tectonic earthquake populations can have systematically high b-values, especially when associated with eruptions. At other times they can be indistinguishable from those of tectonic earthquakes within the total error. The results have significant

  20. On high-order denoising models and fast algorithms for vector-valued images.

    PubMed

    Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Chen, Ke

    2010-06-01

    Variational techniques for gray-scale image denoising have been deeply investigated for many years; however, little research has been done for the vector-valued denoising case and the very few existent works are all based on total-variation regularization. It is known that total-variation models for denoising gray-scaled images suffer from staircasing effect and there is no reason to suggest this effect is not transported into the vector-valued models. High-order models, on the contrary, do not present staircasing. In this paper, we introduce three high-order and curvature-based denoising models for vector-valued images. Their properties are analyzed and a fast multigrid algorithm for the numerical solution is provided. AMS subject classifications: 68U10, 65F10, 65K10. PMID:20172828

  1. Do Low 15N Values in Paleozoic Epeiric Basins Indicate High Rates of N Fixation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuite, M. L.; Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    As a consequence of the high energetic requirements of dinitrogen (N2) fixation, organic N produced by diazotrophic microorganisms typically exhibits δ15N values similar to atmospheric N2 (approximately 0%). Because the δ15N of organic-rich Paleozoic epeiric basin sediments often has values in the vicinity of 0%, it is frequently asserted that N2 fixation was the primary source of new reactive N for productivity. There are two broad reasons why recourse to widespread and intensive N fixation as the primary source of the organic N is problematic. First, there are substantial physiological and ecological constraints on marine N fixation that limit its extent in modern oceans primarily to open ocean basins. Second, preservation of an unaltered isotopic signature of diazotrophy in underlying sediments is not a likely outcome of oxic and anoxic diagenetic alteration and repeated cycles of mineralization and assimilation. Constraining the sources of reactive N for primary productivity is critical to understanding the N cycle in Paleozoic epeiric seas. In this study we report δ15N values from high organic matter Middle Ordovician through Late Devonian dysoxic and euxinic basinal sediments. We propose a nitrogen isotope mass balance model that incorporates the microbial ecology of a stratified water column and the biochemical stoichiometry of primary production and organic matter diagenesis. Results from the model support our contention that high rates of N fixation over extended time periods were not the cause of depleted nitrogen isotope values in organic-rich Paleozoic basinal sediments. Rather, the depleted values were a consequence of a diminished role for nitrification and subsequent N loss via denitrification and anammox, and the preferential preservation of a substantially 15N-depleted chlorophyll-influenced lipid fraction. The model may be applicable to earlier and later geological periods where high organic matter sediments feature depleted δ15N values.

  2. Three Cultural Models of Teacher Interaction Valued by Mexican Students at a US High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Micah

    2016-01-01

    Using students' interviews as data source, this study explores the interactional experiences of several Mexican students at a US high school in the Midwest with their teachers and discusses how three cultural models of teacher interaction valued by the students impact their affiliation, motivation, and engagement with school. Emphasis is given to…

  3. Effects of a Values Clarification Curriculum on High School Students' Definitions of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosconi, Jacqueline; Emmett, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-four students in a suburban, Midwest high school participated in a four-part values clarification curriculum. The majority of the students in the experimental group expanded their definitions of success. Student evaluations, focus group reports, and student journals indicated additional positive outcomes. The authors suggest implications for…

  4. Directionality of the Associations of High School Expectancy-Value, Aspirations, and Attainment: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jiesi; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip D.; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2015-01-01

    (This study examines the directionality of the associations among cognitive assets (IQ, academic achievement), motivational beliefs (academic self-concept, task values), and educational and occupational aspirations over time from late adolescence (Grade 10) into early adulthood (5 years post high school). Participants were from a nationally…

  5. High School Seniors' Occupational Plans and Values: Trends in Sex Differences 1976 through 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, A. Regula

    1982-01-01

    Examines occupational plans and values of high school seniors for evidence of declining sex differences between 1976-1980. Questionnaire data collected from 3000 students indicated marked sex differences in the kinds of work boys and girls planned to do at age 30 and the work settings and characteristics they desired. (Author/AM)

  6. Goals, Values, and Beliefs as Predictors of Achievement and Effort in High School Mathematics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; DeBacker, Teresa K.; Ravindran, Bhuvaneswari; Krows, A. Jean

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender and motivation in high school mathematics classes through an expectancy-value framework with 366 students. Task-specific goals were much stronger predictors of effort than were any other set of variables. For both males and females, endorsing the stereotype that mathematics is a male domain was negatively related to reported…

  7. Endophytes as in vitro production platforms of high value plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have been published on bioprospecting of endophytic fungi capable of producing high value bioactive molecules like, paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. However, commercial exploitation of endophytes for high value-low volume plant secondary metabolites remains elusive due to widely reported genomic instability of endophytes in the axenic culture. While most of the endophyte research focuses on screening endophytes for novel or existing high value biomolecules, very few reports seek to explore the possible mechanisms of production of host-plant associated or novel secondary metabolites in these organisms. With an overview of host-endophyte relationship and its possible impact on the secondary metabolite production potential of endophytes, the review highlights the evidence reported for and against the presence of host-independent biosynthetic machinery in endophytes. The review aims to address the question, why should and how can endophytes be exploited for large scale in vitro production of high value phytochemicals? In this regard, various bioprocess optimization strategies that have been applied to sustain and enhance the product yield from the endophytes have also been described in detail. Further, techniques like mixed fermentation/co-cultivation and use of epigenetic modifiers have also been discussed as potential strategies to activate cryptic gene clusters in endophytes, thereby aiding in novel metabolite discovery and overcoming the limitations associated with axenic culture of endophytes. PMID:26225453

  8. Catalytic and thermal depolymerization of low value post-consumer high density polyethylene plastic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolytic conversion of low value post-consumer high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic into crude oil and subsequent distillation was explored. Translation of optimized conditions for catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis from TGA to a bench-scale sys...

  9. 48 CFR 52.246-24 - Limitation of Liability-High-Value Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitation of Liability-High-Value Items. 52.246-24 Section 52.246-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.246-24 Limitation...

  10. Assessing the Value of Rural California High School Career Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Coleen Louise

    2015-01-01

    While empirical studies on rural education have defined many of the socioeconomic factors associated with rural students nationally, there is a lack of definitive and comprehensive research defining the benefit or value of career technical education for rural California high school students. Consequently, this lack of research may in turn…

  11. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness Using Value-Added Models of High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawade, Nandita G.; Meyer, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This article uses empirical data to consider the consequences of particular characteristics of instruction and testing in high school for the modeling and estimation of value-added measures of school or teacher effectiveness. Unlike Mathematics and Reading for most elementary and middle school grades, there is a lack of annual testing of students…

  12. Promoting high value inpatient care via a coaching model of structured, interdisciplinary team rounds.

    PubMed

    Artenstein, Andrew W; Higgins, Thomas L; Seiler, Adrianne; Meyer, Debra; Knee, Alexander B; Boynton, Greta; Picchioni, Michael; Geld, Bonnie; Whitcomb, Winthrop F

    2015-01-01

    The professional development of early career hospital physicians may be improved by embedding an experienced physician in a coaching role during structured, interdisciplinary team rounds. This article gives a descriptive report of such a model and discusses how it may promote delivery of high-value care to adult inpatients. PMID:25585183

  13. The prognostic value of high sensitivity troponin T 7 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Michelle P C; Dow, Ellie; Lang, Chim; Struthers, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) in the convalescence phase after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. The authors aim to assess the prognostic utility of a single hs-TnT level at 7-week post-ACS. Second, the authors evaluated whether any serial changes in hs-TnT between the index admission and 7 weeks post-ACS had any link with the prognosis. Third, the authors assessed whether the prognostic utility of hs-TnT is independent of various echocardiographic abnormalities. Methods The authors measured hs-TnT levels in 326 consecutive patients at 7 weeks after an ACS event. The composite end point of death from any cause or acute myocardial infarction was evaluated over a median duration of 30 months. Results A high 7-week hs-TnT (>14 ng/l) predicted adverse clinical outcomes independent of conventional risk factors, left ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography (adjusted RR: 2.69 (95% CI 1.45 to 5.00)). Patients with persistent hs-TnT elevation at 7 weeks were also at an increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with an initial high hs-TnT which then normalised (unadjusted RR 3.39 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.68)). Conclusion The authors have demonstrated the prognostic utility of a single 7-week hs-TnT measurement in routine ACS patients and that it could be used to assist medium term risk stratification in this patient cohort. In addition, the authors also showed that hs-TnT predicted long-term adverse prognosis independent of various echo parameters. Future studies should evaluate whether tailoring specific treatment interventions to higher risk individuals as identified by an elevated hs-TnT during the convalescence phase of ACS would improve clinical outcomes. PMID:22689713

  14. Post-translationally Abnormal Collagens of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase-2 Null Mice Offer a Pathobiological Mechanism for the High Myopia Linked to Human LEPREL1 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, David M.; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H.; Eyre, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2n/n) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2n/n mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. PMID:25645914

  15. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  16. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  17. Role of high l values in the onset of incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2009-12-15

    A particle-{gamma}-coincidence experiment is performed to investigate the role of high l values in the production of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) in {sup 12}C+{sup 169}Tm system. Spin distributions of various xn/pxn/{alpha}xn/2{alpha}xn channels are measured at E{sub lab}=5.6A and 6.5A MeV. Entirely different de-excitation patterns are observed in direct-{alpha}-emitting channels and fusion-evaporation channels. The fusion-evaporation channels are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While narrow range feeding for only high-spin states was observed in the case of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels, in the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high-spin states in final reaction products. To have better insight into the associated l values in different reaction channels, the present data are compared with similar data obtained in {sup 16}O(E{sub lab}{approx_equal}5.6A MeV) + {sup 169}Tm system. The mean driving angular momenta involved in the production of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of fusion-evaporation channels. Direct-{alpha} multiplicity in the forward cone increases with driving angular momenta, which indicates the origin of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels at high l values in noncentral interactions.

  18. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  19. Adaptive iterated function systems filter for images highly corrupted with fixed - Value impulse noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavadivu, P.; Eliahim Jeevaraj, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Iterated Functions Systems (AIFS) Filter presented in this paper has an outstanding potential to attenuate the fixed-value impulse noise in images. This filter has two distinct phases namely noise detection and noise correction which uses Measure of Statistics and Iterated Function Systems (IFS) respectively. The performance of AIFS filter is assessed by three metrics namely, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Structural Similarity Index Matrix (MSSIM) and Human Visual Perception (HVP). The quantitative measures PSNR and MSSIM endorse the merit of this filter in terms of degree of noise suppression and details/edge preservation respectively, in comparison with the high performing filters reported in the recent literature. The qualitative measure HVP confirms the noise suppression ability of the devised filter. This computationally simple noise filter broadly finds application wherein the images are highly degraded by fixed-value impulse noise.

  20. Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tulu, Ketema Tafess; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Wubante, Amarech Asratie

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART naïve patients (P = 0.002). Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87–19.39), opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04–8.19), current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06–4.39), and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001–3.33) were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting. PMID:27493798

  1. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  2. Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  3. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. PMID:24432652

  4. Going beyond "highly-qualified personnel" to "value-added personnel"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida

    2005-10-01

    Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.

  5. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel; Job, Heather; Smith, Colin; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-03

    Here, a highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is presented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2 alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3 catalyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensation or the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article contains the catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to the hydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  6. Cardiac abnormalities in end stage renal failure and anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, K P; Skinner, J R; Wren, C; Hunter, S; Coulthard, M G

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen anaemic children on dialysis were assessed to determine the incidence of cardiac changes in end stage renal failure. Nine children had an increased cardiothoracic ratio on radiography. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in every case but no child had left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by voltage criteria. However, left ventricular hypertrophy, often gross, was found on echocardiography in 12 children and affected the interventricular septum disproportionately. Cardiac index was increased in 10 patients as a result of an increased left ventricular stroke volume rather than heart rate. Left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly greater in those on treatment for hypertension and in those with the highest cardiac index. Abnormal diastolic ventricular function was found in 6/11 children. Children with end stage renal failure have significant cardiac abnormalities that are likely to contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality in this group. Anaemia and hypertension, or its treatment, probably contribute to these changes. Voltage criteria on electrocardiogram are of no value in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography must be performed, with the results corrected for age and surface area, in order to detect and follow these abnormalities. Images PMID:8323332

  7. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  8. Asian values scale: comparisons of Korean and Korean-American high school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2006-02-01

    This study was intended to examine mean differences on the Asian Values Scale between Korean and Korean-American high school students. For 199 Korean and 217 second generation Korean-American high school students, means on emotional self-control and collectivism were significantly different. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of Korean high school students (M=4.5, SD=0.6) and second-generation Korean-American high school students (M=3.9, SD=0.5) indicated significant differences (p<.001). This present study contrasts directly with Kim, Atkinson, and Yang's past findings of no differences between first- and second-generation Asian college students. PMID:16673975

  9. Identifying high-value regions for hydrologic ecosystem services around the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Demand is growing for global inventories and valuations of ecosystem services, and several studies have attempted this quantification. Most have used land cover as a proxy, identifying wetlands, for example, as providers of clean water. In response, it has been argued that the value of hydrologic services rests in their additionally - the ecosystem service value of a watershed lies not in the value of the water captured by it but in the change in water quantity, quality, or timing if the watershed ecosystem were to change. Determining value is thus challenging, because hydrologic response to vegetation varies based on state factors such as climate and geology. In addition, value stems from the demand for water-related services, not only from the supply of those services, so beneficiaries must be accounted for. A set of criteria were identified with the aim of identifying places where hydrologic services are likely to be valuable. The primary biophysical criterion is that vegetation be an important control on hydrologic processes. Based on a set of ecohydrologic processes known to affect potentially valuable hydrologic attributes, characteristics of places where those processes are important were identified. Proxies for likelihood of land use change are an attempt to account for additionally. Density and development status of potential downstream water users were considered as a proxy for likely ecosystem service use. Preliminary mapping of these characteristics indicates regions likely to benefit from management of hydrologic ecosystem services. The overlap between areas likely to have high-value services and regions where Watershed Investment programs are active is evaluated.

  10. Red-Backed Vole Brain Promotes Highly Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein from Macaque and Human Brains Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human

  11. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  12. Evaluating areas of high conservation value in Western Oregon with a decision-support model.

    PubMed

    Staus, Nancy L; Strittholt, James R; Dellasala, Dominick A

    2010-06-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan was implemented in 1994 to protect habitat for species associated with old-growth forests, including Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentailis caurina) in Washington, Oregon, and northern California (U.S.A.). Nevertheless, 10-year monitoring data indicate mixed success in meeting the ecological goals of the plan. We used the ecosystem management decision-support model to evaluate terrestrial and aquatic habitats across the landscape on the basis of ecological objectives of the Northwest Forest Plan, which included maintenance of late-successional and old-growth forest, recovery, and maintenance of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), and viability of Northern Spotted Owls. Areas of the landscape that contained habitat characteristics that supported these objectives were considered of high conservation value. We used the model to evaluate ecological condition of each of the 36, 180 township and range sections of the study area. Eighteen percent of the study area was identified as habitat of high conservation value. These areas were mostly on public lands. Many of the sections that contained habitat of exceptional conservation value were on Bureau of Land Management land that has been considered for management-plan revisions to increase timber harvests. The results of our model can be used to guide future land management in the Northwest Forest Plan area, and illustrate how decision-support models can help land managers develop strategies to better meet their goals. PMID:20184658

  13. Hypercellularity Components of Glioblastoma Identified by High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, Priyanka P.; Parmar, Hemant A.; Mammoser, Aaron G.; Junck, Larry R.; Kim, Michelle M.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for target definition may expose glioblastomas (GB) to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. This study aimed to develop a technique to identify the hypercellular components of GB by using high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to investigate its relationship with the prescribed 95% isodose volume (PDV) and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning was based upon conventional MRI. Pre-RT DWIs were acquired in 3 orthogonal directions with b-values of 0, 1000, and 3000 s/mm{sup 2}. Hypercellularity volume (HCV) was defined on the high b-value (3000 s/mm{sup 2}) DWI by a threshold method. Nonenhanced signified regions not covered by the Gd-enhanced gross tumor volume (GTV-Gd) on T1-weighted images. The PDV was used to evaluate spatial coverage of the HCV by the dose plan. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. Results: HCVs and nonenhanced HCVs varied from 0.58 to 67 cm{sup 3} (median: 9.8 cm{sup 3}) and 0.15 to 60 cm{sup 3} (median: 2.5 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Fourteen patients had incomplete dose coverage of the HCV, 6 of whom had >1 cm{sup 3} HCV missed by the 95% PDV (range: 1.01-25.4 cm{sup 3}). Of the 15 patients who progressed, 5 progressed earlier, within 6 months post-RT, and 10 patients afterward. Pre-RT HCVs within recurrent GTVs-Gd were 78% (range: 65%-89%) for the 5 earliest progressions but lower, 53% (range: 0%-85%), for the later progressions. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS (P<.002 and P<.01, respectively). The hypercellularity subvolume not covered by the 95% PDV was a significant negative predictor for PFS (P<.05). Conclusions: High b-value DWI

  14. [Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil with ultrasonic assistant].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Huang, Qing-De; Huang, Feng-Hong; Wang, Jiang-Wei; Huang, Qin-Jie

    2007-11-01

    Biodiesel fuel produced with the enzyme-catalyzed esterification and transesterification of high acid value waste oil through ultrasonic assistant was explored. Propyl oleate, biodiesel, converted from high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal catalyzed with immobilized lipases from Candida antarctica and Aspergillus oryzae in conditions of ultrasonic assistant. Commercial immobilized lipase Novozym 435 from C. antarctica was used as biocatalyst catalyzing high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal esterification and transesterification to propyl oleate under the ultrasonic assistant conditions and different conditions such as lipases amounts, initiatory molar ratio of propanol to oil, frequency of ultrasonic and power of ultrasonic were investigated and optimized. It is revealed that the enzymatic activity of Novozym435 is enhanced and, in particular, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification activity is enhanced obviously under the ultrasonic assistant conditions. Low frequency and mild energy ultrasonic is a key factor for enhancing enzymatic activity, emulsifying oil-propanol system and accelerating the speed of produce diffusing in the system. Under the optimal ultrasonic assistant reaction conditions, such as Novozym435 amounts 8% by oil quantity, initiatory molar ratio of propanol to oil 3:1, frequency of ultrasonic 28 KHz, power of ultrasonic 100 W and temperature of water batch 40-45 degrees C, the conversion ratio to propyl oleate reached to 94.86% in 50 mins in comparison with the highest conversion ratio to propyl oleate 84.43% under the conventional mechanical agitation conditions. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that various short chain linear and branched alcohols (C1-C5) show high conversion ratio to fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) under the optimal ultrasonic assistant reaction conditions. On the other hand, ultrasonic energy is propitious to reduce the adsorption of product propyl oleate, by-product glycerol and other emplastics in system on the

  15. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  16. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  17. A transparency and accountability framework for high-value inpatient nursing care.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Ellen T

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and accountability are terms that typically refer to activities aimed at measuring and holding providers responsible for their performance through such vehicles as public disclosure of comparative results. Today, transparency and accountability policies are widely accepted strategies to drive quality improvement and stimulate consumer choice. Yet nursing, the single largest health care profession, has not yet been engaged in these policy directions nor considered in their design or implementation. The framework reported here offers nurses and their professional organizations a model for which to advocate for policy change. Hospital and health system executives who have the freedom to establish institutional policies might implement this framework to achieve higher value. This framework provides both the context and components of a system that, if implemented, would measure, report, and reward hospital nursing's contributions to high value. PMID:21158250

  18. A sensitive, high resolution magic angle turning experiment for measuring chemical shift tensor principal values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, D. W.

    1998-12-01

    A sensitive, high-resolution 'FIREMAT' two-dimensional (2D) magic-angle-turning experiment is described that measures chemical shift tensor principal values in powdered solids. The spectra display spinning-sideband patterns separated by their isotropic shifts. The new method's sensitivity and high resolution in the isotropic-shift dimension result from combining the 5pi magic-angle-turning pulse sequence, an extension of the pseudo-2D sideband-suppression data rearrangement, and the TIGER protocol for processing 2D data. TPPM decoupling is used to enhance resolution. The method requires precise synchronization of the pulses and sampling to the rotor position. It is shown that the technique obtains 35 natural-abundance 13C tensors from erythromycin in 19 hours, and high quality naturalabundance 15N tensors from eight sites in potassium penicillin V in three days on a 400MHz spectrometer.

  19. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  20. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. PMID:26452426

  1. Toward a Serial International Approach of the High Mountain Observatories, within important Dark Sky Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Practical approach of Dark Sky places as possible WH sites leads some of us to underline the exceptional role of high mountain observatories as “Windows to the Universe” for the Human being. Till today, such places keep very important dark sky properties and consequently important astronomical functions.We have to take count that quality of the sky at a given place and dark sky conservation policy is something very important, but not enough by itself to justify inscription on the WH List. It must be related to important cultural or/and natural value. That means presence of significant heritage features in the field of astronomy and science for listing as WH cultural property, or with other natural attributes of exceptional significance to be listed as WH natural property. Case of both natural and cultural WH high value place is also possible as “mixt WH site”.The Dark Sky place must also meet to a sufficient integrity/authenticity degree for the today tangible heritage of astronomy and to a very significant contribution to the international history of science and astronomy as intangible attribute of the place. That point must be demonstrated by a serious comparative analysis with similar places in the world and in the region. In case of serial nomination as examined there, each individual site must contribute significantly to the Outstanding Universal Value of the global series.First, we intend to give a short account of the today trend for a possible serial nomination of the most significant high mountain observatory keeping important heritage of their major periods for the sky observation (Western Europe, Chile, North America, etc.).Second, communication will present a case study with Pic du Midi in French Pyrenees, coming from the early origin of mountain scientific stations and observatories (end of 19th C) in Europe, with a long, continuous and important astronomical and scientific history till today with active programs of sky and atmosphere

  2. Seasonal changes of blood values in Rufous-collared sparrows from high and low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Gricelda; Rosenmann, Mario; Novoa, F. Fernando

    1995-06-01

    Haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and plasma solids concentration, were measured in populations of Zonotrichia capensis captured during different seasons of the year at altitudes ranging from sea level up to 3500 m. Winter blood values of birds from high and low altitude proved not to be significantly different. Similar results were obtained during summertime, with the exception of cell Hb content and concentration, which were about 10% higher in low-altitude birds. Seasonal changes in RBC size and number appear to be better correlated with the prevailing summer and winter conditions than with the particular altitudinal distribution of the examined populations.

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  5. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams

    PubMed Central

    Anicich, Eric M.; Swaab, Roderick I.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance. PMID:25605883

  6. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams.

    PubMed

    Anicich, Eric M; Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-02-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance. PMID:25605883

  7. High-resolution global topographic index values for use in large-scale hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthews, Toby; Dadson, Simon; Lehner, Bernhard; Abele, Simon; Gedney, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Modelling land surface water flow is of critical importance for simulating land-surface fluxes, predicting runoff and water table dynamics and for many other applications of Land Surface Models. Many approaches are based on the popular hydrology model TOPMODEL, and the most important parameter of this model is the well-known topographic index. Here we present new, high-resolution parameter maps of the topographic index for all ice-free land pixels calculated from hydrologically-conditioned HydroSHEDS data using the GA2 algorithm ('GRIDATB 2'). At 15 arc-sec resolution, these layers are four times finer than the resolution of the previously best-available topographic index layers, the Compound Topographic Index of HYDRO1k (CTI). For the largest river catchments occurring on each continent we found that, in comparison with CTI our revised values were up to 20% lower in, e.g., the Amazon. We found the highest catchment means were for the Murray-Darling and Nelson-Saskatchewan rather than for the Amazon and St. Lawrence as found from the CTI. For the majority of large catchments, however, the spread of our new GA2 index values is very similar to those of CTI, yet with more spatial variability apparent at fine scale. We believe these new index layers represent greatly-improved global-scale topographic index values and hope that they will be widely used in land surface modelling applications in the future.

  8. Meta-metallic coils and resonators: Methods for high Q-value resonant geometries.

    PubMed

    Mett, R R; Sidabras, J W; Hyde, J S

    2016-08-01

    A novel method of decreasing ohmic losses and increasing Q-value in metallic resonators at high frequencies is presented. The method overcomes the skin-depth limitation of rf current flow cross section. The method uses layers of conductive foil of thickness less than a skin depth and capacitive gaps between layers. The capacitive gaps can substantially equalize the rf current flowing in each layer, resulting in a total cross-sectional dimension for rf current flow many times larger than a skin depth. Analytic theory and finite-element simulations indicate that, for a variety of structures, the Q-value enhancement over a single thick conductor approaches the ratio of total conductor thickness to skin depth if the total number of layers is greater than one-third the square of the ratio of total conductor thickness to skin depth. The layer number requirement is due to counter-currents in each foil layer caused by the surrounding rf magnetic fields. We call structures that exhibit this type of Q-enhancement "meta-metallic." In addition, end effects due to rf magnetic fields wrapping around the ends of the foils can substantially reduce the Q-value for some classes of structures. Foil structures with Q-values that are substantially influenced by such end effects are discussed as are five classes of structures that are not. We focus particularly on 400 MHz, which is the resonant frequency of protons at 9.4 T. Simulations at 400 MHz are shown with comparison to measurements on fabricated structures. The methods and geometries described here are general for magnetic resonance and can be used at frequencies much higher than 400 MHz. PMID:27587143

  9. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  11. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care. PMID:26595370

  12. Surviving the Lead Reliability Engineer Role in High Unit Value Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    A project with a very high unit value within a company is defined as a project where a) the project constitutes one of a kind (or two-of-a-kind) national asset type of project, b) very large cost, and c) a mission failure would be a very public event that will hurt the company's image. The Lead Reliability engineer in a high visibility project is by default involved in all phases of the project, from conceptual design to manufacture and testing. This paper explores a series of lessons learned, over a period of ten years of practical industrial experience by a Lead Reliability Engineer. We expand on the concepts outlined by these lessons learned via examples. The lessons learned are applicable to all industries.

  13. Precision high-value resistance scaling with a two-terminal cryogenic current comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Marquez, F. L.; Bierzychudek, M. E.; Jones, G. R.; Elmquist, R. E.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a cryogenic two-terminal high-resistance bridge and its application in precision resistance scaling from the quantized Hall resistance (QHR) at RH = RK/2 = 12 906.4035 Ω to decade resistance standards with values between 1 MΩ and 1 GΩ. The design minimizes lead resistance errors with multiterminal connections to the QHR device. A single variable voltage source and resistive ratio windings are utilized to achieve excellent dynamic stability, which is not readily obtained in low-current measurements with conventional cryogenic current comparators (CCCs). Prototypes of this bridge have been verified by a successful international comparison of high-resistance scaling using two-terminal CCCs in the national metrology institutes of Argentina, Mexico, and the United States.

  14. Inguinal Abnormalities in Male Patients with Acetabular Fractures Treated Using an Ilioinguinal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Firoozabadi, Reza; Stafford, Paul; Routt, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgeons performing an ilioinguinal exposure for acetabular fracture surgery need to be aware of aberrant findings such as inguinal hernias and spermatic cord lesions. The purpose of this study is to report these occurrences in a clinical series of adult males undergoing acetabular fracture fixation and a series of adult male cadavers. The secondary aim is to characterize these abnormalities to aid surgeons in detecting these abnormalities preoperatively and coordinating a surgical plan with a general surgeon. Methods: Clinical study- Retrospective review of treated acetabular fractures through an ilioinguinal approach. Incidence of inguinal canal and spermatic cord abnormalities requiring general surgery consultation were identified. Corresponding CT scans were reviewed and radiographic characteristics of the spermatic cord abnormalities and/or hernias were noted. Cadaveric study- 18 male cadavers dissected bilaterally using an ilioinguinal exposure. The inguinal canal and the contents of the spermatic cord were identified and characterized. Results: Clinical Study- 5.7% (5/87) of patients had spermatic cord lesion and/or inguinal hernia requiring general surgical intervention. Preoperative pelvic CT scan review identified abnormalities noted intraoperatively in four of the five patients. Cord lipomas visualized as enlargements of the spermatic cord with homogeneous density. Hernias visualized as enlarged spermatic cords with heterogeneous density. Cadaver Study- 31% (11/36) of cadavers studied had spermatic cord and/or inguinal canal abnormalities. Average cord diameter in those with abnormalities was 24.9 mm (15-28) compared to 16 mm (11-22) in normal cords, which was statistically significant. Discussion: The clinical and cadaveric findings emphasize the importance of understanding inguinal abnormalities and the value of detecting them preoperatively. The preoperative pelvic CT scans were highly sensitive in detecting inguinal abnormalities. PMID

  15. Liver Function Test Abnormalities in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Hospital-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Maria; Randazzo, Claudia; Bravatà, Ivana; Licata, Anna; Peralta, Sergio; Craxì, Antonio; Almasio, Piero Luigi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are frequently associated with altered liver function tests (LFTs). The causal relationship between abnormal LFTs and IBD is unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of LFTs abnormalities and their association with clinical variables in a cohort of IBD patients followed up in a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken of all consecutive IBD in- and outpatients routinely followed up at a single referral center. Clinical and demographic parameters were recorded. Subjects were excluded if they had a previous diagnosis of chronic liver disease. LFT abnormality was defined as an increase in aspartate aminotransferase, (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), or total bilirubin. RESULTS A cohort of 335 patients (179 males, mean age 46.0 ± 15.6 years) was analyzed. Abnormal LFTs were detected in 70 patients (20.9%). In most cases, the alterations were mild and spontaneously returned to normal values in about 60% of patients. Patients with abnormal LFTs were less frequently on treatment with aminosalicylates (22.8 vs. 36.6%, P = 0.04). The most frequent cause for transient abnormal LFTs was drug-induced cholestasis (34.1%), whereas fatty liver was the most frequent cause of persistent liver damage (65.4%). A cholestatic pattern was found in 60.0% of patients and was mainly related to older age, longer duration of disease, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of LFT abnormalities is relatively high in IBD patients, but the development of severe liver injury is exceptional. Moreover, most alterations of LFTs are mild and spontaneously return to normal values. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity and fatty liver are the most relevant causes of abnormal LFTs in patients with IBD. PMID:24966712

  16. Development of Low-Noise High Value Chromium Silicide Resistors for Cryogenic Detector Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Babu, Sachi; Monroy, Carlos; Darren, C.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely high sensitivity detectors, such as silicon bolometers are required in many NASA missions for detection of photons from the x-ray to the far infrared regions. Typically, these detectors are cooled to well below the liquid helium (LHe) temperature (4.2 K) to achieve the maximum detection performance. As photoconductors, they are generally operated with a load resistor and a pre-set bias voltage, which is then coupled to the input gate of a source-follower Field Effect Transistor (FET) circuit. It is imperative that the detector system signal to noise performance be limited by the noise of the detector and not by the noise of the external components. The load resistor value is selected to optimize the detector performance. These two criteria tend to be contradictory in that these detectors require load resistors in the hundreds of megaohms, which leads to a higher Johnson noise. Additionally, the physical size of the resistor must be small for device integration as required by such missions as the NASA High Resolution Airborne Wide-Band Camera (HAWC) instrument and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We have designed, fabricated and characterized thin film resistors using a CrSi/TiW/Al metal system on optical quality quartz substrates. The resistor values range from 100 megaohms to over 650 megaohms and are Johnson noise limited at LHe temperatures. The resistor film is sputtered with a sheet resistance ranging from 300 ohms to 1600 ohms and the processing sequence developed for these devices allows for chemically fine tuning the sheet resistance in-situ. The wafer fabrication process was of sufficiently high yield (>80%) providing clusters of good resistors for integrated multiple detector channels, a very important feature in the assembly of these two instruments.

  17. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  18. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  19. The value of ENSO forecast information to dual purpose winter wheat production in the US Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast information to Southern High Plains winter wheat and cattle grazing production systems was estimated here by simulation. Although previous work has calculated average forecast value, our approach was to estimate probabilities of the value of ...

  20. Differential responses of two wetland graminoids to high ammonium at different pH values.

    PubMed

    van Diggelen, J M H; Smolders, A J P; Visser, E J W; Hicks, S; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced soil ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in wetlands often lead to graminoid dominance, but species composition is highly variable. Although NH4+ is readily taken up as a nutrient, several wetland species are known to be sensitive to high NH4+ concentrations or even suffer toxicity, particularly at low soil pH. More knowledge about differential graminoid responses to high NH4+ availability in relation to soil pH can help to better understand vegetation changes. The responses of two wetland graminoids, Juncus acutiflorus and Carex disticha, to high (2 mmol·l(-1) ) versus control (20 μmol·l(-1) ) NH4+ concentrations were tested in a controlled hydroponic set up, at two pH values (4 and 6). A high NH4+ concentration did not change total biomass for these species at either pH, but increased C allocation to shoots and increased P uptake, leading to K and Ca limitation, depending on pH treatment. More than 50% of N taken up by C. disticha was invested in N-rich amino acids with decreasing C:N ratio, but only 10% for J. acutiflorus. Although both species appeared to be well adapted to high NH4+ loadings in the short term, C. disticha showed higher classic detoxifying responses that are early warning indicators for decreased tolerance in the long term. In general, the efficient aboveground biomass allocation, P uptake and N detoxification explain the competitive strength of wetland graminoids at the expense of overall biodiversity at high NH4+ loading. In addition, differential responses to enhanced NH4+ affect interspecific competition among graminoids and lead to a shift in vegetation composition. PMID:26404423

  1. PDF added value of a high resolution climate simulation for precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2015-04-01

    dynamical downscaling, based on simple PDF skill scores. The measure can assess the full quality of the PDFs and at the same time integrates a flexible manner to weight differently the PDF tails. In this study we apply the referred method to characaterize the PDF added value of a high resolution simulation with the WRF model. Results from a WRF climate simulation centred at the Iberian Penisnula with two nested grids, a larger one at 27km and a smaller one at 9km. This simulation is forced by ERA-Interim. The observational data used covers from rain gauges precipitation records to observational regular grids of daily precipitation. Two regular gridded precipitation datasets are used. A Portuguese grid precipitation dataset developed at 0.2°× 0.2°, from observed rain gauges daily precipitation. A second one corresponding to the ENSEMBLES observational gridded dataset for Europe, which includes daily precipitation values at 0.25°. The analisys shows an important PDF added value from the higher resolution simulation, regarding the full PDF and the extremes. This method shows higher potential to be applied to other simulation exercises and to evaluate other variables.

  2. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol values independently and inversely predict cardiac troponin T and I concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lo Cascio, Claudia; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Bassi, Antonella; Caruso, Beatrice; Bovo, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective study was planned to establish potential associations between circulating values of cardiac troponins and those of conventional blood lipids. Methods The study population consisted of patients attending an inpatient clinic of the University Hospital of Verona during the year 2015 as part of routine cardiovascular risk assessment. No exclusion criteria were applied. Serum lipids including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were measured using reference enzymatic techniques, whereas troponin T (TnT) was measured using a high-sensitivity (HS) immunoassay. A second analysis was also performed in the General Hospital of Verona, extracting data from the local laboratory database of all patients in whom troponin I (TnI) and blood lipids were simultaneously measured during the same year. Results In univariate analysis, HS-TnT was found to be associated with age, sex, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, but not with TG. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age (positive correlation; P<0.001) and HDL-C (negative correlation; P=0.032) remained significantly associated with HS-TnT. The frequency of HS-TnT values >50 ng/L was higher in subjects with HDL-C <1 mmol/L than in those with HDL-C ≥1 mmol/L [odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–3.32]. The frequency of HS-TnT values >50 ng/L was also higher in elderly subjects than in younger ones (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15–3.84). The combination of age and HDL-C explained 35% of overall variability of TnT concentration. In the second analysis, HDL-C was also found to be an independent and negative predictor of TnI in multivariate linear regression analysis (P=0.010). The combination of age and HDL-C explained approximately 28% of the overall variability of TnI concentration. Conclusions Our study suggests that HDL-C values inversely predict cardiac troponins concentration irrespective of age

  3. Economic effectiveness of using super-high values of initial steam parameters in cogeneration power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Zakharenkov, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper reports the results of numerical investigations into both thermodynamic and economic components of the effect of an increase in the initial steam parameters to super-high values for cogeneration power units. As an initial variant, the heat flow diagram of the turbine plant equipped with the T-250/300-23.5 TMZ steam turbine was adopted. In the course of investigations, the ranges of initial steam pressure p 0 = 23.5-30.0 MPa, steam temperature t 0 = 540-600°C, and steam pressure after single reheat p rh = 3.6-4.5 MPa were considered. In the calculations of the thermodynamic efficiency, the extent of the effect of an increase in steam parameters on the out and the electric efficiency of a power unit when a cogeneration steam turbine operates in condensing and heat-extraction modes were estimated. In the economic part of the calculations, indicators of the commercial efficiency of investments into appropriate projects and the levels of total investment and production costs were determined. The results of the calculations made it possible to estimate the optimum level of super-high values of the initial steam parameters for a cogeneration power unit equipped with the T-280/335-26.1 steam turbine. The best indicators of the commercial efficiency were achieved for the variant with the following parameters of live steam and steam in the reheater: p 0 = 26.1 MPa, p rh = 4.035 MPa, t 0/ t rh = 575/575°C. In this case, the following values were obtained: 42.56% gross efficiency, 40.94% net efficiency, 334 MW rated capacity in the condensing operation mode, and 279.1 MW in the heat-extraction mode at Q T = 1381.6 GJ/h (330 Gcal/h). The use of higher steam parameters would result in a significant increase in the cost of projects. It has been shown that the restoration of initial design values of both live steam temperature and its temperature after reheat t 0/ t rh = 565/560°C may be advisable at the upgrading of power units equipped with T-250

  4. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  5. High Incidence of Progressive Postnatal Cerebellar Enlargement in Costello Syndrome: Brain Overgrowth Associated with HRAS Mutations as the Likely Cause of Structural Brain and Spinal Cord Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gripp, Karen W.; Hopkins, Elisabeth; Doyle, Daniel; Dobyns, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Costello syndrome is a rasopathy caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its presentation includes failure-to-thrive with macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, papillomata, malignant tumors, and cognitive impairment. In a systematic review we found absolute or relative macrocephaly (100%), ventriculomegaly (50%), and other abnormalities on brain and spinal cord imaging studies in 27/28 individuals. Posterior fossa crowding with cerebellar tonsillar herniation (CBTH) was noted in 27/28 (96%), and in 10/17 (59%) with serial studies posterior fossa crowding progressed. Sequelae of posterior fossa crowding and CBTH included hydrocephalus requiring shunt or ventriculostomy (25%), Chiari 1 malformation (32%) and syrinx formation (25%). Our data reveal macrocephaly with progressive frontal bossing and CBTH, documenting an ongoing process rather than a static congenital anomaly. Comparison of images obtained in young infants to subsequent studies demonstrated postnatal development of posterior fossa crowding. This process of evolving megalencephaly and cerebellar enlargement is in keeping with mouse model data, delineating abnormal genesis of neurons and glia, resulting in an increased number of astrocytes and enlarged brain volume. In Costello syndrome and macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome disproportionate brain growth is the main factor resulting in postnatal CBTH and Chiari 1 malformation. PMID:20425820

  6. Lack of Evidence for Regional Brain Volume or Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Youths at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Paul; Zhou, Juan; Lim, Joseph K W; Poh, Joann S; Zheng, Hui; Tng, Han Ying; Krishnan, Ranga; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S E; Adcock, R Alison; Wood, Stephen J; Fornito, Alex; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-11-01

    There is cumulative evidence that young people in an "at-risk mental state" (ARMS) for psychosis show structural brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas, comparable to, but less extensive than those reported in established schizophrenia. However, most available data come from ARMS samples from Australia, Europe, and North America while large studies from other populations are missing. We conducted a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging study from a relatively large sample of 69 ARMS individuals and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) recruited from Singapore as part of the Longitudinal Youth At-Risk Study (LYRIKS). We used 2 complementary approaches: a voxel-based morphometry and a surface-based morphometry analysis to extract regional gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) and cortical thickness (CT). At the whole-brain level, we did not find any statistically significant difference between ARMS and HC groups concerning total GMV and WMV or regional GMV, WMV, and CT. The additional comparison of 2 regions of interest, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes, did not return any significant difference either. Several characteristics of the LYRIKS sample like Asian origins or the absence of current illicit drug use could explain, alone or in conjunction, the negative findings and suggest that there may be no dramatic volumetric or CT abnormalities in ARMS. PMID:25745033

  7. Spontaneous remission of acute myeloid leukemia relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation in a high-risk patient with 11q23/MLL abnormality.

    PubMed

    Hudecek, Michael; Bartsch, Kristina; Jäkel, Nadja; Heyn, Simone; Pfannes, Roald; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin; Cross, Michael; Pönisch, Wolfram; Gerecke, Ulrich; Edelmann, Jeanett; Ittel, Thomas; Niederwieser, Dietger

    2008-01-01

    A 35-year-old female patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia with multiple genetic aberrations [48 XX, del(3)(q21), +6, t(11;15)(q23;q15), +21] including an 11q23/MLL abnormality. The patient achieved a complete remission after one induction chemotherapy cycle. After three courses of consolidation, a matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) was performed. Following an upper respiratory tract infection 7 years after transplant, her blood counts declined to leukocytes of 1 x 10(9)/l, platelets of 51 x 10(9)/l and hemoglobin of 7.5 g/dl. A bone marrow aspirate revealed 55% leukemic blasts carrying the unfavorable genetic aberrations seen at initial diagnosis (11q23/MLL). In the absence of any disease-specific treatment, the leukemic blasts cleared from the bone marrow within 6 days after diagnosis of relapse and peripheral blood counts returned to normal. Molecular analysis of the 11q23/MLL rearrangement was used to evaluate minimal residual disease, which became undetectable in repetitive FISH analyses. This is the first report of spontaneous remission in a patient with initially a multiaberrant leukemic cell clone and a proven 11q23/MLL abnormality at relapse after HCT. PMID:18367831

  8. Diagnostic value of high-resolution micro-endoscopy for the classification of colon polyps

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tao; Qu, Ya-Wei; Shu, Juan; Liu, Min-Li; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study a new imaging equipment, high-resolution micro-endoscopy (HRME), in the diagnosis and pathological classification of colon polyps. METHODS: We selected 114 specimens of colon polyps, 30 of which were colon polyps with known pathological types and 84 that were prospective polyp specimens; 10 normal colon mucosa specimens served as controls. We obtained images of 30 colon polyp specimens with known pathological types using HRME and analyzed the characteristics of these images to develop HRME diagnostic criteria for different pathological types of colon polyps. Based on these criteria, we performed a prospective study of 84 colon polyp specimens using HRME and compared the results with those of the pathological examination to evaluate the diagnostic value of HRME in the pathological classification of different types of colon polyps. RESULTS: In the 30 cases of known pathological type of colon polyp samples, there were 21 cases of adenomatous polyps, which comprised nine cases of tubular adenoma, seven cases of villous adenoma and five cases of mixed adenomas. The nine cases of non-adenomatous polyps included four cases of inflammatory polyps and five cases of hyperplastic polyps five. Ten cases of normal colonic mucosa were confirmed pathologically. In a prospective study of 84 cases using HRME, 23 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 18 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 24 cases as mixed adenomas. After pathological examination, 24 cases were diagnosed as inflammatory polyps, 11 cases as hyperplastic polyps, 19 cases as tubular adenoma, eight cases as villous adenoma and 22 cases as mixed adenomas. Compared with the pathological examinations, the sensitivities, specificities, accuracies, and positive and negative predictive values of HRME in diagnosing inflammatory polyps (87.5%, 96.7%, 94.0%, 91.3% and 95.1%), hyperplastic polyps (72.7%, 95.9%, 92.9%, 72.7% and 95.9%), tubular adenomas

  9. High-resolution global topographic index values for use in large-scale hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthews, T. R.; Dadson, S. J.; Lehner, B.; Abele, S.; Gedney, N.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling land surface water flow is of critical importance for simulating land surface fluxes, predicting runoff and water table dynamics and for many other applications of Land Surface Models. Many approaches are based on the popular hydrology model TOPMODEL (TOPography-based hydrological MODEL), and the most important parameter of this model is the well-known topographic index. Here we present new, high-resolution parameter maps of the topographic index for all ice-free land pixels calculated from hydrologically conditioned HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) data using the GA2 algorithm (GRIDATB 2). At 15 arcsec resolution, these layers are 4 times finer than the resolution of the previously best-available topographic index layers, the compound topographic index of HYDRO1k (CTI). For the largest river catchments occurring on each continent we found that, in comparison with CTI our revised values were up to 20% lower in, e.g. the Amazon. We found the highest catchment means were for the Murray-Darling and Nelson-Saskatchewan rather than for the Amazon and St. Lawrence as found from the CTI. For the majority of large catchments, however, the spread of our new GA2 index values is very similar to those of CTI, yet with more spatial variability apparent at fine scale. We believe these new index layers represent greatly improved global-scale topographic index values and hope that they will be widely used in land surface modelling applications in the future.

  10. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  11. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  12. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  13. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  17. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties. PMID:26572518

  18. Microbial Transformation of Nitriles to High-Value Acids or Amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    Biotransformation of nitriles mediated by nitrile-amide converting enzymes has attracted considerable attention and developed tremendously in the recent years in China since it offers a valuable alternative to traditional chemical reaction which requires harsh conditions. As a result, an upsurge of these promising enzymes (including nitrile hydratase, nitrilase and amidase) has been taking place. This review aims at describing these enzymes in detail. A variety of microorganisms harboring nitrile-amide converting activities have been isolated and identified in China, some of which have already applied with moderate success. Currently, a wide range of high-value compounds such as aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic amides and their corresponding acids were provided by these nitrile-amide degra-ding organisms. Simultaneously, with the increasing demand of chiral substances, the enantioselectivity of the nitrilase superfamily is widely investigated and exploited in China, especially the bioconversion of optically active α-substituted phenylacetamides, acids and 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxamide and 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid by means of the catalysts exhibiting excellent stereoselectivity. Besides their synthetic value, the nitrile-amide converting enzymes also play an important role in environmental protection. In this context, cloning of the genes and expression of these enzymes are presented. In the near future in China, an increasing number of novel nitrile-amide converting organisms will be screened and their potential in the synthesis of useful acids and amides will be further exploited.

  19. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2013-10-15

    The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al(3+) soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%). PMID:23959251

  20. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs. PMID:25613434

  1. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  2. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled. PMID:24434988

  3. The value of screening in patient populations with high prevalence of a disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thombs and colleagues have shown that screening consecutive attendees in primary care settings in high income countries for depression is not worthwhile. However, it is dangerous to generalize from high income countries such as the USA to the rest of the world. The positive predictive value of any screening test for depression is affected by the prevalence of the disorder in the population being considered. Populations with an increased prevalence of depression, such as those with chronic physical disorders, or with a history of depression or other mental health problems may benefit from screening, even in high income countries. Populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC) may also benefit from screening if they are experiencing severe social adversity, including poverty. Two examples are given, in which screening with a brief screening questionnaire was followed by collaborative stepped care, to the considerable benefit of the patients in LMIC. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/13. PMID:24472627

  4. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  5. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  6. Penicillium roqueforti: a multifunctional cell factory of high value-added molecules.

    PubMed

    Mioso, R; Toledo Marante, F J; Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I

    2015-04-01

    This is a comprehensive review, with 114 references, of the chemical diversity found in the fungus Penicillium roqueforti. Secondary metabolites of an alkaloidal nature are described, for example, ergot alkaloids such as festuclavine, isofumigaclavines A and B, and diketopiperazine alkaloids such as roquefortines A-D, which are derived from imidazole. Other metabolites are marcfortines A-C, PR-toxin, eremofortines A-E, mycophenolic and penicillic acids, and some γ-lactones. Also, recent developments related to the structural characteristics of botryodiplodin and andrastin are studied-the latter has anticancer properties. Finally, we discuss the enzymes of P. roqueforti, which can participate in the biotechnological production of high value-added molecules, as well as the use of secondary metabolite profiles for taxonomic purposes. PMID:25421646

  7. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. PMID:26996261

  8. Rainforest Pharmacopeia in Madagascar Provides High Value for Current Local and Prospective Global Uses

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Christopher D.; Rasolofoniaina, B. J. Rodolph; Anjaranirina, E. J. Gasta; Nicolas, Lilien; Ravaoliny, Laurent; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency). The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40–7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60–287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24–44.30 per year, equivalent to 43–63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22–63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed’s unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3–5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the conservation of

  9. Extreme Precipitation: Resolving the Added Value of High-Resolution Physical and Statistical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, K.; Stoner, A. M. K.; Wang, J.; Scott-Fleming, I.; Abeysundara, S.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-12-01

    Human-induced climate change is altering the risk of many types of weather extremes, including the frequency and/or severity of heavy precipitation events. The basic science connecting global warming to more frequent heavy precipitation is relative straightforward. It is far more challenging, however, to predict how climate change will affect the magnitude and frequency of these events at the relatively fine spatial scales at which the impacts of extreme rainfall, snow storms, and flooding are typically characterized. Using a case study based on a set of geographically distributed long-term weather stations located at Dept. of Defense installations across the U.S., we explore the individual and combined contributions of high-resolution regional climate modeling (WRF), station-based statistical downscaling (ARRM), extreme value distributions (GEV), and the use of global mean temperature-based thresholds rather than time slices (an approach that is illustrated Figure 1) to resolve observed trends and narrow the envelope of projected future change. All projections and analyses are based on the CESM1-MOAR simulation driven by the higher RCP 8.5 scenario, a consistency specifically introduced into the experiment in order to better resolve the strengths and limitations of each method in understanding extreme precipitation trends. Each of these approaches provides clear added value when compared to direct output from the global climate model. We also find that the ability to refine global model output using high-resolution physical modeling, statistics, and observations can all prove useful at different geographic locations and for different parts of the distribution. However, the primary conclusion of this analysis is the utility of combining multiple physical and statistical modeling and analysis approaches when addressing issues such as extreme precipitation that occur at the tails of the distribution.

  10. Morphological abnormalities of rabbit spermatozoa studied by scanning electron microscope and quantified by light microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, G; Fausto, A M; Morera, P

    1996-01-01

    Rabbit spermatozoa morphological abnormalities were examined to establish criteria for judging the quality of ejaculates. Ten New Zealand White bucks, aged 9 months and weighing 4.3 +/- 0.2 kg, were placed in a climatic chamber for 3 weeks at +20 degrees C and 70% RH. Sperm was collected three times a week using an artificial vagina. The use of a scanning electron microscope (from x 2000 to x 15,000) in this study produced an illustrated guide for the classification of abnormalities. Mean percentage quantitative values studied by light microscope (x 400) observation were: 18.2% total abnormalities, 2.9% head abnormalities, 13.6% tail abnormalities and 1.7% broken spermatozoa. Variability was very high (CV 35.7, 54.0, 45.3 and 32.5%, respectively); consequently, each ejaculate should be analysed before use for artificial insemination. Among the different tail abnormalities observed, the most frequent were coiled tails, 9.1%, cytoplasmic droplets, 2.4%, bent tails, 1.3% and swollen tails, 0.5%. PMID:8987108

  11. Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fenghua; Chen, Yang; Zhai, Fengying; Li, Jing; Wang, Jianghua; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shengtian; Zhu, Weimin

    2008-09-01

    Transesterification of waste cooking oil with high acid value and high water contents using heteropolyacid H3PW12O40 x 6H2O (PW12) as catalyst was investigated. The hexahydrate form of PW(12) was found to be the most promising catalyst which exhibited highest ester yield 87% for transesterification of waste cooking oil and ester yield 97% for esterification of long-chain palmitic acid, respectively. The PW12 acid catalyst shows higher activity under the optimized reaction conditions compared with conventional homogeneous catalyst sulfuric acid, and can easily be separated from the products by distillation of the excess methanol and can be reused more times. The most important feature of this catalyst is that the catalytic activity is not affected by the content of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the content of water in the waste cooking oil and the transesterification can occur at a lower temperature (65 degrees C), a lower methanol oil ratio (70:1) and be finished within a shorter time. The results illustrate that PW12 acid is an excellent water-tolerant and environmentally benign acid catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. PMID:18646228

  12. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials. PMID:23680192

  13. Reconstituting Plant Secondary Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Production of High-Value Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Pyne, M E; Narcross, L; Fossati, E; Bourgeois, L; Burton, E; Gold, N D; Martin, V J J

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) constitute a diverse class of plant secondary metabolites that includes the opiate analgesics morphine and codeine. Collectively, BIAs exhibit a myriad of pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antitussive, antispasmodic, and anticancer properties. Despite 2500 known BIA products, only a small proportion are currently produced though traditional crop-based manufacturing, as complex stereochemistry renders chemical synthesis of BIAs largely unfeasible. The advent of synthetic biology and sophisticated microbial engineering coupled with recent advances in the elucidation of plant BIA metabolic networks has provided growing motivation for producing high-value BIAs in microbial hosts. Here, we provide a technical basis for reconstituting BIA biosynthetic pathways in the common yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methodologies outlined in this chapter include fundamental techniques for expressing and assaying BIA biosynthetic enzymes, bioprospecting large libraries of BIA enzyme variants, and reconstituting and optimizing complete BIA formation pathways in yeast. To expedite construction of superior BIA-producing yeast strains, we emphasize high-throughput techniques. Finally, we identify fundamental challenges impeding deployment of yeast-based BIA production platforms and briefly outline future prospects to overcome such barriers. PMID:27417930

  14. The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

  15. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values.

    PubMed

    Collins, L C; Willing, S; Bretz, R; Harty, M; Lane, E; Anderson, W H

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified. PMID:8404184

  16. High-resolution CT in simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Lack of correlation with pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas values

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.C.; Willing, S.; Bretz, R.; Harty, M.; Lane, E.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as category 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; 5 of 6, 1/0 CWP; and 1 of 1, 2/1 CWP by chest radiograph. Focal emphysema was identified by HRCT in 7 miners; 4 of 9 were classified as 0/0 CWP; 2 of 5, 0/1 CWP; and 1 of 6, 1/0 CWP by standard chest radiography. Four miners with definite nodules confirmed by HRCT had focal emphysema, while three without nodules had focal emphysema. Pulmonary function testing was not different between miners with or without CWP by standard chest radiography, nor was it different between miners with or without definite nodules evidenced by HRCT. No difference in resting oxygenation was found between any group of miners. The presence of focal emphysema confirmed by HRCT did not significantly affect pulmonary function tests on resting arterial blood gas values. There was, however, a significantly lower FEV1 and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of forced vital capacity with lifetime nonsmoking miners. The presence of CWP on chest radiography was significantly correlated with smoking cigarettes but not the years of mining. The presence of nodules on HRCT approached a significant correlation with cigarette smoking, but focal emphysema did not. For detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in lung parenchyma and identifying focal emphysema, HRCT was more sensitive than standard chest radiography. However, despite earlier detection of parenchymal abnormalities, abnormal pulmonary function attributable to coal dust could not be identified.

  17. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness. PMID:25714122

  18. High VEGF serum values are associated with locoregional spread of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs).

    PubMed

    Cigrovski Berković, Maja; Čačev, Tamara; Catela Ivković, Tina; Marout, Jasminka; Ulamec, Monika; Zjačić-Rotkvić, Vanja; Kapitanović, Sanja

    2016-04-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are highly vascularized neoplasms, capable of synthethisizing VEGF-A, a key mediator of angiogenesis. In pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) VEGF expression is higher in benign and low-grade tumors and associated with good prognosis (neuroendocrine paradox) while the VEGF role in gastrointestinal NETs (GI-NETs) is still unclear. In this study, we examined the VEGF-1154A/G polymorphism in 145 GEP-NET patients and 150 controls. Next, we measured VEGF serum levels and VEGF tumor protein expression, comparing it with Ki67 and tumor grade. Patients' VEGF serum levels were compared with VEGF -1145A/G genotypes and metastatic status as well as with chromogranin A (CgA) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in case of GI-NET patients. In this study GEP-NET patients had elevated VEGF serum values when compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0013). VEGF-1145G allele correlated with higher VEGF serum levels (p = 0.002). Patients with metastatic tumors had higher VEGF serum values when compared to patients without metastases (p = 0.033), and highest levels were observed in case of lymph node metastases (p = 0.008). VEGF-1145G allele was more frequent in non-functional GI-NET patients than in healthy controls (p = 0.041). CgA was superior to VEGF in tumor detection, while VEGF was superior to 5-HIAA. A correlation was observed between VEGF immunohistochemical staining and Ki-67 (p = 0.028). Tumours with weaker VEGF protein expression were more aggressive than tumours with stronger VEGF expression, confirming a "neuroendocrine paradox" in GI-NETs. Our results suggest the role of VEGF in GI-NETs locoregional spread. PMID:26805636

  19. Assessed value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T for cardiovascular disease among CKD patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Tan, Xiao; Cao, Xuesen; Zou, Jianzhou

    2016-06-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and to further explore its value of evaluating and predicting CVD in this population. Methods Five hundred and fifty-seven non-dialysis CKD patients were involved in this cross-sectional study. The relationship between serum hs-cTnT and CVD was analyzed using comparison between groups and regression analysis, and its value on assessing cardiac structure and function was evaluated by ROC curves. Results Median level of hs-cTnT was 13 (7-29) ng/L, with 1.7% undetectable, 46.4% greater than 99th percentile of the general population. Multivariate analysis suggested that compared with the lowest quartile of hs-cTnT, the highest quartile was approximately six times as likely to develop into LVH (OR, 6.515; 95% CI, 3.478-12.206, p < 0.05) and 18 times as likely to progress to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction(OR, 18.741; 95% CI, 2.422-145.017, p < 0.05). And Ln cTnT level had a more modest association with LVEF (OR, -1.117; 95% CI, -5.839 to -0.594; p < 0.05). When evaluated as a screening test, the area under the curve of ROC curves for hs-cTnT was 0.718, 0.788 and 0.736, respectively (p < 0.05). With a specificity of 90% as a diagnostic criterion, the value of hs-cTnT to evaluate LVH, LVEF < 50%, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction increased across CKD stages, from CKD 1 stage to CKD 5 stage. Conclusions In CKD non-dialysis population, hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were valuable for evaluating LVH, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. PMID:26984066

  20. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    PubMed Central

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

  1. Comparison of the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and Roche AMPLICOR and LINEAR ARRAY Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Tests in Detecting High-Risk HPV Genotypes in Specimens from Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smear Results▿

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Rudland, Elice; Tan, Jeffrey; Quinn, Michael A.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2007-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is strongly associated with the presence of persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, the commercially manufactured PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and LINEAR ARRAY (LA) HPV tests have become available for HPV detection. However, knowledge of their clinical performance compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay is limited. This study evaluated the concordance between the HC2, AMP, and LA tests in detecting HR-HPV among a cohort of 1,679 women with previous abnormal Pap smear results. Overall, 1,393 specimens (81.3%) generated concordant results for HR-HPV presence or absence by the three assays. The concordance levels were substantial between the HC2 and AMP tests (84.4%, κ = 0.6419) and between the HC2 and LA tests (84.0%, κ = 0.6341) and nearly perfect between the AMP and LA tests (97.8%, κ = 0.9441). HR-HPV prevalence, as detected by the AMP or LA tests, was significantly higher among women with cytological or histological high-grade disease (CIN2 or greater) than that detected by HC2 (P < 0.0001). The AMP and LA tests exhibited greater sensitivity, but lower specificity, than HC2 for detecting HR-HPV among this cohort of women with underlying cervical abnormalities, particularly among subjects with histologically proven high-grade disease. Both PCR-based HPV tests may be valuable in the management of care for women with underlying cervical abnormalities, in predicting treatment success, and in studying the clearance or acquisition of new infections. PMID:17494721

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogs regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae. PMID:25741321

  4. Investigating the added values of high frequency energy consumption data using data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ying; Engström, Christopher; Malyarenko, Anatoliy; Wallin, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we apply data-mining techniques to customer classification and clustering tasks on actual electricity consumption data from 350 Swedish households. For the classification task we classify households into different categories based on some statistical attributes of their energy consumption measurements. For the clustering task, we use average daily load diagrams to partition electricity-consuming households into distinct groups. The data contains electricity consumption measurements on each 10-minute time interval for each light source and electrical appliance. We perform the classification and clustering tasks using four variants of processed data sets corresponding to the 10-minute total electricity consumption aggregated from all electrical sources, the hourly total consumption aggregated over all 10-minute intervals during that clock hour, the total consumption over each four-hour intervals and finally the daily total consumption. The goal is to see if there are any differences in using data sets of various frequency levels. We present the comparison results and investigate the added value of the high-frequency measurements, for example 10-minute measurements, in terms of its influence on customer clustering and classification.

  5. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  6. Solar photo-thermal catalytic reactions to produce high value chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Prengle, Jr, H W; Wentworth, W E

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a summary of the research work accomplished to date on the utilization of solar photo-thermal energy to convert low cost chemical feedstocks into high $-value chemical products. The rationale is that the solar IR-VIS-UV spectrum is unique, supplying endothermic reaction energy as well as VIS-UV for photochemical activation. Chemical market analysis and product price distribution focused attention on speciality chemicals with prices >$1.00/lb, and a synthesis sequence of n-paraffins to aromatics to partial oxidized products. The experimental work has demonstrated that enhanced reaction effects result from VIS-UV irradiation of catalytically active V2O5/SiO2. Experiments of the past year have been on dehydrogenation and dehydrocyclization of n-paraffins to olefins and aromatics with preference for the latter. Recent results using n-hexane produced 95% conversion with 56% benzene; it is speculated that aromatic yield should reach {approximately}70% by further optimization. Pilot- and commercial-scale reactor configurations have been examined; the odds-on-favorite being a shallow fluid-bed of catalyst with incident radiation from the top. Sequencing for maximum cost effectiveness would be day-time endothermic followed by night-time exothermic reactions to produce the products.

  7. High incidence of functional ion-channel abnormalities in a consecutive Long QT cohort with novel missense genetic variants of unknown significance

    PubMed Central

    Steffensen, Annette Buur; Refaat, Marwan M.; David, Jens-Peter; Mujezinovic, Amer; Calloe, Kirstine; Wojciak, Julianne; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Scheinman, Melvin M.; Schmitt, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval and a propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which may lead to syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden death. Our objective was to (1) determine the incidence of variants with unknown significance (VUS) in a cohort of consecutive LQTS patients and (2) to determine the percentage of those with novel missense VUS that have demonstrable functional channel abnormalities from a single referral center. We performed genetic screening of candidate genes in 39 probands with a diagnosis of LQTS to identify mutations and variants. Seven variants of unknown significance were identified, six were missense variants and one was a splice site variant. We investigated the six novel missense VUS in five patients; three missense variants in KCNQ1 (L236R, W379R, Y522S) and three missense variants in KCNH2 (R35W, S620G, V491I). We employed two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments in Xenopus laevis oocytes and confocal imaging to characterize the novel missense mutations functionally. We revealed electrophysiological and trafficking loss-of-function phenotypes. This report emphasizes the frequency of adverse channel function in patients with LQTS and the importance of heterologous studies to define channel function. PMID:26066609

  8. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  9. Optical measurement of the pH value of intransparent samples under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, M.; Wierschem, A.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a method to optically study the pH value of intransparent media under pressure. To this end, we prepare and use immobilized pH-value indicators. The indicators are brought into contact to the medium and their optical signal is read out in reflection with a spectrometer. The pH value and pressure response of the indicator were calibrated with imidazole buffers. As an example for its applicability to foodstuff, we study the pressure-induced pH-value change of fat and meat pastes.

  10. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  11. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  12. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  13. Cone photopigment bleaching abnormalities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elsner, A E; Burns, S A; Lobes, L A; Doft, B H

    1987-04-01

    We have used a color-matching technique to obtain estimates of the optical density of cone photopigments as a function of retinal illuminance in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We found that the half-bleach illuminance of some patients is abnormally high. That is, it takes more light to bleach an equivalent amount of photopigment in these patients. Since low illuminance color matches for these patients are normal, this implies that these patients have normal amounts of photopigment, but the photopigment is not bleaching normally. This result clearly points to abnormalities in the outer retina of these diabetic patients. The most likely causes of this abnormality are either decreases in the ability of the cones to absorb light, or an increased rate of regeneration of the cone photopigments. PMID:3557875

  14. Learning Value at Senior High School Al-Kautsar Lampung for the Formation of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Chairul

    2015-01-01

    Globalization process went very quickly and move brings tremendous impact and implications for life, including educational institutions. Objectively, students in public schools and private are increasingly far deviated from the values of religious and moral values, the brawl between students, pornography and pornographic, played by students, abuse…

  15. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  16. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies. PMID:26233431

  17. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  18. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    PubMed

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  19. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  20. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  1. The Value of High Resolution Forest Canopy Maps for Implementing Carbon Sequestration Programs in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Abbott, P. C.; Hittich, R.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Program, the University of Maryland has produced 1m resolution forest canopy cover and height maps that have been provided to the State of Maryland. The project used existing, wall-to-wall airborne lidar coverage combined with other remote sensing and field datasets to produce countywide maps of carbon stocks and their uncertainties at 30 m resolution as well as the 1m canopy maps. In this paper, we examine what purposes we identified for the data for decision making in climate mitigation, what use it has already seen, and what potential there is in the future for using the data. The State of Maryland has three programs focused on maintaining or increasing forest cover as part of its Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Program (GHGRP) program enacted in 2012, including Woodland Incentive Program (WIP), the Lawn to Woodland Initiative (L2W), and the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Forest canopy data from CMS were examined the prospects for both adoption and carbon sequestration of these three initiatives, and their effects on the overall success of the GHGRP. We found that it was difficult it is to pin down "value" that is directly attributable to the data, although we found the data to be important in recognizing the nature and extent of the carbon problem, and in identifying potential solutions to addressing the problem. As in many decision-making contexts, having high quality, accurate data on forest cover is necessary but not sufficient for effective, affordable programs that lead to carbon sequestration in the state.

  2. Value of high-frequency ultrasound in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuji; Meng, Zengdong; Pan, Xuekun; Qin, Libo; Wang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound examination for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A total of 63 wrists from 45 patients diagnosed with CTS were selected as the study group, and 43 asymptomatic wrists of 40 cases were included as the normal control group. Parameters such as the transverse diameter, vertical diameter, cross-sectional area (CSA), and flattening rate (FR) of the carpal tunnel radioulnar joint, postular bone, and median nerve in the hamate bone hook plane were measured, and the differences between the two groups were compared. The median nerve CSA in the postular bone plate was significantly greater in the study group than in the normal control group (0.17±0.05 vs. 0.09±0.02, P<0.01), and the FR at the hook of the hamate was significantly higher in the study group (3.52±0.86 vs. 3.21±0.26, P<0.01). Our results suggest that ultrasonography can effectively provide dynamic real-time images of the wrist in addition to being painless, non-invasive, and associated with relatively low costs. Based on our findings, we believe that ultrasonography is an effective examination method for CTS. When the threshold of the median nerve CSA in the postular bone plate was set as 10 mm2, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 86%, respectively. Therefore, the median nerve CSA may represent a good clinical indicator of CTS. PMID:26885222

  3. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery.

    PubMed

    Steneck, R S; Hughes, T P; Cinner, J E; Adger, W N; Arnold, S N; Berkes, F; Boudreau, S A; Brown, K; Folke, C; Gunderson, L; Olsson, P; Scheffer, M; Stephenson, E; Walker, B; Wilson, J; Worm, B

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies. PMID:21797925

  4. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Md. Mahfuzur R.; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J.; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as “super anti-oxidant.” Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation. PMID:27200009

  5. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Md Mahfuzur R; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation. PMID:27200009

  6. ESTIMATION OF GIARDIA CT VALUES AT HIGH PH FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency currently recommends Ct (disinfectant concentration multiplied by the exposure time) values to achieve required levels of inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts by different disinfectants including free chlorine. Current guidance covers ina...

  7. Chromosome 13q deletion and IgH abnormalities may be both masked by near-tetraploidy in a high proportion of multiple myeloma patients: a combined morphology and I-FISH analysis.

    PubMed

    Koren-Michowitz, Maya; Hardan, Izhar; Berghoff, Janina; Yshoev, Galina; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Nagler, Arnon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2007-10-01

    Ploidy status and chromosomal aberrations involving chromosome 13q and the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH) are important prognostic features in multiple myeloma (MM). However, conventional cytogenetic studies are often not reveling and determination of plasma cells (PC) ploidy status in MM is technically difficult. We have used a combined cell morphology and interphase FISH (I-FISH) analysis in 184 consecutive BM samples from 136 MM patients for the diagnosis of chromosome 13q deletion [del (13q)] and IgH abnormalities. We have found a high prevalence (37%) of near-tetraploid (NT) PC in the BM samples studied. NT status of PC was verified with DNA index (DI) measurements. del (13q) was found in 69% and a total absence of one IgH copy (loss of IgH) in 20% of NT samples. We have shown that the presence of del (13q) and loss of IgH can be masked in NT cases: in 12 NT samples originally identified as normal for del (13q) the abnormality was obscured in the majority of plasma cells due to the presence of NT. Similarly, loss of IgH was masked in four samples with a large population of NT cells. Moreover, in one case the appearance of a 100% tetraploidy during disease progression masked the presence of del (13q), originally present, and could therefore falsely appear as disappearance of this prognostic marker. In conclusion, we have shown that a combination of three abnormalities, i.e., del (13q), loss of IgH and NT, all of potential prognostic significance, can be overlooked unless NT is specifically searched for and ruled out. Therefore, we suggest that a search for NT should be added to the routine BM assessment in MM patients. PMID:17590504

  8. High frequency of known copy number abnormalities and maternal duplication 15q11-q13 in patients with combined schizophrenia and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many copy number variants (CNVs) are documented to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Chromosomal deletions of 1q21.1, 3q29, 15q13.3, 22q11.2, and NRXN1 and duplications of 15q11-q13 (maternal), 16p11, and 16p13.3 have the strongest association with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that cases with both schizophrenia and epilepsy would have a higher frequency of disease-associated CNVs and would represent an enriched sample for detection of other mutations associated with schizophrenia. Methods We used array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyze 235 individuals with both schizophrenia and epilepsy, 80 with bipolar disorder and epilepsy, and 191 controls. Results We detected 10 schizophrenia plus epilepsy cases in 235 (4.3%) with the above mentioned CNVs compared to 0 in 191 controls (p = 0.003). Other likely pathological findings in schizophrenia plus epilepsy cases included 1 deletion 16p13 and 1 duplication 7q11.23 for a total of 12/235 (5.1%) while a possibly pathogenic duplication of 22q11.2 was found in one control for a total of 1 in 191 (0.5%) controls (p = 0.008). The rate of abnormality in the schizophrenia plus epilepsy of 10/235 for the more definite CNVs compares to a rate of 75/7336 for these same CNVs in a series of unselected schizophrenia cases (p = 0.0004). Conclusion We found a statistically significant increase in the frequency of CNVs known or likely to be associated with schizophrenia in individuals with both schizophrenia and epilepsy compared to controls. We found an overall 5.1% detection rate of likely pathological findings which is the highest frequency of such findings in a series of schizophrenia patients to date. This evidence suggests that the frequency of disease-associated CNVs in patients with both schizophrenia and epilepsy is significantly higher than for unselected schizophrenia. PMID:22118685

  9. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  10. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  11. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  12. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  14. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  15. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor Coal...

  16. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission factor Coal...

  17. Ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of hydrocarbon fuels to high-value-added products

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes the design of a membrane reactor for converting methane into value added products. The design includes an outer tube of perovskite which contacts air, an inner tube of zirconium oxide which contacts methane, and a bonding layer of a mixture of zirconium oxide and perovskite.

  18. Values as Protective Factors against Violent Behavior in Jewish and Arab High Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Ariel; Daniel, Ella; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that values, abstract goals serving as guiding life principles, become relatively important predictors of adolescents' self-reported violent behavior in school environments in which violence is relatively common. The study employed a students-nested-in-schools design. Arab and Jewish adolescents (N = 907, M age =…

  19. Eco-Act: A Role-Playing Game to Clarify Environmental Values, High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a noncompetitive simulation game in which students role play situations described on a card to investigate their feelings, values, and behavior toward nature and toward others. Available from: NAAHE, the University of Tulsa, 600 South College, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104. (Author/DB)

  20. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  1. Abnormal behavior of threshold voltage shift in bias-stressed a-Si:H thin film transistor under extremely high intensity illumination.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Youn; Park, Kyung Tea; Kim, Cheolkyu; Jeon, Sanghyun; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Kong, Hyang-Shik

    2015-07-22

    We report on the unusual behavior of threshold voltage turnaround in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) when biased under extremely high intensity illumination. The threshold voltage shift changes from negative to positive gate bias direction after ∼30 min of bias stress even when the negative gate bias stress is applied under high intensity illumination (>400 000 Cd/cm(2)), which has not been observed in low intensity (∼6000 Cd/cm(2)). This behavior is more pronounced in a low work function gate metal structure (Al: 4.1-4.3 eV), compared to the high work function of Cu (4.5-5.1 eV). Also this is mainly observed in shorter wavelength of high photon energy illumination. However, this behavior is effectively prohibited by embedding the high energy band gap (∼8.6 eV) of SiOx in the gate insulator layer. These imply that this behavior could be originated from the injection of electrons from gate electrode, transported and trapped in the electron trap sites of the SiNx/a-Si:H interface, which causes the shift of threshold voltage toward positive gate bias direction. The results reported here can be applicable to the large-sized outdoor displays which are usually exposed to the extremely high intensity illumination. PMID:26132513

  2. The Educational Value of High Risk Activities in the Physical Education Program: A Social Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Robert E. C.

    A growing number of schools and institutions in North America have begun offering training in high risk activities such as high element rope courses, rock climbing, white water kayaking and canoeing, and scuba diving in conjunction with their regular physical education activity programs. High risk activities are those activities which occur in or…

  3. In vitro callus induction and plantlet regeneration of Achyranthes aspera L., a high value medicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Monokesh Kumer; Nasrin, Shamima; Rahman, Shahedur; Jamal, Abu Hena Mostofa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study callus induction from different explants (internode, leaf, root) and in vitro plantlets propagation from medicinally important plant Achyranthes aspera L. Methods Sterilized explants were prepared by using 0.1% HgCl2 and 0.5% Bavistin and callus was obtained when cultured onto Murashige Skoog's (MS) medium by using different concentrations and combination of 2,4-D, NAA, BAP, IAA, IBA with 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar. Induced callus was immediately transferred to MS medium containing at different concentrations of phytohormones for shootlets and rootlets induction respectively. Results Sterilization treatment of 0.1% HgCl2 for 2-3 min and Bavistin 0.5% for 10-12 min showed the highest percentage of asepsis and survival rate. Maximum induction of callus was obtained from a combination of 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L NAA from leaf. Highest shootlets number (4.83±0.17) and length (3.8±0.16) cm were observed on full strength MS medium when fortified with BAP 4.0 mg/L and KIN 0.5 mg/L. Concerted efforts of BAP 2.0 mg/L and NAA 0.5 mg/L on full strength MS medium showed highest leaf number (6.77±0.94). In vitro raised shoots were allowed to root on different strengths of MS medium fortified with IAA and IBA at different concentrations. Experimentally, 3.0 mg/L IBA was enabled to induce maximum rootlets number (10.0±9.82) on full strength MS medium. Afterwards, regenerated shoots with well developed roots were successfully subjected to hardening process and were acclimatized. The survived plantlets showed 66.67% survival frequency without any morphological abnormality. Conclusions The results demonstrated that different explants were good source of callus induction, morphology analysis as well as indirect plantlets regeneration. PMID:24144129

  4. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  5. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  6. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  7. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A <1st%ile has a good predictive value for subsequent fetal growth restriction. Women with PAPP-A<5th%ile should undergo subsequent risk assessment with routine MSAFP screening with the possible addition of uterine artery PI assessment in the midtrimester. PMID:20638576

  8. Dentofacial abnormalities among adolescents: A study on the prevalence and severity

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Rekha P.; Shenoy-Panchmal, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of this investigation were to assess prevalence and severity of dentofacial abnormalities and orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Mangalore taluk. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1340 children from randomly selected high schools. A proforma was used to record demographic data and components of the Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI] for each subject. The Chi squared test was used for analysis with p-value of < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Dentofacial abnormalities (DAI scores ≥ 26) were recorded in 38.5% subjects. Mean DAI score of the study population was 24.59 ± 6.09. Female subjects presented with higher prevalence and higher mean DAI scores than their male counterparts (p > 0.05). Assessment of severity of malocclusion between age groups revealed no differences (p > 0.05). Orthodontic treatment was highly desirable in 11% and mandatory in 5.2% subjects. Conclusions A high prevalence of dentofacial abnormalities was found among adolescents in Mangalore taluk pointing towards a need for designing effective programs for early diagnosis and treatment of this condition, especially among adolescents. Key words:Adolescents, Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI], dentofacial abnormalities, malocclusion, orthodontic treatment need, prevalence, severity. PMID:26155345

  9. Uses and Values of Prototypic Visual Images in High School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presmeg, Norma C.

    Imagery use in high school mathematics classrooms was studied. A visual image was defined as a mental scheme depicting visual or spatial information, but this definition was not spelled out to teachers or students, in order to learn what they meant by the concept. Subjects were 13 high school teachers and 54 of their students interviewed over 3…

  10. Assessing the Value of High School Accounting for the College Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlob, George T.; Cosenza, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of first-quarter college accounting principles students. It was found that a typically difficult college course may be made easier and student performance improved by giving high school accounting instruction its proper importance in the curriculum of the business-oriented, college-bound high school student. (CT)

  11. The Value of People, Place and Possibilities: A Multiple Case Study of Rural High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Angelis, Janet I.; Baker, Linda; Lawson, Hal A.

    2014-01-01

    What are the qualities of classroom, school, and district processes and practices in rural high schools with higher-than average graduation rates? How do these processes and practices compare with rural schools with histories of average graduation rates? In this study, six schools were sampled for a multiple case study of rural high school…

  12. Extending Sociological Theorising on High Ability: The Significance of Values and Lived Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzoli Smith, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sociological work on high ability is framed by social constructionist theorising and/or takes a social justice approach, and hence particular analytical intellectual traditions are foregrounded. Whilst these approaches have contributed the main critique of essentialist psychological understandings of high ability, they can eclipse normative…

  13. Bakers' cyst and tibiofemoral abnormalities are more distinctive MRI features of symptomatic osteoarthritis than patellofemoral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Visser, A W; Mertens, B; Reijnierse, M; Bloem, J L; de Mutsert, R; le Cessie, S; Rosendaal, F R; Kloppenburg, M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate which structural MR abnormalities discriminate symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), taking co-occurrence of abnormalities in all compartments into account. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45–65 years. In 1285 participants (median age 56 years, 55% women, median body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2), MRI of the right knee were obtained. Structural abnormalities (osteophytes, cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), subchondral cysts, meniscal abnormalities, effusion, Baker's cyst) at 9 patellofemoral and tibiofemoral locations were scored following the knee OA scoring system. Symptomatic OA in the imaged knee was defined following the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Logistic ridge regression analyses were used to investigate which structural abnormalities discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic OA, crude and adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Symptomatic knee OA was present in 177 individuals. Structural MR abnormalities were highly frequent both in individuals with OA and in those without. Baker's cysts showed the highest adjusted regression coefficient (0.293) for presence of symptomatic OA, followed by osteophytes and BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment (0.185–0.279), osteophytes in the medial trochlear facet (0.262) and effusion (0.197). Conclusions Baker's cysts discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic knee OA. Structural MR abnormalities, especially in the medial side of the tibiofemoral joint and effusion, add further in discriminating symptomatic OA. Baker's cysts may present as a target for treatment. PMID:27252896

  14. Flexible displays as key for high-value and unique automotive design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isele, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Within the last few years' car industry changed very fast. Information and Communication became more important and displays are now standard in nearly every car. But this is not the only trend which could be recognized in this industry. CO2 emission, fuel price as well as the increasing traffic inside the Mega Cities initialized a big change in the behavior of the customers. The big battle for the car industry will enter the interior extremely fast, and the premium cars need ore innovative design icons. Flexible Displays are one big step that enables totally different designs and a new value of the driver experience.

  15. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced. PMID:22105627

  16. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  17. [Formulation of a rice-based beverage of high nutritive value].

    PubMed

    Guerra, M J; González, D; Jaffé, W G; Calderón, M

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of this work was the production of a beverage with a nutritive value similar to that of milk, but available at a lower cost. A traditional beverage in Venezuela, "Chicha de Arroz" (Rice Chicha), was chosen. The various formulas studied were based on rice, non-fat milk and different kinds of soy flour, in addition to sugar, vegetable oil, vitamins, ferrous sulfate and different flavors. A product with protein and caloric values similar to those of milk was obtained. Twenty formulas were prepared and submitted to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial evaluations with respect to flavor, color, viscosity and stability during period of refrigeration. The most adequate formula was prepared on a pilot-plant scale. Rat assays gave the same PER results as those of casein. Consumer acceptability was tested on 1,080 school children, and showed to be greater than 95%. The stability was superior to that of milk and the cost, approximately three-fourths that of the latter. In the school-snack program of the National Institute of Nutrition, milk is now being replaced by this Chicha. PMID:6895986

  18. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  19. Converting biowaste corncob residue into high value added porous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wen-Hui; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, An-Hui; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Li, Wen-Cui

    2015-08-01

    In this report, corncob residue, the main by-product in the furfural industry, is used as a precursor to prepare porous carbon by a simple and direct thermal treatment: one-step activation without pre-carbonization. As a consequence, the corncob residue derived porous carbon achieves a high surface area of 1210 m(2) g(-1) after ash-removal. The carbon material has the advantages of low cost and low environmental impact, with a superior electrochemical performance compared to those polymer-based synthetic carbons as electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon electrode exhibits a high capacitance of 314 F g(-1) in 6M KOH electrolyte. The corresponding sample also shows a superb cycling stability. Almost no capacitance decay was observed after 100,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance is due to the combination of a high specific surface area with a fraction of mesopores and highly stable structure. PMID:25898091

  20. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

  1. The tactical value of ENSO forecast information to dual use winter wheat production in the US Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal here was to estimate the tactical value of El Niño–Southern oscillation (ENSO) forecast information to dual-use winter wheat management over the U.S. Southern High Plains via a simulation approach. These model simulations considered three market scenarios, and the most profitable management...

  2. Accountability and Pennsylvania High Schools: Using a Value-Added Model to Identify, Quantify, and Track School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Todd Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the prevailing No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandate as an effective platform to improve schools. The data compiled for use in this study represented 426 high schools in Pennsylvania and were retrieved from publicly accessible, state-sponsored sources. The statistical methodologies from the Pennsylvania Value-Added…

  3. High Technology Service Value Maximization through an MCDM-Based Innovative e-Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-Yo; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Ho, Wen-Rong; Chuang, Hsiu-Tyan; Lue, Yeou-Feng

    The emergence of the Internet has changed the high technology marketing channels thoroughly in the past decade while E-commerce has already become one of the most efficient channels which high technology firms may skip the intermediaries and reach end customers directly. However, defining appropriate e-business models for commercializing new high technology products or services through Internet are not that easy. To overcome the above mentioned problems, a novel analytic framework based on the concept of high technology customers’ competence set expansion by leveraging high technology service firms’ capabilities and resources as well as novel multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques, will be proposed in order to define an appropriate e-business model. An empirical example study of a silicon intellectual property (SIP) commercialization e-business model based on MCDM techniques will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this novel analytic framework. The analysis successful assisted a Taiwanese IC design service firm to define an e-business model for maximizing its customer’s SIP transactions. In the future, the novel MCDM framework can be applied successful to novel business model definitions in the high technology industry.

  4. A Prospective Exploratory Analysis of Cardiac Biomarkers and Electrocardiogram Abnormalities in Patients Receiving Thoracic Radiation Therapy with High-Dose Heart Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Yusuf, Syed Wamique; Munsell, Mark; Welsh, James W.; Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H.; Pan, Hubert; Chang, Joe Y.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Grosshans, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute effects of incidental cardiac irradiation in patients treated for thoracic cancer are not well characterized. We evaluated longitudinal changes in cardiac biomarkers for patients undergoing conformal radiation therapy (RT) with thoracic malignancies with high-dose cardiac exposure. Methods Twenty-five patients enrolled in a prospective trial (February 2009–December 2012) received ≥45 Gy to the thorax, with pretreatment estimates of ≥20 Gy to the heart. Chemotherapy was allowed except for doxorubicin or fluorouracil. Electrocardiographic (ECG), troponin-I (TnI), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements were obtained before RT, within 24 hours of the first fraction, at the end of RT, and at first follow-up (1–2 months). These biomarkers were quantified at specific times and changes from baseline were evaluated with paired t tests. Results The median heart dose was 25.9 Gy (range 10.1–35.1 Gy). After the first RT fraction, no changes were noted in ECG or median Tnl or BNP levels; at the end of RT, two patients had elevated TnI and BNP, but neither difference was statistically significant. At first follow-up, TnI had returned to normal but the median BNP remained elevated (P=0.042). BNP did not increase over time in the 18 patients who received only RT. Twelve patients experienced acute ECG changes during RT, which resolved in seven patients by the next measurement. No patients experienced clinically significant RT-related events. Conclusion Increases in BNP and ECG changes were observed during high doses of radiation to the heart. The findings of this pilot study warrant further investigation and validation. PMID:25521400

  5. Diagnostic cellular abnormalities in neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the epidermis: a morphological and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Andres, Christian; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cellular abnormalities in reactive and malignant lesions is challenging. We compared the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities in malignant/premalignant and benign epidermal lesions. Methods One hundred fifty-two biopsies representing 69 malignant/premalignant squamous lesions and 83 benign conditions were studied. Cytological features, including nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear overlap (crowding), irregular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, delicate inconspicuous nucleoli, clumped chromatin, pleomorphic parakeratosis, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and necrotic keratinocytes, were evaluated and graded. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Irregular nuclei, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous single prominent nucleoli, nuclear overlap (crowding), pleomorphic parakeratosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, necrotic keratinocytes, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and coarse chromatin were seen more frequently in malignant neoplasms (p < 0.05). Abnormal mitotic figures, although uncommon (20.3%), were only noted in the malignant/premalignant group. Certain cytological features were common among both malignant and benign lesions, suggesting that they are of little value. Conclusion In the setting of an atypical cutaneous squamous proliferation, nuclear irregularity, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, crowding and hyperchromasia are the most useful indicators of malignancy. In contrast, mitotic figures, necrotic cells and coarse chromatin are less useful. The presence of abnormal mitotic figures is very helpful when present; however, their overall rarity limits their utility. PMID:23398548

  6. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  7. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

    2008-10-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  8. Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  9. Valued Learning Experiences of Early Career and Experienced High-Performance Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rynne, Steven B.; Billett, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: This paper attempts to move the discussion of high-performance coach development from an examination of coaches' volume of experiences towards a consideration of the contribution of the learning experiences that coaches have reported throughout their careers. Furthermore, a discussion of proximal and distal guidance in the…

  10. Relative atherogenicity and predictive value of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established atherogenic factor for coronary heart disease, it does not completely represent the risk associated with atherogenic lipoproteins in the presence of high triglyceride (TG) levels. Constituent lipoproteins constituting non–hig...

  11. The Value of Writing "How-to" Books in High School World History and Geography Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kathryn; Daisey, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a story about eighty-six ninth-grade World History and Geography students who authored a "how-to" book, while pretending that they were experts who lived in the past and had to explain how to do something relating to that time period. These students attended a large high school in the Midwest; the school's population is 55%…

  12. Environmental Press and Value Climates of Coeducational and Single-Sex High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank W.; Coutts, Larry M.

    To determine if there are critical differences between the social and psychological environments of coeducational and single-sex schools, researchers investigated five coeducational, four all-female, and four all-male high schools in Ontario (Canada). All of the schools are "Separate" schools; that is, they are Roman Catholic and, therefore, are…

  13. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:21845737

  14. Blockade of Extracellular High-Mobility Group Box 1 Attenuates Systemic Inflammation and Coagulation Abnormalities in Rats with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhao, Kun; Shen, Xiao; Fan, Xin-xin; Ding, Kai; Liu, Ren-min; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background As an extracellularly released mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initiates sterile inflammation following severe trauma. Serum HMGB1 levels correlate well with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in trauma patients, which is independently associated with higher mortality. We investigated the involvement of HMGB1 in ATC through blocking extracellular HMGB1. Material/Methods The ATC model was induced by polytrauma and hemorrhage in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned to sham, ATC, and ATCH (ATC with HMGB1 blockade) groups. Thrombelastography (TEG) was performed to monitor changes in coagulation function. Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured, as well as lung levels of HMGB1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Results Compared with the sham group, HMGB1 increased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas HMGB1 blockade inhibited the induction of TNF-α and IL-6. HMGB1 also induced elevated serum soluble P-selectin and fibrinolysis markers plasmin-antiplasmin complex, which both were reduced by HMGB1 blockade. Thrombelastography revealed the hypocoagulability status in the ATC group, which was attenuated by anti-HMGB1 antibody. Furthermore, the lung level of NF-κB and expression of RAGE were decreased by anti-HMGB1 antibody, suggesting the role of RAGE/NF-κB pathway in ATC. Conclusions HMGB1 blockade can attenuate inflammation and coagulopathy in ATC rats. Anti-HMGB1 antibody might exert protective effects partly through the RAGE/NF-κB pathway. Thus, HMGB1 has potential as a therapeutic target in ATC. PMID:27436061

  15. Abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function associated with a heritable deficiency of high molecular weight surface glycoproteins (GP138): common relationship to diminished cell adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D C; Schmalstieg, F C; Arnaout, M A; Kohl, S; Tosi, M F; Dana, N; Buffone, G J; Hughes, B J; Brinkley, B R; Dickey, W D

    1984-01-01

    Investigations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function were performed in a 5-yr-old white female with delayed umbilical cord separation, impaired pus formation, and a severe defect of PMN chemotaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated an almost total deficiency of a high molecular weight glycoprotein(s) (GP138) in the granule and membrane fractions of the patient's cells, and NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling demonstrated the absence of a major glycoprotein complex on the surface of her PMNs. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were employed in flow cytometry experiments to demonstrate that two previously characterized glycoproteins (Mo1 and LFA1) were undetectable on the surface of the patient's PMNs and monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled patient cells with subunit specific MAbs confirmed that the alpha-subunits of Mo1 (155 kD) and LFA1 (177 kD) and their common beta-subunit (94 kD) were totally deficient. Functional analyses of patient PMNs demonstrated severe impairment of adherence- and adhesion-dependent cell functions including spreading, aggregation, orientation in chemotactic gradients, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis of particles (Oil-Red-0-paraffin, zymosan) selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands. Patient PMNs demonstrated a normal capacity to rosette with IgG or C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes, but rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes was profoundly diminished. Adhesion-independent functions including shape change, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-3H-phenylalanine binding, and O-2 generation or secretion elicited by soluble stimuli were normal. Membrane fluidity, surface charge, and microtubule assembly were also normal. These findings provide new evidence that critical PMN surface glycoproteins are required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent cellular functions of the inflammatory response. Images PMID:6746906

  16. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  17. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  18. Finite-volume application of high-order ENO schemes to two-dimensional boundary-value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay

    1991-01-01

    Finite-volume applications of high-order accurate ENO schemes to two-dimensional boundary-value problems are studied. These schemes achieve high-order spatial accuracy, in smooth regions, by a piecewise polynomial approximation of the solution from cell averages. In addition, this spatial operation involves an adaptive stencil algorithm in order to avoid the oscillatory behavior that is associated with interpolation across steep gradients. High-order TVD Runge-Kutta methods are employed for time integration, thus making these schemes best suited for unsteady problems. Fifth- and sixth-order accurate applications are validated through a grid refinement study involving the solutions of scalar hyperbolic equations. A previously proposed extension for the Euler equations of gas dynamics is tested, including its application to solutions of boundary-value problems involving solid walls and curvilinear coordinates.

  19. Cascade Biocatalysis for Sustainable Asymmetric Synthesis: From Biobased l-Phenylalanine to High-Value Chiral Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Wu, Shuke; Li, Zhi

    2016-09-12

    Sustainable synthesis of useful and valuable chiral fine chemicals from renewable feedstocks is highly desirable but remains challenging. Reported herein is a designed and engineered set of unique non-natural biocatalytic cascades to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of chiral epoxide, diols, hydroxy acid, and amino acid in high yield and with excellent ee values from the easily available biobased l-phenylalanine. Each of the cascades was efficiently performed in one pot by using the cells of a single recombinant strain over-expressing 4-10 different enzymes. The cascade biocatalysis approach is promising for upgrading biobased bulk chemicals to high-value chiral chemicals. In addition, combining the non-natural enzyme cascades with the natural metabolic pathway of the host strain enabled the fermentative production of the chiral fine chemicals from glucose. PMID:27512928

  20. Anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in unmedicated major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Ma, Xiaojuan; Li, Mingli; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Liansheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to explore the mechanism of brain structure and function in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients and methods Fifty patients with MDD and 50 matched healthy control participants free of psychotropic medication underwent high-resolution structural and rsfMRI scanning. Optimized diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra and the Data Processing Assistant for rsfMRI were used to find potential differences in gray-matter volume (GMV) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) between the two groups. A Pearson correlation model was used to analyze associations of morphometric and functional changes with clinical symptoms. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significant GMV increase in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and GMV decrease in the left lingual gyrus (P<0.001, uncorrected). In ReHo analysis, values were significantly increased in the left precuneus and decreased in the left putamen (P<0.001, uncorrected) in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls. There was no overlap between anatomical and functional changes. Linear correlation suggested no significant correlation between mean GMV values within regions with anatomical abnormality and ReHo values in regions with functional abnormality in the patient group. These changes were not significantly correlated with symptom severity. Conclusion Our study suggests a dissociation pattern of brain regions with anatomical and functional alterations in unmedicated patients with MDD, especially with regard to GMV and ReHo. PMID:26425096

  1. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    PubMed

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents. PMID:26701117

  2. Digital control and data acquisition for high-value GTA welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.

    Electric power for the Cassini space probe will be provided by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) thermally driven by General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each GPHS module contains four, 150-g, pellets of Pu-238O2, and each of the four pellets is encapsulated within a thin-wall iridium-alloy shell. GTA girth welding of these capsules is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on an automated, digitally-controlled welding system. Baseline design considerations for system automation and strategies employed to maximize process yield, improve process consistency, and generate required quality assurance information are discussed. Design of the automated girth welding system was driven by a number of factors which militated for precise parametric control and data acquisition. Foremost among these factors was the extraordinary value of the capsule components. In addition, DOE order 5700.6B, which took effect on 23 Sep. 1986, required that all operations adhere to strict levels of process quality assurance. A detailed technical specification for the GPHS welding system was developed on the basis of a joint LANL/Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) design effort. After a competitive bidding process, Jetline Engineering, Inc., of Irvine, California, was selected as the system manufacturer. During the period over which four identical welding systems were fabricated, very close liason was maintained between the LANL/WSRC technical representatives and the vendor. The level of rapport was outstanding, and the end result was the 1990 delivery of four systems that met or exceeded all specification requirements.

  3. Abnormal subendocardial function in restrictive left ventricular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Henein, M Y; Gibson, D G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study possible disturbances in left ventricular long axis function in patients with a restrictive filling pattern. DESIGN--Prospective examination of the left ventricular transverse and longitudinal axes, transmitral flow, and the apexcardiogram. SETTING--A tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. SUBJECTS--21 normal subjects, age (SD) 51(11); 30 patients of similar age with a restrictive left ventricular filling pattern, defined as short early diastolic deceleration time less than the lower 95% confidence limit of the normal value (120 ms). 20 patients had a normal and 10 had an increased left ventricular end diastolic cavity size. RESULTS--Mitral Doppler echocardiography: E wave velocity was high only in patients with a normal cavity size. A wave velocity was greatly reduced in the two groups (P < 0.001) so that the E/A ratio was abnormally high. The relative A wave amplitude on the apexcardiogram was greatly increased in the two groups: 46(15)% (mean (SD)) and 54(4)% v 15(5)%. Minor axis: Fractional shortening was reduced from 30(10)% to 17(7)% in patients with normal cavity size and to 13(4.2)% in those with a dilated cavity (P < 0.001), as was the posterior wall thickening fraction from 100(30)% to 42(20)% and 50(25)% respectively (P < 0.001). Total systolic epicardial motion was normal and isovolumic relaxation time was short in the two groups. Long axis: Left ventricular abnormalities included reduced total amplitude of motion and its component during atrial systole (P < 0.001 for the two groups at both sites). Peak long axis shortening and lengthening were decreased at both left ventricular sites (P < 0.001). The time intervals from q wave of the electrocardiogram and A2 (aortic valve closure) to the onset of shortening and lengthening respectively were increased (both P < 0.001). Right ventricular long axis function was similarly affected but to a lesser extent. CONCLUSION--Left ventricular long axis function is consistently abnormal in

  4. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  5. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  6. Neuropsychological abnormalities in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I

    1993-01-01

    Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104

  7. Generation of high-value products by photosynthetic microorganisms: From sunlight to biofuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dubini, Alexandra; Antal, Taras K.

    2015-08-12

    In this paper, oxygenic photosynthesis is the singular important chemical process providing the energy source for almost all life on earth. It harnesses and stores sun energy in forms of high-energy intermediates, such as low potential electrons and ATP, used as energy sources primarily for the fixation of carbon from atmosphere into carbohydrates. The latter compounds supply carbon and energy to multiple anabolic processes associated with cell growth and division.

  8. Biomineralization: linking the fossil record to the production of high value functional materials.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J R; Pearce, C I; Coker, V S; Pattrick, R A D; van der Laan, G; Cutting, R; Vaughan, D J; Paterson-Beedle, M; Mikheenko, I P; Yong, P; Macaskie, L E

    2008-06-01

    The microbial cell offers a highly efficient template for the formation of nanoparticles with interesting properties including high catalytic, magnetic and light-emitting activities. Thus biomineralization products are not only important in global biogeochemical cycles, but they also have considerable commercial potential, offering new methods for material synthesis that eliminate toxic organic solvents and minimize expensive high-temperature and pressure processing steps. In this review we describe a range of bacterial processes that can be harnessed to make precious metal catalysts from waste streams, ferrite spinels for biomedicine and catalysis, metal phosphates for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, and biogenic selenides for a range of optical devices. Recent molecular-scale studies have shown that the structure and properties of bionanominerals can be fine-tuned by subtle manipulations to the starting materials and to the genetic makeup of the cell. This review is dedicated to the late Terry Beveridge who contributed much to the field of biomineralization, and provided early models to rationalize the mechanisms of biomineral synthesis, including those of geological and commercial potential. PMID:18462384

  9. Forest edges have high conservation value for bird communities in mosaic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Terraube, Julien; Archaux, Frédéric; Deconchat, Marc; van Halder, Inge; Jactel, Hervé; Barbaro, Luc

    2016-08-01

    A major conservation challenge in mosaic landscapes is to understand how trait-specific responses to habitat edges affect bird communities, including potential cascading effects on bird functions providing ecosystem services to forests, such as pest control. Here, we examined how bird species richness, abundance and community composition varied from interior forest habitats and their edges into adjacent open habitats, within a multi-regional sampling scheme. We further analyzed variations in Conservation Value Index (CVI), Community Specialization Index (CSI) and functional traits across the forest-edge-open habitat gradient. Bird species richness, total abundance and CVI were significantly higher at forest edges while CSI peaked at interior open habitats, i.e., furthest from forest edge. In addition, there were important variations in trait- and species-specific responses to forest edges among bird communities. Positive responses to forest edges were found for several forest bird species with unfavorable conservation status. These species were in general insectivores, understorey gleaners, cavity nesters and long-distance migrants, all traits that displayed higher abundance at forest edges than in forest interiors or adjacent open habitats. Furthermore, consistently with predictions, negative edge effects were recorded in some forest specialist birds and in most open-habitat birds, showing increasing densities from edges to interior habitats. We thus suggest that increasing landscape-scale habitat complexity would be beneficial to declining species living in mosaic landscapes combining small woodlands and open habitats. Edge effects between forests and adjacent open habitats may also favor bird functional guilds providing valuable ecosystem services to forests in longstanding fragmented landscapes. PMID:27551375

  10. Digital control and data acquisition for high-value GTA welding

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-10-01

    Electric power for the Cassini space probe wig be provided by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) thermally driven by General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each GPHS module contains four, 150-g, pellets of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, and each of the four pellets is encapsulated within a thin-wall iridium-alloy shell. GTA girth welding of these capsules is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on an automated, digitally-controlled welding system. This paper discusses baseline design considerations for system automation and strategies employed to maximize process yield, improve process consistency, and generate required quality assurance information. Design of the automated girth welding system was driven by a number of factors which militated for precise parametric control and data acquisition. Foremost among these factors was the extraordinary value of the capsule components. In addition, DOE order 5700.6B, which took effect on 23 September 1986, required that all operations adhere to strict levels of process quality assurance. A detailed technical specification for the GPHS welding system was developed on the basis of a joint Lanl/Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) design effort. After a competitive bidding process, Jetline Engineering, Inc., of Irvine, California, was selected as the system manufacturer. During the period over which four identical welding systems were fabricated, very close liason was maintained between the LANL/WSRC technical representatives and the vendor. The level of rapport was outstanding, and the end result was the 1990 delivery of four systems that met or exceeded all specification requirements.

  11. Finite-volume application of high order ENO schemes to multi-dimensional boundary-value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Dorrepaal, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    The finite volume approach in developing multi-dimensional, high-order accurate essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes is considered. In particular, a two dimensional extension is proposed for the Euler equation of gas dynamics. This requires a spatial reconstruction operator that attains formal high order of accuracy in two dimensions by taking account of cross gradients. Given a set of cell averages in two spatial variables, polynomial interpolation of a two dimensional primitive function is employed in order to extract high-order pointwise values on cell interfaces. These points are appropriately chosen so that correspondingly high-order flux integrals are obtained through each interface by quadrature, at each point having calculated a flux contribution in an upwind fashion. The solution-in-the-small of Riemann's initial value problem (IVP) that is required for this pointwise flux computation is achieved using Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Issues to be considered in this two dimensional extension include the implementation of boundary conditions and application to general curvilinear coordinates. Results of numerical experiments are presented for qualitative and quantitative examination. These results contain the first successful application of ENO schemes to boundary value problems with solid walls.

  12. The Value of Real-time High Resolution Satellite Precipitation in Capturing Extreme Rainfall Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, B.; Kuranjekar, P.; Behrangi, A.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2008-05-01

    In many parts of the world, operational real-time flood and hydrologic forecasting are hindered by the lack of reliable real-time precipitation observations. The insufficient ground observations have made satellite-based precipitation estimates the only available source for wide coverage data. As the spatial and temporal resolution of satellite-based rainfall estimates continue to improve, assessing the usefulness of these products, particularly in capturing extreme precipitation events becomes an important issue. This presentation demonstrates and discusses a framework for evaluating real-time high resolution precipitation products in terms of their operational utility. As an example of operational high resolution precipitation products, the 3 hourly near real-time, 0.04°x0.04° Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) (Hong et. al., 2004) product is compared against gauge and NEXRAD observations of several heavy precipitation events including tropical storm Erin, which affected Texas and Oklahoma during the period of August 10-20, 2007. For each storm, a swath of precipitation along the storm track is analyzed using both real-time and quality controlled versions of the products. Traditional as well as threshold- based (e.g. verification) performance measures are used to describe differences between NEXRAD and Satellite observations' ability to capture severe storm characteristics within the target area and to assess possible shifts in rainfall amount spectrum. While not fully conclusive, the results indicate that for operational purposes, high resolution satellite-based precipitation estimates can fill in a much needed observational gap during severe storm events.

  13. Economic value of atopic dermatitis prevention via infant formula use in high-risk Malaysian infants

    PubMed Central

    Bhanegaonkar, Abhijeet J; Horodniceanu, Erica G; Abdul Latiff, Amir Hamzah; Woodhull, Sanjay; Khoo, Phaik Choo; Detzel, Patrick; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is best for infants and the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months of life. For those who are unable to be breastfed, previous studies demonstrate that feeding high-risk infants with hydrolyzed formulas instead of cow's milk formula (CMF) may decrease the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To estimate the economic impact of feeding high-risk, not exclusively breastfed, urban Malaysian infants with partiallyhydrolyzed whey-based formula (PHF-W) instead of CMF for the first 17 weeks of life as an AD risk reduction strategy. Methods A cohort Markov model simulated the AD incidence and burden from birth to age 6 years in the target population fed with PHF-W vs. CMF. The model integrated published clinical and epidemiologic data, local cost data, and expert opinion. Modeled outcomes included AD-risk reduction, time spent post AD diagnosis, days without AD flare, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs (direct and indirect). Outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Costs are expressed in Malaysian Ringgit (MYR; MYR 1,000 = United States dollar [US $]316.50). Results Feeding a high-risk infant PHF-W vs. CMF resulted in a 14% point reduction in AD risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-23%), a 0.69-year (95% CI, 0.25-1.10) reduction in time spent post-AD diagnosis, additional 38 (95% CI, 2-94) days without AD flare, and an undiscounted gain of 0.041 (95% CI, 0.007-0.103) QALYs. The discounted AD-related 6-year cost estimates when feeding a high-risk infant with PHF-W were MYR 1,758 (US $556) (95% CI, MYR 917-3,033) and with CMF MYR 2,871 (US $909) (95% CI, MYR 1,697-4,278), resulting in a per-child net saving of MYR 1,113 (US $352) (95% CI, MYR 317-1,884) favoring PHF-W. Conclusion Using PHF-W instead of CMF in this population is expected to result in AD-related costs savings. PMID:25938073

  14. Added value of high-resolution regional climate model over the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Delei; von Storch, Hans; Geyer, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Added value from dynamical downscaling has long been a crucial and debatable issue in regional climate studies. A 34 year (1979-2012) high-resolution (7 km grid) atmospheric hindcast over the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea (BYS) has been performed using COSMO-CLM (CCLM) forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis data (ERA-I). The accuracy of CCLM in surface wind reproduction and the added value of dynamical downscaling to ERA-I have been investigated through comparisons with the satellite data (including QuikSCAT Level2B 12.5 km version 3 (L2B12v3) swath data and MODIS images) and in situ observations, with adoption of quantitative metrics and qualitative assessment methods. The results revealed that CCLM has a reliable ability to reproduce the regional wind characteristics over the BYS areas. Over marine areas, added value to ERA-I has been detected in the coastal areas with complex coastlines and orography. CCLM was better able to represent light and moderate winds but has even more added value for strong winds relative to ERA-I. Over land areas, the high-resolution CCLM hindcast can add value to ERA-I in reproducing wind intensities and direction, wind probability distribution and extreme winds mainly at mountain areas. With respect to atmospheric processes, CCLM outperforms ERA-I in resolving detailed temporal and spatial structures for phenomena of a typhoon and of a coastal atmospheric front; CCLM generates some orography related phenomena such as a vortex street which is not captured by ERA-I. These added values demonstrate the utility of the 7-km-resolution CCLM for regional and local climate studies and applications. The simulation was constrained with adoption of spectral nudging method. The results may be different when simulations are considered, which are not constrained by spectral nudging.

  15. Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, W C; Appel, P L; Kram, H B; Waxman, K; Lee, T S

    1988-12-01

    Survivors of high-risk surgical operations were previously observed to have significantly higher mean CI, DO2, and VO2 than nonsurvivors. The hypothesis was proposed that increased CI and DO2 are circulatory compensations for increased postoperative metabolism. We tested this hypothesis in two series. In series 1, prospectively allocated by services, mortality and morbidity of the control group were significantly greater than those of the protocol group. In series 2, patients who fulfilled previously defined high-risk criteria were preoperatively randomized to one of three monitoring/treatment groups: CVP-control group, PA-control group and PA-protocol group. Postoperative mortalities in the CVP-control and PA-control groups were not statistically significantly different, but PA-protocol group mortality was significantly reduced compared with its control group. The PA-protocol group had reduced complications, duration of hospitalization, duration in ICU, and mechanical ventilation, and reduced costs when the PA catheter was placed preoperatively and used to augment circulatory responses. PMID:3191758

  16. Digestibility, fermentability, and energy value of highly cross-linked phosphate tapioca starch in men.

    PubMed

    Tachibe, M; Ohga, Hiroshi; Nishibata, T; Ebihara, K

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine glycemic and breath hydrogen responses in 10 healthy men in response to highly cross-linked starch phosphate (HXLS), made of tapioca starch (TS). Plasma glucose concentration was analyzed at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min postprandially. In addition, breath hydrogen excretion was measured at baseline and at hourly intervals, over 10 h, after test substance challenge. When compared with unmodified TS easily digested, the area under the curve of plasma glucose of HXLS was 64% smaller, and was almost the same as that of microcrystalline cellulose. When compared with fructo-oligosaccharide rapidly fermented by the microbial bacteria, the area under the excretion curve of breath hydrogen gas of HXLS was 93% smaller, and was almost the same as that of water only. These results show that HXLS is harder to digest and ferment than unmodified TS in men. PMID:22417501

  17. Biosynthesis and Biotechnology of High-Value p-Menthane Monoterpenes, Including Menthol, Carvone, and Limonene.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpenes of the p-menthane group are volatile secondary (or specialized) metabolites found across the plant kingdom. They are dominant constituents of commercially important essential oils obtained from members of the genera Mentha (Lamiaceae), Carum (Apiaceae), Citrus (Rutaceae), and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). p-Menthane monoterpenes have also attracted interest as chiral specialty chemicals, and the harvest from natural sources is therefore supplemented by chemical synthesis. More recently, microbial and plant-based platforms for the high-level accumulation of specific target monoterpenes have been developed. In this review chapter, I discuss the properties of the genes and enzymes involved in p-menthane biosynthesis and provide a critical assessment of biotechnological production approaches. PMID:25618831

  18. Fractionation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by bisulfite pretreatment for the production of bioethanol and high value products.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liping; Wang, Meimei; Li, Xuezhi; Li, Hongxing; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, fractionation of empty fruit bunch (EFB) by bisulfite pretreatment was studied for the production of bioethanol and high value products to achieve biorefinery of EFB. EFB was fractionated to solid and liquor components by bisulfite process. The solid components were used for bioethanol production by quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The liquor components were then converted to furfural by hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. Preliminary results showed that the concentration of furfural was highest at 18.8g/L with 0.75% sulfuric acid and reaction time of 25min. The conversion of xylose to furfural was 82.5%. Furthermore, we attempted to fractionate the liquor into hemicellulose sugars and lignin by different methods for producing potential chemicals, such as xylose, xylooligosaccharide, and lignosulfonate. Our research showed that the combination of bisulfite pretreatment and resin separation could effectively fractionate EFB components to produce bioethanol and other high value chemicals. PMID:26539970

  19. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    DOEpatents

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  20. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  1. Academic Rigor and Economic Value: GED[R] and High School Students' Perceptions and Misperceptions of the GED[R] vs. the High School Diploma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lela M.; Rachal, John R.; Shelley, Kyna

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods framework utilized quantitative and qualitative data to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between high school and GED[R] student perceptions of credential value. An exploratory factor analysis (n=326) extracted four factors and then a MANOVA procedure was performed with a stratified quota sample…

  2. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    SciTech Connect

    Sockalingam, K. Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  3. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  4. Combined Chemical Activation and Fenton Degradation to Convert Waste Polyethylene into High-Value Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Chan, Chung-Sum; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste is a valuable organic resource. However, proper technologies to recover usable materials from plastic are still very rare. Although the conversion/cracking/degradation of certain plastics into chemicals has drawn much attention, effective and selective cracking of the major waste plastic polyethylene is extremely difficult, with degradation of C-C/C-H bonds identified as the bottleneck. Pyrolysis, for example, is a nonselective degradation method used to crack plastics, but it requires a very high energy input. To solve the current plastic pollution crisis, more effective technologies are needed for converting plastic waste into useful substances that can be fed into the energy cycle or used to produce fine chemicals for industry. In this study, we demonstrate a new and effective chemical approach by using the Fenton reaction to convert polyethylene plastic waste into carboxylic acids under ambient conditions. Understanding the fundamentals of this new chemical process provides a possible protocol to solve global plastic-waste problems. PMID:27168079

  5. Quantitative observation and study on rhythmic abnormalities of activities in animals prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chungao; Jiang, Jinchang

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the normal daily activities and abnormal activities related to earthquake premonitory information are given by a quantitative observation and analysis of activities in the sparrow (SR, Passer montanus), budgerigar (BG, Melopsittacus undulatus) and rat (RT, Rattus norvegicus). The results show that the quantitative observation of habitual abnormalities in animals may provide some cues for the short-term earthquake prediction. The normal activity rhythms for the SR and BG are similar, and both present M mode. The high activities occurs during 07h 10h and 15h 16h, respectively, the low activities occurs during 12h 13h, and at night both birds are basically silent. For the RT, the normal rhythmic activity has the middle magnitude during 07h 10h and 17h 18h, the low and high magnitudes occur during 11h 16h and from 19h to 06h at the next day. For the SR, BG and RT, observable abnormal changes of the normal activity rhythm were found before earthquakes. The night activities of the SR and BG were increased noticeably. For the RT the activities during the low magnitude of activities at the day time were also increased. They both are about 300 times greater than the normal activity value. Moreover, the total activity values per day were increased, and were about 2 times of the normal value. The x 2-test shows that the abnormalities of the daily activity rhythm and following increase of the daily activity events are significantly correlated with earthquakes of magnitude over 4.3 in Tangshan seismic area within the region of 200 km distance from the observation station.

  6. Value Proposition for High Lifetime (p-type) and Thin Silicon Materials in Solar PV Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Hacke, P.

    2012-06-01

    Most silicon PV road maps forecast a continued reduction in wafer thickness, despite rapid declines in the primary incentive for doing so -- polysilicon feedstock price. Another common feature of most silicon-technology forecasts is the quest for ever-higher device performance at the lowest possible costs. The authors present data from device-performance and manufacturing- and system-installation cost models to quantitatively establish the incentives for manufacturers to pursue advanced (thin) wafer and (high efficiency) cell technologies, in an age of reduced feedstock prices. This analysis exhaustively considers the value proposition for high lifetime (p-type) silicon materials across the entire c-Si PV supply chain.

  7. A stochastic simulation-optimization approach for estimating highly reliable soil tension threshold values in sensor-based deficit irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, S.; Schütze, N.; Walser, S.; Grundmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions where water is scarce, farmers heavily rely on irrigation in order to grow crops and to produce agricultural commodities. The variable and often severely limited water supply thereby poses a serious challenge for farmers to cope with and demand sophisticated irrigation strategies that allow an efficient management of the available water resources. The general aim is to increase water productivity (WP) and one of these strategies to achieve this goal is controlled deficit irrigation (CDI). One way to realize CDI is by defining soil water status specific threshold values (either in soil tension or moisture) at which irrigation cycles are triggered. When utilizing CDI, irrigation control is of utmost importance and yet thresholds are likely chosen by trial and error and thus unreliable. Hence, for CDI to be effective systematic investigations for deriving reliable threshold values that account for different CDI strategies are needed. In this contribution, a method is presented that uses a simulation-based stochastic approach for estimating threshold values with a high reliability. The approach consist of a weather generator offering statistical significance to site-specific climate series, an optimization algorithm that determines optimal threshold values under limiting waters supply, and a crop model for simulating plant growth and water consumption. The study focuses on threshold values of soil tension for different CDI strategies. The advantage of soil-tension-based threshold values over soil-moisture-based lies in their universal and soil type independent applicability. The investigated CDI strategies comprised schedules of constant threshold values, crop development stage dependent threshold values, and different minimum irrigation intervals. For practical reasons, fixed irrigation schedules were tested as well. Additionally, a full irrigation schedule served as reference. The obtained threshold values were then tested in field

  8. High Natural Variability in Delta18O Values of the Otoliths of Young Pacific Sardines Captured in Mexican Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzka, S. Z.; Valle, S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of the oxygen isotope ratios of marine fish otoliths have been used to infer patterns of habitat utilization, mixing among subpopulations and geographical population structure. Otoliths, or "ear stones", are small, metabolically inert three-dimensional structures comprised primarily of carbonate in the form of aragonite. They grow continuously throughout life by deposition of periodic rings, which has made them invaluable for estimating age and reconstructing growth histories. Oxygen isotopes incorporated into otolith carbonate are deposited at or near equilibrium with their relative abundance in seawater, and do not appear to be influenced by kinetic effects or metabolic processes. The greater discrimination against 18O during CaCO3 formation at higher temperatures results in a predictable negative relationship between temperature and otolith δ 18O values. However, biological effects, such as natural variations in otolith growth rates, can indirectly influence the isotopic composition measured in whole otoliths or in subsamples corresponding to different stages of the life cycle. Temperature estimates derived from δ 18O values thus represent an integrated measure of the conditions experienced by an individual. We measured δ 18O values in whole otoliths of young (ca. 1 yr old) Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) collected throughout the Mexican Pacific to quantify natural variability, reconstruct integrated temperature histories and evaluate the suitability of isotopic measurements as natural tracers of mixing processes. Isotopic values and back-calculated temperature estimates of young sardines of similar sizes captured simultaneously were highly variable (up to 2.0 ‰ and 10 ° C). The limited variations in salinity within each location (< 0.8 psu) imply differences in thermal history among individuals and hence mixing during the first year of life. Based on the schooling behavior and vertical habitat utilization patterns of Pacific

  9. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  10. The effective Q values inferred from the high-frequency decay parameter for the sediments in Taipei basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ming-Wey; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chi-Ling; Liu, Sheu-Yien

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the high-frequency decay parameter κ, proposed by Anderson and Hough (1984), are measured from the seismograms recorded by stations, which installed in the Taipei basin. The spectral amplitudes decay exponentially with frequency, f, which can be formulated as A(f)=A_0e‑πκf, for f > fe, where A(f) is the spectral amplitude, and A0 depends on the earthquake source and epicenter distance, and the value of κ is independent of frequency, unit in second. The time windows applied to seismograms are suggested to be shear waves that are transformed to spectra by the technique of Fourier transform. The seismograms from the downhole array in Taipei Basin by Academia Sinica since 1992, provide a good opportunity to estimate the attenuation factor of the sedimentary strata over the Tertiary base rock beneath the Taipei basin (Wang et al., 2004). The seismograms of 23 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 5.1-7.1 over the period of 2003-2010 at 9 downhole array stations are taken into calculation of the κ values for the shear waves. The results show that the κ values vary with depth and are in the range of 0.009-0.095 sec. The averaged Δκ values from observations range +/- 0.02 seconds respective to Δκ values at surface of each of station. The effective Q values for the sedimentary layers are inferred from the varied Δκ at each downhole stations following the evaluation method of 1-D analytical transfer function (Safak, 1995).

  11. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  12. Prehospital heart rate and blood pressure increase the positive predictive value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for high-mortality traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Kumar, Kamal; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-05-15

    We hypothesized that vital signs could be used to improve the association between a trauma patient's prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and his or her clinical condition. Previously, abnormally low and high blood pressures have both been associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We undertook a retrospective analysis of 1384 adult prehospital trauma patients. Vital-sign data were electronically archived and analyzed. We examined the relative risk of severe head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 5-6 as a function of the GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). We created multi-variate logistic regression models and, using DeLong's test, compared their area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) for three outcomes: head AIS 5-6, all-cause mortality, and either head AIS 5-6 or neurosurgical procedure. We found significant bimodal relationships between head AIS 5-6 versus SBP and HR, but not RR. When the GCS was <15, ROC AUCs were significantly higher for a multi-variate regression model (GCS, SBP, and HR) versus GCS alone. In particular, patients with abnormalities in all parameters (GCS, SBP, and HR) were significantly more likely to have high-mortality TBI versus those with abnormalities in GCS alone. This could be useful for mobilizing resources (e.g., neurosurgeons and operating rooms at the receiving hospital) and might enable new prehospital management protocols where therapies are selected based on TBI mortality risk. PMID:24372334

  13. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Abnormal Electrocardiograms After Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; Julayanont, Parunyou; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Kim, Jongyeol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities occur frequently but are often underrecognized after strokes. Acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in some particular area of brain can disrupt central autonomic control of the heart, precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, ECG abnormalities, myocardial injury and sometimes sudden death. Identification of high-risk patients after acute stroke is important to arrange appropriate cardiac monitoring and effective management of arrhythmias, and to prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to better clarify pathogenesis, localization of areas associated with arrhythmias and practical management of arrhythmias and abnormal ECGs after acute stroke. PMID:26802767

  14. High-Accuracy Calculation of cu Electric-Field Gradients: a Revision of the cu Nuclear Quadrupole Moment Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lan; Matthews, Devin A.; Gauss, Jürgen; Stanton, John F.

    2015-06-01

    A revision of the value for the Cu nuclear quadrupole moment (NQM) is reported based on high-accuracy ab initio calculations on the Cu electric field gradients in the CuF and CuCl molecules. Electron-correlation effects have systematically been taken into account using a hierarchy of coupled-cluster methods including up to quadruple excitations. It is shown that the CCSD(T)_Λ method provides a more reliable treatment of triples corrections for Cu electric-field gradients than the ubiquitously applied CCSD(T) method, which is tentatively attributed to the importance of the wavefunction relaxation in the calculations of a core property. Augmenting large-basis-set CCSD(T)_Λ results with the remaining corrections obtained using additive schemes, including full triples contributions, quadruples contributions, zero-point vibrational corrections, spin-orbit corrections, as well as the correction from the Gaunt term, a new value of 209.7(50) mbarn for the Cu NQM has been obtained. The new value substantially reduces the uncertainty of this parameter in comparison to the standard value of 220(15) mbarn obtained from a previous muonic experiment.

  15. Line-driven winds revisited in the context of Be stars: Ω-slow solutions with high k values

    SciTech Connect

    Silaj, J.; Jones, C. E.; Curé, M.

    2014-11-01

    The standard, or fast, solutions of m-CAK line-driven wind theory cannot account for slowly outflowing disks like the ones that surround Be stars. It has been previously shown that there exists another family of solutions—the Ω-slow solutions—that is characterized by much slower terminal velocities and higher mass-loss rates. We have solved the one-dimensional m-CAK hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds for this latter solution, starting from standard values of the line force parameters (α, k, and δ), and then systematically varying the values of α and k. Terminal velocities and mass-loss rates that are in good agreement with those found in Be stars are obtained from the solutions with lower α and higher k values. Furthermore, the equatorial densities of such solutions are comparable to those that are typically assumed in ad hoc models. For very high values of k, we find that the wind solutions exhibit a new kind of behavior.

  16. Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

  17. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAFV600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAFV600E mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAFV600E was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P < 0.001). Our study indicated that combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis bears a great value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAFV600E mutation analysis. PMID:26597052

  18. Detection of interstitial lung abnormalities on picture archive and communication system video monitors.

    PubMed

    Washowich, T L; Williams, S C; Richardson, L A; Simmons, G E; Dao, N V; Allen, T W; Hammet, G C; Morris, M J

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities on video display workstation monitors between radiologists experienced with video image interpretation and radiologists who lack this experience. Twenty-four patients with interstitial lung abnormalities documented by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung biopsy, and 26 control patients with no history of pulmonary disease or a normal HRCT and normal chest radiographs were studied. Images were acquired using storage phosphor digital radiography and displayed on 1,640 x 2,048 pixel resolution video monitors. Five board-certified radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded and randomized manner by using a six-point presence of abnormality grading scale. Three radiologists were from 1 to 4 years out of residency and considered to be experienced workstation monitor readers with between 1 to 3 years of video monitor image interpretation. For the inexperienced readers, one radiologist had no prior experience with reading images from a video monitor and was direct out of residency, and the other radiologist had less than 4 months of intermittent exposure and was 1 year out of residency. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for individual readers. Positive predictive values, negative predictive values, accuracy, and receiver-operating curves were also generated. A comparison was made between experienced and inexperienced readers. For readers experienced with video monitor image interpretation, the sensitivity ranged from 87.5% to 92%, specificity from 69% to 92%, positive predictive value (PPV) from 73% to 87.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) from 87% to 90%, and accuracy from 80% to 88%. For inexperienced readers, these values were sensitivity 58%, specificity 50% to 65%, PPV 52% to 61%, NPV 56.5% to 63%, and accuracy 54% to 62%. Comparing image interpretation between experienced and inexperienced readers, there were statistically significant differences for

  19. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  20. Comparison of AMPLICOR and Hybrid Capture II assays for high risk HPV detection in normal and abnormal liquid-based cytology: use of INNO-LiPA Genotyping assay to screen the discordant results.

    PubMed

    Mo, L Z; Monnier-Benoit, S; Kantelip, B; Petitjean, A; Riethmuller, D; Prétet, J L; Mougin, C

    2008-02-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with normal or abnormal cervical smears using the Roche Amplicor MWP HPV Test. We compared by AMPLICOR Test and Hybrid Capture II (HCII) Test, the prevalence of HR-HPV in 470 cervical samples including 55 samples with WNL cytology, 208 ASC-US, 193 LGSIL and 14 HGSIL. Samples with discordant results were retested with INNO-LiPA Genotyping HPV Test v2. The HR-HPV positivity in WNL cytology samples was similar (21.8%) by AMPLICOR and HCII. In ASC-US, the HPV positivity was 42.3% by both tests. In LGSIL, HPV positivity was 66.3% and 66.8% by AMPLICOR and HCII, respectively. In HGSIL, 92.8% of samples were positive by AMPLICOR and 85.7% by HCII. The agreement of both tests was 96.2% with a Kappa value of 0.92. Eighteen cases were discordant: 9 HCII positive/AMPLICOR negative and 9 HCII negative/AMPLICOR positive. The INNO-LiPA test revealed HPV positivity in every case. Interestingly, all HCII+/AMPLICOR- samples were found to harbour HPV53. As for the HCII-/AMPLICOR+ samples, 8 demonstrated a multiple infection with HR 16- and/or 18- and/or 56-phylogenetically related HPV types. Moreover, two of these samples were co-infected with HPV6 and two other with HPV54. By using consensus HR-HPV as our reference HPV positivity, the sensitivity (96.6%) and specificity (100%) of AMPLICOR was similar to that of HCII Test. The AMPLICOR HPV Test is sensitive, specific, feasible and appropriate for routine HPV detection. PMID:18036888

  1. Human papillomavirus ‘reflex' testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Fröberg, M; Johansson, B; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping' in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all, 63% (70/112) of the samples were high-risk (HR) HPV (HR-HPV) positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between high-grade cervical lesions and HR-HPV (P=0.019), among which HPV 16, 18, and 31 were the most important. The negative predictive value of HR-HPV detection for histologically confirmed high-grade lesions was 100%. An age limit for HPV reflex testing may be motivated in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL), because of high HR-HPV prevalence among younger women. By using HPV reflex genotyping, additional extensive workup can safely be avoided in about 50% of all cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and LSIL among women ⩾30 years. This screening strategy could potentially reduce the total abnormal cytology-reporting rate in the Swedish screening programme by about 1% and provide more accurately directed follow-up, guided by cytological appearance and HPV test results. PMID:18682715

  2. Value and limitations of a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay for thyrotropin in the study of thyrotroph function

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, G.; Gow, S.M.; Sweeting, V.M.; Beckett, G.J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    Using a highly sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay for thyrotropin, we studied thyrotroph function in 232 new patients referred to a thyroid clinic and in 13 patients after treatment for hyperthyroidism. Significant thyrotroph responsiveness to thyroliberin (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH) was found in all patients with values for basal thyrotropin greater than 0.1 milli-int unit/L. In no overtly hyperthyroid patient was any increment in thyrotropin recorded at 20 min after thyroliberin administration. In seven patients, four subclinically hyperthyroid and three who had received treatment, increments in thyrotropin from undetectable basal values were recorded, consistent with incomplete thyrotroph suppression. By use of assays with even higher sensitivity, one may be able to distinguish these patients from overtly hyperthyroid patients.

  3. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis. PMID:25810444

  4. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  5. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions. PMID:21360062

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography in the Detection of Uterine Abnormalities in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Niknejadi, Maryam; Haghighi, Hadieh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Vosough, Ahmad; Moenian, Deena

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnosis of uterine abnormalities has become a core part of the fertility work-up. A variety of modalities can be used for the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Objectives This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in uterine pathologies of infertile patients using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Reproductive Imaging at Royan Institute from October 2007 to October 2008. In this study, the medical documents of 719 infertile women who were investigated with transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and then hysteroscopy were reviewed. All women underwent hysteroscopy in the same cycle time after TVS. Seventy-six out of 719 patients were excluded from the study and 643 patients were studied. TVS was performed in the follicular phase after cessation of bleeding. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for TVS. Hysteroscopy served as the gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for TVS in the diagnosis of uterine abnormality was 79%, 82%, 84% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TVS in detection of polyp were 88.3% and 81.6%, respectively. These indices were 89.2% and 92.5%, respectively for fibroma, 67% and 98.3%, respectively for subseptated uterus and 90.9% and 100%, respectively for septated uterus. Adhesion and unicornuated uterus have the lowest sensitivity with a sensitivity of 35% and PPV of 57.1%. Conclusion TVS is a cost-effective and non-invasive method for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and septum. It is a valuable adjunctive to hysteroscopy with high accuracy for identification and characterization of intrauterine abnormalities. This may lead to a more precise surgery plan and performance. PMID:23329979

  7. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    PubMed

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. PMID:26648587

  8. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance. PMID:24136894

  9. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  10. Relevance of methods and standards for the assessment of measurement system performance in a High-Value Manufacturing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, Pete; Giudice, Seb

    2014-08-01

    Measurements underpin the engineering decisions that allow products to be designed, manufactured, operated, and maintained. Therefore, the quality of measured data needs to be systematically assured to allow decision makers to proceed with confidence. The use of standards is one way of achieving this. This paper explores the relevance of international documentary standards to the assessment of measurement system capability in High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Industry. An internal measurement standard is presented which supplements these standards and recommendations are made for a cohesive effort to develop the international standards to provide consistency in such industrial applications.

  11. [Classification and genetic abnormalities of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Ichiro; Iida, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells which develops through genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes and the bone marrow microenvironment interaction. Despite recent tremendous progress in treatments for MM, a complete cure remains elusive. Further development of more effective therapeutic strategies is needed. The International Staging System (ISS) reported in 2005 has been used widely as the most simple and powerful prognostic classification in MM, but genetic abnormalities affecting prognosis were not considered in this model. In the past decade, non-random chromosomal aberrations such as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), amp1q21 and del17p have shown to be poor prognostic value, and moreover, recent progress in genome-wide deep sequencing studies has revealed novel mutations and intra-tumor subclonal heterogeneity which may explain clinical phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Here we review the current understanding of genetic abnormalities in MM for developing better prognostic classification and molecular targeted therapies leading to the stratified or personalized medicine. PMID:25626298

  12. Readiness of hospital-based internists to embrace and discuss high-value care with patients and family members: a single-centre cross-sectional survey study

    PubMed Central

    Brandt Vegas, Daniel; Levinson, Wendy; Norman, Geoff; Monteiro, Sandra; You, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Choosing Wisely Canada is a campaign that fosters conversations between physicians and patients about high-value health care. However, little is known about physicians' readiness to have these conversations. Our objective was to determine how ready practising internists were to embrace and openly address high-value care during conversations with patients or their families. Methods: Practising internists in hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, were invited to complete an electronic survey with 3 clinical scenarios: each had 3 low-value interventions that had been requested by the patient or family member. For each request, participants chose 1 of 3 statements reflecting how they would respond: a low-value statement agreeing to provide the intervention, an implicit high-value statement declining to provide the intervention without mentioning value or an explicit high-value statement declining to provide the intervention with mention of value. Results: Forty-four of 62 eligible physicians (71.0% response rate) participated in the survey. High-value statements were selected in 91% of cases. The implicit high-value statement was chosen more often than the explicit high-value statement (65.7% v. 25.5% of all responses, respectively; χ2 range 4.46-56.23, p < 0.05). Interpretation: Physicians favoured high-value care but frequently chose not to explicitly address value in their statements. Physicians seemed ready to embrace high-value health care practice, although they were not ready to openly discuss it with patients and their families. PMID:26770961

  13. Origin and temporal variability of unusually low δ13C-DOC values in two High Arctic catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindshaw, R. S.; Lang, S. Q.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Heaton, T. H. E.; Lindsay, M. R.; Boyd, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter (δ13C-DOC) reveals information about its source and extent of biological processing. Here we report the lowest δ13C-DOC values (-43.8‰) measured to date in surface waters. The streams were located in the High Arctic, a region currently experiencing rapid changes in climate and carbon cycling. Based on the widespread occurrence of methane cycling in permafrost regions and the detection of the pmoA gene, a proxy for aerobic methanotrophs, we conclude that the low δ13C-DOC values are due to organic matter partially derived from methanotrophs consuming biologically produced, 13C-depleted methane. These findings demonstrate the significant impact that biological activity has on the stream water chemistry exported from permafrost and glaciated environments in the Arctic. Given that the catchments studied here are representative of larger areas of the Arctic, occurrences of low δ13C-DOC values may be more widespread than previously recognized, with implications for understanding C cycling in these environments.

  14. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  15. A high-resolution global dataset of topographic index values for use in large-scale hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthews, T. R.; Dadson, S. J.; Lehner, B.; Abele, S.; Gedney, N.

    2014-06-01

    Modelling land surface water flow is of critical importance for simulating land-surface fluxes, predicting runoff and water table dynamics and for many other applications of Land Surface Models. Many approaches are based on the popular hydrology model TOPMODEL, and the most important parameter of this model is the well-knowntopographic index. Here we present new, high-resolution parameter maps of the topographic index for all ice-free land pixels calculated from hydrologically-conditioned HydroSHEDS data sets using the GA2 algorithm. At 15 arcsec resolution, these layers are 4× finer than the resolution of the previously best-available topographic index layers, the Compound Topographic Index of HYDRO1k (CTI). In terms of the largest river catchments occurring on each continent, we found that in comparison to our revised values, CTI values were up to 20% higher in e.g. the Amazon. We found the highest catchment means were for the Murray-Darling and Nelson-Saskatchewan rather than for the Amazon and St. Lawrence as found from the CTI. We believe these new index layers represent the most robust existing global-scale topographic index values and hope that they will be widely used in land surface modelling applications in the future.

  16. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633. PMID:27313852

  17. Genetic abnormalities associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takafumi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs with high frequency in childhood and is associated with high mortality in adults. Recent technical advances in next-generation sequencing have shed light on genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as the precursor to ALL pathogenesis. Based on these genetic abnormalities, ALL is now being reclassified into newly identified subtypes. Philadelphia chromosome-like B-lineage ALL is one of the new high-risk subtypes characterized by genetic alterations that activate various signaling pathways, including those involving cytokine receptors, tyrosine kinases, and epigenetic modifiers. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL is essentially heterogeneous; however, deletion mutations in the IKZF1 gene encoding the transcription factor IKAROS underlie many cases as a key factor inducing aggressive phenotypes and poor treatment responses. Whole-genome sequencing studies of ALL patients and ethnically matched controls also identified inherited genetic variations in lymphoid neoplasm-related genes, which are likely to increase ALL susceptibility. These findings are directly relevant to clinical hematology, and further studies on this aspect could contribute to accurate diagnosis, effective monitoring of residual disease, and patient-oriented therapies. PMID:26991355

  18. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    PubMed

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  19. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  20. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  1. Effects of abnormal excitation on the dynamics of spiral waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Yi, Deng; Xue-Liang, Zhang; Jing-Yu, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The effect of physiological and pathological abnormal excitation of a myocyte on the spiral waves is investigated based on the cellular automaton model. When the excitability of the medium is high enough, the physiological abnormal excitation causes the spiral wave to meander irregularly and slowly. When the excitability of the medium is low enough, the physiological abnormal excitation leads to a new stable spiral wave. On the other hand, the pathological abnormal excitation destroys the spiral wave and results in the spatiotemporal chaos, which agrees with the clinical conclusion that the early after depolarization is the pro-arrhythmic mechanism of some anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11365003 and 11165004).

  2. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A.

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  3. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p <0.01). In conclusion, CCTA has incremental prognostic value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. PMID:26754124

  4. Metabolite profiling of Dioscorea (yam) species reveals underutilised biodiversity and renewable sources for high-value compounds

    PubMed Central

    Price, Elliott J.; Wilkin, Paul; Sarasan, Viswambharan; Fraser, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are a multispecies crop with production in over 50 countries generating ~50 MT of edible tubers annually. The long-term storage potential of these tubers is vital for food security in developing countries. Furthermore, many species are important sources of pharmaceutical precursors. Despite these attributes as staple food crops and sources of high-value chemicals, Dioscorea spp. remain largely neglected in comparison to other staple tuber crops of tropical agricultural systems such as cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To date, studies have focussed on the tubers or rhizomes of Dioscorea, neglecting the foliage as waste. In the present study metabolite profiling procedures, using GC-MS approaches, have been established to assess biochemical diversity across species. The robustness of the procedures was shown using material from the phylogenetic clades. The resultant data allowed separation of the genotypes into clades, species and morphological traits with a putative geographical origin. Additionally, we show the potential of foliage material as a renewable source of high-value compounds. PMID:27385275

  5. Summarized Costs, Placement Of Quality Stars, And Other Online Displays Can Help Consumers Select High-Value Health Plans.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2017, all state and federal health insurance exchanges will present quality data on health plans in addition to cost information. We analyzed variations in the current design of information on state exchanges to identify presentation approaches that encourage consumers to take quality as well as cost into account when selecting a health plan. Using an online sample of 1,025 adults, we randomly assigned participants to view the same comparative information on health plans, displayed in different ways. We found that consumers were much more likely to select a high-value plan when cost information was summarized instead of detailed, when quality stars were displayed adjacent to cost information, when consumers understood that quality stars signified the quality of medical care, and when high-value plans were highlighted with a check mark or blue ribbon. These approaches, which were equally effective for participants with higher and lower numeracy, can inform the development of future displays of plan information in the exchanges. PMID:27044968

  6. Accumulation of High-Value Lipids in Single-Cell Microorganisms: A Mechanistic Approach and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In recent years attention has been focused on the utilization of microorganisms as alternatives for industrial and nutritional applications. Considerable research has been devoted to techniques for growth, extraction, and purification of high-value lipids for their use as biofuels and biosurfactants as well as high-value metabolites for nutrition and health. These successes argue that the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the microbial biosynthesis of such molecules, which are far from being completely understood, now will yield spectacular opportunities for industrial scale biomolecular production. There are important additional questions to be solved to optimize the processing strategies to take advantage of the assets of microbial lipids. The present review describes the current state of knowledge regarding lipid biosynthesis, accumulation, and transport mechanisms present in single-cell organisms, specifically yeasts, microalgae, bacteria, and archaea. Similarities and differences in biochemical pathways and strategies of different microorganisms provide a diverse toolset to the expansion of biotechnologies for lipid production. This paper is intended to inspire a generation of lipid scientists to insights that will drive the biotechnologies of microbial production as uniquely enabling players of lipid biotherapeutics, biofuels, biomaterials, and other opportunity areas into the 21st century. PMID:24628496

  7. Simultaneous production of triacylglycerol and high-value carotenoids by the astaxanthin-producing oleaginous green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3mgL(-1)day(-1), respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga. PMID:27152772

  8. Metabolite profiling of Dioscorea (yam) species reveals underutilised biodiversity and renewable sources for high-value compounds.

    PubMed

    Price, Elliott J; Wilkin, Paul; Sarasan, Viswambharan; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are a multispecies crop with production in over 50 countries generating ~50 MT of edible tubers annually. The long-term storage potential of these tubers is vital for food security in developing countries. Furthermore, many species are important sources of pharmaceutical precursors. Despite these attributes as staple food crops and sources of high-value chemicals, Dioscorea spp. remain largely neglected in comparison to other staple tuber crops of tropical agricultural systems such as cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To date, studies have focussed on the tubers or rhizomes of Dioscorea, neglecting the foliage as waste. In the present study metabolite profiling procedures, using GC-MS approaches, have been established to assess biochemical diversity across species. The robustness of the procedures was shown using material from the phylogenetic clades. The resultant data allowed separation of the genotypes into clades, species and morphological traits with a putative geographical origin. Additionally, we show the potential of foliage material as a renewable source of high-value compounds. PMID:27385275

  9. Relationship Between Clinical and Immunological Features with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Female Patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Cui-Yan; Pan, Zheng-Lun; Zhao, Jun-Yu; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred neuroimaging method in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and immunological features with MRI abnormalities in female patients with NPSLE, to screen for the value of conventional MRI in NPSLE. Methods: A total of 59 female NPSLE patients with conventional MRI examinations were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients were classified into different groups according to MRI abnormalities. Both clinical and immunological features were compared between MRI abnormal and normal groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score for MRI abnormalities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated the correlation between immunological features, neuropsychiatric manifestations, and MRI abnormalities. Results: Thirty-six NPSLE patients (61%) showed a variety of MRI abnormalities. There were statistically significant differences in SLEDAI scores (P < 0.001), incidence of neurologic disorders (P = 0.001), levels of 24-h proteinuria (P = 0.001) and immunoglobulin M (P = 0.004), and incidence of acute confusional state (P = 0.002), cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.004), and seizure disorder (P = 0.028) between MRI abnormal and normal groups. In the MRI abnormal group, SLEDAI scores for cerebral atrophy (CA), cortex involvement, and restricted diffusion (RD) were much higher than in the MRI normal group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.038, respectively). Statistically significant positive correlations between seizure disorder and cortex involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 14.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–151.70; P = 0.023) and cerebrovascular disease and infratentorial involvement (OR = 10.00; 95% CI, 1.70–60.00; P = 0.012) were found. Conclusions: MRI abnormalities in NPSLE, especially CA

  10. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  11. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  12. Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Global warming issues and the medium-term depletion of fossil fuel reserves are stimulating researchers around the world to find alternative sources of energy and organic carbon. Biomass is considered by experts the only sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrial society, and it has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. However, the transition from a petroleum-based economy to one based on biomass requires new strategies since the petrochemical technologies, well-developed over the last century, are not valid to process the biomass-derived compounds. Unlike petroleum feedstocks, biomass derived platform molecules possess a high oxygen content that gives them low volatility, high solubility in water, high reactivity and low thermal stability, properties that favour the processing of these resources by catalytic aqueous-phase technologies at moderate temperatures. This tutorial review is aimed at providing a general overview of processes, technologies and challenges that lie ahead for a range of different aqueous-phase transformations of some of the key biomass-derived platform molecules into liquid fuels for the transportation sector and related high added value chemicals. PMID:21713268

  13. Using Extreme Value Theory Approaches to Forecast the Probability of Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Influenza in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangpeng; Lei, Xun; Zhang, Li; Peng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza is a contagious disease with high transmissibility to spread around the world with considerable morbidity and mortality and presents an enormous burden on worldwide public health. Few mathematical models can be used because influenza incidence data are generally not normally distributed. We developed a mathematical model using Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza. Methods The incidence data of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang province from April 2009 to November 2013 were retrieved from the website of Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province. MATLAB “VIEM” toolbox was used to analyze data and modelling. In the present work, we used the Peak Over Threshold (POT) model, assuming the frequency as a Poisson process and the intensity to be Pareto distributed, to characterize the temporal variability of the long-term extreme incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China. Results The skewness and kurtosis of the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang between April 2009 and November 2013 were 4.49 and 21.12, which indicated a “fat tail” distribution. A QQ plot and a mean excess plot were used to further validate the features of the distribution. After determining the threshold, we modeled the extremes and estimated the shape parameter and scale parameter by the maximum likelihood method. The results showed that months in which the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza is about 4462/2286/1311/487 are predicted to occur once every five/three/two/one year, respectively. Conclusions Despite the simplicity, the present study successfully offers the sound modeling strategy and a methodological avenue to implement forecasting of an epidemic in the midst of its course. PMID:25710503

  14. Mechanisms of Normal and Abnormal Endometrial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation, is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. Progesterone also augments a second HESC hemostatic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In contrast, progestins inhibit HESC matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 3 and 9 expression to stabilize endometrial stromal and vascular extracellular matrix. Through these mechanisms decidualized endometrium is rendered both hemostatic and resistant to excess trophoblast invasion in the mid-luteal phase and throughout gestation to prevent hemorrhage and accreta. In non-fertile cycles, progesterone withdrawal results in decreased HESC TF and PAI-expression and increased MMP activity and inflammatory cytokine production promoting the controlled hemorrhage of menstruation and related tissue sloughing. In contrast to these well ordered biochemical processes, unpredictable endometrial bleeding associated with anovulation reflects absence of progestational effects on TF, PAI-1 and MMP activity as well as unrestrained angiogenesis rendering the endometrium non-hemostatic, proteolytic and highly vascular. Abnormal bleeding associated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives results not from impaired hemostasis but from unrestrained angiogenesis leading to large fragile endometrial vessels. This abnormal angiogenesis reflects progestational inhibition of endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and generation of reactive oxygen species that increase production of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HESCs and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in endometrial endothelial cells while decreasing HESC expression of angiostatic, Ang-1. The resulting vessel fragility promotes bleeding. Aberrant angiogenesis also underlies abnormal bleeding associated with myomas and endometrial polyps however there are gaps in our understanding of this pathology. PMID:21499503

  15. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  16. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  17. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  18. Using peripheral smear review, age and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors of abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytoses diagnosed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jared M; Cruser, Dan L; Myers, Jerome B; Fernelius, Colby A; Holm, Mitchel T; Waldner, Dale L

    2008-09-01

    Absolute lymphocytosis in the elderly raises the possibility of malignancy and generally warrants further investigation. To better correlate clinical variables with the frequency of neoplastic lymphoid processes in this population, we retrospectively reviewed archived flow cytometric analyses from peripheral blood specimens on patients of 50 years of age and older that had been deemed suspicious for a lymphoproliferative process after peripheral smear review. Age, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), white blood cell count and relative lymphocyte count were correlated with the results of flow cytometry. Of 71 total cases, 42 (59%) had an abnormal immunophenotype. Independent variables that showed significant differences between normal and abnormal immunophenotype were mean age (p = 0.001) and ALC (p = 0.0032). We combined age and absolute lymphocyte count variables to look for the best possible cutoff values to predict the likelihood of an abnormal immunophenotype. ALC cutoff values of >or=4 x 10(9) cells/L for patients over 67 years of age, and >6.7 x 10(9) cells/L for patients between 50 and 67 years of age, had a high sensitivity for detecting an abnormal immunophenotype. PMID:18798107

  19. Pervasive microstructural abnormalities in autism: a DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Wouter B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Zwiers, Marcel P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported abnormal functional connectivity patterns in the brains of people with autism that may be accompanied by decreases in white matter integrity. Since autism is a developmental disorder, we aim to investigate the nature and location of decreases in white and grey matter integrity in an adolescent sample while accounting for age. Methods We used structural (T1) imaging to study brain volumetrics and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white and grey matter integrity in people with autism. We obtained magnetic resonance images for adolescents aged 12–18 years with high-functioning autism and from matched controls. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, as well as grey and white matter volumetrics were analyzed. Results There were 17 participants with autism and 25 matched controls included in this study. Participants with autism had lower fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, but this effect was not significant after adjusting for age and intelligence quotient (IQ). The kurtosis of the white matter fractional anisotropy probability distribution was higher in this participant group, with and without adjustment for age and IQ. Most notably, however, the mean diffusivity levels were markedly increased in the autism group throughout the brain, and the mean diffusivity probability distributions of both grey and white matter were shifted toward a higher value, particularly with age and IQ adjustment. No volumetric differences in grey and white matter were found. Limitations We corrected for age and IQ using a linear model. The study was also limited by its sample size, investigated age range and cross-sectional design. Conclusion The findings suggest that autism is characterized by a generalized reduction of white matter integrity that is associated with an increase of interstitial space. The generalized manifestation of the white matter abnormalities provides an

  20. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  1. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default.../mmBtu Municipal Solid Waste 9.95 1 90.7 Tires 26.87 85.97 Plastics 38.00 75.00 Petroleum Coke...

  2. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C - Default CO2 Emission Factors and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel C Table C-1 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and High Heat Values for Various Types of Fuel Fuel type Default high heat value Default CO2 emission... Waste 9.95 1 90.7 Tires 26.87 85.97 Plastics 38.00 75.00 Petroleum Coke 30.00 102.41 Other...

  3. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1993-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  4. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  5. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  6. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-10-25

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  7. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste streams to sequentially recover monomers or other high value products

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-04-05

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents, selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 87 figures.

  8. Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

  9. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  10. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles †

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising. PMID:25551484

  11. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment. PMID:26117239

  12. Computed tomography of the trachea: normal and abnormal

    SciTech Connect

    Gamsu, G.; Webb, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    The trachea was investigated by means of computed tomography (CT) in 50 patients without tracheal or mediastinal abnormalities and in 39 patients with various diseases of the trachea. The variations in the normal CT appearance of the trachea and surrounding structures are described. CT did not provide additional information in the detection of characterization of tracheal stenosis beyond that obtained from more conventional studies, including tomography and positive-contrast tracheography. In patients with a saber-sheath trachea, CT demonstrated the abnormal configuration of the tracheal cartilages and abnormal collapse of the trachea on forced expiration. In patients with primary or secondary neoplasms involving the trachea, CT was most accurate in defining the intraluminal presence of tumor, the degree of airway compression, and the extratracheal extension of tumor. CT can be of value in determining the resectability of primary tracheal neoplasms and the planning of radiation therapy in metastatic lesions to the trachea and surrounding mediastinum.

  13. Early abnormalities of evoked potentials and future disability in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kallmann, B A; Fackelmann, S; Toyka, K V; Rieckmann, P; Reiners, K

    2006-02-01

    Evoked potentials (EP) have a role in making the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) but their implication for predicting the future disease course in MS is under debate. EP data of 94 MS patients examined at first presentation, and after five and ten years were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into two groups in relation to the prior duration of disease at the time point of first examination: group 1 patients (n=44) were first examined within two years after disease onset, and group 2 patients (n=50) at later time points. As primary measures sum scores were calculated for abnormalities of single and combined EP (visual (VEP), somatosensory (SEP), magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEP)). In patients examined early after disease onset (group 1), a significant predictive value for abnormal EP was found with MEP and SEP sum scores at first presentation correlating significantly with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) values after five years, while the VEP sum score was not. The cumulative number of abnormal MEP, SEP and VEP results also indicated higher degrees of disability (EDSS > or = 3.5) after five years. Combined pathological SEP and MEP findings at first presentation best predicted clinical disability (EDSS > or = 3.5) after five years (odds ratio 11.0). EP data and EDSS at first presentation were not significantly linked suggesting that EP abnormalities at least in part represented clinically silent lesions not mirrored by EDSS. For patients in later disease phases (group 2), no significant associations between EP data at first presentation and EDSS at five and ten years were detected. Together with clinical findings and MR imaging, combined EP data may help to identify patients at high risk of long-term clinical deterioration and guide decisions as to immunomodulatory treatment. PMID:16459720

  14. Prognostic Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhou, Huixing; Zhu, Wanqiu; Liu, Nian; Geng, Chuanying; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of specific cytogenetic abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) has become a routine procedure for prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in 229 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was retrospectively analyzed. Results showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were adverse predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who carried these cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely to have more adverse biological parameters and lower response rate. Multivariate analysis showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were statistically independent predictors of PFS, whereas del (17p) was also adverse predictor of overall survival. Multiple coexisting cytogenetic abnormalities also had a negative correlation with PFS. Bortezomib-based therapy could improve the rate and depth of response in patients with t(4;14) translocation and 1q21 gain. Autologous stem cell transplantation could improve, but not overcome the adverse prognostic effect of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MM patients with iFISH abnormalities, especially del (17p), are more likely to have a poor prognosis. PMID:27175647

  15. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  16. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds. PMID:23706190

  17. High b value DWI in evaluation of the hyperacute cerebral ischemia at 3T: A comparative study in an embolic canine stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qiguang; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zu, Qingquan; Lu, Shanshan; Yu, Jing; Liu, Xinglong; Wang, Bin; Shi, Haibin; Teng, Gaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the temporal change of relative diffusion weighted imaging (rDWI) signal intensity may help to determine the onset time of a stroke. Furthermore, several studies have indicated that high b value DWI offered improved detection rates for hyper-acute ischemic lesions compared with standard b value DWI. However, the temporal changes of the rDWI on high b value DWI remain unclear. Therefore, based on our embolic canine stroke model, we evaluated the temporal evolution of rDWI on high b value DWI, and further compared its diagnostic value in predicting the onset time of ischemic stroke with rDWI on standard b value DWI. Twelve canine MCAO models were established, and DWI was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after MCAO, with 3 b values of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000. High b value DWI detected all ischemic lesions after 1 h, while standard b value did not detect the ischemic lesions in one dog at 1 h. With all three of the tested b values, rDWIs increased continuously within 6 h, while relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) values rapidly decreased in 1 h, then became relatively stable. The area under the curve values for rDWI with b value of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000, in predicting ischemic lesions within 3 h were 0.897, 0.929 and 0.938, while for rADC were 0.645, 0.583 and 0.599, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that the rDWI was helpful in aging hyper-acute ischemic stroke, while rADC appeared not to be. High b value DWI had a higher detection rate for ischemic lesions and better predictive efficacy in determining the onset time of hyper-acute stroke. PMID:27446301

  18. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T; Indelicato, D; Boop, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and

  19. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms. PMID:24328185

  20. Added value of hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Phongkitkarun, Sith; Limsamutpetch, Kuruwin; Tannaphai, Penampai; Jatchavala, Janjira

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the added value of hepatobiliary phase (HBP) gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating hepatic nodules in high-risk patients. METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. This study included 100 patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 105 hepatic nodules that were larger than 1 cm. A blind review of two MR image sets was performed in a random order: set 1, unenhanced (T1- and T2-weighted) and dynamic images; and set 2, unenhanced, dynamic 20-min and HBP images. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared for the two image sets. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the MR characteristics utilized to diagnose HCC. RESULTS: A total of 105 hepatic nodules were identified in 100 patients. Fifty-nine nodules were confirmed to be HCC. The diameter of the 59 HCCs ranged from 1 to 12 cm (mean: 1.9 cm). The remaining 46 nodules were benign (28 were of hepatocyte origin, nine were hepatic cysts, seven were hemangiomas, one was chronic inflammation, and one was focal fat infiltration). The diagnostic accuracy significantly increased with the addition of HBP images, from 88.7% in set 1 to 95.5% in set 2 (P = 0.002). In set 1 vs set 2, the sensitivity and NPV increased from 79.7% to 93.2% and from 78.9% to 91.8%, respectively, whereas the specificity and PPV were not significantly different. The hypointensity on the HBP images was the most sensitive (93.2%), and typical arterial enhancement followed by washout was the most specific (97.8%). The multivariate analysis revealed that typical arterial enhancement followed by washout, hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, and hypointensity on HBP images were statistically significant MRI findings that could diagnose HCC (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The addition of HBP gadoxetic acid

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  2. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  3. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. PMID:19002453

  4. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis). PMID:24283272

  5. [Research status and prospect on hot water extract of Chlorella: the high value-added bioactive substance from Chlorella].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiuyuan; Huang, Yingming; Zhang, Daojing; Tao, Liming; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella is nutritious and has been used as a functional food much earlier than the other microalgae. C. pyrenoidosa, the potential microalgae which is currently cultured and developed for the new strategic industry of biofuels production and biological CO2 fixation, is a new resource food announced by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China late 2012. Accumulation of high value-added substances in C. pyrenoidosa during the cultivation for lipid makes it possible to reduce the costs for C. pyrenoidosa-based biofuels production. Among these potential substances, hot water extract of Chlorella (CE), commercially known as "Chlorella growth factor", is the unique one that makes Chlorella more precious than the other algae, and the market price of CE is high. It is believed that CE is effective in growth promotion and immunoregulation. However, there is no systematic analysis on the research status of CE and its bioactivity. The present report summarized recent research progress of CE and its bioactivity. Generally, besides the main effect on immunoregulation and tumor inhibition, CE was efficient in improving metabolic syndrome, scavenging for free radicals, protecting against ultraviolet damage, chelating heavy metals, and protecting liver and bowel. Several major challenges in CE research as well as its prospects were also analysed in the present report. PMID:26021077

  6. Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic

  7. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations. PMID:25501543

  8. Biochemical composition of marine sediment from the eastern Weddell Sea (Antarctica): High nutritive value in a high benthic-biomass environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, E.; Rossi, S.; Palanques, A.; Gili, J.-M.; Gerdes, D.; Arntz, W.

    2006-05-01

    Within the SCAR's international EASIZ programme, as part of the benthic-pelagic coupling experiment, grain size and organic matter contents in marine surface sediment were measured. Samples were taken during the austral autumn of 2000 from 3 regions in the eastern Weddell Sea: Kapp Norvegia, Four Seasons Bank, and Austasen. In general, sediments were fine sand with a grain size fraction < 200 μm representing more than 40% of the total weight. The sediments from Four Seasons Bank (64 to 107 m depth) were coarser than those from Austasen and Kapp Norvegia (209 to 480 m depth), presumably due to winnowing of fine sediment at shallow depths. Organic carbon (OC) content ranged from 0.25% to 1.2% and constituted 10% to 97% of the total carbon. The samples from Kapp Norvegia presented the highest OC values. Overall, protein (PRT), lipid (LPD), and carbohydrate (CHO) contents were similar to those in sediment from cold regions (e.g., the North Atlantic and the Ross Sea) but higher than those in sediment from other Antarctic and more septentrional regions (e.g., the Ross Sea and the Mediterranean). The difference within the Antarctic is explained through the local conditions in Terra Nova Bay and Kapp Norvegia. In the Antarctic, PRT and LPD carbon were the main contributors to the biopolymeric carbon (BPC). In the eastern Weddell Sea shelf, the BPC accounted for more than 90% of the OC in most of the samples. More than 82% of the total PRT, LPD, and CHO were present in the fraction < 200 μm. This work remarks the existence of sediments with a high nutritional value persistent several weeks after the spring-summer pulse of fresh organic matter. It is also highlighted the high potential availability of these sediments (due to its grain size) for the benthic communities inhabiting this high-latitude continental shelf.

  9. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging to Evaluate Treatment Results after Volumetric MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Uterine Fibroids: Influence of Different B-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voogt, M. J.; Keserci, B.; Kim, Y. S.; Rhim, H.; Lim, H. K.; Mougenot, C.; Kohler, M. O.; van den Bosch, M. A.; Vincken, K. L.; Bartels, L. W.

    2011-09-01

    We have assessed the feasibility of using diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping using different b-value combinations to evaluate treatment results after volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) for uterine fibroids. Pre-treatment, directly post-treatment and 1 month follow-up DW images were obtained using b-values 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 s/mm2. ADC maps were constructed for quantitative analysis of ablation results. Four different combinations of b-values were used to calculate the ADC. Directly after treatment ADC values decreased. Low b-values (0 and 200 s/mm2) resulted in the best contrast between non-perfused and perfused tissue. One month after treatment the average ADC was increased, now showing the best contrast on the high b-value ADC maps.

  10. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  11. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value

    PubMed Central

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species. PMID:26930203

  12. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species. PMID:26930203

  13. High-value alcohols and higher-oxidation-state compounds by catalytic Z-selective cross-metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Khan, R. Kashif M.; Torker, Sebastian; Yu, Miao; Mikus, Malte S.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis catalysts provide access to molecules that are indispensable to physicians and researchers in the life sciences. A persisting problem, however, is the dearth of chemical transformations that directly generate acyclic Z allylic alcohols, including products that contain a hindered neighbouring substituent or reactive functional units such as a phenol, an aldehyde, or a carboxylic acid. Here we present an electronically modified ruthenium-disulfide catalyst that is effective in generating such high-value compounds by cross-metathesis. The ruthenium complex is prepared from a commercially available precursor and an easily generated air-stable zinc catechothiolate. Transformations typically proceed with 5.0 mole per cent of the complex and an inexpensive reaction partner in 4-8 hours under ambient conditions; products are obtained in up to 80 per cent yield and 98:2 Z:E diastereoselectivity. The use of this catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of the naturally occurring anti-tumour agent neopeltolide and in a single-step stereoselective gram-scale conversion of a renewable feedstock (oleic acid) to an anti-fungal agent. In this conversion, the new catalyst promotes cross-metathesis more efficiently than the commonly used dichloro-ruthenium complexes, indicating that its utility may extend beyond Z-selective processes.

  14. Single-stage fermentation process for high-value biohythane production with the treatment of distillery spent-wash.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Suresh Babu; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The current communication reports the development of a single-stage biosystem for biohythane production from wastewater treatment. A semi-pilot scale bioreactor with 34 L capacity was used for this study. Maximum biohythane production of 147.5 ± 2.4 L was observed after five cycles of operation with production rate of 4.7 ± 0.1L/h. The biohythane composition (H2/(H2+CH4)) varied from 0.60 to 0.23 during stabilized fifth cycle of operation. During each cycle of operation, higher H2 fraction was noticed within 12h of cycle period followed by CH4 production for rest of operation (36 h). During biohythane production, COD removal efficiency of 60 ± 5% (SDR, 29.0 ± 1.9 kg CODr/m(3)-day) was also achieved. The synergistic function of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and consumption during process in hybrid biosystem played vital role on the composition of biohythane. The single-stage biosystem facilitates production of high valued and cost efficient biofuel (biohythane) with fewer controls than individual acidogenic and methanogenic processes. PMID:25889805

  15. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m−2 s−1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  16. The Clinical Value of High-Intensity Signals on the Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques: Noncontrast T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ehara, Shoichi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Shimada, Kenei

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in the pathohistological assessment of vulnerable plaques and in invasive intravascular imaging techniques. However, the assessment of plaque morphology by invasive modalities is of limited value for the detection of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and the subsequent prediction or prevention of acute cardiovascular events. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has reached a sufficient level of spatial resolution, which allowed the plaque visualization of large and static arteries such as the carotids and aorta. However, coronary wall imaging by MR is still challenging due to the small size of coronary arteries, cardiac and respiratory motion, and the low contrast-to-noise ratio between the coronary artery wall and the surrounding structures. Following the introduction of carotid plaque imaging with noncontrast T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), some investigators have reported that coronary artery high-intensity signals on T1WI are associated with vulnerable plaque morphology and an increased risk of future cardiac events. Although there are several limitations and issues that need to be resolved, this novel MR technique for coronary plaque imaging could influence treatment strategies for atherothrombotic disease and may be useful for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherothrombotic plaque formation. PMID:27455243

  17. One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Long, Yun-Duo; Jiang, Li-Qun

    2011-06-01

    Catalytic conversion of un-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (13.8 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel was studied in ionic liquids (ILs) with metal chlorides. Several commercial ILs were used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate ([BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)]; a Brønsted acidic IL) had the highest catalytic activity with 93% esterification rate for oleic acid at 140°C but only 12% biodiesel yield at 120°C. When FeCl(3) was added to [BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)], a maximum biodiesel yield of 99.7% was achieved at 120°C. Because metal ions in ILs supplied Lewis acidic sites, and more of the sites could be provided by trivalent metallic ions than those of bivalent ones. It was also found that the catalytic activity with bivalent metallic ions increased with atomic radius. Mixture of [BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)] and FeCl(3) was easily separated from products for reuse to avoid producing pollutants. PMID:21420854

  18. Cytotoxic Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fungal Endophytes from Selected High Value Medicinal Plants of the Kashmir Valley - India.

    PubMed

    Dar, R A; Qazi, P H; Saba, I; Rather, S A; Wani, Z A; Qazi, A K; Shiekh, A A; Manzoor, A; Hamid, A; Modae, D M

    2016-03-01

    The present study explores the fungal endophytes from selected high value medicinal plants to check their activities at in-vitro and in-vivo level. The in-vitro cytotoxicity of selected endophytes revealed potent growth inhibition against human cancer cell lines of leukemia (THP-1), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), colon (Caco-2), neuroblastoma (IMR-32) and breast (MCF-7) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. Among them the endophytic strains i. e., IIIM2, IIIM3, IIIM7 and IIIM8 showed most significant growth inhibition against colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC-3), lung (A549) and leukemia (THP-1) cancer cell lines. At the in-vivo level maximum (58.95%) tumor growth inhibition was documented with the extract of IIIM2 against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma mouse modal. All the potent fungal endophytic strains were characterized using ITS 4 and ITS 5 region sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was ascertained among them. This paper confirms the 2 elite endophytic fungal strains, IIIM2 and IIIM8, have the potential to act as a source of new anticancer compounds. PMID:26011814

  19. Elicitation, an Effective Strategy for the Biotechnological Production of Bioactive High-Added Value Compounds in Plant Cell Factories.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Estrada, Karla; Vidal-Limon, Heriberto; Hidalgo, Diego; Moyano, Elisabeth; Golenioswki, Marta; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Plant in vitro cultures represent an attractive and cost-effective alternative to classical approaches to plant secondary metabolite (PSM) production (the "Plant Cell Factory" concept). Among other advantages, they constitute the only sustainable and eco-friendly system to obtain complex chemical structures biosynthesized by rare or endangered plant species that resist domestication. For successful results, the biotechnological production of PSM requires an optimized system, for which elicitation has proved one of the most effective strategies. In plant cell cultures, an elicitor can be defined as a compound introduced in small concentrations to a living system to promote the biosynthesis of the target metabolite. Traditionally, elicitors have been classified in two types, abiotic or biotic, according to their chemical nature and exogenous or endogenous origin, and notably include yeast extract, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, vanadyl sulphate and chitosan. In this review, we summarize the enhancing effects of elicitors on the production of high-added value plant compounds such as taxanes, ginsenosides, aryltetralin lignans and other types of polyphenols, focusing particularly on the use of a new generation of elicitors such as coronatine and cyclodextrins. PMID:26848649

  20. GHSR DNA hypermethylation is a common epigenetic alteration of high diagnostic value in a broad spectrum of cancers.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Evgeny A; Jandaghi, Pouria; Fallah, Mahdi; Manoochehri, Mehdi; Botla, Sandeep K; Kolychev, Oleg V; Nikitin, Evgeny A; Bubnov, Vladymyr V; von Knebel Doeberitz, M; Strobel, Oliver; Hackert, Thilo; Büchler, Markus W; Giese, Nathalia; Bauer, Andrea; Muley, Thomas; Warth, Arne; Schirmacher, Peter; Haller, Florian; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Riazalhosseini, Yasser

    2015-02-28

    Identification of a single molecular trait that is determinant of common malignancies may serve as a powerful diagnostic supplement to cancer type-specific markers. Here, we report a DNA methylation mark that is characteristic of seven studied malignancies, namely cancers of lung, breast, prostate, pancreas, colorectum, glioblastoma and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (n = 137). This mark was defined by substantial hypermethylation at the promoter and first exon of growth hormone secretagouge receptor (GHSR) through bisulfite pyrosequencing. The degree of aberrant methylation was capable of accurate discrimination between cancer and control samples. The highest sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection was achieved for cancers of pancreas, lung, breast and CLL yielding the area under the curve (AUC) values of 1.0000, 0.9952, 0.9800 and 0.9400, respectively. Narrowing to a single CpG site within the gene's promoter or four consecutive CpG units of the highest methylation levels within the first exon improved the detection power. GHSR hypermethylation was detected already at the early stage tumors. The accurate performance of this marker was further replicated in an independent set of pancreatic cancer and control samples (n = 78). These findings support the candidature of GHSR methylation as a highly accurate pan-cancer marker. PMID:25557172