Yoon, Young-In; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Kang, Woo-Hyoung; Cho, Hwui-Dong; Jwa, Eun-Kyoung; Kwon, Jae-Hyun; Tak, Eun-Young; Kirchner, Varvara A
Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) can simultaneously cure hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and underlying liver cirrhosis, improving long-term results in patients with HCC. ABO-incompatible LDLT could expand the living-donor pool, reduce waiting times for deceased-donor liver transplantation, and improve long-term survival for some patients with HCC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients undergoing LDLT for HCC from November 2008 to December 2015 at a single institution in Korea. In total, 165 patients underwent ABO-incompatible and 753 patients underwent ABO-compatible LDLT for HCC. ABO-incompatible recipients underwent desensitization to overcome the ABO blood group barrier, including pretransplant plasma exchange and rituximab administration (300-375 mg/m 2 /body surface area). We performed 1:1 propensity score matching and included 165 patients in each group. 82.4% of ABO-incompatible and 83.0% of -compatible LDLT groups had HCC within conventional Milan criteria, respectively, and 92.1% and 92.7% of patients in each group had a Child-Pugh score of A or B. ABO-incompatible and -compatible LDLT groups were followed up for 48.0 and 48.7 months, respectively, with both groups showing comparable recurrence-free survival rates (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14; 95% CI 0.68-1.90; p = 0.630) and overall patient-survival outcomes (HR 1.10; 95% CI 0.60-2.00; p = 0.763). These findings suggested that ABO-incompatible liver transplantation is a feasible option for patients with HCC, especially for those with compensated cirrhosis with HCC within conventional Milan criteria. Despite hypothetical immunological concerns that the desensitization protocol for breaking through the ABO blood group barrier might have a negative impact on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, our experience demonstrated no significant differences in the long-term overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates between patients receiving ABO-compatible or ABO-incompatible
Mishima, Kohei; Obara, Hideaki; Sugita, Kayoko; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Mori, Takehiko; Takano, Yaoko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Itano, Osamu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Iwata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko
Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.
Song, G-W; Lee, S-G; Hwang, S; Kim, K-H; Ahn, C-S; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Jung, D-H; Park, G-C; Kim, W-J; Sin, M-H; Yoon, Y-I; Kang, W-H; Kim, S-H; Tak, E-Y
ABO incompatibility is no longer considered a contraindication for adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) due to various strategies to overcome the ABO blood group barrier. We report the largest single-center experience of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) ALDLT in 235 adult patients. The desensitization protocol included a single dose of rituximab and total plasma exchange. In addition, local graft infusion therapy, cyclophosphamide, or splenectomy was used for a certain time period, but these treatments were eventually discontinued due to adverse events. There were three cases (1.3%) of in-hospital mortality. The cumulative 3-year graft and patient survival rates were 89.2% and 92.3%, respectively, and were comparable to those of the ABO-compatible group (n = 1301). Despite promising survival outcomes, 17 patients (7.2%) experienced antibody-mediated rejection that manifested as diffuse intrahepatic biliary stricture; six cases required retransplantation, and three patients died. ABOi ALDLT is a feasible method for expanding a living liver donor pool, but the efficacy of the desensitization protocol in targeting B cell immunity should be optimized. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Hageman, M; Michaud, N; Chinnappan, I; Klein, T; Mettler, B
A month-old baby girl with blood type O positive received a donor heart organ from a donor with blood type B. This was the first institutional ABO-incompatible heart transplant. Infants listed for transplantation may be considered for an ABO-incompatible heart transplant based on their antibody levels and age. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) protocol is infants under 24 months with titers less than or equal to 1:4.(1) This recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies were monitored with titer assays to determine their levels; antibody levels less than 1:4 are acceptable pre-transplant in order to proceed with donor and transplant arrangements.1 Immediately prior to initiating cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a complete whole body exchange transfusion of at least two-times the patient's circulating blood volume was performed with packed red blood cells (pRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 25% albumin. Titer assays were sent two minutes after initiation of full CPB and then hourly until the cross-clamp was removed. Institutionally, reperfusion of the donor heart is not restored until the antibody level from the titer assay is known and reported as less than 1:4; failing to achieve an immulogically tolerant recipient will provide conditions for hyperacute rejection. The blood collected during the transfusion exchange was immediately processed through a cell saver so the pRBC's could be re-infused to the patient during CPB, as necessary. The remainder of the transplant was performed in the same fashion as an ABO-compatible heart transplant. The patient has shown no signs of rejection following transplantation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko
Background The use of ABO incompatible (ABOi) graft in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been an established procedure worldwide. Methods Four hundred and eight adult LDLTs, using ABOi (n=19) and non-ABOi (n=389) grafts, were performed as a single center experience. Results In ABOi-LDLT group (n=19), median isoagglutinin titer before plasma exchange (PE) at LDLT and after LDLT (max) was ×256, ×32 and ×32, respectively. Rituximab was given at 21.8±6.1 days before LDLT and PE was performed 3.7±1.6 times. Although ABOi-LDLTs had increased rate of splenectomy (89.4% vs. 44.7%, P<0.001) and lower portal venous pressure (PVP) at the end of surgery (13.8±1.1 vs. 16.9±0.2 mmHg, P=0.003), other operative factors including graft ischemic time, operative time and blood loss were not different between the groups. Although ABOi-LDLTs had increased incidence of cytomegalovirus infection (52.6% vs. 22.9%, P=0.007), other post-transplant complications including bacterial sepsis and acute rejection were not different between the groups. The 5-year graft survival rate was 87.9% in ABOi-LDLTs and 80.3% in non-ABOi-LDLTs (P=0.373). Conclusions ABOi-LDLT could be safely performed, especially under rituximab-based protocol. PMID:27115002
Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko
The use of ABO incompatible (ABOi) graft in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been an established procedure worldwide. Four hundred and eight adult LDLTs, using ABOi (n=19) and non-ABOi (n=389) grafts, were performed as a single center experience. In ABOi-LDLT group (n=19), median isoagglutinin titer before plasma exchange (PE) at LDLT and after LDLT (max) was ×256, ×32 and ×32, respectively. Rituximab was given at 21.8±6.1 days before LDLT and PE was performed 3.7±1.6 times. Although ABOi-LDLTs had increased rate of splenectomy (89.4% vs. 44.7%, P<0.001) and lower portal venous pressure (PVP) at the end of surgery (13.8±1.1 vs. 16.9±0.2 mmHg, P=0.003), other operative factors including graft ischemic time, operative time and blood loss were not different between the groups. Although ABOi-LDLTs had increased incidence of cytomegalovirus infection (52.6% vs. 22.9%, P=0.007), other post-transplant complications including bacterial sepsis and acute rejection were not different between the groups. The 5-year graft survival rate was 87.9% in ABOi-LDLTs and 80.3% in non-ABOi-LDLTs (P=0.373). ABOi-LDLT could be safely performed, especially under rituximab-based protocol.
Schumann, Alexandra; Fiedler, Melanie; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito R; Herzer, Kerstin; Lenz, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Paul, Andreas; Roggendorf, Michael; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika
This report describes how donor- and recipient-derived immunity was influenced by immunosuppressive treatment of ABO incompatibility (rituximab and immunoadsorption/plasmaphereses) in the long-term. We present an 8-year course of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity, isohemagglutinins and B cell numbers. Whereas cellular HBV immunity was transferred from the HBV vaccinated donor (blood group A1) to the HBV naïve recipient (blood group 0), humoral HBV specific immune transfer was lacking. Starting at month 17 after transplantation, the recipient was vaccinated six times against HBV. Anti-HBs did not appear until the sixth vaccination at month 44. Immunoadsorption prior to transplantation reduced anti-A1 IgG titers from 256 to 2. Titers after transplantation remained low (⩽64). B cell numbers were below standard values up to month 26, then normalized and exceeded normal values from year 7 to 8 post transplantation. In conclusion, donor-derived B cell immunity was lost but recipient-derived immunity persisted after ABO incompatible transplantation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maitta, Robert W; Choate, Jacquelyn; Emre, Sukru H; Luczycki, Stephen M; Wu, Yanyun
The increasing demand for solid organ transplants has brought to light the need to utilize organs in critical situations despite ABO-incompatibility. However, these transplantations are complicated by pre-existing ABO antibodies which may be potentially dangerous and makes the transplantation prone to failure due to rejection with resulting necrosis or intrahepatic biliary complications. We report the clinical outcome of an emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant (due to fulminant hepatic failure with sudden and rapidly deteriorating mental status) using a modified therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) protocol. The recipient was O-positive with an initial anti-B titer of 64 and the cadaveric organ was from a B-positive donor. The patient underwent initial TPE during the peri-operative period, followed by a series of postoperative daily TPE, and later a third series of TPE for presumptive antibody-mediated rejection. The latter two were performed in conjunction with the use of IVIg and rituximab. The recipient's anti-B titer was reduced and maintained at 8 or less 8 months post-op. However, an elevation of transaminases 3 months post-transplant triggered a biopsy which was consistent with cellular rejection and with weak C4d positive staining suggestive of antibody mediated rejection. Additional plasma exchange procedures were performed. The patient improved rapidly after modification of her immunosuppression regimen and treatment with plasma exchange. This case illustrates that prompt and aggressive plasma exchange, in conjunction with immunosuppression, is a viable approach to prevent and treat antibody mediated transplant rejection in emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kopko, Patricia M.
Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318
Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dashkova, N G; Salimov, É L
The experience of 28 allotransplantations of ABO-incompatible kidneys was compared with the treatment results of 38 ABO-compatible renal transplantations. The transplanted kidney function, morphological changes of the transplanted kidney and the comparative analysis of actuary survival in both groups showed no significant difference. The results of the study prove the validity of the kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors.
Pre-emptive living kidney transplantation is the best choice of therapy to treat patients with advanced renal insufficiency. Unfortunately in up to one third of all cases kidney donation was refused due to blood group incompatibility. Limitations in donor availability for kidney transplantation therefore require that ABO-incompatible transplantation is safely established. This has changed when a new protocol was introduced in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2001. Almost 400 ABO-incompatible transplantations have since been performed in more than 20 centers with this protocol in Europe. ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation can now be offered to our patients with advanced kidney disease as a safe procedure. To get more insight into the role ABO-incompatible organ transplantation might play in the near future transplantation centers currently involved in these processes should share their data to answer the unresolved issues we are concerned. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bergenfeldt, Henrik; Andersson, Bodil; Bućin, Dragan; Stehlik, Josef; Edwards, Leah; Rådegran, Göran; Nilsson, Johan
In the past, ABO incompatibility was considered an absolute contraindication to heart transplantation (HT) in adults. Advances in ABO-incompatible HT in pediatric patients and ABO-incompatible abdominal transplantation in adult patients have led to clinical exploration of intentional ABO-incompatible HT in adults. However, it is not well known how outcomes in ABO-incompatible adult heart transplant recipients compare with outcomes in ABO-compatible recipients. We analyzed International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation transplant registry data from heart donors and recipients ≥18 years old at the time of transplant for HT performed between 1988 and 2011. We compared baseline characteristics and post-transplant outcomes in ABO-incompatible and ABO-compatible HT. Death or retransplantation was the composite primary end-point. Among 76,663 adult patients undergoing HT between 1988 and June 30, 2011, 94 ABO-incompatible heart transplants were performed. The incidence of death or retransplantation in the ABO-incompatible group was higher than in the ABO-compatible group: 21% vs 9% at 30 days (hazard ratio = 2.38, p < 0.001) and 36% vs 19% at 1 year after transplant. However, ABO-incompatible grafts surviving past the first year after transplant had a similar incidence of failure compared with the ABO-compatible group. After 2005, the rate ABO-incompatible HT in adults increased, likely as a result of planned, intentional (rather than accidental) ABO-incompatible HT. In this group of patients, short-term and long-term incidence of death or retransplantation was similar to ABO-compatible recipients (p = 0.822): 7% at 30 days and 19% at 1 year after transplantation. We found no difference in incidence of death or retransplantation between ABO-compatible and ABO-incompatible HT in patients who underwent transplantation after 2005. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Staley, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Joseph; Pham, Huy P
Hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has long been established as the optimal treatment for many hematologic malignancies. In the setting of allogenic HLA matched HPC transplantation, greater than 50% of unrelated donors and 30% of related donors demonstrate some degree of ABO incompatibility (ABOi), which is classified in one of three ways: major, minor, or bidirectional. Major ABOi refers to the presence of recipient isoagglutinins against the donor's A and/or B antigen. Minor ABOi occurs when the HPC product contains the isoagglutinins targeting the recipient's A and/or B antigen. Bidirectional refers to the presence of both major and minor ABOi. Major adverse events associated with ABOi HPC transplantation includes acute and delayed hemolysis, pure red cell aplasia, and delayed engraftment. ABOi HPC transplantation poses a unique challenge to the clinical transplantation unit, the HPC processing lab, and the transfusion medicine service. Therefore, it is essential that these services actively communicate with one another to ensure patient safety. This review will attempt to globally address the challenges related to ABOi HPC transplantation, with an increased focus on aspects related to the laboratory and transfusion medicine services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becker, Luis E; Siebert, Daniela; Süsal, Caner; Opelz, Gerhard; Leo, Albrecht; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Schemmer, Peter; Schaefer, Sebastian Markus; Klein, Katrin; Beimler, Jörg; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat; Morath, Christian
For desensitization of ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients we recently proposed nonantigen-specific immunoadsorption (IA) and rituximab. We now compared clinical outcomes of 34 ABO-incompatible living-donor kidney recipients who were transplanted using this protocol with that of 68 matched ABO-compatible patients. In addition, we analyzed efficacy and cost of nonantigen-specific as compared to blood group antigen-specific IA. Before desensitization, the median isoagglutinin titer of 34 ABO-incompatible patients was 1:64 (Coombs technique). Patients received a median of 7 preoperative IA treatments. Twenty-four patients had a median of 2 additional plasmapheresis treatments to reach the preoperative target isoagglutinin titer of 1:8 or less. After a median postoperative follow-up of 22 months, overall graft survival in the ABO-incompatible group was not significantly different from that in ABO-compatible patients (log-rank P = 0.20), whereas patient survival tended to be lower (log-rank P = 0.05). The incidence of rejection episodes was 15% in both groups. The ABO-incompatible kidney recipients had a higher incidence of BK virus replication (P = 0.04) and nephropathy (P = 0.01) and showed more often colonization with multidrug resistant bacteria (P = 0.02). In comparison to blood group antigen-specific IA, nonantigen-specific IA showed equal efficacy but was associated with reduction in cost. Clinical outcomes of ABO-incompatible patients desensitized with a nonantigen-specific IA device and rituximab do not differ from that of matched ABO-compatible patients although a trend toward reduced patient survival was noted. Special attention must be paid to the higher incidence of BK virus infection in recipients of ABO-incompatible grafts.
Basu, Sabita; Dhar, Supriya; Mishra, Deepak; Chandy, Mammen
The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System) was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells). Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT.
Jeon, Byung Joo; Seong, Youl Keun; Han, Bo Hyun
Purpose The number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation is incessantly increasing, but the number of cadaveric kidney transplantations or ABO-compatible donors is so insufficient that ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is being performed as an alternative. There are overseas studies and research showing that the 5-year survival rate and 5-year graft survival rate of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are not much different from those of ABO-compatible kidney transplantation. However, domestic research on the subject is rare. Therefore, we report the results of 22 ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation cases performed in our hospital. Materials and Methods This research was from 22 patients in our hospital who underwent ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation from 15 February 2007 to 20 May 2010. Results As yet, there have been no donor graft losses and no deaths after transplantation. The results of the two groups were analyzed by analysis of covariance of the creatinine value of the recipients at 6 months after the operation, corrected for the preoperative value in order to statistically identify whether there were differences in renal function after the operation between ABO-compatible and ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The results of the analysis of covariance showed no statistical difference in renal function after the operation between the two groups. Conclusions Even though there were not many cases, our initial results for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation were positive. Considering the increasing number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation, longer-term domestic research studies of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are necessary. PMID:21221208
Kafetzi, Maria L; Boletis, John N; Melexopoulou, Christine A; Tsakris, Athanassios; Iniotaki, Aliki G; Doxiadis, Ilias I N
The necessity of detection of other than the classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) directed antibodies prior to organ transplantation has already been repeatedly reported. A commercial flow cytometric endothelial crossmatch (CM) using isolated peripheral blood tie-2 positive cells provides a tool to detect non-MHC antibodies in addition to antibodies directed to MHC class I and II. The vast majority of circulating tie-2 positive cells expresses HLA-DR but not the A, B blood group antigens. Tie-2 cells are circulating surrogate endothelial cells. In this retrospective study we evaluated the endothelial CM in 51 renal transplantations, 30 with ABO compatible grafts and 21 with ABO incompatible grafts. Fifteen of the ABO compatible recipients (group A) developed unexplained rejection episodes (RE) while the remaining 15 had no RE (group B). Five cases of group A and none of group B had a positive tie-2 CM before transplantation (p=0.042). A positive tie-2 CM was also correlated with graft failure in ABO compatible transplants (p=0.02). No significant correlation was found between a positive pre-transplant tie-2 CM and RE in the ABO incompatible group. This study strongly suggest that a positive tie-2 CM may predict post-transplantation complications in ABO compatible grafts while negative reactions are not predictive. The test is not significantly correlated with RE in ABO incompatible grafts possibly due to applied desensitization. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uchida, Junji; Iwai, Tomoaki; Nishide, Shunji; Kabei, Kazuya; Kuwabara, Nobuyuki; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Naganuma, Toshihide; Kumada, Norihiko; Takemoto, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Tatsuya
BACKGROUND Rituximab induces long-lasting B cell depletion in the peripheral blood and increases the levels of proinflammatory cytokines associated with regulatory B cell depletion. Previous reports showed that B cell-related cytokine release after administration of rituximab may induce acute cellular rejection (ACR) and delayed-onset neutropenia. The present study was conducted to investigate the correlation between acute rejection and delayed-onset neutropenia in ABO-incompatible renal transplant recipients who underwent administration of rituximab for 1 year after transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS From June 2006 to July 2015, 47 patients with chronic renal failure received ABO-incompatible renal transplant with rituximab induction at Osaka City University Hospital. All 47 patients underwent plasmapheresis due to removal of anti-A/B antibodies and administration of rituximab, and their transplants were carried out successfully. We investigated the correlation between ACR and delayed-onset neutropenia in ABO-incompatible renal transplant recipients who underwent administration of rituximab for 1 year after transplantation. RESULTS Fourteen patients (29.8%) experienced ACR (group A), and 33 recipients did not develop ACR (group B). The frequency of delayed-onset neutropenia was higher in group A than in group B (p=0.0503). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the frequency of ACR correlated significantly with the prevalence of delayed-onset neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicated that ACR in ABO-incompatible renal transplant recipients receiving rituximab was associated with delayed-onset neutropenia.
Tasaki, M; Saito, K; Nakagawa, Y; Imai, N; Ito, Y; Aoki, T; Kamimura, M; Narita, I; Tomita, Y; Takahashi, K
The mechanism of long-term B cell immunity against donor blood group antigens in recipients who undergo ABO-incompatible (ABOi) living-donor kidney transplantation (LKTx) is unknown. To address this question, we evaluated serial anti-A and anti-B antibody titers in 50 adult recipients. Donor-specific antibody titers remained low (≤1:4) in 42 recipients (84%). However, antibodies against nondonor blood group antigens were continuously produced in recipients with blood type O. We stimulated recipients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro to investigate whether B cells produced antibodies against donor blood group antigens in the absence of graft adsorption in vivo. Antibodies in cell culture supernatant were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 57 recipients who underwent ABO-compatible LKTx served as controls. Antibody production in vitro against donor blood group antigens by cells from ABOi LKTx patients was lower than in the control groups. Immunoglobulin deposits were undetectable in biopsies of grafts of eight recipients with low antibody titers (≤1:4) after ABOi LKTx. One patient with blood type A1 who received a second ABOi LKTx from a type B donor did not produce B-specific antibodies. These findings suggest diminished donor-specific antibody production function in the setting of adult ABOi LKTx. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Kauke, Teresa; Klimaschewski, Sandra; Schoenermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Dick, Andrea; Guba, Markus; Stangl, Manfred; Werner, Jens; Meiser, Bruno; Habicht, Antje
The shortage of deceased donors led to an increase of living donor kidney (LDK) transplantations performed in the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or ABO incompatibility (ABOi) using various desensitization protocols. We herein analyzed 26 ABOi and 8 Luminex positive DSA patients who were successfully desensitized by anti-CD20, antigen-specific immunoadsorption and/or plasmapheresis to receive an LDK transplant. Twenty LDK recipients with non-donor-specific HLA-antibodies (low risk) and 32 without anti-HLA antibodies (no risk) served as control groups. 1-year graft survival rate and renal function was similar in all 4 groups (creatinine: 1.63 ± 0.5 vs 1.78 ± 0.6 vs 1.64 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk group). The incidence of acute T-cell mediated rejections did not differ between the 4 groups (15% vs 12, 5% vs 15% vs 22% in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk), while antibody-mediated rejections were only found in the DSA (25%) and ABOi (7.5%) groups. Incidence of BK nephropathy (BKVN) was significantly more frequent after desensitization as compared to controls (5/34 vs 0/52, p = 0.03). We demonstrate favorable short-term allograft outcome in LDK transplant recipients after desensitization. However, the desensitization was associated with an increased risk of BKVN.
Kauke, Teresa; Klimaschewski, Sandra; Schoenermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Dick, Andrea; Guba, Markus; Stangl, Manfred; Werner, Jens; Meiser, Bruno; Habicht, Antje
Background The shortage of deceased donors led to an increase of living donor kidney (LDK) transplantations performed in the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or ABO incompatibility (ABOi) using various desensitization protocols. Methods We herein analyzed 26 ABOi and 8 Luminex positive DSA patients who were successfully desensitized by anti-CD20, antigen-specific immunoadsorption and/or plasmapheresis to receive an LDK transplant. Twenty LDK recipients with non-donor-specific HLA-antibodies (low risk) and 32 without anti-HLA antibodies (no risk) served as control groups. Results 1-year graft survival rate and renal function was similar in all 4 groups (creatinine: 1.63 ± 0.5 vs 1.78 ± 0.6 vs 1.64 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk group). The incidence of acute T-cell mediated rejections did not differ between the 4 groups (15% vs 12, 5% vs 15% vs 22% in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk), while antibody-mediated rejections were only found in the DSA (25%) and ABOi (7.5%) groups. Incidence of BK nephropathy (BKVN) was significantly more frequent after desensitization as compared to controls (5/34 vs 0/52, p = 0.03). Conclusion We demonstrate favorable short-term allograft outcome in LDK transplant recipients after desensitization. However, the desensitization was associated with an increased risk of BKVN. PMID:26730981
... red blood cells or anemia The recipient's and donor's blood are not compatible Urine tests show the presence ... Careful testing of donor and recipient blood types before transfusion or transplant can prevent this problem.
Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N; Labopin, Myriam; Michallet, Mauricette; Craddock, Charles; Socié, Gerard; Volin, Lisa; Maertens, Johan A; Crawley, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Ljungman, Per T; Cornelissen, Jan; Russell, Nigel; Baron, Frédéric; Gorin, Norbert; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Schmid, Christoph; Giebel, Sebastian; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon
ABO incompatibility is commonly observed in stem cell transplantation and its impact in this setting has been extensively investigated. HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMURD) are often used as an alternative stem cell source but are associated with increased transplant related complications. Whether ABO incompatibility affects outcome in MMURD transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is unknown. We evaluated 1,013 AML patients who underwent MMURD transplantation between 2005 and 2014. Engraftment rates were comparable between ABO matched and mismatched patients, as were relapse incidence [34%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 28-39; for ABO matched vs. 36%; 95% CI, 32-40; for ABO mismatched; P = .32], and nonrelapse mortality (28%; 95% CI, 23-33; for ABO matched vs. 25%; 95% CI, 21-29; for ABO mismatched; P = .2). Three year survival was 40% for ABO matched and 43% for ABO mismatched patients (P = .35), Leukemia free survival rates were also comparable between groups (37%; 95% CI, 32-43; for ABO matched vs. 38%; 95% CI, 33-42; for ABO mismatched; P = .87). Incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease was marginally lower in patients with major ABO mismatching (Hazard ratio of 0.7, 95% CI, 0.5-1; P = .049]. ABO incompatibility probably has no significant clinical implications in MMURD transplantation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Takahashi, Kota; Saito, Kazuhide; Takahara, Shiro; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Yagisawa, Takashi; Aikawa, Atsushi; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Yoshimura, Norio; Tanabe, Kazunari; Morozumi, Kunio; Shimazu, Motohide
Deceased organ donations are rare in Japan, with most kidney transplants performed from a limited number of living donors. Researchers have thus developed highly successful ABO-incompatible transplantation procedures, emphasizing preoperative desensitization and postoperative immunosuppression. A recent open-label, single-arm, multicenter clinical study prospectively examined the efficacy and safety of rituximab/mycophenolate mofetil desensitization in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation without splenectomy. Mycophenolate mofetil and low dose steroid were started 28 days pretransplant, followed by two doses of rituximab 375 mg/m 2 at day -14 and day -1, and postoperative immunosuppression with tacrolimus or ciclosporin and basiliximab. The primary endpoint was the non-occurrence rate of acute antibody-mediated rejection. Patient survival and graft survival were monitored for 1 year posttransplant. Eighteen patients received rituximab and underwent ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. CD19-positive peripheral B cell count decreased rapidly after the first rituximab infusion and recovered gradually after week 36. The desensitization protocol was tolerable, and most rituximab-related infusion reactions were mild. No anti-A/B antibody-mediated rejection occurred with this series. One patient developed anti-HLA antibody-mediated rejection (Banff 07 type II) on day 2, which was successfully managed. Patient and graft survival were both 100 % after 1 year. Our desensitization protocol was confirmed to be clinically effective and with acceptable toxicities for ABO-I-KTx (University Hospital Medical Information Network Registration Number: UMIN000006635).
Hult, A K; Dykes, J H; Storry, J R; Olsson, M L
ABO-incompatible haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) presents a challenge to blood component transfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the weak blood group A or B antigen expression by donor-derived group O red blood cells (RBC) observed following transfusion or minor ABO-incompatible HSCT. In addition, in vitro experiments were performed to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. A sensitive flow cytometry assay for the semi-quantification of RBC A/B antigen levels was used to assess patient samples and evaluate in vitro experiments. Analysis of blood samples from patients, originally typed as A, B and AB but recently transplanted or transfused with cells from group O donors, revealed the A antigen expression on donor-derived RBC, ranging from very low levels in non-secretor individuals to almost subgroup A x -like profiles in group A secretors. The B antigen expression was less readily detectable. In vitro experiments, in which group O donor RBC were incubated with (i) group A/B secretor/non-secretor donor plasma or (ii) group A/B donor RBC in the absence of plasma, supported the proposed adsorption of A/B antigen-bearing glycolipids from secretor plasma but also indicated a secretor-independent mechanism for A/B antigen acquisition as well as direct cell-to-cell transfer of ABO antigens. The in vivo conversion of donor-derived blood group O RBC to ABO subgroup-like RBC after transfusion or minor ABO-incompatible HSCT raises the question of appropriate component selection. Based on these data, AB plasma should be transfused following ABO-incompatible HSCT. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Silvestre, C; Furian, L; Marson, P; Tison, T; Valente, M; Marchini, F; Rossi, B; Bonfante, L; Valerio, F; Cozzi, E; Rigotti, P
Blood group incompatibility in kidney transplants from a living donor can be successfully overcome by using various desensitization protocols: intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis (PP), immunoadsorption, and double filtration PP. From July 2010 to October 2013, we performed 10 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT) procedures from a living donor. The desensitization protocol was based on rituximab and PP+cytomegalovirus immune globulin. All patients received induction with basiliximab, except 1 case treated with Thymoglobuline® (ATG) for the simultaneous presence of donor-specific antibody. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated at the time of desensitization and continued after the transplant. After a mean follow-up of 11.6±10.4 months, all patients are alive with a functioning graft. The mean serum creatinine concentration at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year was 1.48±0.29, 1.47±0.18, 1.47±0.27, and 1.5±0.27 mg/dl. Three episodes of acute cellular rejection occurred in 2 patients. There was only 1 case of BK virus infection, treated with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. The protocol biopsy specimens at 1, 3, and 6 months were C4d positive in the absence of acute rejection. Desensitization with rituximab, PP, and anti-cytomegalovirus immune globulin allowed us to perform transplants from living donors to ABO incompatible recipients with excellent results and reduced costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Impact of ABO incompatibility on patients' outcome after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia - a report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.
Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N; Labopin, Myriam; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ciceri, Fabio; Arcese, William; Tischer, Johanna; Koc, Yener; Bruno, Benedetto; Gülbas, Zafer; Blaise, Didier; Maertens, Johan; Ehninger, Gerhard; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon
A significant proportion of hematopoietic stem cell transplants are performed with ABO-mismatched donors. The impact of ABO mismatch on outcome following transplantation remains controversial and there are no published data regarding the impact of ABO mismatch in acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving haploidentical transplants. Using the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Acute Leukemia Working Group registry we identified 837 patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation. Comparative analysis was performed between patients who received ABO-matched versus ABO-mismatched haploidentical transplants for common clinical outcome variables. Our cohort consisted of 522 ABO-matched patients and 315 ABO-mismatched patients including 150 with minor, 127 with major, and 38 with bi-directional ABO mismatching. There were no significant differences between ABO matched and mismatched patients in terms of baseline disease and clinical characteristics. Major ABO mismatching was associated with inferior day 100 engraftment rate whereas multivariate analysis showed that bi-directional mismatching was associated with increased risk of grade II-IV acute graft- versus -host disease [hazard ratio (HR) 2.387; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-4.66; P =0.01). Non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, leukemia-free survival, overall survival, and chronic graft- versus -host disease rates were comparable between ABO-matched and -mismatched patients. Focused analysis on stem cell source showed that patients with minor mismatching transplanted with bone marrow grafts experienced increased grade II-IV acute graft- versus -host disease rates (HR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.00-4.10; P =0.04). Patients with major ABO mismatching and bone marrow grafts had decreased survival (HR=1.82; CI 95%: 1.048 - 3.18; P =0.033). In conclusion, ABO incompatibility has a marginal but significant clinical effect in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing haploidentical transplantation. Copyright© Ferrata
Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N; Labopin, Myriam; Huang, Xiao-jun; Ciceri, Fabio; Arcese, William; Tischer, Johanna; Koc, Yener; Bruno, Benedetto; Gülbas, Zafer; Blaise, Didier; Maertens, Johan; Ehninger, Gerhard; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon
A significant proportion of hematopoietic stem cell transplants are performed with ABO-mismatched donors. The impact of ABO mismatch on outcome following transplantation remains controversial and there are no published data regarding the impact of ABO mismatch in acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving haploidentical transplants. Using the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Acute Leukemia Working Group registry we identified 837 patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation. Comparative analysis was performed between patients who received ABO-matched versus ABO-mismatched haploidentical transplants for common clinical outcome variables. Our cohort consisted of 522 ABO-matched patients and 315 ABO-mismatched patients including 150 with minor, 127 with major, and 38 with bi-directional ABO mismatching. There were no significant differences between ABO matched and mismatched patients in terms of baseline disease and clinical characteristics. Major ABO mismatching was associated with inferior day 100 engraftment rate whereas multivariate analysis showed that bi-directional mismatching was associated with increased risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease [hazard ratio (HR) 2.387; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22–4.66; P=0.01). Non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, leukemia-free survival, overall survival, and chronic graft-versus-host disease rates were comparable between ABO-matched and -mismatched patients. Focused analysis on stem cell source showed that patients with minor mismatching transplanted with bone marrow grafts experienced increased grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease rates (HR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.00–4.10; P=0.04). Patients with major ABO mismatching and bone marrow grafts had decreased survival (HR=1.82; CI 95%: 1.048 – 3.18; P=0.033). In conclusion, ABO incompatibility has a marginal but significant clinical effect in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing haploidentical transplantation. PMID:28255020
Ishida, Hideki; Kondo, Tsunenori; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Nozaki, Taiji; Tanabe, Kazunari
The purpose of this study is to examine whether postoperative antiblood type antibody rebound is attributed to kidney allograft rejection in ABO blood type-incompatible (ABO-I) living-related kidney transplantation (KTx). A total of 191 ABO-I recipients who received ABO-I living-related KTx between 2001 and 2013 were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of low rebound [(≦1:32), N = 170] and Group 2 consisted of high rebound [(≧1:64), N = 21], according to the levels of the rebounded antiblood type antibodies within 1 year after transplantation. No prophylactic treatment for rejection was administered for elevated antiblood type antibodies, regardless of the levels of the rebounded antibodies. Within 1 year after transplantation, T-cell-mediated rejection was observed in 13 of 170 recipients (13/170, 8%) in Group 1 and in 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Group 2 (Groups 1 vs. 2, P = 0.432). Antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 15 of 170 recipients (15/170, 9%) and 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.898). In this study, we found no correlation between the postoperative antiblood type antibody rebound and the incidence of acute rejection. We concluded that no treatment is necessary for rebounded antiblood type antibodies. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.
Schanz, U; Gmür, J
The growing number of BMTs has increased interest in safe and standardized in vitro bone marrow processing techniques. We describe our experience with a rapid automated method for the isolation of mononuclear cells (MNC) from large volumes of bone marrow using a Fenwal CS-3000 cell separator without employing density gradient materials. Forty bone marrow harvests with a mean volume of 1650 +/- 307 ml were processed. A mean of 75 +/- 34% (50 percentile range 54-94%) of the original MNCs were recovered in a volume of 200 ml with only 4 +/- 2% of the starting red blood cells (RBC). Removal of granulocytes, immature myeloid precursors and platelets proved to be sufficient to permit safe cryopreservation and successful autologous BMT (n = 25). Allogeneic BMT (n = 14, including three major ABO-incompatible) could be performed without additional manipulation. In both groups of patients timely and stable engraftment comparable to historical controls receiving Ficoll gradient processed autologous (n = 17) or unprocessed allogeneic BMT (n = 54) was observed. Moreover, 70 +/- 14% of the RBC could be recovered from the grafts. They were used for autologous RBC support of donors, rendering unnecessary autologous blood pre-donations.
Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J
Transplantation of the blood group A2B in a recipient was successfully performed in the setting of receiving a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO blood group, including ABO genotyping. The donor and recipient were tested for ABO, non-ABO, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. The donor and recipient were typed for HLA antigens, including T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and immunoglobulin G anti-A1 was demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor-recipient pair was a four-antigen HLA mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests were compatible. The transplant procedure was uneventful; the patient experienced immediate graft function with no episodes of rejection or readmissions more than 2 years later. It may be safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group AB mismatch barrier in the setting of low titer anti-A1 isoagglutinins without the need for pretransplant desensitization even if the antibody produced reacts with anti-human globulin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...
Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Mali, Vidyadhar Padmakar; Rahayatri, Tri Hening; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Kengo; Uchida, Hajime; Shigeta, Takanobu; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kasahara, Mureo
LT from ABO-I donors requires preconditioning regimens to prevent postoperative catastrophic AMR. NAC for HBL is known to cause myelosuppression leading to a reduction in the number and function of lymphocytes. We investigated this chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in HBL patients listed for LT from ABO-I donors with reference to the kinetics of B, T cells, and anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers. Between 2005 and 2015, of the 319 patients who underwent LDLT at our institute, 12 were indicated for unresectable HBL. Three patients with unresectable HBL who underwent LDLT from ABO-I donors are included in this study. Immunosuppression consisted of a standard regime of tacrolimus and low-dose steroids as in ABO compatible/identical LDLT. No additional preoperative therapies for B-cell depletion were used. Absolute lymphocyte counts, lymphocyte subsets (including CD20+ B cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ T cells), and anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers were measured before LDLT and postoperatively. The median age at diagnosis was 19 months (range, 3-31 months). The median follow-up was seven months (range, 6-15 months). The median interval from the last NAC to LDLT was 33 days (range, 25-52 days). The median interval from LDLT to adjuvant chemotherapy was 28 days (range, 22-36 days). The counts of CD20+ B cells before LDLT were depleted to median 5 cells/mm(3) (range, 0-6 cells/mm(3)). There was a transient rebound in the CD20+ B cell counts on day seven (maximum of 82 cells/mm(3)) followed by a decline starting at 14 days after LDLT that was sustained for the duration of adjuvant chemotherapy. Anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers were lowered to between 1:1 and 1:16 before LDLT and remained low for the duration of follow-up in this study. All of the three patients remained in good health without either acute cellular or AMR after LDLT. The B-cell depletion that occurs after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for HBL may help accomplish safe ABO-I LDLT in children without the use of additional conditioning regimens for prevention of AMR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Del Fante, Claudia; Scudeller, Luigia; Recupero, Santina; Viarengo, Gianluca; Boghen, Stella; Gurrado, Antonella; Zecca, Marco; Seghatchian, Jerard; Perotti, Cesare
Bone marrow ABO incompatible transplantations require graft manipulation prior to infusion to avoid potentially lethal side effects. We analyzed the influence of pre-manipulation factors (temperature at arrival, transit time, time of storage at 4°C until processing and total time from collection to red blood cell depletion) on the graft quality of 21 red blood cell depletion procedures in ABO incompatible pediatric transplants. Bone marrow collections were processed using the Spectra Optia ® (Terumo BCT) automated device. Temperature at arrival ranged between 4°C and 6°C, median transit time was 9.75h (range 0.33-28), median time of storage at 4°-6°C until processing was 1.8h (range 0.41-18.41) and median time from collection to RBC depletion was 21h (range1-39.4). Median percentage of red blood cell depletion was 97.7 (range 95.4-98.5), median mononuclear cells recovery was 92.2% (range 40-121.2), median CD34+ cell recovery was 93% (range 69.9-161.2), median cell viability was 97.7% (range 94-99.3) and median volume reduction was 83.9% (range 82-92). Graft quality was not significantly different between BM units > median age. Our preliminary data show that when all good manifacturing practices are respected the post-manipulation graft quality is excellent also for those units processed after 24h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau
With the technical advances and improvements in perioperative management and immunosuppressants, liver transplantation is the standard treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases. In Asia, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is the universal problem to be faced with in all transplant centres. Many surgical innovations are then driven to counteract this problem. This review focuses on 3 issues that denote the development of liver transplantation in Asian countries. These include living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), split liver transplantation (SLT) and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Minimal graft weight, types of liver graft to donate and the inclusion of the middle hepatic vein with the graft are the main issues to be established in LDLT. The rapid growth and wide dissemination of LDLT has certainly alleviated the supply-and-demand problem of liver grafts in Asia. SLT is another attractive approach. Technical expertise, donor selection and graft allocation are the main determinants for its success. Liver transplantation plays a key role in the management of HCC in Asia. LDLT would be the main strategy in this aspect. The issue of extending the selection criteria for HCC patients for LDLT is still controversial. On the whole, future developments to increase the donor pool for the expanding recipient need in Asia would involve transplantation from non-heart beating donor and ABO incompatible transplantation.
... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...
Aliç, Yasin; Akpek, Elif A; Dönmez, Asli; Ozkan, Süleyman; Perfusionist, Güray Yener; Aslamaci, Sait
Human error has been identified as a major source of ABO-incompatible blood transfusion which most often results from blood being given to the wrong patient. We present a case of inadvertent administration of ABO-incompatible blood to a 6-mo-old child who underwent congenital heart surgery and discuss the use of invasive therapeutic approaches. Invasive techniques included total circulatory arrest and large-volume exchange transfusion, along with conventional ultrafiltration and plasmapheresis, which could all be performed rapidly and effectively. The combination of standard pharmacologic therapies and alternative invasive techniques after a massive ABO-incompatible blood transfusion led to a favorable outcome in our patient.
Dirican, A; Baskiran, A; Dogan, M; Ates, M; Soyer, V; Sarici, B; Ozdemir, F; Polat, Y; Yilmaz, S
Correct donor selection in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is essential not only to decrease the risks of complications for the donors but also to increase the survival of both the graft and the recipient. Knowing their most frequent reasons of donor elimination is so important for transplantation centers to gain time. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of potential donors in LDLT and studied the reasons for nonmaturation of potential liver donors at our transplantation center. We studied the outcomes of 342 potential living donor candidates for 161 recipient candidates for liver transplantation between January 2013 and June 2014. Donor candidates' gender, age, body mass index (BMI), relationship with recipient, and causes of exclusion were recorded. Among 161 recipients, 96 had a LDLT and 7 had cadaveric liver transplantation. Twelve of the 342 potential donors did not complete their evaluation; 106 of the remaining 330 donor candidates were accepted as suitable for donation (32%) but 10 of these were excluded preoperatively. The main reasons for unsuitability for liver donation were small remnant liver size (43%) and fatty changes of the liver (38.4%). Other reasons were arterial anatomic variations, ABO incompatibility, and Gilbert syndrome. Only 96 of the candidates (29% of the 330 candidates who completed the evaluation) underwent donation. Effective donors were 29% of potential and 90.5% of suitable donors. In our center, 106 of 330 (32%) donor candidates were suitable for donation and the main reasons for unsuitability for liver donation were small remnant liver size and fatty changes of the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Figueroa, Priscila I; Ziman, Alyssa; Wheeler, Christine; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Monson, Michael; Calhoun, Loni
To detect miscollected (wrong blood in tube [WBIT]) samples, our institution requires a second independently drawn sample (check-type [CT]) on previously untyped, non-group O patients who are likely to require transfusion. During the 17-year period addressed by this report, 94 WBIT errors were detected: 57% by comparison with a historic blood type, 7% by the CT, and 35% by other means. The CT averted 5 potential ABO-incompatible transfusions. Our corrected WBIT error rate is 1 in 3,713 for verified samples tested between 2000 and 2003, the period for which actual number of CTs performed was available. The estimated rate of WBIT for the 17-year period is 1 in 2,262 samples. ABO-incompatible transfusions due to WBIT-type errors are avoided by comparison of current blood type results with a historic type, and the CT is an effective way to create a historic type.
Carnahan, Ryan M; Kee, Vicki R
This paper aimed to systematically review algorithms to identify transfusion-related ABO incompatibility reactions in administrative data, with a focus on studies that have examined the validity of the algorithms. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Iowa Drug Information Service database, and Embase. A Google Scholar search was also conducted because of the difficulty identifying relevant studies. Reviews were conducted by two investigators to identify studies using data sources from the USA or Canada because these data sources were most likely to reflect the coding practices of Mini-Sentinel data sources. One study was found that validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) codes representing transfusion reactions. None of these cases were ABO incompatibility reactions. Several studies consistently used ICD-9-CM code 999.6, which represents ABO incompatibility reactions, and a technical report identified the ICD-10 code for these reactions. One study included the E-code E8760 for mismatched blood in transfusion in the algorithm. Another study reported finding no ABO incompatibility reaction codes in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, which contains data of 2.23 million patients who received transfusions, raising questions about the sensitivity of administrative data for identifying such reactions. Two studies reported perfect specificity, with sensitivity ranging from 21% to 83%, for the code identifying allogeneic red blood cell transfusions in hospitalized patients. There is no information to assess the validity of algorithms to identify transfusion-related ABO incompatibility reactions. Further information on the validity of algorithms to identify transfusions would also be useful. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... transplant and liver disease patients. Pre-Transplant Protein Malnutrition -- Many patients with end stage liver disease do ... to lose weight sensibly and slowly, without causing malnutrition (especially protein malnutrition). Losing excess weight decreases the ...
... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...
Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto
As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Kamo, Naoko; Kaido, Toshimi; Hammad, Ahmed; Ogawa, Kohei; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Uemura, Tadahiro; Mori, Akira; Hatano, Etsuro; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji
Elderly donor grafts for liver transplantation (LT) are recognized to be marginal grafts. The present study investigated the impact of using elderly donors for LT. Between June 1990 and August 2012, 1631 patients received LT at Kyoto University Hospital. Out of 1631 patients, 1597 patients received living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), whereas the other 34 patients underwent deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Seventy-five grafts that were used came from individuals who were ≥60 years old. We retrospectively analyzed the recipients' survival rates according to donor age. The overall survival rates of the recipients of all LDLT (P < 0.001), adult-to-adult LDLT (P = 0.007), all DDLT (P = 0.026), and adult-to-adult DDLT (P = 0.011) were significantly lower for the elderly donor group versus the younger group and especially for those who were hepatitis C-positive. A multivariate analysis revealed that donor age, ABO incompatibility, and preoperative intensive care unit stay were independent risk factors for poor patient survival in adult-to-adult LDLT. However, no significant differences existed between the 2 groups among those who received adult-to-adult LDLT in and after April 2006. No significant association was found between donor age and incidence of acute cellular rejection. In conclusion, donor age was closely related to the survival rate for LDLT and DDLT, although the impact of donor age was not shown in the recent cases. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Tomescu, Dana R; Olimpia Dima, Simona; Ungureanu, Daniela; Popescu, Mihai; Tulbure, Dan; Popescu, Irinel
Emergency transplantation of a donor liver that is not matched for the major blood antigens can produce marked immune-mediated cytokine release that can cause donor graft loss. Control of the inflammatory response may be a key element in treatment. We present the case of a 46-year-old man with primary graft nonfunction after liver transplantation who underwent emergency retransplantation with an ABO-incompatible graft. A severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was noted in the perioperioperative period of retransplantation. The patient was successfully treated for this condition with a new hemoadsorption column (CytoSorb®), in combination with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) throughout the intraoperative and early postoperative period. During and after each treatment a significant and rapid decrease of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was observed, especially for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Reduction of cytokines was associated with normalization of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, and improved liver function. We believe this is the first case in which hemoadsorptionin combination with CVVH has been used to manage SIRS in a patient with primary graft nonfunction undergoing emergency retransplantation.
Preoperative selective desensitization of live donor liver transplant recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease score, and graft liver volume.
Hong, Geun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Suk-won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Lee, Kyungbun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Park, Myoung Hee; Suh, Kyung-Suk
Several studies have suggested that a positive lymphocyte cross-matching (XM) is associated with low graft survival rates and a high prevalence of acute rejection after adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) using a small-for-size graft. However, there is still no consensus on preoperative desensitization. We adopted the desensitization protocol from ABO-incompatible LDLT. We performed desensitization for the selected patients according to the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and graft liver volume. We retrospectively evaluated 230 consecutive ALDLT recipients for 5 yr. Eleven recipients (4.8%) showed a positive XM. Among them, five patients with the high titer (> 1:16) by antihuman globulin-augmented method (T-AHG) and one with a low titer but a high MELD score of 36 were selected for desensitization: rituximab injection and plasmapheresis before the transplantation. There were no major side effects of desensitization. Four of the patients showed successful depletion of the T-AHG titer. There was no mortality and hyperacute rejection in lymphocyte XM-positive patients, showing no significant difference in survival outcome between two groups (P=1.000). In conclusion, this desensitization protocol for the selected recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, MELD score, and graft liver volume is feasible and safe.
Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P
Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American
Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno
In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089
Narita, Masashi; Muder, Robert R; Cacciarelli, Thomas V; Singh, Nina
Prototheca species are unicellular algae of low virulence that are rarely associated with human infections. We report a liver transplant recipient with disseminated protothecosis and review the literature on this unusual opportunistic infection in transplant recipients. Of 9 cases, including ours, 5 had a localized infection, and 4 had disseminated protothecosis. Seven cases were due to Prototheca wickerhamii, and 2 were due to Prototheca zopfii. Overall mortality in transplant recipients with Prototheca infections was 88% (7/8). All 4 cases of disseminated protothecosis died despite therapy with amphotericin B. Posttransplant protothecosis is a rare but significant infection that is associated with a grave prognosis.
Seehofer, D; Schöning, W; Neuhaus, P
Deceased donor liver transplantation is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and often represents the only chance of a cure. Under given optimal conditions excellent long-term results can be obtained with 15-year survival rates of well above 60 %.In Germany the outcome after liver transplantation has deteriorated since the introduction of an allocation policy, which is based on the medical urgency. At present 25 % of liver graft recipients die within the first year after transplantation. In contrast 1-year survival in most other countries, e.g. in the USA or the United Kingdom is around 90 % and therefore significantly better. Reasons for the inferior results in Germany are on the one hand an increasing number of critically ill recipients and on the other hand an unfavorable situation for organ donation. In comparison with other countries the organ donation rate is low and moreover the risk profile of these donors is above average. This combination of organ shortage and organ allocation represents a big challenge for the future orientation of liver transplantation and creates the potential for conflict. These cannot be solved on a medical basis but require a social consensus.Because of the present inferior results and because of the high expenses of the present system we suggest a discussion on future allocation policies as well as on future centre structures in Germany. In addition to the medical urgency the maximum benefit should also be considered for organ allocation.
Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan
Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.
Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping
About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.
Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen
Background About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended “best” therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. Objectives To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. Methods The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Results Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. Conclusions This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition. PMID:28719639
Foss, Aksel; Lerut, Jan P
Liver transplantation is a validated treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumours. Over the last decade, a renewed interest for liver transplantation as a curative treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CR-LM) and neuro-endocrine metastasis (NET-LM) has developed. The ELTR and UNOS analyses showed that liver transplantation may offer excellent disease-free survival (ranging from 30 to 77%) in case of NET-LM, on the condition that stringent selection criteria are implemented. The interest for liver transplantation in the treatment of CR-LM has been fostered by the Norwegian SECA study. Five-year A 5-year survival rate of 60% could be reached. Despite the high recurrence rate (90%), one-third of patients were disease free following pulmonary surgery for metastases. Liver transplantation will take a more prominent place in the therapeutic algorithm of CR-LM and NET-LM. Larger experiences are necessary to improve knowledge about tumour biology and to refine selection criteria. A multimodal approach adding neo and adjuvant medical treatment to the transplant procedure will be key to bring this oncologic transplant project into the clinical arena. The preserved liver function in these patients will allow a more deliberate access to split liver and living donation for these indications.
Vachiat, Ahmed; McCutcheon, Keir; Mahomed, Adam; Schleicher, Gunter; Brand, Liezl; Botha, Jean; Sussman, Martin; Manga, Pravin
A patient with end-stage liver disease developed stress-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation, with haemodynamic instability requiring a left ventricular assist device. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this condition.
Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha
The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.
Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R
Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trotter, James F
In the past few years, there have been important changes in the development of liver transplantation around the world. In particular, several emerging countries have rapidly developed transplant programs. There have also been important changes in liver allocation, utilization of donors by cardiac death, and living donors. A review of the practices in different countries around the world will help provide the reader with a better appreciation of their own program as well as the recognition of potential areas of improvement based on the experience of their colleagues. A recent series of articles has been published in the journal Liver Transplantation summarizing the practice of liver transplantation from representative countries around the world. The volume of liver transplant varies widely by country and there has been an important growth in volume in emerging countries. Most liver transplant candidates are prioritized for surgery by the Model for Endstage Liver Disease score and with the exception of Germany and the USA most patients are transplanted at Model for Endstage Liver Disease score from 18 to 20. Hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplant with the notable exception of several European countries. Innovative strategies to incentivize donation have been developed in several countries.
Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil
Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581
Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram
Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo
Size mismatch is an unique and inevitable but critical issue in live donor liver transplantation. Unmatched metabolic demand of recipient as well as physiologic mismatch aggravates the damage to liver graft, inevitably leading to graft failure on recipient. Also, an excessive resection of liver graft for better recipient outcome in live donor liver transplant may jeopardize the healthy donor well-being and even put donor life in danger. There is a fine balance between resected graft volume required to meet the recipient's metabolic demand and residual graft volume required for donor safety. The obvious clinical necessity of finding that balance has prompted a clinical need and promoted the improvement of knowledge and development of management strategies for size-mismatched transplants. The development of the size-matching methodology has significantly improved graft outcome and recipient survival in live donor liver transplants. On the other hand, the effect of size mismatch in cadaveric transplants has never been observed as being so pronounced. The importance of matching of the donor recipient size has been unrecognized in cadaveric liver transplant. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current most updated knowledge on the subject, particularly addressing the definition and complications of size-mismatched cadaveric liver transplant, as well as management strategies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
Chan, Carlos; Plata-Muñoz, Juan José; Franssen, Bernardo
Liver transplantation (LT) is probably the biggest surgical aggression that a patient can endure. It was considered only as a last option in the era of experimental LT, yet it evolved into the definitive treatment for some types of acute and chronic end stage liver disease. In terms of technique LT is the most complex of all types of transplantations. The surgical procedure in itself is well established and has changed little through time. Liver transplantation owes its improvement to better and more systematic anesthetic procedures and to perioperative care more than being due to improvement of the surgical technique. The first surgical procedure was described by Thomas Starzl in 1969. His initial work has been strengthened with the development of venous bypass, the refinement in vascular and biliary reconstruction technique and the development of the split liver. Up to date technical aspects of orthotopic liver transplantation are described in the present article.
Babyn, Paul Sheppard
As the number of patients with liver transplants continues to increase, radiologists need to be aware of the normal post-operative appearance of the different liver transplants currently performed along with the wide variety of complications encountered. The complications commonly affect the biliar and vascular systems and can include anastomotic bile leakage and biliary stenosis along with stenosis or obstruction of the hepatic artery, portal or hepatic veins and IVC. Other complications include parenchymal abnormalities such as hepatic infarction, organ rejection, localized collections and post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This article reviews and illustrates the role of imaging for pediatric transplantation including the role of interventional radiology.
Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods: Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. Results: In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months–17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson’s disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature. PMID:28149148
1. The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure the survival of patients but also to offer patients the opportunity to achieve a good balance between the functional efficacy of the graft and their psychological and physical integrity. The quality of life after transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual activity and reproductive performance. 2. Sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are widely reported in men and women with chronic liver disease before liver transplantation. 3. Successful liver transplantation should lead to improvements in sexual function and sex hormone disturbances in both men and women, therefore improving reproductive performance, but immunosuppressive drugs may interfere with hormone metabolism. 4. Pregnancy is often successful after liver transplantation, despite the potentially toxic effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy, but fetal and maternal outcomes should be regularly assessed. 5. More detailed and comprehensive data are needed in the field of sexual function after transplantation, and new strategies are needed to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after liver transplantation. (c) 2009 AASLD.
Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero
Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review
Kamo, Naoko; Kaido, Toshimi; Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Uozumi, Ryuji; Okumura, Shinya; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Shirai, Hisaya; Yagi, Shintaro; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji
Infection is a leading cause of death after liver transplantation (LT). Therefore, prevention of infection is crucial for improving outcomes after LT. We examined the impact of early enteral nutrition with an immunomodulating diet (IMD) enriched with hydrolyzed whey peptide (HWP) formulation on infection after living donor LT (LDLT), focusing on sarcopenia. This study enrolled 279 consecutive patients who underwent primary LDLT at our institute between January 2008 and April 2015. Early enteral nutrition with the IMD enriched with HWP formulation and a conventional elemental diet were started within the first 24 h after surgery for 164 (IMD-HWP) and 115 (conventional) patients. Sequential changes in nutritional parameters, and the incidences of acute cellular rejection (ACR) and bacteremia were compared between the IMD-HWP and control groups. The comparison was made between those members of each group that did or did not exhibit sarcopenia. Risk factors for post-transplant bacteremia were also assessed. Postoperative nutritional parameters and the incidence of ACR were comparable between the groups, except for the prealbumin level. The incidence of bacteremia was significantly lower in the IMD-HWP group, and among patients without sarcopenia in the IMD-HWP group compared with the conventional group (24.4 vs. 41.7%; P = 0.002 and 20.8 vs. 39.0%; P = 0.040, respectively). Independent risk factor for bacteremia comprised bleeding ≥10,000 mL (P = 0.025). In contrast, enteral nutrition without HWP formulation was not significantly associated with bacteremia. However, enteral nutrition without HWP formulation (P = 0.080), MELD scores (P = 0.097), and ABO incompatibility (P = 0.088) showed a trend toward increased incidence of bacteremia, although they did not reach statistical significance in the multivariate analysis. Postoperative immunonutrition with an IMD enriched with HWP formulation was closely involved with post-transplant bacteremia.
Brown, Robert S.
Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.
Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir
Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over. PMID:25755506
Development of models to predict early post-transplant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma that also integrate the quality and characteristics of the liver graft: A national registry study in China.
Ling, Qi; Liu, Jimin; Zhuo, Jianyong; Zhuang, Runzhou; Huang, Haitao; He, Xiangxiang; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shusen
Donor characteristics and graft quality were recently reported to play an important role in the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. Our aim was to establish a prognostic model by using both donor and recipient variables. Data of 1,010 adult patients (training/validation: 2/1) undergoing primary liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma were extracted from the China Liver Transplant Registry database and analyzed retrospectively. A multivariate competing risk regression model was developed and used to generate a nomogram predicting the likelihood of post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Of 673 patients in the training cohort, 70 (10.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence with a median recurrence time of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-25 months). Cold ischemia time was the only independent donor prognostic factor for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.234, P = .007). The optimal cutoff value was 12 hours when patients were grouped according to cold ischemia time at 2-hour intervals. Integrating cold ischemia time into the Milan criteria (liver transplantation candidate selection criteria) improved the accuracy for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in both training and validation sets (P < .05). A nomogram composed of cold ischemia time, tumor burden, differentiation, and α-fetoprotein level proved to be accurate and reliable in predicting the likelihood of 1-year hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation. Additionally, donor anti-hepatitis B core antibody positivity, prolonged cold ischemia time, and anhepatic time were linked to the intrahepatic recurrence, whereas older donor age, prolonged donor warm ischemia time, cold ischemia time, and ABO incompatibility were relevant to the extrahepatic recurrence. The graft quality integrated models exhibited considerable predictive accuracy in early hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk
Santosh Kumar, K Y; Mathew, Johns Shaji; Balakrishnan, Dinesh; Bharathan, Viju Kumar; Thankamony Amma, Binoj Sivasankara Pillai; Gopalakrishnan, Unnikrishnan; Narayana Menon, Ramachandran; Dhar, Puneet; Vayoth, Sudheer Othiyil; Sudhindran, Surendran
Biliary complications continue to be the "Achilles heel" of living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The use of biliary stents in LDLT to reduce biliary complications is a controversial issue. We performed a randomized trial to study the impact of intraductal biliary stents on postoperative biliary complications after LDLT. Of the 94 LDLTs that were performed during a period of 16 months, ABO-incompatible transplants, left lobe grafts, 3 or more bile ducts on the graft, and those requiring bilioenteric drainage were excluded. Eligible patients were randomized to either a study arm (intraductal stent, n = 31) or a control arm (no stent, n = 33) by block randomization. Stratification was done, based on the number of ducts on the graft requiring anastomosis, into single (n = 20) or 2 ducts (n = 44). Ureteric stents of 3F to 5F placed across the biliary anastomosis and exiting into the duodenum for later endoscopic removal at 3 months were used. The primary end point was postoperative bile leak. Bile leak occurred in 15 of 64 (23.4%), the incidence was higher in the stented group compared with the control group (35.5% vs 12.1%; p = 0.03). Multiplicity of bile ducts and stenting were identified as risk factors for bile leak on multivariate analysis (p = 0.031 and p = 0.032). During a median follow-up of 2 years, biliary stricture developed in 9 patients (14.1%). Postoperative bile leak is a significant risk factor for the development of biliary stricture (p = 0.003). Intraductal transanastomotic biliary stenting and multiplicity of graft ducts were identified as independent risk factors for the development of postoperative biliary complications. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet
Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.
Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven
Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gámán, György; Gelley, Fanni; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Dabasi, Eszter; Görög, Dénes; Fehérvári, Imre; Kóbori, László; Lengyel, Gabriella; Zádori, Gergely; Fazakas, János; Doros, Attila; Sárváry, Enikő; Nemes, Balázs
In liver cirrhosis renal function decreases as well. Hepatorenal syndrome is the most frequent cause of the decrease, but primary kidney failure, diabetes mellitus and some diseases underlying endstage liver failure (such as hepatitis C virus infection) can also play an important role. In liver transplantation several further factors (total cross-clamping of vena cava inferior, polytransfusion, immunosuppression) impair the renal function, too. The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in kidney function during the first postoperative year after liver transplantation. Retrospective data analysis was performed after primary liver transplantations (n = 319). impaired preoperative renal function increased the devepolment of postoperative complications and the first year cumulative patient survival was significantly worse (91,7% vs 69,9%; p<0,001) in this group. If renal function of the patients increased above 60 ml/min/1,73 m2 after the first year, patient survival was better. Independently of the preoperative kidney function, 76% of the patients had impaired kidney function at the first postoperative year. In this group, de novo diabetes mellitus was more frequently diagnosed (22,5% vs 9,5%; p = 0,023). Selection of personalized immunosuppressive medication has a positive effect on renal function.
Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Salvalaggio, Paolo; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; Meira, Sérgio Paiva
In 1958 Francis Moore described the orthotopic liver transplantation technique in dogs. In 1963, Starzl et al. performed the first liver transplantation. In the first five liver transplantations no patient survived more than 23 days. In 1967, stimulated by Calne who used antilymphocytic serum, Starzl began a successful series of liver transplantation. Until 1977, 200 liver transplantations were performed in the world. In that period, technical problems were overcome. Roy Calne, in 1979, used the first time cyclosporine in two patients who had undergone liver transplantation. In 1989, Starzl et al. reported a series of 1,179 consecutives patients who underwent liver transplantation and reported a survival rate between one and five years of 73% and 64%, respectively. Finally, in 1990, Starzl et al. reported successful use of tacrolimus in patents undergoing liver transplantation and who had rejection despite receiving conventional immunosuppressive treatment. Liver Transplantation Program was initiated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in 1990 and so far over 1,400 transplants have been done. In 2013, 102 deceased donors liver transplantations were performed. The main indications for transplantation were hepatocellular carcinoma (38%), hepatitis C virus (33.3%) and alcohol liver cirrhosis (19.6%). Of these, 36% of patients who underwent transplantation showed biological MELD score > 30. Patient and graft survival in the first year was, 82.4% and 74.8%, respectively. A major challenge in liver transplantation field is the insufficient number of donors compared with the growing demand of transplant candidates. Thus, we emphasize that appropriated donor/receptor selection, allocation and organ preservation topics should contribute to improve the number and outcomes in liver transplantation. PMID:25993082
Gastaca, M; Guerra, M; Alvarez Martinez, L; Ruiz, P; Ventoso, A; Palomares, I; Prieto, M; Matarranz, A; Valdivieso, A; Ortiz de Urbina, J
Due to the disparity between the number of patients on the list for liver transplantation and the availability of organs, the use of older donors has become necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of liver transplantation using octogenarian donors. From December 2003 to February 2016, 777 liver transplantations were performed at our institution, 33 of them (4.2%) with donors 80 years old and above. Our policy for the acceptance of these donors is based on preoperative liver function tests, donor hemodynamic stability, and intraoperative normal gross aspect. Octogenarian grafts were deliberately not assigned to retransplantations or to recipients with multiple previous surgical procedures or extensive portal thrombosis. Mean donor age was 82.7 ± 2.1 years, with a range between 80 and 88. Only 12.1% suffered hemodynamic instability during the intensive care unit stay. Three donors (9.1%) had a history of diabetes mellitus. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score among recipients was 14.7 ± 5.6. Mean cold ischemia time was 302 ± 61 minutes. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (range 7.5 to 47.5), no graft developed primary nonfunction. We observed hepatic artery thrombosis in 1 patient (3%) and biliary complications in 4 patients (12.5%). There was 1 case of ischemic-type biliary lesion, although it was related to hepatic artery thrombosis. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years was 90.3%, whereas graft survival was 92.6% and 86.4%, respectively. Excellent mid-term results can be obtained after liver transplantation with octogenarian donors with strict donor selection and adequate graft allocation. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catana, Andreea M; Medici, Valentina
The aim of this paper is to review the current status of liver transplantation (LT) for Wilson disease (WD), focusing on indications and controversies, especially in patients with neuropsychiatric disease, and on identification of acute liver failure (ALF) cases related to WD. LT remains the treatment of choice for patients with ALF, as initial presentation of WD or when anti-copper agents are stopped, and for patients with chronic liver disease progressed to cirrhosis, unresponsive to chelating medications or not timely treated with copper chelating agents. The indication for LT in WD remains highly debated in patients with progressive neurological deterioration and failure to improve with appropriate medical treatment. In case of Wilsonian ALF, early identification is key as mortality is 100% without emergency LT. As many of the copper metabolism parameters are believed to be less reliable in ALF, simple biochemical tests have been proposed for diagnosis of acute WD with good sensitivity and specificity. LT corrects copper metabolism and complications resulting from WD with excellent 1 and 5 year survival. Living related liver transplantation represents an alternative to deceased donor LT with excellent long-term survival, without disease recurrence. Future options may include hepatocyte transplantation and gene therapy. Although both of these have shown promising results in animal models of WD, prospective human studies are much needed to demonstrate their long-term beneficial effects and their potential to replace the need for medical therapy and LT in patients with WD.
Catana, Andreea M; Medici, Valentina
The aim of this paper is to review the current status of liver transplantation (LT) for Wilson disease (WD), focusing on indications and controversies, especially in patients with neuropsychiatric disease, and on identification of acute liver failure (ALF) cases related to WD. LT remains the treatment of choice for patients with ALF, as initial presentation of WD or when anti-copper agents are stopped, and for patients with chronic liver disease progressed to cirrhosis, unresponsive to chelating medications or not timely treated with copper chelating agents. The indication for LT in WD remains highly debated in patients with progressive neurological deterioration and failure to improve with appropriate medical treatment. In case of Wilsonian ALF, early identification is key as mortality is 100% without emergency LT. As many of the copper metabolism parameters are believed to be less reliable in ALF, simple biochemical tests have been proposed for diagnosis of acute WD with good sensitivity and specificity. LT corrects copper metabolism and complications resulting from WD with excellent 1 and 5 year survival. Living related liver transplantation represents an alternative to deceased donor LT with excellent long-term survival, without disease recurrence. Future options may include hepatocyte transplantation and gene therapy. Although both of these have shown promising results in animal models of WD, prospective human studies are much needed to demonstrate their long-term beneficial effects and their potential to replace the need for medical therapy and LT in patients with WD. PMID:22312450
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.
Sarkar, Monika; Watt, Kymberly D.; Terrault, Norah; Berenguer, Marina
Summary A growing literature has highlighted important differences in transplant-related outcomes between men and women. In the United States there are fewer women than men on the liver transplant waitlist and women are two times less likely to receive a deceased or living-related liver transplant. Sex-based differences exist not only in waitlist but also in post-transplant outcomes, particularly in some specific liver diseases, such as hepatitis C. In the era of individualized medicine, recognition of these differences in the approach to pre and post-liver transplant care may impact short and long-term outcomes. PMID:25433162
Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M
Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues.
Gonwa, Thomas A; McBride, Maureen A; Mai, Martin L; Wadei, Hani M
Patients after liver transplant have a high incidence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated kidney transplantation after liver transplantation using the Organ Procurement Transplant Network database. The Organ Procurement Transplant Network database was queried for patients who received kidney transplantation after previous liver transplantation. These patients were compared with patients who received primary kidney transplantation alone during the same time period. Between 1997 and 2008, 157,086 primary kidney transplants were performed. Of these, 680 deceased donor kidney transplants and 410 living donor kidney transplants were performed in previous recipients of liver transplants. The number of kidney after liver transplants performed each year has increased from 37 per year to 124 per year in 2008. The time from liver transplant to kidney transplant increased from 8.2 to 9.0 years for living donor transplants and from 5.4 to 9.6 years for deceased donor. The 1, 3, and 5 year actuarial graft survival in both living donor kidney after liver transplant and deceased donor kidney after liver transplant are less than the kidney transplant alone patients. However, the death-censored graft survivals are equal. The patient survival is also less but is similar to what would be expected in liver transplant recipients who did not have ESRD. In 2008, kidney after liver transplantation represented 0.9% of the total kidney alone transplants performed in the United States. Kidney transplantation is an appropriate therapy for selected patients who develop ESRD after liver transplantation.
Deshpande, R R; Heaton, N D; Rela, M
The emergence of split and living donor liver transplantation has necessitated re-evaluation of liver anatomy in greater depth and from a different perspective than before. Early attempts at split liver transplantation were met with significant numbers of vascular and biliary complications. Technical innovations in this field have evolved largely by recognizing anatomical anomalies and variations at operation, and devising novel ways of dealing with them. This has led to increasing acceptance of these procedures and decreased morbidity and mortality rates, similar to those observed with whole liver transplantation. The following review is based on clinical experience of more than 180 split and living related liver transplantations in adults and children, performed over a 7-year period from 1994 to 2001. A comprehensive understanding and application of surgical anatomy of the liver is essential to improve and maintain the excellent results of segmental liver transplantation.
Miles, Clifford D; Westphal, Scott; Liapakis, AnnMarie; Formica, Richard
The number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants (SLKT) performed in the USA has been rising. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network implemented a new policy governing SLKT that specifies eligibility criteria for candidates to receive a kidney with a liver, and creates a kidney waitlist "safety net" for liver recipients with persistent renal failure after transplant. This review explores potential impacts for liver patients and the kidney waitlist. Factors that have contributed to the rise in SLKT including Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based allocation, regional sharing for high MELD candidates, and the rising incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis will continue to increase the number of liver transplant candidates with concurrent renal insufficiency. The effect of center behavior based on the new policy is harder to predict, given wide historic variability in SLKT practice. Continued increase in combined liver/kidney failure is likely, and SLKT and kidney after liver transplant may both increase. Impact of the new policy should be carefully monitored, but influences beyond the policy need to be accounted for.
Lewis, J. H.; Bontempo, F. A.; Cornell, F.; Ki̋ss, J. E.; Larson, P.; Ragni, M. V.; Rice, E. O.; Spero, J. A.; Starzl, T. E.
During the first 5 years (1981–1985) of the liver transplantation program in Pittsburgh, a total (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) of 18,668 packed red cell units, 23,627 fresh-frozen plasma units, 20,590 platelet units, and 4241 cryoprecipitate units was transfused for the procedures. This represents 3 to 9 percent of the total of blood products supplied by the Central Blood Bank to its 32 member hospitals. Six hundred thirty-six (636) transplants were performed on 485 patients in two hospitals: the Presbyterian University Hospital (564 beds) and Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (236 beds). All of the blood components used in the operations were procured and released by the Central Blood Bank. This report describes some of these findings. PMID:3296340
Longo, S; Palacios, M; Tinti, M E; Siri, J; de Brahi, J I; Cabrera Shulmeyer, M C
We describe a case of intraoperative cardiac trombosis during orthotopic liver transplant surgery that resulted in intraoperative death. By using transesophageal echocardiography, the cause of the descompensation of the patient could be determined and the mechanism of trombus migration from thrombi from the venous circulation to the left heart was accurately observed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Schröter, Gerhard P. J.; Hoelscher, Manfred; Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Hansbrough, John F.; Starzl, Thomas E.
In 93 recipients of 102 orthotopic liver homografts, the incidence of bacteremia or fungemia exceeded 70%. The graft itself was usually an entry site for systemic infection after both immunologic and nonimmunologic parenchymal injury, especially if there was defective biliary drainage. The role of the homograft itself as the special infectious risk factor has prompted increased use of defunctionalized jejunal Roux limbs to reduce graft contamination. It has also stimulated very aggressive postoperative diagnostic efforts to rule out remedial mechanical complications of the transplant. PMID:793568
Lauterio, Andrea; De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano
The place of liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries has not yet been widely discussed in the literature. Bile duct injuries during cholecystectomy represent the leading cause of liver transplantation in this setting, while other indications after abdominal surgery are less common. Urgent liver transplantation for the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injury may-represent a surgical challenge requiring technically difficult and time consuming procedures. A debate is ongoing on the need for centralization of complex surgery in tertiary referral centers. The early referral of patients with severe iatrogenic liver injuries to a tertiary center with experienced hepato-pancreato-biliary and transplant surgery has emerged as the best treatment of care. Despite widespread interest in the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe iatrogenic injuries, reported experiences indicate few liver transplants are performed. This review analyzes the literature on liver transplantation after hepatic injury and discusses our own experience along with surgical advances and future prospects in this uncommon transplant setting. PMID:28932348
Berlakovich, Gabriela A
Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key
Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long
The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742
Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Koçak, Nilüfer; Köse, Hatice; Unek, Tarkan; Ozbilgin, Mücahit; Karademir, Sedat; Kaynak, Süleyman
Ocular toxoplasmosis after solid organ transplantation occurs usually within the first three months of primary infection or reactivation of latent infection. There are a few reports of ocular toxoplasmosis following liver transplantation in the literature, however, no reports were detected in the national data. In this report a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed as ocular toxoplasmosis following reactivation in the second year after liver transplantation, was presented. The case was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin. This case was presented to emphasize late presentation of toxoplasmosis in transplantation patients and to withdraw attention to the importance of serological investigations done before transplantation.
Birnbaum, David Jérémie; Grégoire, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Le Treut, Yves Patrice
Hepatic gas gangrene is an uncommon situation mainly due to bacterial infection by Clostridium perfringens. It remains a life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality rate. Quick diagnosis and aggressive therapy including liver transplantation should be proposed to improve the outcome. This report describes a rare case of hepatic gas gangrene on native liver, secondary to iatrogenic hepatic artery thrombosis and instrumental biliary tree infection, which was successfully treated by liver transplantation.
Liver transplantation (LT) services in the United Kingdom are provided by 7 designated transplant centers for a population of approximately 64 million. The number of deceased organ donors has grown, and in 2014-2015 it was 1282 (570 donation after circulatory death and 772 donation after brain death). Donor risk is increasing. In 2014-2015, there were 829 LTs from deceased and 38 from living donors. The common causes for transplantation are liver cell cancer, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-related liver disease. Livers are allocated first nationally to super-urgent listed patients and then on a zonal basis. The United Kingdom will be moving toward a national allocation scheme. The median interval between listing and transplantation is 152 days for adults awaiting their first elective transplant. Of the adults listed for the first elective transplant, 68% underwent transplantation at < 1 year; 17% are waiting; and 4% and 11% were removed or died, respectively. The 1- and 5-year adult patient survival rate from listing is 81% and 68%, respectively, and from transplantation is 92% and 80%, respectively. The transplant program is funded through general taxation and is free at the point of care to those who are eligible for National Health Service (NHS) treatment; some have to pay for medication (up to a maximum payment of US $151/year). The competent authority is the Human Tissue Authority which licenses donor characterization, retrieval, and implantation; transplant units are commissioned by NHS England and NHS Scotland. National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) promotes organ donation, maintains the organ donor register, obtains consent, and undertakes donor characterization and offering. NHSBT also maintains the national waiting list, develops and applies selection and allocation policies, monitors outcomes, and maintains the UK National Transplant Registry and commissions a national organ retrieval service. Liver Transplantation 22 1129-1135 2016 AASLD
Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Well, Richard; Reid, H. A. S.; Starzl, Thomas E.
Orthotopic liver transplantation was accomplished in a 22-year-old woman dying of the Budd-Chiarl syndrome. She Is well and has normal liver function 16 months postoperatively. In view of the good early result, it will be appropriate to consider liver replacement for this disease in further well-selected cases. PMID:781334
Liver transplantation is currently in its golden period in India. The number of transplants being performed and the steady increase in the new programs that have emerged over the last decade is a testimony to it. The growth was not smooth, especially in the early years. But a multipronged approach in developing infrastructure and the involvement of multidisciplinary teams in the management of transplant patients has had a major positive impact on the outcome and as a result a positive impetus to the growth of this specialty in India. To date, the majority of transplants performed in India are live donor liver transplants. Deceased donation is more sporadic and concentrated in a couple of regions. With phenomenal increase in transplant activity in India, there is huge potential for streamlining data sharing among programs in India and with the rest of the world to ultimately benefit the transplant community. PMID:27115006
Buccini, L D; Segev, D L; Fung, J; Miller, C; Kelly, D; Quintini, C; Schold, J D
There has been increased oversight of transplant centers and stagnation in liver transplantation nationally in recent years. We hypothesized that centers that received low performance (LP) evaluations were more likely to alter protocols, resulting in reduced rates of transplants and patients placed on the waiting list. We evaluated the association of LP evaluations and transplant activity among liver transplant centers in the United States using national Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data (January 2007 to July 2012). We compared the average change in recipient and candidate volume and donor and patient characteristics based on whether the centers received LP evaluations. Of 92 eligible centers, 27 (29%) received at least one LP evaluation. Centers without an LP evaluation (n = 65) had an average increase of 9.3 transplants and 14.9 candidates while LP centers had an average decrease of 39.9 transplants (p < 0.01) and 67.3 candidates (p < 0.01). LP centers reduced the use of older donors, donations with longer cold ischemia, and donations after cardiac death (p-values < 0.01). There was no association between the change in transplant volume and measured performance (R(2) = 0.002, p = 0.91). Findings indicate a strong association between performance evaluations and changes in candidate listings and transplants among liver transplant centers, with no measurable improvement in outcomes associated with reduction in transplant volume. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela
Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation.
Faraj, Walid; Haydar, Ali; Nounou, Ghina El; Naaj, Abdallah Abou El; Khoury, Ghattas; Jabbour, Samar; Khalife, Mohamed
Objective-To review all liver transplants performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center from 1998 to present. Materials and Methods-From 1998 to present, 21 liver transplants (15 into adults and 6 into children) were performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Of the 21 transplants, 5 were living related liver transplants. Results-Patient survival was 76% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Five recipients died at a median of 9 (range, 1-56) days after transplant. Causes of death included 1 case of severe cellular rejection, 1 case of portal and hepatic artery thrombosis, 1 case of intraoperative cardiac arrest, and 2 cases of primary nonfunction. Two biliary complications and 2 major vascular complications also occurred. All 16 survivors are well, with normal findings on liver function tests at a median follow-up time of 93 (range, 10-185) months after transplant. Conclusions-Although our numbers are small, the 10-year survival rate is comparable to reported rates for other series around the world. Deceased organ donations must be encouraged so that we can perform more transplants. As a source of organs, living related liver transplant is important; however, it cannot replace deceased donation.
deLemos, Andrew S; Schmeltzer, Paul A; Russo, Mark W
End stage liver disease from hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplantation in many parts of the world accounting for up to 40% of liver transplants. Antiviral therapy either before or after liver transplantation is challenging due to side effects and lower efficacy in patients with cirrhosis and liver transplant recipients, as well as from drug interactions with immunosuppressants. Factors that may affect recurrent hepatitis C include donor age, immunosuppression, IL28B genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and metabolic syndrome. Older donor age has persistently been shown to have the greatest impact on recurrent hepatitis C. After liver transplantation, distinguishing recurrent hepatitis C from acute cellular rejection may be difficult, although the development of molecular markers may help in making the correct diagnosis. The advent of interferon free regimens with direct acting antiviral agents that include NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B polymerase inhibitors and NS5A inhibitors holds great promise in improving outcomes for liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:25152571
de Goede, B; van Kempen, B J H; Polak, W G; de Knegt, R J; Schouten, J N L; Lange, J F; Tilanus, H W; Metselaar, H J; Kazemier, G
Patients with liver cirrhosis scheduled for liver transplantation often present with a concurrent umbilical hernia. Optimal management of these patients is not clear. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients who underwent umbilical hernia correction during liver transplantation through a separate infra-umbilical incision with those who underwent correction through the same incision used to perform the liver transplantation. In the period between 1990 and 2011, all 27 patients with umbilical hernia and liver cirrhosis who underwent hernia correction during liver transplantation were identified in our hospital database. In 17 cases, umbilical hernia repair was performed through a separate infra-umbilical incision (separate incision group) and 10 were corrected from within the abdominal cavity without a separate incision (same incision group). Six patients died during follow-up; no deaths were attributable to intraoperative umbilical hernia repair. All 21 patients who were alive visited the outpatient clinic to detect recurrent umbilical hernia. One recurrent umbilical hernia was diagnosed in the separate incision group (6 %) and four (40 %) in the same incision group (p = 0.047). Two patients in the same incision group required repair of the recurrent umbilical hernia; one of whom underwent emergency surgery for bowel incarceration. The one recurrent hernia in the separate incision group was corrected electively. In the event of liver transplantation, umbilical hernia repair through a separate infra-umbilical incision is preferred over correction through the same incision used to perform the transplantation.
Diana, Restrepo B; Marle, Duque G; Carlos, Cardeño C
Liver transplantation is a treatment available for many patients with liver cirrhosis who find in this treatment a way to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Paranoid schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population, produces psychotic symptoms, and runs a chronic course in some cases with significant deterioration in all areas of life. To discuss the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during the evaluation protocol for liver transplantation. Case report. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis whose only alternative to improve life expectancy and quality of life was access to liver transplantation. During routine evaluations the liaison psychiatrist observed first-order psychotic symptoms and documented a life story that confirmed the presence of paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder common in the general population that can be a part of the medical comorbidities of patients requiring liver transplantation and is not an absolute contraindication to its completion. We are unaware of similar cases of liver transplantation in patients with schizophrenia in our country. We believe this is a big step on the road to overcome the stigma that mental illness imposes on patients. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
... is also a time for you and your child to learn about transplant surgery. The transplant team is there ... bleeding, infection, and other problems can happen. Most children stay ... this time, they and their families learn how to care for the new liver. Be ...
Mathur, Amit K; Talwalkar, Jayant
There is growing interest in the quality of health care delivery in liver transplantation. Multiple stakeholders, including patients, transplant providers and their hospitals, payers, and regulatory bodies have an interest in measuring and monitoring quality in the liver transplant process, and understanding differences in quality across centres. This article aims to provide an overview of quality measurement and regulatory issues in liver transplantation performed within the United States. We review how broader definitions of health care quality should be applied to liver transplant care models. We outline the status quo including the current regulatory agencies, public reporting mechanisms, and requirements around quality assurance and performance improvement (QAPI) activities. Additionally, we further discuss unintended consequences and opportunities for growth in quality measurement. Quality measurement and the integration of quality improvement strategies into liver transplant programmes hold significant promise, but multiple challenges to successful implementation must be addressed to optimise value. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horvat, Natally; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Horvat, Joao Vicente; Yamanari, Tássia Regina; Batista Araújo-Filho, Jose de Arimateia; Panizza, Pedro; Seda-Neto, Joao; Antunes da Fonseca, Eduardo; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Mendes de Oliveira Cerri, Luciana; Chapchap, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido
Liver transplant is considered to be the last-resort treatment approach for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite the remarkable advance in survival rates, liver transplant remains an intricate surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of complications is crucial for patient survival but is challenging given the lack of specificity in clinical presentation. Knowledge of the liver and vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient or recipients before surgery is also important to avoid complications. In this framework, radiologists play a pivotal role on the multidisciplinary team in both pre- and postoperative scenarios by providing a road map to guide the surgery and by assisting in diagnosis of complications. The most common complications after liver transplant are (a) vascular, including the hepatic artery, portal vein, hepatic veins, and inferior vena cava; (b) biliary; (c) parenchymal; (d) perihepatic; and (e) neoplastic. The authors review surgical techniques, the role of each imaging modality, normal posttransplant imaging features, types of complications after liver transplant, and information required in the radiology report that is critical to patient care. They present an algorithm for an imaging approach for pediatric patients after liver transplant and describe key points that should be included in radiologic reports in the pre- and postoperative settings. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2017.
Wozney, Paul; Bron, Klaus M.; Point, Stuart; Starzl, Thomas E.
During the past 5 years, 104 angiographic studies were performed in 87 patients (45 children and 42 adults) with 92 transplanted livers for evaluation of possible vascular complications. Seventy percent of the studies were abnormal. Hepatic artery thrombosis was the most common complication (seen in 42% of children studied, compared with only 12% of adults) and was a major complication that frequently resulted in graft failure, usually necessitating retransplantation. In six children, reconstitution of the intrahepatic arteries by collaterals was seen. Three survived without retransplant. Arterial stenosis at the anastomosis or in the donor hepatic artery was observed in 11% of patients. Portal vein thrombosis or stenosis occurred in 13% of patients. Two children and one adult with portal vein thrombosis demonstrated hepatopetal collaterals that reconstituted the intrahepatic portal vessels. Uncommon complications included anastomotic and donor hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms, a hepatic artery–dissecting aneurysm, pancreaticoduodenal mycotic aneurysms, hepatic artery–portal vein fistula, biliary–portal vein fistula, hepatic vein occlusion, and inferior vena cava thrombosis. PMID:3529892
Keegan, Mark T; Kramer, David J
With the evolution of surgical and anesthetic techniques, liver transplantation has become "routine," allowing for modifications of practice to decrease perioperative complications and costs. There is debate over the necessity for intensive care unit admission for patients with satisfactory preoperative status and a smooth intraoperative course. Postoperative care is made easier when the liver graft performs optimally. Assessment of graft function, vigilance for complications after the major surgical insult, and optimization of multiple systems affected by liver disease are essential aspects of postoperative care. The intensivist plays a vital role in an integrated multidisciplinary transplant team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cascino, Matthew D; McNabb, Brian; Gardner, David G; Woeber, Kenneth A; Fox, Alyson N; Wang, Bruce; Fix, Oren K
We describe a young woman with previously undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis who presented with acute liver failure (ALF). We present a case report and review the relevant literature. An extensive evaluation excluded possible causes of ALF other than thyrotoxicosis. The management of thyrotoxicosis posed several unique challenges in the setting of ALF, particularly because we did not want to use potentially hepatotoxic thionamides. The patient was treated with prednisone and propranolol and was started on potassium iodide when she was listed for liver transplantation. She underwent an uncomplicated liver transplant and subsequent thyroidectomy and is doing well. This well-characterized case describes thyrotoxicosis as a possible cause of ALF after thoroughly excluding other possible causes and illustrates the challenges of simultaneously managing both disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ALF possibly resulting from untreated thyrotoxicosis that was successfully treated with liver transplantation.
Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.
Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam
With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.
Grąt, Michał; Hołówko, Wacław; Gałecka, Mirosława; Grąt, Karolina; Szachtaz, Patrycja; Lewandowsk, Zbigniew; Kosińska, Irena; Schmidts, Marcin; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Marek
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gut microflora of liver transplant candidates. Fecal microflora of 20 cirrhotic liver transplant candidates was analyzed basing on prospectively collected stool samples. The results were compared with those of 20 non-cirrhotic patients with liver disease and/or abnormal liver function tests, 20 patients with Crohn’s disease, and 20 patients without any gastrointestinal disease. Moreover, correlations between particular counts of microbiota, as well as between microbial counts and stool pH were examined. The pattern of fecal microbiota of liver transplant candidates was characterized by increased counts of lactobacilli (p=0.001), including hydrogen peroxide producing strains (p=0.008). In these patients, lactobacilli were positively correlated to enterococci (p=0.006) and bifidobacteria (p=0.004). No correlations other than those observed for lactobacilli in general were observed between hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli and the remaining microbiota. Increased yeast and Escherichia coli counts were associated with a tendency towards lower (p=0.095) and higher (p=0.072) stool pH, respectively. Surprisingly, gut microflora of liver transplant candidates with cirrhosis is particularly enriched with lactobacilli, including hydrogen peroxide producing strains. Thus, the use of other potentially beneficial microorganisms, such as particular yeast strains, might be more appropriate for these patients.
Jadlowiec, Caroline C; Taner, Timucin
Great progress has been made in the field of liver transplantation over the past two decades. This progress, however, also brings up the next set of challenges: First, organ shortage remains a major limitation, and accounts for a large proportion of wait list mortality. While living donation has successfully increased the total number of liver transplants done in Asian countries, the total number of such transplants has been stagnant in the western hemisphere. As such, there has been a significant effort over the past decade to increase the existing deceased donor pool. This effort has resulted in a greater use of liver allografts following donation after cardiac death (DCD) along with marginal and extended criteria donors. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of liver allografts procured after circulatory arrest has not only resulted in better selection and management of DCD donors, but has also helped in the development of mechanical perfusion strategies. Early outcomes demonstrating the clinical applicability of both hypothermic and normothermic perfusion and its potential to impact patient survival and allograft function have generated much interest. Second, long-term outcomes of liver transplant recipients have not improved significantly, as recipients continue to succumb to complications of long-term immunosuppression, such as infection, malignancy and renal failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that chronic immune-mediated injury to the liver may also impact graft function. PMID:27182155
... liver is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It weighs about three pounds in adults and is made up ... for life. The liver helps process carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and stores vitamins. It processes ...
Rossi, Massimo; Mennini, Gianluca; Melandro, Fabio; Anzidei, Michele; De Vizio, Silvia; Koryukova, Kameliya; Catalano, Carlo
Liver transplantation (LT) represents the best treatment for end-stage chronic liver disease, acute liver failure and early stages of hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiologists should be aware of surgical techniques to distinguish a normal appearance from pathological findings. Imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT and MR, provide for rapid and reliable detection of vascular and biliary complications after LT. The role of imaging in the evaluation of rejection and primary graft dysfunction is less defined. This article illustrates the main surgical anastomoses during LT, the normal appearance and complications of the liver parenchyma and vascular and biliary structures. PMID:27188846
Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu
We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cirrhosis; End Stage Liver Disease; Acute Kidney Injury; Liver Transplant; Complications; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hepatitis c; Hepatitis B; NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis; Alcoholic Cirrhosis; Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Shunji; Safwan, Mohamed; Liang, Chen; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro
Transient thrombocytopenia is a common phenomenon after liver transplantation. After liver transplantation (LT), platelet count decreases and reaches a nadir on postoperative days 3-5, with an average reduction in platelet counts of 60%; platelet count recovers to preoperative levels approximately two weeks after LT. The putative mechanisms include haemodilution, decreased platelet production, increased sequestration, medications, infections, thrombosis, or combination of these processes. However, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. The role of platelets in liver transplantation has been highlighted in recent years, and particular attention has been given to their effects beyond hemostasis and thrombosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that perioperative thrombocytopenia causes poor graft regeneration, increases the incidence of postoperative morbidity, and deteriorates the graft and decreases patient survival in both the short and long term after liver transplantation. Platelet therapies to increase perioperative platelet counts, such as thrombopoietin, thrombopoietin receptor agonist, platelet transfusion, splenectomy, and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment might have a potential for improving graft survival, however clinical trials are lacking. Further studies are warranted to detect direct evidence on whether thrombocytopenia is the cause or result of poor-graft function and postoperative complications, and to determine who needs platelet therapies in order to prevent postoperative complications and thus improve post-transplant outcomes. PMID:29632420
Dal Sasso Mendes, Karina; de Castro e Silva Junior, Orlando; da Costa Ziviani, Luciana; Rossin, Fabiana Murad; Fontão Zago, Márcia Maria; Galvão, Cristina Maria
The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. The results evidenced significant cognitive gains after the intervention, with improvements in the participants' performance . The research presents evidence that putting in practice a patient education strategy can enhance candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process and consequently contribute to a successful treatment.
Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander
Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R
Indications for liver transplant have been extended, and older and sicker patients are undergoing transplantation. Infectious, malignant, and cardiovascular diseases account for the most posttransplant deaths. Cirrhotic patients can develop heart disease through systemic diseases affecting the heart and the liver, cirrhosis-specific heart disease, or common cardiovascular. No single factor can predict posttransplant cardiovascular complications. Patients with history of cardiovascular disease, and specific abnormalities on echocardiography, electrocardiography, or serum markers of heart disease seem to be at increased risk of complications. Pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation is essential to detecting these risk factors so their effects can be mitigated through appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tian, Xinyao; Yang, Zhe; Luo, Fangzhou; Zheng, Shusen
Liver transplantation is a conventional treatment for terminal stage liver diseases. However, several complications still hinder the survival rate. Intestinal barrier destruction is widely observed among patients receiving liver transplant and suffering from ischemia-reperfusion or rejection injuries because of the relationship between the intestine and the liver, both in anatomy and function. Importantly, the resulting alteration of gut microbiota aggravates graft dysfunctions during the process. This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial alterations and liver transplantation. Especially, this work also evaluates research on the management of gut microbial alteration and the prediction of possible injuries utilizing microbial alteration during liver transplantation. In addition, we propose possible directions for research on gut microbial alteration during liver transplantation and offer a hypothesis on the utilization of microbial alteration in liver transplantation. The aim is not only to predict perioperative injuries but also to function as a method of treatment or even inhibit the rejection of liver transplantation.
Volk, Michael L; Biggins, Scott W; Huang, Mary Ann; Argo, Curtis K; Fontana, Robert J; Anspach, Renee R
Background In order to receive a liver transplant, patients must first be placed on the waiting list – a decision made in most transplant centers by a multidisciplinary committee. The function of these committees has never been studied. Objectives To describe decision making in liver transplant committees and identify opportunities for process improvement. Design Observational multi-center Setting We observed 63 meetings and interviewed 50 committee members at 4 liver transplant centers. Study Subjects Transplant committee members. Measurements Recorded transcripts and field notes were analyzed using standard qualitative sociological methods. Results While the structure of meetings varied by center, the process was uniform and involved reviewing possible reasons for patient exclusion using primarily inductive reasoning. Stated justifications for excluding patients were a) too well, b) non-hepatic comorbidities or advanced age, c) too sick in the setting of advanced liver disease, d) substance abuse, or e) other psychosocial barriers. Dominant themes identified included members’ angst over deciding who lives and dies, a high correlation between psychosocial barriers to transplant and patients’ socioeconomic status, and the influence of external forces on decision making. Consistently identified barriers to effective group decision making were: 1) unwritten center policies, and 2) confusion regarding advocacy versus stewardship roles. Limitations The use of qualitative methods provides broad understanding but limits specific inferences. These four centers may not be reflective of every transplant center nationwide. Conclusion The difficult decisions made by these committees are reasonably consistent and always well-intentioned, but might be improved by more explicit written policies and clarifying roles. This process may help inform resource allocation in other areas of medicine. Primary funding source The Greenwall Foundation. PMID:22007044
Kocabayoglu, Peri; Husen, Martin; Witzke, Oliver; Kribben, Andreas; Saner, Fuat H.; Canbay, Ali; Gerken, Guido; Paul, Andreas
Background Morbidity and mortality conferences (MMCs) provide powerful opportunities for learning, reflection, and improvement. The current literature gives examples of how MMCs can be designed; however, no systematic review of cases and no original data related to liver transplantation are available. Liver transplantation requires a multidisciplinary approach to case identification, presentation, and analysis. Framework structures that guide case investigation are needed to successfully follow up on outcome measures and provide the basis for quality assessment and transparency in transplant programs. Methods All cases presented at our department's transplant-related MMCs in the years 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. Patient data were collected from our electronic database and meeting minutes. Cases were summarized according to type of transplantation. Liver-related transplant cases were analyzed for in-house deaths and time from death until presentation at an MMC. A literature review was performed, and our center's MMC design was compared with the literature available on conducting MMCs and improving patient safety and quality of care. Results Within 2 years, 15 MMCs were held at our department. 38 cases were discussed of which 25 were liver transplant-related. Most cases were in-house postoperative deaths, mainly due to sepsis or primary non-function. We provide a summary of recommendations for conducting MMCs based on conferences held in our department combined with the literature. Conclusion We present our experience with MMCs held over the past 24 months in consideration of guidelines on MMCs provided in the literature. As there is little conformity to known models for analyzing medical incidents, models for best practice in conduction MMCs are urgently needed. PMID:27722164
Miller, Charles M.; Quintini, Cristiano; Dhawan, Anil; Durand, Francois; Heimbach, Julie K.; Kim-Schluger, Hyung Leona; Kyrana, Eirini; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lerut, Jan; Lo, Chung-Mau; Pomfret, Elizabeth Anne
Abstract Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been increasingly embraced around the world as an important strategy to address the shortage of deceased donor livers. The aim of this guideline, approved by the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS), is to provide a collection of expert opinions, consensus, and best practices surrounding LDLT. Recommendations were developed from an analysis of the National Library of Medicine living donor transplantation indexed literature using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Writing was guided by the ILTS Policy on the Development and Use of Practice Guidelines (www.ilts.org). Intended for use by physicians, these recommendations support specific approaches to the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive aspects of care of living donor liver transplant recipients. PMID:28437386
Pai, S-L; Aniskevich, S; Logvinov, I I; Matcha, G V; Palmer, W C; Blackshear, J L
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder that presents with a hypertrophied nondilated left ventricle. In the absence of other known causes of cardiomyopathy, it is often associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction during systole, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, mitral regurgitation, and increased risk of sudden cardiac death. When HCM coexists with end-stage liver disease, it can be further complicated by cirrhosis-associated cardiovascular abnormalities, including hyperdynamic circulation, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and electrophysiologic abnormalities. We retrospectively examined patient characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative echocardiogram results, sudden cardiac death risk prediction model score, and 1-year postoperative mortality of patients with HCM who underwent liver transplantation at our institution from January 1, 2000, through January 1, 2015. Of the 2,812 liver transplantations performed during the study period, we identified 15 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of HCM. When comparing the patients who did vs did not survive the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation, we identified significant differences in maximal left ventricular wall thickness (P = .004) and resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient (P = .004). Preoperative left atrium size (measured by echocardiography; P = .66) and the sudden cardiac death risk prediction model score (P = .32) were not significantly associated with 1-year survival. Preoperative left ventricular outflow tract gradient exceeding 60 mm Hg was strongly associated with death during the first year after transplant. These results suggest that the severity of HCM influences patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vladov, N; Mihaylov, V; Takorov, I; Vasilevski, I; Lukanova, T; Odisseeva, E; Katzarov, K; Simonova, M; Tomova, D; Konakchieva, M; Petrov, N; Mladenov, N; Sergeev, S; Mutafchiiski, V
The filed of liver transplantation (LT) continues to evolve and is highly effective therapy for many patients with acute and chronic liver failure resulting from a variety of causes. Improvement of perioperative care, surgical technique and immunosuppression in recent years has led to its transformation into a safe and routine procedure with steadily improving results. The aim of this paper is to present the initial experience of the transplant team at Military Medical Academy - Sofia, Bulgaria. For the period of April 2007 - August 2014 the team performed 38 liver transplants in 37 patients (one retransplantation). Patients were followed up prospectively and retrospectively. In 36 (95%) patients a graft from a cadaveric donor was used and in two cases--a right liver grafts from live donor. The mean MELD score of the transplanted patients was 17 (9-40). The preferred surgical technique was "piggyback" with preservation of inferior vena cava in 33 (86%) of the cases and classical technique in 3 (8%) patients. The overall complication rate was 48%. Early mortality rate was 13% (5 patients). The overall 1- and 5-year survival is 81% and 77% respectivelly. The setting of a new LT program is a complex process which requires the effort and effective colaboration of a wide range of speciacialists (hepatologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, psychologists, therapists, coordinators, etc.) and institutions. The good results are function of a proper selection of the donors and the recipients. Living donation is an alternative in the shortage of cadaveric donors.
Song, Alice Tung Wan; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pugliese, Vincenzo; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Abdala, Edson
Since 1963, when the first human liver transplantation (LT) was performed by Thomas Starzl, the world has witnessed 50 years of development in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, organ allocation, donor selection, and the indications and contraindications for LT. This has led to the mainstream, well-established procedure that has saved innumerable lives worldwide. Today, there are hundreds of liver transplant centres in over 80 countries. This review aims to describe the main aspects of LT regarding the progressive changes that have occurred over the years. We herein review historical aspects since the first experimental studies and the first attempts at human transplantation. We also provide an overview of immunosuppressive agents and their potential side effects, the evolution of the indications and contraindications of LT, the evolution of survival according to different time periods, and the evolution of methods of organ allocation. PMID:24833866
Carrion, Andres F.; Czul, Frank; Arosemena, Leopoldo R.; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Garcia, Monica T.; Tekin, Akin; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Martin, Paul; Ghanta, Ravi K.
Propylthiouracil- (PTU-) induced hepatotoxicity is rare but potentially lethal with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to fulminant hepatic failure and death. We describe two cases of acute hepatic failure due to PTU that required liver transplantation. Differences in the clinical presentation, histological characteristics, and posttransplant management are described as well as alternative therapeutic options. Frequent monitoring for PTU-induced hepatic dysfunction is strongly advised because timely discontinuation of this drug and implementation of noninvasive therapeutic interventions may prevent progression to liver failure or even death. PMID:21234410
The liver transplant program at the transplant center of Tianjin First Center Hospital opened in 1994 and has become a leading center for academic research and development in clinical liver transplantation during the past 18 years. As of Nov 30, 2011, we had performed 4,103 liver transplantations in patients ranging from 6 months to 79 years old. Since 1998, the program has ranked first in mainland China in the annual number of liver transplants performed, the cumulative total liver transplants and the number of long-surviving patients. We've accomplished a number of "firsts" among the Chinese liver transplant centers, including: the first split liver transplantation, the first pediatric liver transplant, the first living donor simultaneous liver-kidney transplant, the first dual-graft liver transplant using a domino right lobe and a living donor left lobe, the first laparoscopic assisted live donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein and we have assembled the first liver transplant chain comprising multiple donors and recipients. We have performed the largest number of living related and split liver transplantations in mainland China. The combined prophylactic protocol of "Lamivudine and HBIG" to prevent HBV recurrence post transplantation was first used by our center in China and now is utilized by most of the domestic transplant centers. We have begun using livers from donors after cardiac death (DCD) during the past 2 years, with careful donor selection and recipient management. All the approaches and techniques we've developed are aimed at the utilization of all types of available grafts. However, increasing the rate of transplantation with excellent graft and recipient survival are still the challenges facing us.
Vondran, F W R; Wintterle, S; Bräsen, J H; Haller, H; Klempnauer, J; Richter, N; Lehner, F; Schiffer, M
In cases of chronic renal insufficiency, successful kidney transplantation is the method of choice to restore patients' health, well-being and physical fitness. The interdisciplinary collaboration of nephrologists and transplant surgeons has always been a prerequisite for the successful pre-, peri- and post-transplant care of renal transplant patients. The same holds true for liver transplant patients. Here the nephrologist is often involved in cases requiring pre- or post-transplant dialysis as well as in decision making for combined liver-kidney transplantation. This review focuses on nephrological aspects in patient care before and after kidney and liver transplantation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Yuzo; Takaki, Akinobu; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Takagi, Kosei; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Takahito; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi
Determining the indications for and timing of liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) is essential. The King's College Hospital (KCH) guidelines and Japanese guidelines are used to predict the need for LT and the outcomes in ALF. These guidelines' accuracy when applied to ALF in different regional and etiological backgrounds may differ. Here we compared the accuracy of new (2010) Japanese guidelines that use a simple scoring system with the 1996 Japanese guidelines and the KCH criteria for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We retrospectively analyzed 24 adult ALF patients (18 acute type, 6 sub-acute type) who underwent LDLT in 1998-2009 at our institution. We assessed the accuracies of the 3 guidelines' criteria for ALF. The overall 1-year survival rate was 87.5%. The new and previous Japanese guidelines were superior to the KCH criteria for accurately predicting LT for acute-type ALF (72% vs. 17%). The new Japanese guidelines could identify 13 acute-type ALF patients for LT, based on the timing of encephalopathy onset. Using the previous Japanese guidelines, although the same 13 acute-type ALF patients (72%) had indications for LT, only 4 patients were indicated at the 1st step, and it took an additional 5 days to decide the indication at the 2nd step in the other 9 cases. Our findings showed that the new Japanese guidelines can predict the indications for LT and provide a reliable alternative to the previous Japanese and KCH guidelines.
Perito, Emily R; Vase, Tabitha; Ramachandran, Rageshree; Phelps, Andrew; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Lustig, Robert H; Feldstein, Vickie A; Rosenthal, Philip
Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplantation (LT) in 30% of adults, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in nontransplanted children. However, posttransplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric LT recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n = 318), 31% of those with any posttransplant biopsy (n = 271) had ≥ 1 biopsy with steatosis. Median time from transplant to first biopsy with steatosis was 0.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 0.3-6.5 months) and to last biopsy with steatosis was 5.5 months (IQR, 1.0-24.5 months); 85% of patients with steatosis also had for-cause biopsies without steatosis. All available for-cause biopsies were re-evaluated (n = 104). Of 9 biopsies that could be interpreted as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)/borderline NASH, with steatosis plus inflammation or ballooning, 8 also had features of cholestasis or rejection. Among 70 patients with surveillance biopsies 3.6-20.0 years after transplant, only 1 overweight adolescent had a biopsy with NAFLD (grade 1 steatosis, mild inflammation, no ballooning or fibrosis)-despite a 30% prevalence of overweight/obesity in the cohort and 27% with steatosis on previous for-cause biopsy. Steatosis on preceding for-cause biopsy was not associated with portal (P = 0.49) or perivenular fibrosis (P = 0.85) on surveillance biopsy. Hepatic steatosis commonly develops early after transplant in children and adolescents, but it rarely persists. Biopsies that did have steatosis with NASH characteristics were all for-cause, mostly in patients with NAFLD risk factors and/or confounding causes of liver damage. Prospective studies that follow children into adulthood will be needed to evaluate if and when hepatic steatosis presents a longterm risk for
Müllhaupt, Beat; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gerlach, J Tilman; Clavien, Pierre-Alain
Liver transplantation has become the mainstay for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer and some metabolic disorders. Its main drawback, though, is the disparity between the number of donors and the patients needing a liver graft. In this review we will discuss the recent changes regarding organ allocation, extended donor criteria, living donor liver transplantation and potential room for improvement. The gap between the number of donors and patients needing a liver graft forced the transplant community to introduce an objective model such as the modified model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in order to obtain a transparent and fair organ allocation system. The use of extended criteria donor livers such as organs from older donors or steatotic grafts is one possibility to reduce the gap between patients on the waiting list and available donors. Finally, living donor liver transplantation has become a standard procedure in specialized centers as another possibility to reduce the donor shortage. Recent data clearly indicate that center experience is of major importance in achieving good results. Great progress has been made in recent years. However, further research is needed to improve results in the future.
Huda, A; Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Keeffe, E B; Esquivel, C O
Return to productive employment is often an important milestone in the recovery and rehabilitation process after liver transplantation (OLT). This literature review identifies factors associated with employment in patients who underwent OLT. We searched PubMed for articles that addressed the various factors affecting employment after OLT. The studies demonstrated improvement in the quality of life and examined factors that predicted whether patients would return to work after OLT. Demographic variable associated with posttransplant employment included young age, male sex, college degree, Caucasian race, and pretransplant employment. Patients with alcohol-related liver disease had a significantly lower rate of employment than did those with other etiologies of liver disease. Recipients who were employed after transplantation had a significantly better posttransplant functional status than did those who were not employed. Economic pressures are increasing the expectation that patients who undergo successful OLT will return to work. Thus, transplant teams need to have a better understanding of posttransplant work outcomes for this vulnerable population, and greater attention must be paid to the full social rehabilitation of transplant recipients. Specific interventions for OLT recipients should be designed to evaluate and change their health perceptions and encourage their return to work. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rabelo, A V; Bastante, M D; Raya, A M; Méndez, C S M; Ramirez, A R G; Suarez, Y F
The objective of this study was to compare liver transplantation outcomes as a function of donor age. We performed 212 liver transplantations between 2008 and 2014. We described a prospective cohort study and grouped the patients by liver donor age. We compared quantitative and categorical variables using statistical analysis. No statistically significant differences were found among any graft age groups in gender (always more males), time on waiting list, age, height, Child Pugh Turcotte (CHILD) score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, need for intraoperative blood products, or intensive care unit stay. The most frequent etiology of liver failure was alcohol. A brain-dead donor was the most frequent type in all groups. The whole graft was used except in 4 cases. No statistically significant differences were found among groups in the surgical technique, postreperfusion syndrome, arterial complications, biliary complications, venous complications, acute rejection, and retransplantation. The 3-year patient survival rate was 64% in the <60-year graft age group, 48% in the 60- to 69-year group, 64% in the 70- to 79-year group, and 40% in the ≥80-year group (P = .264). The 3-year graft survival rate was 62% in the <60-year graft age group, 47% in the 60- to 69-year group, 65% in the 70- to 79-year group, and 40% in the ≥80-year group (P = .295). Given the need to increase the pool of liver donors, older donors should be considered as a source for liver transplantation, although careful selection is required. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro
Summary Budd-Chiari syndrome involves obstruction of hepatic venous outflow tracts at various levels from small hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava and is the result of thrombosis or its fibrous sequelae. There is a conspicuous difference in its etiology in the West and the East. Myeloproliferative disease predominates in the West and obstruction of the vena cava predominates in the East. The clinical presentation and clinical manifestations are so varied that it should be suspected in any patient with acute or chronic liver dysfunction. It should be treated with step-wise management. First-line therapy should be anticoagulation with medical treatment of the underlying illness, and interventional revascularization and TIPS are indicated in the event of a lack of response to medical therapy. Liver transplantation may be indicated as a rescue treatment or for fulminant cases with promising results. This step-by-step strategy has achieved a 5-year transplant-free survival rate of 70% and a 5-year overall survival rate of 90%. Living donor liver transplantation can also be used for patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome if deceased donor livers are scarce, but it requires a difficult procedure particularly with regard to venous outflow reconstruction. PMID:25674385
Paterno, Flavio; Wima, Koffi; Hoehn, Richard S; Cuffy, Madison C; Diwan, Tayyab S; Woodle, Steve E; Abbott, Daniel E; Shah, Shimul A
The use of liver allografts from elderly donors (≥70 years) has increased because of organ shortage and increased life expectancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current utilization of elderly donors in United States, recipient selection, and their posttransplant outcomes. A linkage between Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and University HealthSystem Consortium databases was performed. Between January 2007 and December 2011, 12,445 liver transplant (LT) recipients were identified and divided into 2 cohorts based on donor age: 70 years or older (n = 540) and younger than 60 years (n = 10,473). Elderly donors accounted for 4.3% of all donors used in the 5-year period. When compared to younger donors, elderly donors were more likely to be women, shared regionally or nationally, and used at higher volume centers. Elderly donor allografts were less likely to be used in recipients with model of end-stage liver disease score higher than 27 (13.2% vs. 23.0%, P < 0.001), hospitalized (16.8% vs. 21.7%, P = 0.03), or on hemodialysis at time of transplant (2.6% vs. 8.2%, P < 0.001). Both recipient groups had similar perioperative mortality, 30-day readmission rates, and short-term patient survival. In the multivariate analysis, including recipient, donor, center and regional factors, donor age 70 years or older was associated with slightly increased risk of graft loss (hazard ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.56; P = 0.005). The current trend toward the use of elderly donors in liver transplant recipients with low model of end-stage liver disease scores (<27), without hepatitis C, not hospitalized and not on dialysis, is associated with acceptable perioperative outcomes, patient survival, and slightly worse graft survival.
Sutherland, A I; IJzermans, J N M; Forsythe, J L R; Dor, F J M F
Transplant surgery is facing a shortage of deceased donor organs. In response, the criteria for organ donation have been extended, and an increasing number of organs from older donors are being used. For recipients, the benefits of transplantation are great, and the growing ageing population has led to increasing numbers of elderly patients being accepted for transplantation. The literature was reviewed to investigate the impact of age of donors and recipients in abdominal organ transplantation, and to highlight aspects of the fine balance in donor and recipient selection and screening, as well as allocation policies fair to young and old alike. Overall, kidney and liver transplantation from older deceased donors have good outcomes, but are not as good as those from younger donors. Careful donor selection based on risk indices, and potentially biomarkers, special allocation schemes to match elderly donors with elderly recipients, and vigorous recipient selection, allows good outcomes with increasing age of both donors and recipients. The results of live kidney donation have been excellent for donor and recipient, and there is a trend towards inclusion of older donors. Future strategies, including personalized immunosuppression for older recipients as well as machine preservation and reconditioning of donor organs, are promising ways to improve the outcome of transplantation between older donors and older recipients. Kidney and liver transplantation in the elderly is a clinical reality. Outcomes are good, but can be optimized by using strategies that modify donor risk factors and recipient co-morbidities, and personalized approaches to organ allocation and immunosuppression. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jabbour, Nicolas; Gagandeep, Singh; Mateo, Rodrigo; Sher, Linda; Strum, Earl; Donovan, John; Kahn, Jeffrey; Peyre, Christian G.; Henderson, Randy; Fong, Tse-Ling; Selby, Rick; Genyk, Yuri
Objective: Developing strategies for transfusion-free live donor liver transplantation in Jehovah's Witness patients. Summary Background Data: Liver transplantation is the standard of care for patients with end-stage liver disease. A disproportionate increase in transplant candidates and an allocation policy restructuring, favoring patients with advanced disease, have led to longer waiting time and increased medical acuity for transplant recipients. Consequently, Jehovah's Witness patients, who refuse blood product transfusion, are usually excluded from liver transplantation. We combined blood augmentation and conservation practices with live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) to accomplish successful LDLT in Jehovah's Witness patients without blood products. Our algorithm provides broad possibilities for blood conservation for all surgical patients. Methods: From September 1998 until June 2001, 38 LDLTs were performed at Keck USC School of Medicine: 8 in Jehovah's Witness patients (transfusion-free group) and 30 in non-Jehovah's Witness patients (transfusion-eligible group). All transfusion-free patients underwent preoperative blood augmentation with erythropoietin, intraoperative cell salvage, and acute normovolemic hemodilution. These techniques were used in only 7%, 80%, and 10%, respectively, in transfusion-eligible patients. Perioperative clinical data and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Data from both groups were statistically analyzed. Results: Preoperative liver disease severity was similar in both groups; however, transfusion-free patients had significantly higher hematocrit levels following erythropoietin augmentation. Operative time, blood loss, and postoperative hematocrits were similar in both groups. No blood products were used in transfusion-free patients while 80% of transfusion-eligible patients received a median of 4.5+/− 3.5 units of packed red cell. ICU and total hospital stay were similar in both groups. The survival rate was 100% in
Dudek, K; Kornasiewicz, O; Remiszewski, P; Zieniewicz, K; Wróblewski, T; Krawczyk, M
Faced with a shortage of organs for liver transplantation, the use of grafts from older donors is justified. However, there remains little consensus on how this use impacts the graft and patient outcomes after transplantation from these older donors. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the graft and patient outcomes after liver transplantation from deceased donors >60 years of age. From January 2007 to January 2011, 505 subjects were identified as liver graft donors after brain death, of which 7.35% were ≥60. To determine the effect of donor age on graft and patient outcomes, we analyzed donor age, recipient age, the Model for End-State Liver Disease (MELD) score of recipients at the time of transplantation, early posttransplant complications, and mortality. The posttransplant follow-up was 29 ± 25.5 months, and 3-year patient mortality from donors, grouped according to age, was 7.92% with donors <30; 15.78% with donors 30-50, 10.68% with donors 50-60, and 12.50% with donors >60. After analysis of patient and graft survival based on donor graft age, 3-year patient survival according donor age was 89.29% with donors <30, 83.85% with donors 30-50, 89.89% with donors 50-60, and 87.50% with donors >60. Analysis showed overall patient and graft survival rates from older donors were not worse than those from younger donors (P > .1). Among the cases, 3-year patient survival according to MELD score was 91.19% with a MELD of I, 85.37% with a MELD of II, and 67.67% with a MELD of III; differences in graft and patient survival when comparing low MELD I and high MELD III were significantly different (P < .01). A more advanced age of a donor should not be a contraindication for liver transplantation. The present analysis shows that liver grafts from donors >60 can be used safely in older recipients who presented with relatively low MELD scores. Analyses also indicate that high MELD obtained before transplantation may be an important prognostic factor for graft and
Ghabril, Marwan; Nguyen, Justin; Kramer, David; Genco, Trina; Mai, Martin; Rosser, Barry G
The liver's role as the largest organ of metabolism and the unique and often critical function of liver-specific enzyme pathways imply a greater risk to the recipient of acquiring a donor metabolic disease with liver transplants versus other solid organ transplants. With clinical consequences rarely reported, the frequency of solid organ transplant transfer of metabolic disease is not known. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), although rare, is the most common of the urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Because of phenotypic heterogeneity, OTCD may go undiagnosed into adulthood. With over 5000 liver transplant procedures annually in the United States, the likelihood of unknowingly transmitting OTCD through liver transplantation is very low. We describe the clinical course of a liver transplant recipient presenting with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy after receiving a liver graft form a donor with unrecognized OTCD. Copyright (c) 2007 AASLD.
STARZL, THOMAS E.
More than thirty patients have now undergone liver transplantation in Denver, some more than once, and survivals of up to two and a half years have been achieved. Through this and other experience it has been learned that graft viability is more critical than histocompatibility matching but that the most important factor in the ultimate outcome is prevention of rejection through vigorous immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:21546998
Azoulay, D; Astarcioglu, I; Bismuth, H; Castaing, D; Majno, P; Adam, R; Johann, M
OBJECTIVE: The authors objective is to report their recent experience with split-liver transplantation, focusing on the results and the impact on organ shortage. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There is an insufficient number of organs for liver transplantation. Split-liver transplantation is a method to increase the number of grafts, but the procedure is slow to gain wide acceptance because of its complexity and the poor results reported in previous series. METHODS: During the year 1995, the authors split 20 of 83 transplantable livers allocated to the authors' center, generating 40 grafts: 23 were transplanted locally and 17 were given to partner centers. During the same period, the authors accepted four split-liver grafts proposed to them by other centers. Overall, 27 split-liver transplantations were done in the authors' unit, accounting for 30% of the 90 transplants performed in 1995. RESULTS: One-year patient and graft survival rates for split-liver transplantation were 79.4% and 78.5%, respectively. Arterial and biliary complications rates were 15% and 22%, respectively, with none leading to graft loss. Primary nonfunction occurred in one case (4%). By splitting 24 of 87 transplantable livers (4 of which were in partner units), a total of 111 transplantations were performed, increasing graft availability by 28%. CONCLUSIONS: Split-liver transplantation is achieving graft and patient survival rates similar to that of whole liver transplantation despite a higher incidence of complications, which could become less frequent as experience is gained with this procedure. A wider acceptance of split-liver transplantation could markedly increase the supply of liver grafts. Images Figure 1. PMID:8968228
Lohse, Ansgar W; Weiler-Norman, Christina; Burdelski, Martin
The Kings College group was the first to describe a clinical syndrome similar to autoimmune hepatitis in children and young adults transplanted for non-immune mediated liver diseases. They coined the term "de novo autoimmune hepatitis". Several other liver transplant centres confirmed this observation. Even though the condition is uncommon, patients with de novo AIH are now seen in most of the major transplant centres. The disease is usually characterized by features of acute hepatitis in otherwise stable transplant recipients. The most characteristic laboratory hallmark is a marked hypergammaglobulinaemia. Autoantibodies are common, mostly ANA. We described also a case of LKM1-positivity in a patients transplanted for Wilson's disease, however this patients did not develop clinical or histological features of AIH. Development of SLA/LP-autoantibodies is also not described. Therefore, serologically de novo AIH appears to correspond to type 1 AIH. Like classical AIH patients respond promptly to treatment with increased doses of prednisolone and azathioprine, while the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine or tacrolimus areof very limited value - which is not surprising, as almost all patients develop de novo AIH while receiving these drugs. Despite the good response to treatment, most patients remain a clinical challenge as complete stable remissions are uncommon and flares, relapses and chronic disease activity can often occur. Pathogenetically this syndrome is intriguing. It is not clear, if the immune response is directed against allo-antigens, neo-antigens in the liver, or self-antigens, possibly shared by donor and host cells. It is very likely that the inflammatory milieu due to alloreactive cells in the transplanted organ contribute to the disease process. Either leading to aberrant antigen presentation, or providing co-stimulatory signals leading to the breaking of self-tolerance. The development of this disease in the presence of treatment with calcineurin
Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Sezai
Since the first successful liver transplantation by Starzl et al. in 1967, liver transplantation has become the standard therapy for many liver diseases, mainly chronic liver disease. Most liver transplantations performed in Europe and North America utilize deceased donors while a considerable portion of organ requirements is supplied by living donors in Asian countries including Turkey. The actual history of solid organ transplantation in Turkey began with the pioneering work of Dr. Haberal in collaboration with Thomaz E. Starzl in 1974 in Colorado University at Denver. The first successful solid organ transplantation in Turkey was accomplished by Haberal in 1975 with a living donor renal transplantation. Subsequently, legislations no 2238 and 2594 dated 1979 and 1982, respectively, were passed, paving the way for cadaveric tissue/organ utilization and preservation in Turkey. The first deceased donor liver transplantation and the first living donor liver transplantation were performed in 1988 and 1990, respectively. There are currently 45 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. Of these, 25 are state universities, 8 are private (foundation) universities, 9 are private hospitals, and 3 are training and research hospitals belonging to the Ministry of Health. A total of 7152 liver transplantations were performed in Turkey between January 2002 and May 2014. Of these, 4848 (67.8%) used living donors and 2304 (32.2%) used deceased donors. These figures indicate that, despite widespread organ donation campaigns and media-sponsored propaganda, desired targets have not been met yet in providing deceased organ donation. Despite unsatisfactory levels attained in supplying deceased donors, both the number of annual liver transplantations and improvements in overall survival rates of organ transplanted patients continues to increase. Actually, the one-year patient survival rate after liver transplantation in 2013 was 80.5%. This rate is getting better with each passing year
Krawczyk, Marek; Grąt, Michał; Adam, Rene; Polak, Wojciech G; Klempnauer, Jurgen; Pinna, Antonio; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Filipponi, Franco; Senninger, Norbert; Foss, Aksel; Rufián-Peña, Sebastian; Bennet, William; Pratschke, Johann; Paul, Andreas; Settmacher, Utz; Rossi, Giorgio; Salizzoni, Mauro; Fernandez-Selles, Carlos; Martínez de Rituerto, Santiago T; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel A; Pirenne, Jacques; Detry, Olivier; Majno, Pietro E; Nemec, Petr; Bechstein, Wolf O; Bartels, Michael; Nadalin, Silvio; Pruvot, Francois R; Mirza, Darius F; Lupo, Luigi; Colledan, Michele; Tisone, Giuseppe; Ringers, Jan; Daniel, Jorge; Charco Torra, Ramón; Moreno González, Enrique; Bañares Cañizares, Rafael; Cuervas-Mons Martinez, Valentin; San Juan Rodríguez, Fernando; Yilmaz, Sezai; Remiszewski, Piotr
Liver transplantation is the most extreme form of surgical management of patients with hepatic trauma, with very limited literature data supporting its use. The aim of this study was to assess the results of liver transplantation for hepatic trauma. This retrospective analysis based on European Liver Transplant Registry comprised data of 73 recipients of liver transplantation for hepatic trauma performed in 37 centers in the period between 1987 and 2013. Mortality and graft loss rates at 90 days were set as primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Mortality and graft loss rates at 90 days were 42.5% and 46.6%, respectively. Regarding general variables, cross-clamping without extracorporeal veno-venous bypass was the only independent risk factor for both mortality (P = 0.031) and graft loss (P = 0.034). Regarding more detailed factors, grade of liver trauma exceeding IV increased the risk of mortality (P = 0.005) and graft loss (P = 0.018). Moreover, a tendency above the level of significance was observed for the negative impact of injury severity score (ISS) on mortality (P = 0.071). The optimal cut-off for ISS was 33, with sensitivity of 60.0%, specificity of 80.0%, positive predictive value of 75.0%, and negative predictive value of 66.7%. Liver transplantation seems to be justified in selected patients with otherwise fatal severe liver injuries, particularly in whom cross-clamping without extracorporeal bypass can be omitted. The ISS cutoff less than 33 may be useful in the selection process.
Black, Sylvester M; Woodley, Frederick W; Tumin, Dmitry; Mumtaz, Khalid; Whitson, Bryan A; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don
Survival in cystic fibrosis patients after liver transplantation and liver-lung transplantation is not well studied. To discern survival rates after liver transplantation and liver-lung transplantation in patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried from 1987 to 2013. Univariate Cox proportional hazards, multivariate Cox models, and propensity score matching were performed. Liver transplant and liver-lung transplant were performed in 212 and 53 patients with cystic fibrosis, respectively. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression identified lower survival in cystic fibrosis after liver transplant compared to a reference non-cystic fibrosis liver transplant cohort (HR 1.248; 95 % CI 1.012, 1.541; p = 0.039). Supplementary analysis found graft survival was similar across the 3 recipient categories (log-rank test: χ(2) 2.68; p = 0.262). Multivariate Cox models identified increased mortality hazard among cystic fibrosis patients undergoing liver transplantation (HR 2.439; 95 % CI 1.709, 3.482; p < 0.001) and liver-lung transplantation (HR 2.753; 95 % CI 1.560, 4.861; p < 0.001). Propensity score matching of cystic fibrosis patients undergoing liver transplantation to non-cystic fibrosis controls identified a greater mortality hazard in the cystic fibrosis cohort using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on matched pairs (HR 3.167; 95 % CI 1.265, 7.929, p = 0.014). Liver transplantation in cystic fibrosis is associated with poorer long-term patient survival compared to non-cystic fibrosis patients, although the difference is not due to graft survival.
Benson, Ariel A; Rowe, Mina; Eid, Ahmad; Bluth, Keren; Merhav, Hadar; Khalaileh, Abed; Safadi, Rifaat
Psychosocial factors greatly impact the course of patients throughout the liver transplantation process. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who underwent liver transplantation at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012. A composite psychosocial score was computed based on the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups based on compliance, support and insight: Optimal psychosocial score and Non-optimal psychosocial score. Post-liver transplantation survival and complication rates were evaluated. Out of 100 patients who underwent liver transplantation at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012, 93% had a complete pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation in the medical record performed by professional psychologists and social workers. Post-liver transplantation survival was significantly higher in the Optimal group (85%) as compared to the Non-optimal group (56%, p = .002). Post-liver transplantation rate of renal failure was significantly lower in the Optimal group. No significant differences were observed between the groups in other post-transplant complications. A patient's psychosocial status may impact outcomes following transplantation as inferior psychosocial grades were associated with lower overall survival and increased rates of complications. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluations are an important tool to help predict survival following transplantation.
Durand, François; Francoz, Claire; Asrani, Sumeet K; Khemichian, Saro; Pham, Thomas A; Sung, Randall S; Genyk, Yuri S; Nadim, Mitra K
Since the implementation of the MELD score-based allocation system, the number of transplant candidates with impaired renal function has increased. The aims of this review are to present new insights in the definitions and predisposing factors that result in acute kidney injury (AKI), and to propose guidelines for the prevention and treatment of post liver transplantation (LT) AKI. This review is based on both systematic review of relevant literature and expert opinion. Pretransplant AKI is associated with posttransplant morbidity, including prolonged post LT AKI which then predisposes to posttransplant chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prevention of posttransplant AKI is essential in the improvement of long term outcomes. Accurate assessment of baseline kidney function at evaluation is necessary, taking into account that serum creatinine overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). New diagnostic criteria for AKI have been integrated with traditional approaches in patients with cirrhosis to potentially identify AKI earlier and improve outcomes. Delayed introduction or complete elimination of calcineurin inhibitors during the first weeks post LT in patients with early posttransplant AKI may improve GFR in high risk patients but with higher rates of rejection and more adverse events. Biomarkers may in the future provide diagnostic information such as etiology of AKI, and prognostic information on renal recovery post-LT, and potentially impact the decision for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Overall, more attention should be paid to pretransplant and early posttransplant AKI to reduce the burden of late CKD.
Ko, In Kap; Peng, Li; Peloso, Andrea; Smith, Charesa J; Dhal, Abritee; Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cindy; Clouse, Cara; Zhao, Weixin; Shupe, Thomas D; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony
Donor shortage remains a continued challenge in liver transplantation. Recent advances in tissue engineering have provided the possibility of creating functional liver tissues as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. Small bioengineered liver constructs have been developed, however a major challenge in achieving functional bioengineered liver in vivo is the establishment of a functional vasculature within the scaffolds. Our overall goal is to bioengineer intact livers, suitable for transplantation, using acellular porcine liver scaffolds. We developed an effective method for reestablishing the vascular network within decellularized liver scaffolds by conjugating anti-endothelial cell antibodies to maximize coverage of the vessel walls with endothelial cells. This procedure resulted in uniform endothelial attachment throughout the liver vasculature extending to the capillary bed of the liver scaffold and greatly reduced platelet adhesion upon blood perfusion in vitro. The re-endothelialized livers, when transplanted to recipient pigs, were able to withstand physiological blood flow and maintained for up to 24 h. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that vascularized bioengineered livers, of clinically relevant size, can be transplanted and maintained in vivo, and represents the first step towards generating engineered livers for transplantation to patients with end-stage liver failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shibata, M; Matsusaki, T; Kaku, R; Umeda, Y; Yagi, T; Morimatsu, H
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in oxygen consumption during liver transplantation and to examine the relationship between intraoperatively elevated systemic oxygen consumption and postoperative liver function. This study was performed in 33 adult patients undergoing liver transplantation between September 2011 and March 2014. We measured intraoperative oxygen consumption through the use of indirect calorimetry, preoperative and intraoperative data, liver function tests, and postoperative complications and outcomes. The mean age of patients was 52 ± 9.7 years; 14 (42%) of them were women. Average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were 20 ± 8.9. Oxygen consumption significantly increased after reperfusion from 172 ± 30 mL/min during the anhepatic phase to 209 ± 30 mL/min (P < .0001). We divided patients into 2 groups according to the increase in oxygen consumption after reperfusion (oxygen consumption after reperfusion minus anhepatic phase oxygen consumption: 40 mL/min increase as cutoff). The higher consumption group had a longer cold ischemia time and higher postoperative aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels as compared with the lower oxygen consumption group. There were no statistically significant differences in major postoperative complications, but the higher oxygen consumption group tended to have shorter hospital stays than the lower consumption group (58 versus 95 days). We have demonstrated that oxygen consumption significantly increased after reperfusion. Furthermore, this increased oxygen consumption was associated with a longer cold ischemia time and shorter hospital stays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kosola, Silja; Lampela, Hanna; Makisalo, Heikki; Lohi, Jouko; Arola, Johanna; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko
Half of adult liver transplantation (LT) recipients develop metabolic syndrome, but the prevalence after childhood LT remains unknown. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of all living patients who had undergone LT between 1987 and 2007 at an age less than 18 years. We gathered information on blood pressure, body composition, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, and histological liver fat content. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association and the International Diabetes Federation were used. After a median post-LT follow-up time of 12 years, half of all patients had no components of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 24%. Serum triglycerides were high in 9%, and high-density lipoprotein levels were low in 23%. Fasting glucose levels were impaired in 14%, but none had diabetes. Altogether, 9 patients (14%) had metabolic syndrome. Moderate liver steatosis found in protocol liver biopsy samples was associated with the accumulation of metabolic syndrome features (P = 0.01). No significant associations were found between immunosuppressive medications and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome after childhood LT is similar to the prevalence in the general population of the same age. Guidelines for the general population, therefore, seem valid for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome after pediatric LT as well. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Maggi, Umberto; Dondossola, Daniele; Consonni, Dario; Gatti, Stefano; Arnoldi, Rossella; Bossi, Manuela; Rossi, Giorgio
There are only few reviews concerning visceral aneurysms in cirrhotics, and a small number of papers on visceral aneurysms in liver transplant patients. The present paper investigates this condition in both groups of patients in a 10-year-retrospective study. PMID:22216310
NACIF, Lucas Souto; ANDRAUS, Wellington; MARTINO, Rodrigo Bronze; SANTOS, Vinicius Rocha; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; HADDAD, Luciana BP; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro
Background Liver transplantation is performed at large transplant centers worldwide as a therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Aim To analyze the outcomes and incidence of liver transplantation performed at the University of São Paulo and to compare those with the State of São Paulo before and after adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Method Evaluation of the number of liver transplantations before and after adoption of the MELD score. Mean values and standard deviations were used to analyze normally distributed variables. The incidence results were compared with those of the State of São Paulo. Results There was a high prevalence of male patients, with a predominance of middle-aged. The main indication for liver transplantation was hepatitis C cirrhosis. The mean and median survival rates and overall survival over ten and five years were similar between the groups (p>0.05). The MELD score increased over the course of the study period for patients who underwent liver transplantation (p>0.05). There were an increased number of liver transplants after adoption of the MELD score at this institution and in the State of São Paulo (p<0.001). Conclusion The adoption of the MELD score led to increase the number of liver transplants performed in São Paulo. PMID:25184772
Wertheim, Jason A.; Petrowsky, Henrik; Saab, Sammy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Busuttil, Ronald W.
Liver transplantation is the gold standard of care in patients with end-stage liver disease and those with tumors of hepatic origin in the setting of liver dysfunction. From 1988 to 2009, liver transplantation in the United States grew 3.7-fold from 1713 to 6320 transplants annually. The expansion of liver transplantation is chiefly driven by scientific breakthroughs that have extended patient and graft survival well beyond those expected 50 years ago. The success of liver transplantation is now its primary obstacle, as the pool of donor livers fails to keep pace with the growing number of patients added to the national liver transplant waiting list. This review focuses on three major challenges facing liver transplantation in the United States and discusses new areas of investigation that address each issue: 1) the need for an expanded number of useable donor organs, 2) the need for improved therapies to treat recurrent hepatitis C after transplantation and 3) the need for improved detection, risk stratification based upon tumor biology and molecular inhibitors to combat hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:21672146
Gitman, Marina; Albertz, Megan; Nicolau-Raducu, Ramona; Aniskevich, Stephen; Pai, Sher-Lu
Improvements in early survival after liver transplant (LT) have allowed for the selection of LT candidates with multiple comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to post-LT complications. We performed a literature search to identify the causes of cardiac disease in the LT population and to describe techniques for diagnosis and perioperative management. Since no definite guidelines for preoperative assessment (except for pulmonary heart disease) are currently available, we recommend an algorithm for preoperative cardiac work-up. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Korda, D; Deák, P Á; Kiss, G; Gerlei, Z; Kóbori, L; Görög, D; Fehérvári, I; Piros, L; Máthé, Z; Doros, A
Post-transplantation portal hypertension has severe complications, such as esophageal varix bleeding, therapy refractory ascites, extreme splenomegaly, and graft dysfunction. The aim of our study was to analyze the effectiveness of the therapeutic strategies and how to visualize the procedure. A retrospective study involving liver transplantation patients from the Semmelweis University Department of Transplantation and Surgery was performed between 2005 and 2015. The prevalence, etiology, and leading complications of the condition were determined. The applied interventions' effects on the patients' ascites volume, splenic volume, and the occurrence of variceal bleeding were determined. Mean portal blood flow velocity and congestion index values were calculated using Doppler ultrasonography. The prevalence of post-transplantation portal hypertension requiring intervention was 2.8%. The most common etiology of the disease was portal anastomotic stenosis. The most common complications were esophageal varix bleeding and therapy refractory ascites. The patients' ascites volume decreased significantly (2923.3 ± 1893.2 mL vs. 423.3 ± 634.3 mL; P < .05), their splenic volume decreased markedly. After the interventions, only one case of recurrent variceal bleeding was reported. The calculated Doppler parameters were altered in the opposite direction in cases of pre-hepatic versus intra- or post-hepatic portal hypertension. After the interventions, these parameters shifted towards the physiologic ranges. The interventions performed in our clinic were effective in most cases. The patients' ascites volume, splenic volume, and the prevalence of variceal bleeding decreased after the treatment. Doppler ultrasonography has proved to be a valuable imaging modality in the diagnosis and the follow-up of post-transplantation portal hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Friman, S; Nordén, G; Lennerling, A; Fehrman-Ekholm, I; Felldin, M; Hansson, S; Rydberg, L; Holgersson, J; Rizell, M; Kvarnström, N; Gustafsson, B; Gäbel, M; Olausson, M; Mjörnstedt, L
The limiting factor in organ transplantation is the availability of organs. Ongoing work to improve donation rates both at the public and the organizational level in donating hospitals is essential. We also think that encouragement of live donation is important, and the possibility of ABO incompatible transplantation has increased the number of LD transplantations. The one-year graft survival rate is excellent and focus has shifted towards achieving long-term results to reduce the attrition rate. There is also an increasing interest in studying and working to reduce comorbidities on a long-term basis and thus, improve survival rates and recipient quality of life.
Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Martínez, Amparo; Vila, Juan José; López, Rafael; Montalvá, Eva; Calzado, Angeles; Mir, José
Liver transplantation has been remarkably effective in the treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, disparity between solid-organ supply and increased demand is the greatest limitation, resulting in longer waiting times and increase in mortality of transplant recipients. This situation creates the need to seek alternatives to orthotopic liver transplantation.Hepatocyte transplantation or liver cell transplantation has been proposed as the best method to support patients. The procedure consists of transplanting individual cells to a recipient organ in sufficient quantity to survive and restore the function. The capacity of hepatic regeneration is the biological basis of hepatocyte transplantation. This therapeutic option is an experimental procedure in some patients with inborn errors of metabolism, fulminant hepatic failure and acute and chronic liver failure, as a bridge to orthotopic liver transplantation. In the Hospital La Fe of Valencia, we performed the first hepatocyte transplantation in Spain creating a new research work on transplant program. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Soyama, A; Takatsuki, M; Hidaka, M; Adachi, T; Kitasato, A; Kinoshita, A; Natsuda, K; Baimakhanov, Z; Kuroki, T; Eguchi, S
We have previously reported a hybrid procedure that uses a combination of laparoscopic mobilization of the liver and subsequent hepatectomy under direct vision in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We present the details of this hybrid procedure and the outcomes of the procedure. Between January 1997 and August 2014, 204 LDLTs were performed at Nagasaki University Hospital. Among them, 67 recent donors underwent hybrid donor hepatectomy. Forty-one donors underwent left hemihepatectomy, 25 underwent right hemihepatectomy, and 1 underwent posterior sectionectomy. First, an 8-cm subxiphoid midline incision was made; laparoscopic mobilization of the liver was then achieved with a hand-assist through the midline incision under the pneumoperitoneum. Thereafter, the incision was extended up to 12 cm for the right lobe and posterior sector graft and 10 cm left lobe graft procurement. Under direct vision, parenchymal transection was performed by means of the liver-hanging maneuver. The hybrid procedure for LDLT recipients was indicated only for selected cases with atrophic liver cirrhosis without a history of upper abdominal surgery, significant retroperitoneal collateral vessels, or hypertrophic change of the liver (n = 29). For total hepatectomy and splenectomy, the midline incision was sufficiently extended. All of the hybrid donor hepatectomies were completed without an extra subcostal incision. No significant differences were observed in the blood loss or length of the operation compared with conventional open procedures. All of the donors have returned to their preoperative activity level, with fewer wound-related complaints compared with those treated with the use of the conventional open procedure. In recipients treated with the hybrid procedure, no clinically relevant drawbacks were observed compared with the recipients treated with a regular Mercedes-Benz-type incision. Our hybrid procedure was safely conducted with the same quality as the conventional
Carmody, Ian C.; Romano, John; Bohorquez, Humberto; Bugeaud, Emily; Bruce, David S.; Cohen, Ari J.; Seal, John; Reichman, Trevor W.; Loss, George E.
Background: Biliary complications remain a significant problem following liver transplantation. Several surgical options can be used to deal with a significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient bile ducts during the biliary anastomosis. We compared biliary transposition to recipient biliary ductoplasty in cadaveric liver transplant. Methods: A total of 33 reconstructions were performed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013. In the biliary transposition group (n=23), 5 reconstructions were performed using an internal stent (5 or 8 French pediatric feeding tube), and 18 were performed without. Of the 10 biliary ductoplasties, 2 were performed with a stent. All patients were managed with standard immunosuppression and ursodiol. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years. Results: No patients in the biliary transposition group required reoperation; 1 patient had an internal stent removed for recurrent unexplained leukocytosis, and 2 patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stent placement for evidence of stricture. Three anastomotic leaks occurred in the biliary ductoplasty group, and 2 patients in the biliary ductoplasty group required reoperation for biliary complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that biliary reconstruction can be performed with either biliary transposition or biliary ductoplasty. These techniques are particularly useful when a significant mismatch in diameter exists between the donor and recipient bile ducts. PMID:28331447
Levitsky, Josh; Kalil, Andre C; Meza, Jane L; Hurst, Glenn E; Freifeld, Alison
Previous case series have reported serious complications of chicken pox (CP) after pediatric liver transplantation (PLT), mainly due to visceral dissemination. The goal of our study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CP after PLT. A case-control study of all CP infections in pediatric transplant recipients followed at our center from September 1993 to April 2004 was performed. Data were collected before and after infection and at the same time points in age-, gender-, and transplant year-matched controls. Potential risk factors prior to CP and adverse outcomes after infection were compared between cases and controls. Twenty (6.2%) developed CP at a median of 1.8 yr (0.6-4.8) after PLT. All CP infections were cutaneous, with no evidence of organ involvement. Twelve were hospitalized: 9 only to receive intravenous acyclovir and 3 stayed > or =2 weeks for other complications. Risk factors were not statistically different among cases and controls. Of the outcomes analyzed, cases were significantly more likely to develop non-CP infections within one year of CP than controls (Hazard Ratio = 12.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.1-51.7; P < 0.001). These infections were often bacterial and occurred long after CP infection. In conclusion, CP is uncommon after PLT and has a low likelihood of organ dissemination. No risk factors were identified. Some cases required prolonged hospitalizations. Close monitoring for the development of late bacterial infections is warranted.
Sugihara, Kohei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Teramoto, Arisa; Urano, Eri; Katayama, Takafumi; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Takeda, Eiji
Perioperative nutritional assessment is critically important to reflect nutritional management because liver transplantation (LTx) often is undertaken in patients with poor nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status, including the non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ), resting energy expenditure (REE), nitrogen balance, and blood biochemical parameters in patients before and after LTx. Fourteen patients undergoing LTx and 10 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The npRQ and REE were measured using indirect calorimetry before LTx and at 2, 3, and 4 wk after the procedure. Blood biochemistry and nitrogen balance calculated by 24-h urine collection were performed concurrently with indirect calorimetric measurement; the results were compared between the two groups. Before LTx, npRQ was significantly lower and serum non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Furthermore, a negative nitrogen balance was observed in the patients. These, however, improved significantly at 4 wk after LTx. REE did not significantly increase compared with the preoperative values in recipients. Blood biochemistry showed gradually increasing levels of serum cholinesterase and albumin. These failed to reach to normal levels by 4 wk post-transplant. The findings revealed that improvement of nutritional metabolism after LTx may require 4 wk. Additional nutritional strategies, therefore, may be needed to minimize catabolic state during the early post-transplant period. Adequate, individualized nutritional guidance before and after LTx should be performed in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vinaixa, Carmen; Rubín, Angel; Aguilera, Victoria; Berenguer, Marina
Recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation is a major source of morbidity and mortality. The natural history of hepatitis C in the transplant setting is shortened. Overall, one third of HCV-infected recipients have developed allograft cirrhosis due to HCV recurrence by the 5th-7th year post-transplantation. The most significant variables which determine disease progression are the use of organs from old donors, the use of an inadequate immunosuppression (too low, inducing treatment rejection episodes, too potent or too rapidly changing), and the presence of comorbid conditions that also impact the quality of the graft (biliary complications, metabolic syndrome). The only factor consistently shown to modify the natural history of recurrent disease is antiviral therapy. A sustained viral response, achieved by one third of those treated with dual therapy, is associated with improved histology, reduced liver-related complications and increased survival. Variables associated with enhanced viral response with dual therapy include an adequate genetic background (IL28B C/C of both donor and recipient), good treatment adherence (full doses of ribavirin, treatment duration), lack of graft cirrhosis at baseline, and viral genotype non-1. Data with triple therapy are encouraging. Response rates of about 60% at end-of-therapy have been described. Drug-drug interactions with calcineurin inhibitors are present but easily manageable with strict trough levels monitoring. Side effects are frequent and severe, particularly anemia, infections and acute renal insufficiency. In the future new oral antivirals will likely prevent viral reinfection. In this review, we will cover the most significant but also controversial aspects regarding recurrent HCV infection, including the natural history, retransplantation, antiviral therapy, and outcome in HIV-HCV patients. PMID:24714603
Beal, Eliza W; Tumin, Dmitry; Mumtaz, Khalid; Nau, Michael; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don; Washburn, Kenneth; Black, Sylvester M
Many liver transplant recipients return to work, but their patterns of employment are unclear. We examine patterns of employment 5 years after liver transplantation. First-time liver transplant recipients ages 18-60 years transplanted from 2002 to 2009 and surviving at least 5 years were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry. Recipients' post-transplant employment status was classified as follows: (i) never employed; (ii) returned to work within 2 years and remained employed (continuous employment); (iii) returned to work within 2 years, but was subsequently unemployed (intermittent employment); or (iv) returned to work ≥3 years post-transplant (delayed employment). Of 28 306 liver recipients identified during the study period, 12 998 survived at least 5 years and contributed at least 1 follow-up of employment status. A minority of patients (4654; 36%) were never employed, while 3780 (29%) were continuously employed, 3027 (23%) were intermittently employed, and 1537 (12%) had delayed employment. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of intermittent and delayed employment included lower socioeconomic status, higher local unemployment rates, and post-transplant comorbidities or complications. Never, intermittent, and delayed employment are common after liver transplantation. Socioeconomic and labor market characteristics may add to clinical factors that limit liver transplant recipients' continuous employment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kostakis, I D; Sotiropoulos, G C; Kouraklis, G
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, such as liver transplant recipients. We searched the Medline database in September 2013 for articles referring to infections from P. jirovecii in liver transplant recipients, using the terms "liver transplantation" and "pneumocystis." Our search yielded 60 articles, 35 of which were used for our review. P. jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has an incidence of 1%-11% in liver transplant recipients without prophylaxis and mortality rates of 7%-88%. Most cases occur within the first 7 months after transplantation. When prophylactic treatment with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is used, its incidence is only 0%-3%. The duration of its use varies from 3 months to 1 year after the liver transplantation. PJP has relatively high incidence and high mortality rates in liver transplant recipients without prophylactic treatment, which diminishes or even eliminates its occurrence. Therefore, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be used as prophylaxis for 1 year after the liver transplantation in this population.
Axelrod, David A; Schnitzler, Mark A; Xiao, Huiling; Irish, William; Tuttle-Newhall, Elizabeth; Chang, Su-Hsin; Kasiske, Bertram L; Alhamad, Tarek; Lentine, Krista L
Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease, prolonging survival and reducing spending. Prior economic analyses of kidney transplantation, using Markov models, have generally assumed compatible, low-risk donors. The economic implications of transplantation with high Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) deceased donors, ABO incompatible living donors, and HLA incompatible living donors have not been assessed. The costs of transplantation and dialysis were compared with the use of discrete event simulation over a 10-year period, with data from the United States Renal Data System, University HealthSystem Consortium, and literature review. Graft failure rates and expenditures were adjusted for donor characteristics. All transplantation options were associated with improved survival compared with dialysis (transplantation: 5.20-6.34 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] vs dialysis: 4.03 QALYs). Living donor and low-KDPI deceased donor transplantations were cost-saving compared with dialysis, while transplantations using high-KDPI deceased donor, ABO-incompatible or HLA-incompatible living donors were cost-effective (<$100 000 per QALY). Predicted costs per QALY range from $39 939 for HLA-compatible living donor transplantation to $80 486 for HLA-incompatible donors compared with $72 476 for dialysis. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is cost-effective across all donor types despite higher costs for marginal organs and innovative living donor practices. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Emre, Sukru H.; Magder, Laurence S.
OBJECTIVES While lower Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores due to lower levels of serum creatinine in women might account for some gender disparity in liver transplant (LT) rates, even within MELD scores, women are transplanted at lower rates than men. It is unclear what causes this disparity, but transplant candidate-donor liver size mismatch may be a factor. METHODS We analyzed Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data for patients with end-stage liver disease on the waiting list. Pooled conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between gender and LT and determine the degree to which this association was explained by lower MELD scores or liver size. RESULTS A total of 28,866 patients and 424,001 person-months were included in the analysis. Median estimated liver volume (eLV) and liver weight (eLW) were significantly lower in women than in men on the LT waiting list (P<0.0001). Controlling for region and blood type, women were 25% less likely to receive LT in a given month compared to men (P<0.0001). When MELD was included in the model, the odds ratio (OR) for gender increased to 0.84 suggesting that 9 percentage points of the 25% gender disparity was due to MELD score. When eLV was added to the model, there was an additional 3% increase in OR of gender suggesting that transplant candidate-donor liver size mismatch is an underlying factor for lower LT rates in women compared to men (OR=0.87, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Lower LT rates among women on the waiting list can be explained in part by lower MELD scores, eLV and eLW than those of men. However; at least half of the gender disparity still remains unexplained. PMID:23008117
Sun, Li-Ying; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Qu, Wei; Zhu, Zhi-Jun; Wei, Lin; Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Jian-Rui; Sun, Xiao-Ye; Zeng, Zhi-Gui
The characteristics of intestinal microbial communities may be affected by changes in the pathophysiology of patients with end-stage liver disease. Here, we focused on the characteristics of intestinal fecal microbial communities in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients in comparison with those in the same individuals pre-LT and in healthy individuals. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed via MiSeq-PE250 sequencing of the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA and were then compared between groups. We found that the gut microbiota of patients with severe liver disease who were awaiting LT was significantly different from that of healthy controls, as represented by the first principal component (p = 0.0066). Additionally, the second principal component represented a significant difference in the gut microbiota of patients between pre-LT and post-LT surgery (p = 0.03125). After LT, there was a significant decrease in the abundance of certain microbial species, such as Actinobacillus, Escherichia, and Shigella, and a significant increase in the abundance of other microbial species, such as Micromonosporaceae, Desulfobacterales, the Sarcina genus of Eubacteriaceae, and Akkermansia. Based on KEGG profiles, 15 functional modules were enriched and 21 functional modules were less represented in the post-LT samples compared with the pre-LT samples. Our study demonstrates that fecal microbial communities were significantly altered by LT.
Eren, Emre A.; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M.
The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary. PMID:27733105
Eren, Emre A; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M
The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary.
Haberal, Mehmet; Akdur, Aydıncan; Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Özçay, Figen; Selçuk, Haldun; Özdemir, Handan
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is the third highest cause of malignancy-related death. Because of its typically late diagnosis, median survival is approximately 6 to 20 months, with 5-year survival of < 12%. Hepatocellular carcinoma typically arises in the background of cirrhosis, with liver transplant regarded as the optimal therapy for selected patients. Initially, orthotopic liver transplant was limited to patients with extensive unresectable tumors, resulting in uniformly dismal outcomes due to high tumor recurrence rates. Here, we evaluated our long-term results with expanded-criteria liver transplant. From December 1988 to January 2017, we performed 552 liver transplants at Baskent University. In candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma, our expanded criteria for liver transplant is applied regardless of tumor size and number, includes those without major vascular invasion and without distant metastasis, and those with negative cytology (if the patient has ascites). Since 1994, of 61 liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma, 36 patients received transplants according to our expanded criteria. Of 36 expanded-criteria patients, 11 were children and 25 were adults. Sixteen patients (4 pediatric, 12 adult) were within our expanded criteria both radiologically and pathologically before transplant. The other 20 patients (7 pediatric, 13 adult) were within Milan criteria radiologically before transplant; however, after liver transplant, when pathologic specimens were evaluated, patients were found to be within our center's expanded criteria. During follow-up, 9/36 patients (25%) had hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. In pediatric patients, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 90%; in adults, 5-year survival was 58.7% and 10-year survival was 49.7%. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 71.7% and 62.7%. Liver transplant is safe and effective in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in combination with
Xinias, Ioannis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Vrani, Olga; Imvrios, Georgios; Takoudas, Dimitrios; Spiroglou, Kleomenis
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only available live-saving procedure for children with irreversible liver failure. This paper reports our experience from the follow-up of 16 Greek children with end-stage liver failure who underwent a LT. Over a period of 15 years, 16 pediatric liver recipients received follow up after being subjected to OLT (orthotopic liver transplantation) due to end-stage liver failure. Nine children initially presented with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 2 with acute liver failure after toxic mushroom ingestion, 2 with intrahepatic cholestasis, 2 with metabolic diseases and one with hepatoblastoma. Ten children received a liver transplant in the Organ Transplantation Unit of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the rest in other transplant centers. Three transplants came from a living-related donor and 13 from a deceased donor. Six children underwent immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, and 7 with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Three out of 16 children died within the first month after the transplantation due to post-transplant complications. Three children presented with acute rejection and one with chronic organ rejection which was successfully managed. Five children presented with cytomegalovirus infection, 5 with Epstein-Barr virus, 2 with HSV1,2, 2 with ParvoB19 virus, 2 with varicella-zoster virus and one with C. Albicans infection. One child presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and one with small biliary paucity. A satisfying outcome was achieved in most cases, with good graft function, except for the patient with small biliary paucity who required re-transplantation. The long-term clinical course of liver transplanted children is good under the condition that they are attended in specialized centers. PMID:21589827
Yan, Ji-Qi; Becker, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Li, Hong-Wei; Klempnauer, Juergen
Orthotopic liver transplantation as a successful treatment of end-stage liver disease is hampered by a persistent lack of cadaveric organs. Split liver transplantation, which was first successfully performed by Medical School of Hannover in 1988, has become a mature surgical technique to expand the donor pool. Between 1993 and 1999, split liver transplantation activities have increased in Europe from 1.2% to 10.4% in all performed liver transplantations. Current data have strongly supported that the survival rate of patients after split liver transplantation is not significantly different from that of patients after whole-size orthotopic liver transplantation. The most important step of donor graft selection is surgeon's observation judged by the experience of individual transplant center. The paper aims to provide the guideline of donor selection, hepatic graft splitting, and recipient management as well. Medical School of Hannover has accumulated plentiful experience of split liver transplantation for more than 10 cases ever since 1998. Besides that, we also reviewed a variety of literatures from other famous European and American centers specialized in this field for many years. According to our experience combined with the view points of others, the donor should meet the following criteria as well: (1) age less than 50 years; (2) hemodynamics stable; (3) ICU less than 5 days; (4) Na less than 170 mmol/L or better if less than 150 mmol/L. In 1996 and 1997, the Hamburg group and the UCLA group separately introduced a breakthrough technique performing split liver transplantation in situ. Evidently, the in situ technique has been limited by prolonged time of donor organ procurement, coordination with other organ procurement teams, and even extra burden on donor hospital. Some groups, therefore, have restored the ex situ or bench splitting technique, and fortunately the transplant outcomes of the ex situ technique are equivalent to those of the in situ one. Recently
Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung
After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile.
Transformative medical and surgical advances have remarkably improved short-term survival after liver transplantation. There is, however, pervasive concern that the cumulative toxicities of modern immunosuppression regimens severely compromise both quality and quantity of life for liver transplant recipients. The inherently tolerogenic nature of the liver offers the tantalizing opportunity to change the current paradigm of nonspecific and lifelong immunosuppression. Safe minimization or discontinuation of immunosuppression without damage to the liver allograft is an attractive strategy to improve long-term survival after liver transplantation. Recent prospective, multicenter clinical trials have demonstrated that immunosuppression can be safely withdrawn from selected liver transplant recipients with preservation of allograft histology. These successes have spurred multiple avenues of investigation to identify peripheral blood and/or tissue biomarkers and delineate mechanisms of tolerance. Concomitant advances in the ability to expand regulatory T cells in the laboratory have spawned clinical trials to facilitate immunosuppression minimization and/or discontinuation. This review will delineate the unique liver immunobiology that has driven the recent clinical trials to unmask spontaneous tolerance or induce tolerance for liver transplant recipients. The emerging results of these trials over the next 5 years hold promise to reduce the burden of lifelong immunosuppression and thereby optimize the long-term health of liver transplant recipients.
Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung
Abstract After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile. PMID:26402799
Coelho, Júlio Cézar Uili; Parolin, Mônica B; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto; Jorge, Fernando Marcus Felipe; Canan Júnior, Lady Wilson
The objective is to present the causes of late death in patients subjected to liver transplantation. A total of 209 patients were subjected to 223 liver transplantations (14 retransplantations). The computerized study protocol sheets were evaluated to determine the causes of late death (> 6 months after transplantation). Of the 209 patients, 30 had late death. Ductopenic rejection (chronic rejection) was the most common cause and it was observed in 10 patients. Time after transplantation at the moment of death of this group of patients varied from 11 to 57 months, with an average of 29 months. Seven patients died at the hospital admission of hepatic retransplantation. Other causes of late death were sepsis, lymphoproliferative disease, chronic renal insufficiency, and hepatic insufficiency. The most common cause of late death after liver transplantation is ductopenic rejection, followed by complications of retransplantation and sepsis. Death owing to ductopenic rejection may occur even many years after transplantation.
Kappus, Matthew; Abdelmalek, Manal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developing countries. Approximately 25% of patients with NAFLD develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH-related cirrhosis is now a leading listing indication for liver transplantation in the United States. Although posttransplant survival for NASH-related cirrhosis is comparable with that of other liver diseases, many patients have features of metabolic syndrome, which can contribute to a recurrence of NAFLD or NASH. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of de novo and recurrence of NASH after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zitelli, Basil J.; Miller, Joanne W.; Gartner, J. Carlton; Malatack, J. Jeffrey; Urbach, Andrew H.; Belle, Steven H.; Williams, Laurel; Kirkpatrick, Beverly; Starzl, Thomas E.
Sixty-five pediatric patients who received liver transplants between May 1981 and May 1984 were observed for as many as 5 years and examined for changes in lifestyle. Children were less frequently hospitalized, spent less time hospitalized, required fewer medications, and generally had excellent liver and renal function after hepatic transplantation as compared with their pre-transplantation status. Most children were in age-appropriate and standard school classes or were only 1 year behind. Cognitive abilities remained unchanged. Children improved in gross motor function and patients’ behavior significantly improved according to parents’ perceptions. Enuresis was more prevalent, however, than in the population of children who had not received liver transplants. Parental divorce rates were no greater than those reported for other families with chronically ill children. Overall, objective changes in life-style as well as parents’ perceptions of behavior of children appear to be improved after liver transplantation. PMID:3041361
VanWagner, Lisa B.; Lapin, Brittany; Levitsky, Josh; Wilkins, John T.; Abecassis, Michael M.; Skaro, Anton I.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributes to excess long-term mortality after liver transplantation (LT), however little is known about early post-operative CVD mortality in the current era. In addition, there is no model to predict early post-operative CVD mortality across centers. We analyzed adult recipients of primary LT in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database between February 2002 and December 2012 to assess prevalence and predictors of early (30-day) CVD mortality, defined as death from arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, thromboembolism, and/or stroke. We performed logistic regression with stepwise selection to develop a predictive model of early CVD mortality. Sex and center volume were forced into the final model, which was validated using bootstrapping techniques. Among 54,697 LT recipients, there were 1576 (2.9%) deaths within 30 days. CVD death was the leading cause of 30-day mortality (42.1%), followed by infection (27.9%) and graft failure (12.2%). In multivariate analysis, 9 (6 recipient, 2 donor, 1 operative) significant covariates were identified: age, pre-operative hospitalization, ICU and ventilator status, calculated MELD score, portal vein thrombosis, national organ sharing, donor BMI and cold ischemia time. The model showed moderate discrimination (c-statistic 0.66, 95% CI: 0.63–0.68). We provide the first multicenter prognostic model for the prediction of early post-LT CVD death, the most common cause of early post-LT mortality in the current transplant era. However, evaluation of additional CVD-related variables not collected by the OPTN are needed in order to improve model accuracy and potential clinical utility. PMID:25044256
Farmer, Douglas G.; Anselmo, Dean M.; Ghobrial, R. Mark; Yersiz, Hasan; McDiarmid, Suzanne V.; Cao, Carlos; Weaver, Michael; Figueroa, Jesus; Khan, Khurram; Vargas, Jorge; Saab, Sammy; Han, Steven; Durazo, Francisco; Goldstein, Leonard; Holt, Curtis; Busuttil, Ronald W.
Objective To analyze outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with emphasis on pretransplant variables that can potentially help predict posttransplant outcome. Summary Background Data FHF is a formidable clinical problem associated with a high mortality rate. While LT is the treatment of choice for irreversible FHF, few investigations have examined pretransplant variables that can potentially predict outcome after LT. Methods A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients undergoing LT for FHF at a single transplant center. The median follow-up was 41 months. Thirty-five variables were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis to determine their impact on patient and graft survival. Results Two hundred four patients (60% female, median age 20.2 years) required urgent LT for FHF. Before LT, the majority of patients were comatose (76%), on hemodialysis (16%), and ICU-bound. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 73% and 67% (patient) and 63% and 57% (graft). The primary cause of patient death was sepsis, and the primary cause of graft failure was primary graft nonfunction. Univariate analysis of pre-LT variables revealed that 19 variables predicted survival. From these results, multivariate analysis determined that the serum creatinine was the single most important prognosticator of patient survival. Conclusions This study, representing one of the largest published series on LT for FHF, demonstrates a long-term survival of nearly 70% and develops a clinically applicable and readily measurable set of pretransplant factors that determine posttransplant outcome. PMID:12724633
Ye, Hui; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Yufang; Wang, Dongping; Zheng, Zhouying; Schroder, Paul Michael; Lu, Yao; Kong, Yuan; Liang, Wenhua; Shang, Yushu; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun
To overcome the shortage of appropriate-sized whole liver grafts for children, technical variant liver transplantation has been practiced for decades. We perform a meta-analysis to compare the survival rates and incidence of surgical complications between pediatric whole liver transplantation and technical variant liver transplantation. To identify relevant studies up to January 2014, we searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library databases. The primary outcomes measured were patient and graft survival rates, and the secondary outcomes were the incidence of surgical complications. The outcomes were pooled using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model. The one-year, three-year, five-year patient survival rates and one-year, three-year graft survival rates were significantly higher in whole liver transplantation than technical variant liver transplantation (OR = 1.62, 1.90, 1.65, 1.78, and 1.62, respectively, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in five-year graft survival rate between the two groups (OR = 1.47, p = 0.10). The incidence of portal vein thrombosis and biliary complications were significantly lower in the whole liver transplantation group (OR = 0.45 and 0.42, both p<0.05). The incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis was comparable between the two groups (OR = 1.21, p = 0.61). Pediatric whole liver transplantation is associated with better outcomes than technical variant liver transplantation. Continuing efforts should be made to minimize surgical complications to improve the outcomes of technical variant liver transplantation.
Jiménez-Castro, M B; Gracia-Sancho, J; Peralta, C
It is well known that most organs for transplantation are currently procured from brain-dead donors; however, the presence of brain death is an important risk factor in liver transplantation. In addition, one of the mechanisms to avoid the shortage of liver grafts for transplant is the use of marginal livers, which may show higher risk of primary non-function or initial poor function. To our knowledge, very few reviews have focused in the field of liver transplantation using brain-dead donors; moreover, reviews that focused on both brain death and marginal grafts in liver transplantation, both being key risk factors in clinical practice, have not been published elsewhere. The present review aims to describe the recent findings and the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding the pathophysiological changes occurring during brain death, their effects on marginal liver grafts and summarize the more controversial topics of this pathology. We also review the therapeutic strategies designed to date to reduce the detrimental effects of brain death in both marginal and optimal livers, attempting to explain why such strategies have not solved the clinical problem of liver transplantation.
Saner, Fuat H; Abeysundara, Lasitha; Hartmann, Matthias; Mallett, Susan V
For over 50 years patients with liver cirrhosis were considered to be at markedly increased risk of bleeding. This dogma was seemingly supported by abnormalities in standard laboratory tests (SLTs), such as the prothrombin time, that were interpreted as indicating a bleeding diathesis. However, publications from the last decade have revealed SLTs to be poor predictors of bleeding and it is now understood that stable patients with cirrhosis have a rebalanced haemostatic system and preserved thrombin generation. Viscoelastic tests (VETs), such as ROTEM® or TEG™ allow dynamic assessment of the entire coagulation process and provide a better illustration of the interactions between pro- and anticoagulants as well as platelets. Despite their documented success in reducing transfusion rates in liver transplantation more than 30 years ago, the adoption of VETs has been met with some resistance and has only recently gained significant momentum. Bleeding risk should be assessed in every patient undergoing invasive intervention and must consider markers of disease severity, underlying coagulation incompetence, anaemia and surgical factors. The recognition that bleeding in this patient cohort is predominantly linked to mechanistic factors such as portal hypertension, rather than primary coagulopathy, has led to a paradigm shift in their perioperative management. Cognizant of their detrimental effect, the use of large volumes of fresh frozen plasma to correct derangements in SLTs has given way to more refined haemostatic management with specific factor concentrates guided by VETs, coupled with measures to minimize portal venous pressure and meticulous surgical hemostasis.
Liu, Song; Miao, Ji; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Yafu; Jiang, Chunping; Zhu, Xinhua; Wu, Xingyu; Ding, Yitao; Xu, Qingxiang
In spite of the increasing success of liver transplantation, there remains inevitable risk of postoperative complications, re-operations, and even death. Risk factors that correlate with post-transplant death have not been fully identified. We performed a retrospective analysis of 65 adults that received donation after circulatory death liver transplantation. Binary logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards regression were employed to identify risk factors that associate with postoperative death and the length of survival period. Twenty-two recipients (33.8%) deceased during 392.3 ± 45.6 days. The higher preoperative Child-Pugh score (p = .007), prolonged postoperative ICU stay (p = .02), and more postoperative complications (p = .0005) were observed in deceased patients. Advanced pathological staging (p = .02) with more common nerve invasion (p = .03), lymph node invasion (p = .02), and para-tumor satellite lesion (p = .01) were found in deceased group. The higher pre-transplant Child-Pugh score was a risk factor for post-transplant death (OR = 4.38, p = .011), and was correlated with reduced post-transplant survival period (OR = 0.35, p = .009). Nerve invasion was also a risk factor for post-transplant death (OR = 13.85, p = .014), although it failed to affect survival period. Our study emphasizes the impact of recipient's pre-transplant liver function as well as pre-transplant nerve invasion by recipient's liver cancer cells on postoperative outcome and survival period in patients receiving liver transplantation.
Howell, Jessica; Balderson, Glenda; Hellard, Margaret; Gow, Paul; Strasser, Simone; Stuart, Katherine; Wigg, Alan; Jeffrey, Gary; Gane, Ed; Angus, Peter W
Hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), and non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are leading indications for adult liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand. However, these diseases are potentially preventable through effective primary and/or secondary prevention strategies. This study evaluates the relative contribution of potentially preventable liver diseases to liver transplant numbers in Australia and New Zealand over time. Prospectively recorded clinical, demographic, and outcome data were collected from the Australian and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry for all primary adult liver transplants performed in Australia and New Zealand from 1 January 1985 until 31 December 2012. Potentially preventable liver disease was defined as HBV, HCV, NAFLD, ALD, and HCC. The etiology of liver disease leading to liver transplantation and the proportion of preventable liver disease-related liver transplantation was compared between Era 1 (1985-1993), Era 2 (1994-2003), and Era 3 (2004-2012). Overall, 1252 of 3266 adult primary liver transplants (38.3%) were performed for potentially preventable liver disease. There was a significant increase in the proportion of liver transplants because of preventable liver disease from 21.2% (93 of 439) in Era 1, to 49.8% (623 of 1252) in Era 2 and 63.5% (1000 of 1575) in Era 3 (P < 0.0001). Over time, there was a significant increase in HCV (P < 0.0001), ALD (P = 0.002), and NAFLD (P < 0.0001) as a primary indication for adult liver transplant, whereas HBV has significantly decreased from Era 1 to Era 3 as an indication for transplant (P < 0.0001). The number of transplants performed for HCC also increased across Eras (P < 0.0001), with 84% due to underlying potentially preventable liver disease. Since 2004, the majority of primary adult liver transplants within Australia and New Zealand have been because of potentially preventable liver diseases and the
Heart, lung, kidney, liver, and simultaneous liver-kidney transplants share many features. They all follow the same 7-step process, the same 3 immunosuppressant medications, and the same reason for organ transplantation. Organs are transplanted because of organ failure. The similarities end there. Each organ has its unique causes for failure. Each organ also has its own set of criteria that must be met prior to transplantation. Simultaneous liver-kidney transplant criteria vary per transplant center but are similar in nature. Both the criteria required and the 7-step process are described by the United Network of Organ Sharing, which is a private, nonprofit organization, under contract with the US Department of Health and Human Services. Its function is to increase the number of transplants, improve survival rates after transplantation, promote safe transplant practices, and endorse efficiency. The purpose of this article is to review the reasons transplant is needed, specifically heart, lung, kidney, liver, and simultaneous liver-kidney, and a brief overview of the transplant process including criteria used, contraindications, and medications prescribed.
Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.
The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949
See, W-S Q; Chang, K-O; Cheuk, D K-L; Leung, Y-Y R; Chan, G C-F; Chan, S-C; Ha, S-Y
Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is the commonest type of the rare bleeding disorders. Very few cases of congenital FVII deficiency developed inhibitor and liver transplant is considered as definitive treatment. In the literature, twelve patients with congenital FVII deficiency developed inhibitors. Two had spontaneous resolution of inhibitors and one did not respond to high dose recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) and died. Regarding liver transplant in congenital FVII patients, seven patients underwent liver transplant with good prognosis. We report a 5-year-old girl with confirmed severe congenital FVII deficiency since neonatal period. She suffered from recurrent intracranial bleeding despite rFVIIa replacement. After auxiliary liver transplant at the age of 4, she continued to show persistent deranged clotting profile and was found to have inhibitor towards FVII. Interestingly, she was still responsive to rFVIIa replacement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pérez San Gregorio, M A; Martín Rodríguez, A; Asián Chavez, E; Pérez Bernal, J
We analyzed the influence of two variables (place of hospitalization of the patients and mental health of relatives) on anxiety and depression symptoms in liver-transplant patients. The subject groups were made up of 48 liver-transplant patients and 48 close relatives. The tests applied were a psychosocial questionnaire and the following instruments: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, The Leeds Scales for the Self-Assessment of Anxiety and Depression and Social Support Scale. The liver-transplant patients showed more symptoms of depression when they were admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and more symptoms of anxiety in the post-ICU phase when their close relatives were more depressed in that phase, as a result of receiving little social support. The place of hospitalization of the patients and the mental health of relatives influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression in liver-transplant patients.
Gonwa, T A; Klintmalm, G B; Levy, M; Jennings, L S; Goldstein, R M; Husberg, B S
To determine the effect of pretransplant liver function on survival following orthotopic liver transplantation and to quantify the effects of cyclosporine administration on long-term renal function in patients undergoing liver transplant, we performed an analysis of a prospectively maintained database. Data from 569 consecutive patients undergoing liver transplantation alone who were treated with CsA for immunosuppression were used for this study. Actuarial graft and patient survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Glomerular filtration rates, serum creatinine, and the use of various immunosuppressives were analyzed for this study. The initial analysis demonstrated that patients presenting for liver transplant with hepatorenal syndrome have a significantly decreased acturial patient survival after liver transplant at 5 years compared with patients without hepatorenal syndrome (60% vs. 68%, P < 0.03). Patients with hepatorenal syndrome recovered their renal function after liver transplant. Patients who had hepatorenal syndrome were sicker and required longer stays in the intensive care unit, longer hospitalizations, and more dialysis treatments after transplantation compared with patients who did not have hepatorenal syndrome. The incidence of end-stage renal disease after liver transplantation in patients who had hepatorenal syndrome was 7%, compared with 2% in patients who did not have hepatorenal syndrome. To more fully examine the effect of pretransplant renal function on posttransplant survival, the non-hepatorenal syndrome patients were divided into quartiles depending upon their pretransplant renal function. The patients with the lowest pretransplant renal function had the same survival as the patients with the highest pretransplant renal function. In addition, there was no increased incidence of acute or chronic rejection in any of the groups. The patients with the lower pretransplant renal function were treated with more azathioprine to
Mendoza-Sánchez, Federico; Javier-Haro, Francisco; Mendoza-Medina, Diego Federico; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde
Liver transplantation in patients with liver cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, is a complex procedure with high possibility of liver graft dysfunction. It is performed in 2-19% of all liver transplants, and has a significantly high mortality rate in the post-operative period. Other procedures to maintain portal perfusion have been described, however there are no reports of liver graft perfusion using right gastroepiploic vein. A 20 year-old female diagnosed with cryptogenic cirrhosis, with a Child-Pugh score of 7 points (class "B"), and MELD score of 14 points, with thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, severe portal hypertension, splenomegaly, a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices, and left renal agenesis. The preoperative evaluation for liver transplantation was completed, and the right gastroepiploic vein of 1-cm diameter was observed draining to the infrahepatic inferior vena cava and right suprarenal vein. An orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from a non-living donor (deceased on January 30, 2005) using the Piggy-Back technique. Portal vein perfusion was maintained using the right gastroepiploic vein, and the outcome was satisfactory. The patient was discharged 13 days after surgery. Liver transplantation was performed satisfactorily, obtaining an acceptable outcome. In this case, the portal perfusion had adequate blood flow through the right gastroepiploic vein. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Colombani, P M; Cigarroa, F G; Schwarz, K; Wise, B; Maley, W E; Klein, A S
OBJECTIVE: The authors report on experience with liver transplantation for infants younger than 1 year of age. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Over the last 15 years, orthotopic liver transplant has become the only lifesaving procedure available for infants with end-stage liver disease. Many transplant centers initially required infants to reach a specific weight or age to minimize morbidity and mortality. Size-appropriate infant donors also were uncommon. As a result, many children, in the first few years of life, died of their disease. The availability of reduced-size cadaveric and living-related liver transplants has offered the ability to transplant the young infant with liver failure. METHODS: The authors instituted a program to aggressively transplant infants with liver failure in the first year of life using both cadaveric and living-related liver donors. RESULTS: Between June 1991 and January 1995, 13 infants were transplanted for rapidly progressive liver failure. Infant age ranged from 4 to 11 months (mean, 7.5 months). The cause of liver failure included biliary atresia (11), alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (1), and liver failure secondary to echovirus 7 (1). The United Network for Organ Sharing status at the time of transplant ranged from status 4, intensive care unit bound (4 patients); status 3, hospitalized (4 patients); or status 2, failing at home (5 patients). Six patients (46%) received cadaveric whole organ (2) or segmental transplants (4). Seven patients (54%) received left lateral segment living-related transplants from parental donors. After operation, patients received cyclosporine or FK506-based immunosuppression. Three patients (23%) required four retransplants (two cadaveric for primary nonfunction; one living-related for graft thrombosis in the face of fungal infection and bile leak). Postoperative complications included primary nonfunction (15%), rejection (85%), graft vascular thrombosis (15%, two of three revascularized successfully
Mathur, A K; Heimbach, J; Steffick, D E; Sonnenday, C J; Goodrich, N P; Merion, R M
We aimed to identify recipient, donor and transplant risk factors associated with graft failure and patient mortality following donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation. These estimates were derived from Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from all US liver-only DCD recipients between September 1, 2001 and April 30, 2009 (n = 1567) and Cox regression techniques. Three years post-DCD liver transplant, 64.9% of recipients were alive with functioning grafts, 13.6% required retransplant and 21.6% died. Significant recipient factors predictive of graft failure included: age ≥ 55 years, male sex, African-American race, HCV positivity, metabolic liver disorder, transplant MELD ≥ 35, hospitalization at transplant and the need for life support at transplant (all, p ≤ 0.05). Donor characteristics included age ≥ 50 years and weight >100 kg (all, p ≤ 0.005). Each hour increase in cold ischemia time (CIT) was associated with 6% higher graft failure rate (HR 1.06, p < 0.001). Donor warm ischemia time ≥ 35 min significantly increased graft failure rates (HR 1.84, p = 0.002). Recipient predictors of mortality were age ≥ 55 years, hospitalization at transplant and retransplantation (all, p ≤ 0.006). Donor weight >100 kg and CIT also increased patient mortality (all, p ≤ 0.035). These findings are useful for transplant surgeons creating DCD liver acceptance protocols. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Bacchella, T; Machado, M C C
The first clinical orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil was performed on August 5, 1968. The patient was awake after surgery and died on the seventh postoperative day due to subdural hematoma, bronchopneumonia, renal failure, and graft rejection. The report of this case is important to understand the evolution of clinical liver transplantation in Brazil, where this procedure is now routinely carried out in many medical centers.
Lee, Sang-Oh; Razonable, Raymund R
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen that negatively impacts on the outcome of liver transplantation. CMV cause febrile illness often accompanied by bone marrow suppression, and in some cases, invades tissues including the transplanted allograft. In addition, CMV has been significantly associated with an increased predisposition to allograft rejection, accelerated hepatitis C recurrence, and other opportunistic infections, as well as reduced overall patient and allograft survival. To negate the adverse effects of CMV on outcome, its prevention, whether through antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy, is regarded as an essential component to the medical management of liver transplant patients. Two recent guidelines have suggested that antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy are similarly effective in preventing CMV disease in modest-risk CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients, while antiviral prophylaxis is the preferred strategy over preemptive therapy for the prevention of CMV disease in high-risk recipients [CMV-seronegative recipients of liver allografts from CMV-seropositive donors (D+/R-)]. However, antiviral prophylaxis has only delayed the onset of CMV disease in many CMV D+/R- liver transplant recipients, and at least in one study, such occurrence of late-onset primary CMV disease was significantly associated with increased mortality after liver transplantation. Therefore, optimized strategies for prevention are needed, and aggressive treatment of CMV infection and disease should be pursued. The standard treatment of CMV disease consists of intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir, and if feasible, one should also reduce the degree of immunosuppression. In one recent controlled clinical trial, valganciclovir was found to be as effective and safe as intravenous ganciclovir for the treatment of mild to moderate CMV disease in solid organ (including liver) transplant recipients. In this article, the authors review the
Delair, Samantha; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Kim, Hyunjung; Del Rio Martin, Juan; Kim-Schluger, Leona; Lapointe Rudow, Dianne; Orloff, Mark; Sheiner, Patricia A; Teperman, Lewis
The number of liver donors has not measurably increased since 2004 and has begun to decrease. Although many waitlisted patients may be suitable candidates to receive a living donor graft, they are often reticent to discuss living donation with close friends and family, partly because of a lack of knowledge about donor health and quality of life outcomes after donation. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention that uses testimonials and self-report data from living donors in New York State. The study had an independent sample pretest (n = 437) and posttest (n = 338) design with posttest, between-subjects comparison for intervention exposure. All waitlisted patients at 5 liver transplant centers in New York were provided a peer-based educational brochure and DVD either by mail or at the clinic. The outcome measures were liver candidates' knowledge and self-efficacy to discuss living donation with family and friends. The number and proportion of individuals who presented to centers for living liver donation evaluation were also measured. Liver transplant candidates' self-efficacy to discuss living donation and their knowledge increased from the pretest period to the posttest period. Those exposed to the peer-based intervention reported significantly greater knowledge, a greater likelihood of discussing donation, and increased self-efficacy in comparison with those not exposed to the intervention. The results did not differ by age, length of time on the waiting list, education, or ethnicity. In comparison with the preintervention period, living donation increased 42%, and the number of individuals who presented for donation evaluation increased by 74%.
Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Milazzo, Mariapina; Marrone, Gianluca; Mamone, Giuseppe; Carollo, Vincenzo; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno
Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every liver transplantation (LT) program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplantation. The aim of this paper is to review indications, technical consideration, results achievable and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after deceased donor LT and living related adult LT. PMID:19222091
Delaune, Vaihere; Berney, Thierry; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Toso, Christian
The portal vein remains the preferred site for pancreatic islet transplantation due to its easy access and low morbidity. However, despite great progress in isolation and transplantation protocols over the past few years, it is still associated with the early loss of some 50-70% of transplanted islets. The complex liver microenvironment itself presumably plays an important role in this loss. The present review focuses on the specifics of the liver microenvironment, notably the localized hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury following transplantation, the low oxygenation of the portal vein, the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, the endogenous liver immune system, and the gut-liver axis, and how they can each have an impact on the transplanted islets. It identifies the potential, or already applied, clinical interventions for improving intraportal islet survival, and pinpoints those promising areas still lacking preclinical research. Future interventions on clinical intraportal islet transplantation need to take into account the global context of the liver microenvironment, with multi-point interventions being most likely to improve early islet survival and engraftment. © 2017 The Authors. Transplant International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Steunstichting ESOT.
Uribe, M; Alba, A; González, G; Hunter, B; Heine, C; Iñiguez, R; Cavallieri, S; Flores, L; Soto, P; Auad, H; Zuleta, R; Acuña, C
Pediatric liver transplantation is limited by donation. In the last 5 years, urgent conditions have forced transplant teams to accept donors with minor suboptimal conditions, termed "extended donor criteria." Among those, the risk of using severe hypernatremic donors (SHD) for liver transplant is not yet well established. The aim of this study is to report the outcome of pediatric patients receiving grafts from SHD. Clinical records of patients transplanted in the last 3 years at Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna, Santiago, Chile, were reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of patient and graft survival and complications potentially associated to the donor condition. Five of 33 deceased donor transplants presented with SHD. All recipients were waiting transplant in an acute condition, one of them in acute liver failure (ALF). No living related donor was available. Donors' serum sodium was 169 to 193 mEq/L before medical management and between 157 and 172 mEq/L at procurement. One patient died from sepsis related to biliary complications, and the patient suffering ALF developed primary graft nonfunction, received a second transplant 2 weeks later, and recovered to stable medical condition. No other complication was registered in these patients. Our findings allow us to postulate that hypernatremic deceased donors may be used for pediatric liver transplant under special circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
One of the most important problems after solid organ transplantation including liver, remains infections. Multiple risk factors play a role among which the most important are: general patients health before transplantation, prolong operative time, graft function and type of immunosuppression. The most important problems with bacterial, fungal and viral infections was described as well as treatment and profilaxis.
Demetris, A. Jake; Jaffe, Ron; Tzakis, A.; Ramsey, Glenn; Todo, S.; Belle, Steven; Esquivel, Carlos; Shapiro, Ron; Markus, Bernd; Mroczek, Elizabeth; Van Thiel, D. H.; Sysyn, Greg; Gordon, Robert; Makowka, Leonard; Starzl, Tom
A clinicopathologic analysis of liver transplantation across major ABO blood group barriers was carried out 1) to determine if antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection was a cause of graft failure and if humoral rejection can be identified, 2) to propose criteria for establishing the diagnosis, and 3) to describe the clinical and pathologic features of humoral rejection. A total of 51 (24 primary) ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) liver grafts were transplanted into 49 recipients. There was a 46% graft failure rate during the first 30 days for primary ABO-I grafts compared with an 11% graft failure rate for primary ABO compatible (ABO-C), crossmatch negative, age, sex and priority-matched control patients (P < 0.02). A similarly high early graft failure rate (60%) was seen for nonprimary ABO-I grafts during the first 30 days. Clinically, the patients experienced a relentless rise in serum transaminases, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy during the first weeks after transplant. Pathologic examination of ABO-I grafts that failed early demonstrated widespread areas of geographic hemorrhagic necrosis with diffuse intraorgan coagulation. Prominent arterial deposition of antibody and complement components was demonstrated by immunoflourescent staining. Elution studies confirmed the presence of tissue-bound, donor-specific isoagglutinins within the grafts. No such deposition was seen in control cases. These studies confirm that antibody mediated rejection of the liver occurs and allows for the development of criteria for establishing the diagnosis. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:3046369
RIBEIRO-JR, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; MEDRADO, Melina Botelho; ROSA, Otto Mauro; SILVA, Ana Júlia de Deus; FONTANA, Mariana Prado; CRUVINEL-NETO, José; FONSECA, Alexandre Zanchenko
Background : The liver is the most injured organ in abdominal trauma. Currently, the treatment in most cases is non-operative, but surgery may be necessary in severe abdominal trauma with blunt liver damage, especially those that cause uncontrollable bleeding. Despite the damage control approaches in order to achieve hemodynamic stability, many patients develop hypovolemic shock, acute liver failure, multiple organ failure and death. In this context, liver transplantation appears as the lifesaving last resource Aim : Analyze the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe liver trauma. Methods : Were reviewed 14 articles in the PubMed, Medline and Lilacs databases, selected between 2008-2014 and 10 for this study. Results : Were identified 46 cases undergoing liver transplant after liver trauma; the main trauma mechanism was closed/blunt abdominal trauma in 83%, and severe trauma (>grade IV) in 81 %. The transplant can be done, in this context, performing one-stage procedure (damaged organ removed with immediate transplantation), used in 72% of cases. When the two-stage approach is performed, end-to-side temporary portacaval shunt is provided, until new organ becomes available to be transplanted. If two different periods are considered - from 1980 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2014 - the survival rate increased significantly, from 48% to 76%, while the mortality decreased from 52% to 24%. Conclusion : Despite with quite restricted indications, liver transplantation in hepatic injury is a therapeutic modality viable and feasible today, and can be used in cases when other therapeutic modalities in short and long term, do not provide the patient survival chances. PMID:26734803
Lauterio, Andrea; Di Sandro, Stefano; Concone, Giacomo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Giacomoni, Alessandro; De Carlis, Luciano
Growing experience with the liver splitting technique and favorable results equivalent to those of whole liver transplant have led to wider application of split liver transplantation (SLT) for adult and pediatric recipients in the last decade. Conversely, SLT for two adult recipients remains a challenging surgical procedure and outcomes have yet to improve. Differences in organ shortages together with religious and ethical issues related to cadaveric organ donation have had an impact on the worldwide distribution of SLT. Despite technical refinements and a better understanding of the complex liver anatomy, SLT remains a technically and logistically demanding surgical procedure. This article reviews the surgical and clinical advances in this field of liver transplantation focusing on the role of SLT and the issues that may lead a further expansion of this complex surgical procedure. PMID:26494957
Sivam, S; Al-Hindawi, Y; Di Michiel, J; Moriarty, C; Spratt, P; Jansz, P; Malouf, M; Plit, M; Pleass, H; Havryk, A; Bowen, D; Haber, P; Glanville, A R; Bye, P T P
Liver disease develops in one-third of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is rare for liver disease to have its onset after 20 years of age. Lung disease, however, is usually more severe in adulthood. A retrospective analysis was performed on nine patients. Three patients required lung transplantation approximately a decade after liver transplant, and another underwent combined liver and lung transplants. Four additional patients with liver transplants are awaiting assessment for lung transplants. One patient is awaiting combined liver and lung transplants. With increased survival in CF, several patients may require more than single organ transplantation. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Schemmer, Peter; Nickkholgh, Arash; Gerling, Till; Weitz, Jürgen; Büchler, Markus W; Schmidt, Jan
Organ shortage has driven many transplant centers to extend their criteria for organ acceptance. Graft allocation policies have been modified accordingly. This report focuses on the impact of applying the so-called rescue allocation (RA) strategy for liver transplantation (LT) in a single center within the Eurotransplant (ET) area. Liver grafts are considered for RA when the regular organ allocation is declined by at least three centers or is averted because of donor instability/unfavorable logistical reasons, thus entering a competitive or a single-recipient rescue organ offer procedure, respectively. The accepting center has the advantage to select a recipient from its own waiting list for these RA grafts. Among 253 livers accepted at the University of Heidelberg between January 2004 and December 2006, we transplanted 85 (34%) rescue-allocated livers. The indications for LT were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 43%), chronic liver disease (55%), and acute liver failure (2%). Median cold ischemia time for RA grafts was 10 h (range: 4-17). The MELD score (mean +/- SD) was 13 +/- 7 (range: 6-40) and was 12 +/- 7 for recipients with HCC. Three (3.5%) primary non-functions (PNF) occurred after transplantation of RA livers. One-year patient and graft survival were 84% and 75%, respectively. A comparison between the recipients of RA livers and regularly allocated livers revealed no significant difference regarding initial poor function (IPF), PNF, and surgical complications. Furthermore, a median follow-up of 16 months revealed no significant difference regarding patient and graft survival between the two groups. The use of RA organs has increased the donor pool and transplantation dynamics with satisfying results. The unique possibility to match livers with recipients, which is left to the discretion of accepting center, should be judged according to the center's experience to decrease the waiting times for a timely rescue of organs/recipients while avoiding futile
Wang, S-F; Chen, X-P; Chen, Z-S; Wei, L; Dong, S-L; Guo, H; Jiang, J-P; Teng, W-H; Huang, Z-Y; Zhang, W-G
Auxiliary liver transplantation (ALT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis previously showed poor results, because the native liver was a significant source of HBV recurrence and the graft could be rapidly destroyed by HBV infection in an immunosuppressive condition. Four patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis were unable to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation because the only available grafts of left lobe were too small. Under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment, they underwent ALT in which the recipient left liver was removed and the small left lobe graft was implanted in the corresponding space. The mean graft weight/recipient weight was 0.49% (range, 0.38%-0.55%). One year after transplantation, the graft sizes were increased to 273% and the remnant livers were decreased to 44%. Serum HBV DNA was persistently undetectable. Periodic graft biopsy showed no signs of tissue injury and negative immunostaining for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen. After a mean follow-up period of 21 months, all patients live well with normal graft function. Our study suggests that ALT for HBV-related liver cirrhosis is feasible under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment. Successful application of small left livers in end-stage liver cirrhosis may significantly increase the pool of left liver grafts for adult patients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Mu, Jingzhou; Chen, Qiuyu; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Yunhong; Liu, Suping; Zhao, Yufei; Ma, Tonghui
Liver transplantation is currently a standard therapy for patients with end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that liver transplantation has undergone a thriving development in these decades, the survival rates after liver transplantation have markedly improved as a result of the critical advancement in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapies, and postoperative care. However, infection remains a fatal complication after liver transplantation surgery. In particular, enterogenic infection represents a major complication in liver transplant recipients. This article gives an overview of infection cases after liver transplantation and focuses on the discussion of enterogenic infection in terms of its pathophysiology, risk factor, outcome, and treatment.
Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah; Molinari, Michele
Studies on patients' societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants' age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Although patients' satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients' economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT.
Kim, Dae Y; Moon, Jang; Island, Eddie R; Tekin, Akin; Ganz, Susan; Levi, David; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Nishida, Seigo; Tzakis, Andreas G
Survival after liver transplantation is negatively impacted by use of elderly deceased donors, but excluding them would increase waiting times and waiting list mortality. We reviewed our experience with liver transplantation (LT) utilizing livers from deceased donors 65 yr of age and older to identify those factors that impact graft survival. All adult patients (≥ 18 yr old) who underwent primary LT using deceased donor livers from donors aged ≥ 65 yr between February 1995 and November 2003 were included. With multivariate analysis we found four unfavorable characteristics significantly associated with higher post-transplant graft failure rate. These characteristics are hepatitis C as an etiology of liver disease, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score >20, serum glucose level of donor > 200 mg/dL at the time of liver recovery, and skin incision to aortic cross-clamp time > 40 minutes in the donor surgery. The five-yr estimated graft survival rates having 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 unfavorable characteristics were 100%, 82.0%, 81.7%, 39.3%, and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.05). Our data demonstrated good graft survival can be achieved in LT using elderly donor liver allografts with appropriate patient selection, donor blood glucose management and efficient liver recovery with minimal manipulation of the liver during donor surgery. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Shakibazad, Nader; Honar, Naser; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Alborzi, Abdolvahab
Many children with chronic liver disease require a liver transplant. These patients are prone to various infections, including Epstein-Barr virus infection. This study sought to measure the Epstein-Barr viral load by polymerase chain reaction before a liver transplant. This cross-sectional study was done at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2011. All patients were aged younger than 18 years with chronic liver disease and were candidates for a liver transplant at the Shiraz Nemazee Hospital Organ Transplant Center. They had been investigated regarding their demographic characteristics, underlying disease, laboratory findings, and Epstein-Barr viral load by real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction. Ninety-eight patients were studied and the mean age was 6.5 ± 5.9 years. Cryptogenic cirrhosis was the most-prevalent reason for liver transplant, and the death rate before a transplant was 15%. Among the study subjects, 6 had measurable Epstein-Barr viral load by polymerase chain reaction before the transplant, and 4 of them had considerably higher Epstein-Barr viral loads (more than 1000 copies/mL). With respect to the close prevalence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (6%) and the high Epstein-Barr viral load in the patients before a transplant (4%), high pretransplant Epstein-Barr viral load can be considered a risk factor for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
Kirnap, Mahir; Ayvazoglu Soy, Ebru; Ozcay, Figen; Moray, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Binnaz Handan; Haberal, Mehmet
Our aim was to analyze our experience with orthotopic liver transplant for hepatoblastoma patients. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of 6 orthotopic liver transplant cases in children with hepatoblastoma from 2001 to March 2015. We evaluated patient demographic features, pretreatment extent of disease stage, type of transplant, change in serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, complications, and follow-up results. Orthotopic liver transplant was performed for pretreatment extent of disease stage III with a central location (n = 3) and pretreatment extent of disease stage IV (n = 3). All children underwent living-donor orthotopic liver transplant. Postoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein levels remained below 10 ng/mL during the follow-up period in 3 patients who were free of recurrences or metastases. Five patients were free of tumor recurrences at a median follow-up of 29.9 months. The limited number of cases we present without long-term follow-up of orthotopic liver transplant for unresectable hepatoblastoma seemed to show good clinical results.
Parolin, Mônica Beatriz; Coelho, Júlio Cezar Uili; Urbanetz, Almir Antônio; Pampuch, Melina
Successful liver transplantation not only treats the underlying liver disease but also restores libido and fertility in female recipients. Although reports of successful pregnancy after liver transplantation continue to increase, these pregnancies are considered of high-risk because they are associated with increase maternofetal morbidity. A MEDLINE search (1978-2007) was conducted using the terms 'liver transplantation', 'pregnancy', 'immunosuppressive agents', 'sexual function'. Reviews, retrospective series, long-term clinical follow-up of case series and original articles containing basic scientific observations were included. Although no formal guidelines have been established there are some 'golden rules' to improve the probability of favorable maternal and fetal outcome. Most transplant centers recommend to delay pregnancy for at least 1-year after transplantation. The recipient should be on a stable immunosuppression regimen, with good graft function and no evidence of renal dysfunction or uncontrolled arterial hypertension. Considering the increased incidence of prematurity, low birth weight, hypertension and preeclampsia reported during pregnancy post-LT, these high-risk patients should be managed by a multidisciplinary team, including an obstetrician specialized in high-risk pregnancies. Carefully monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs serum level is prudent to avoid graft rejection episodes and drugs with teratogenic potential should be discontinued. Breastfeeding is usually not recommended. Successful pregnancies are the rule after liver transplantation. A carefully monitoring by an experience multidisciplinary team increases the chances of favorable maternofetal outcome.
Rana, Abbas; Kaplan, Bruce; Jie, Tun; Porubsky, Marian; Habib, Shahid; Rilo, Horacio; Gruessner, Angelika C; Gruessner, Rainer W G
The 15% mortality rate of liver transplant recipients at one yr may be viewed as a feat in comparison with the waiting list mortality, yet it nonetheless leaves room for much improvement. Our aim was to critically examine the mortality rates to identify high-risk periods and to incorporate cause of death into the analysis of post-transplant survival. We performed a retrospective analysis on United Network for Organ Sharing data for all adult recipients of liver transplants from January 1, 2002 to October 31, 2011. Our analysis included multivariate logistic regression where the primary outcome measure was patient death of 49,288 recipients. The highest mortality rate by day post-transplant was on day 0 (0.9%). The most significant risk factors were as follows: for one-d mortality from technical failure, intensive care unit admission odds ratio (OR 3.2); for one-d mortality from graft failure, warm ischemia >75 min (OR 5.6); for one-month mortality from infection, a previous transplant (OR 3.3); and for one-month mortality from graft failure, a previous transplant (OR 3.7). We found that the highest mortality rate after liver transplantation is within the first day and the first month post-transplant. Those two high-risk periods have common, as well as different, risk factors for mortality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro
Although alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is regarded as a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), debatable issues exist on the requirement for preceding alcoholic abstinence, appropriate indication criteria, predictive factors for alcoholic recidivism, and outcomes following living-donor LT. In most institutions, an abstinence period of six months before LT has been adopted as a mandatory selection criterion. Data indicating that pre-transplant abstinence is an associated predictive factor for alcoholic recidivism supports the reasoning behind this. However, conclusive evidence about the benefit of adopting an abstinence period is yet to be established. On the other hand, a limited number of reports available on living-donor LT experiences for ALD patients suggest that organ donations from relatives have no suppressive effect on alcoholic recidivism. Prevention of alcoholic recidivism has proved to be the most important treatment after LT based on the resultant inferior long-term outcome of patients. Further evaluations are still needed to establish strategies before and after LT for ALD.
Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Adam, René; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gómez Bravo, Miguel Angel; Cherqui, Daniel; De Simone, Paolo; Boudjema, Karim; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Soubrane, Olivier; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Fabregat Prous, Joan; Pinna, Antonio D; O'Grady, John; Karam, Vincent; Duvoux, Christophe; Rasmussen, Allan
Locoregional treatment while on the waiting list for liver transplantation (Ltx) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been shown to improve survival. However, the effect of treatment type has not been investigated. We investigate the effect of locoregional treatment type on survival after Ltx for HCC. We investigated patients registered in the European Liver Transplant Registry database using multivariate Cox regression survival analysis. Information on locoregional therapy was registered for 4978 of 23 124 patients and was associated with improved overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.84 (0.73-0.96)] and HCC-specific survival [HR 0.76 (0.59-0.98)]. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was the one monotherapy associated with improved overall survival [HR 0.51 (0.40-0.65)]. In addition, the combination of RFA and transarterial chemoembolization also improved survival [HR 0.74 (0.55-0.99)]. Adjusting for factors related to prognosis, disease severity, and tumor aggressiveness, RFA was highly beneficial for overall and HCC-specific survival. The effect may represent a selection of patients with favorable tumor biology; however, the treatment may be effective per se by halting tumor progression. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02995096. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.
Kabiling, Catherine S; Chen, Chao-Long; Concejero, Allan; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Jawan, Bruno; Cheng, Yu-Fan
Liver transplantation (LT) in overseas patients is a sensitive issue because of the possibility of organ trafficking and transplant tourism. In the Istanbul Summit, there was a call to develop standardized professional frameworks to prevent these practices. Our objectives are three-fold, to critically evaluate our professional framework, to study the demographic profiles, and to identify the outcome and impact of LT in overseas patients. Recipient and donor case records, e-mail communications, and medico-legal records were collected and analyzed for management strategy, demographic profile, donor and recipient characteristics, and outcome. Only 5% of our total LT operations were for overseas patients. Forty-two (79%) were pediatric cases for which 39 (93%) were due to biliary atresia (P<0.001). Sixty-eight percent were from the Philippines. Thirty-seven (70%) of the donors were first-degree relative. The average hospital days of a pediatric living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipient was 65.48±28.7, and average cost was 44,602 USD. An adult LDLT recipient stayed for 52.09±11.3 days and spent around 75, 013 USD. A donor of pediatric LDLT stayed in the hospital for 17.42±5 days and spent round 8,176 USD. A donor for adult LDLT was admitted for 15.5±4 days and spent an average 9,612 USD. The total cost for recipient and donor were 56,615 USD (range, 28,976-82,056) for pediatric LDLT and 84,483 USD (range, 64,851-108,467) for adult LDLT. Actuarial survival rates were 91% at 1 year, 88% at 3 years, and 86% at 5 years and 10 years. Travelling for LDLT may be a wise and cost-effective step for patients with end-stage liver disease seeking alternative ways from their country. Our professional framework is effective to prevent practice of organ trafficking and transplant tourism. It may be useful to develop international guidelines for the practice of LT in overseas patients.
Volk, Michael L; Biggins, Scott W; Huang, Mary Ann; Argo, Curtis K; Fontana, Robert J; Anspach, Renee R
To receive a liver transplant, patients must first be placed on a waiting list-a decision made at most transplant centers by a multidisciplinary committee. The function of these committees has never been studied. To describe decision making in liver transplant committees and identify opportunities for process improvement. Observational multicenter study. 4 liver transplant centers in the United States. 68 members of liver transplant committees across the 4 centers. 63 meetings were observed, and 50 committee members were interviewed. Recorded transcripts and field notes were analyzed by using standard qualitative sociologic methods. Although the structure of the meetings varied by center, the process was uniform and primarily involved inductive reasoning to review possible reasons for patient exclusion. Patients were excluded if they were too well, too sick (in the setting of advanced liver disease), or too old or had nonhepatic comorbid conditions, substance abuse problems, or other psychosocial barriers. Dominant themes in the discussions included member angst over deciding who lived or died, a high correlation between psychosocial barriers to transplantation and the patient's socioeconomic status, and the influence of external forces on decision making. Unwritten center policies and confusion regarding advocacy versus stewardship roles were consistently identified as barriers to effective group decision making. The use of qualitative methods provides broad understanding but limits specific inferences. The 4 centers may not reflect the practices of every transplant center nationwide. The difficult decisions made by liver transplant committees are reasonably consistent and well-intentioned, but the process might be improved by having more explicit written policies and clarifying roles. This may inform resource allocation in other areas of medicine. The Greenwall Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.
Ersoy, Zeynep; Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Pirat, Arash; Torgay, Adnan; Arslan, Gulnaz; Haberal, Mehmet
Reasons for chronic liver and kidney failure may vary; sometimes more than 1 family member may be affected, and may require a transplant. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities or differences between the perioperative characteristics of siblings undergoing liver or kidney transplant. The medical records of 6 pairs of siblings who underwent liver transplant and 4 pairs of siblings who underwent kidney transplant at Baskent University Hospital between 1989 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Collected data included demographic features; comorbidities; reasons for liver and kidney failure; perioperative laboratory values; intraoperative hemodynamic parameters; use and volume of crystalloids, colloids, blood products, cell saver system, and albumin; duration of anesthesia; urine output; and postoperative follow-up data. The mean age of the 6 sibling pairs who underwent liver transplant was 16.3 ± 12.2 years. All 12 patients had Child-Pugh grade B cirrhosis, with mean disease duration of 7.8 ± 3.9 years. There were no significant differences between siblings with respect to intraoperative blood product transfusion, crystalloid and colloid fluid replacements, hypotension frequency, blood gas analyses, urinary output, duration of anhepatic phase, inotropic agent administration, postoperative laboratory values, need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors, occurrence of acute renal failure and infections, and duration intensive care unit stay (P > .05). The mean age of the 4 sibling pairs who underwent kidney transplant was 21.3 ± 6.4 years, with mean duration of renal insufficiency of 2.2 ± 1.6 years. There were no significant differences between siblings with respect to intraoperative crystalloid and colloid fluid administration, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative mannitol and furosemide administration, and postoperative laboratory values (P > .05). In conclusion, the 6 sibling pairs who underwent liver transplant and 4 sibling pairs who
Azoulay, Daniel; Salloum, Chady; Samuel, Didier; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine
This study aimed at evaluating the operative risks of domino liver transplantation (LT). Two retrospective analyses were conducted (comparison of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) liver donors [61 patients] versus FAP nondonors [39 patients] and FAP liver recipients [61 patients] versus cadaveric liver recipients [61 patients]). First analysis showed a 60-day mortality of 6.6% for FAP donors and 7.7% for FAP nondonors (p = 1.0). Both groups had similar vascular and biliary complication rates. Both groups had similar 1- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates (83.4 % versus 87.2%, and 79.8 % versus 71.8%, p = 0.7) and (83.3% versus 87.2%, and 79.1% versus 71.8%, p = 0.7). The second analysis showed a 1.6% mortality for FAP liver recipients versus 3.2% of the control group (p = 1). Both groups had similar morbidity and technical complication rates (18.0% versus 13.1%, p = 0.45) and (0.18 versus 0.15, p = 0.65). Domino procedure doesn't add any risk to FAP donor or recipient. It increases the organ pool allowing transplantation of marginal recipients who otherwise are denied cadaveric LT.
Łaba, Marta; Pszenny, Anna; Gutowska, Dominika; Jonas, Maurycy; Durlik, Magdalena; Paczek, Leszek; Wasiak, Dariusz; Czerwiński, Jarosław; Małkowski, Piotr
Liver transplantation (OLTx) is an optimal method of treatment of end-stage liver failure. It gives a chance to get back to an active life. 80-90% of patients survive over 1 year after liver transplantation with a perspective of a long life.Recently more attention is being paid to health related quality of life (QoL). It is considered as a combination of physical and mental condition, social and economical state and somatic experience. The aim of the study was to analyze patient's QoL after OLTx compared to the condition before OLTx. 123 patients 1-12 years after transplantation were included in the study. The study was conducted in Outpatients Clinic of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine Department and Transplantation Medicine and Nephrology Department of Warsaw Medical University between October 2007 and January 2008. Original questionnaire was used, consisting of 8 general questions and 44 detailed questions concerning pre- and posttransplant period. Information about physical condition (health, mobility, basic functions, drug side effects), mental condition (anxiety, happiness, cognition disorders), social function (family, friends, work) and economic status were gathered. "Never, sometimes, often, very often" score was used. Majority of subjects de fi ned their quality of life and physical condition before transplantation as poor, and post transplantation - as good. The respondent's mental condition didn't differ much before and after transplantation. Level of satisfaction was higher after transplantation. Health condition in some cases affected patients' family life, however it often devastated their social life before OLTx. Most patients were on disability pension and after transplantation they indicated the influence of health on their financial condition. The quality of life after liver transplantation gets better and it's de fi ned as good or very good. During the analysis of QoL a difference between conditions before and after LTX wasn
Özbilgin, M; Ünek, T; Egeli, T; Ağalar, C; Özbilgin, Ş; Hancı, V; Ellidokuz, H; Astarcıoğlu, I
We investigated the liver transplantation literature since 1975 and found the most frequently cited 100 articles and assessed the distribution of authors and journals of these articles. Using the advanced mode of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (WOS) search engine, the words "SU = transplantation AND TI = liver OR SU = transplantation AND TS = liver" were used to scan articles and determine the most-cited 100 articles on July 18, 2016. From 1975 to date, it appears a total of 43,369 articles were published in the field of liver transplantation in the WOS. Although the most cited article had 677 citations, the least cited article had 180 citations. The mean citation number for the 100 articles was 252.31 ± 96.75. The mean annual citation number for the articles varied from 61.55 to 5 and the mean was 15.31 ± 8.63. The most cited article was by Feng et al "Characteristics Associated With Liver Graft Failure: The Concept of a Donor Risk Index" published in the American Journal of Transplantation (677 citations). Bibliometric analysis highlights the key topics and publications that have shaped the understanding and management of liver transplantation. According to our research, this is the first study to investigate articles with most citations in the field of liver transplantation. In our study the article with the most citations was cited 677 times, whereas the 100th article was cited 180 times with a mean citation number for the 100 articles of 252.31 ± 96.75. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narumi, S; Osorio, R W; Freise, C E; Stock, P G; Roberts, J P; Ascher, N L
A 58-yr-old female with primary biliary cirrhosis underwent an uncomplicated orthotopic liver transplantation. Elevated liver function tests 2 months post-transplantation were evaluated with Doppler ultrasound and a hepatic artery stricture was documented. The hepatic artery stenosis was treated with angioplasty. She developed hemobilia 1 d after the procedure, which was confirmed by angiography. Emergent exploratory laparotomy revealed a pseudoaneurysm at the hepatic artery anastomosis. The pseudoaneurysm was resected and the proper hepatic artery of the graft was anastomosed to the splenic artery of the host using preserved homograft. Her post-operative course was uneventful and liver function tests returned to normal quickly after the surgery. This report will discuss the unusual nature of this complication, and review the problem of hemobilia and pseudoaneurysms in liver transplant recipients.
Wakayama, Kenji; Jin, Maeng Bong; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Todo, Satoru; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Hattori, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Ryouji; Iwasaki, Sari; Sato, Masanori; Nakagawa, Takahito; Kurauchi, Noriaki; Kamachi, Hirohumi; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Matsushita, Michiaki
The first case of domino liver transplantation from a brain-dead donor in Japan is described. A 49-year-old man with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy received a cadaver liver, and his native liver was transplanted into a 53-year-old man with polycystic liver and kidney disease. The cadaveric liver allograft was transplanted by the conventional technique. The graft taken from the first recipient had four outflow orifices (the left, middle, and right hepatic veins, and upper vena cava), for which a single orifice was created at the back table. This graft was transplanted in piggy-back fashion. The first recipient developed acute rejection on day 13 and hepatic artery stenosis on day 36. These were treated by steroid recycle therapy and percutaneous transarterial angioplasty. He was discharged on day 57 with normal liver function. The second recipient underwent re-operation for bleeding from the right adrenal gland and left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with acute rejection on day 7, which was treated by steroid pulse therapy. He was discharged uneventfully on day 39 with normal liver function.
Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E.; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H.
Abstract Aim and background. The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. Materials and methods. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Results. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004–2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR). PMID:25959101
Fosby, Bjarte; Melum, Espen; Bjøro, Kristian; Bennet, William; Rasmussen, Allan; Andersen, Ina Marie; Castedal, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Wibeck, Christina; Gotlieb, Mette; Gjertsen, Henrik; Toivonen, Leena; Foss, Stein; Makisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Sanengen, Truls; Bergquist, Annika; Larsson, Marie E; Soderdahl, Gunnar; Nowak, Greg; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Isoniemi, Helena; Keiding, Susanne; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Friman, Styrbjörn; Schrumpf, Erik; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Höckerstedt, Krister; Karlsen, Tom H
The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR) accounts for all liver transplants performed in the Nordic countries since the start of the transplant program in 1982. Due to short waiting times, donor liver allocation has been made without considerations of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We aimed to summarize key outcome measures and developments for the activity up to December 2013. The registry is integrated with the operational waiting-list and liver allocation system of Scandiatransplant (www.scandiatransplant.org) and accounted at the end of 2013 for 6019 patients out of whom 5198 were transplanted. Data for recipient and donor characteristics and relevant end-points retransplantation and death are manually curated on an annual basis to allow for statistical analysis and the annual report. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute hepatic failure, alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the five most frequent diagnoses (accounting for 15.3%, 10.8%, 10.6%, 9.3% and 9.0% of all transplants, respectively). Median waiting time for non-urgent liver transplantation during the last 10-year period was 39 days. Outcome has improved over time, and for patients transplanted during 2004-2013, overall one-, five- and 10-year survival rates were 91%, 80% and 71%, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, corresponding numbers during the same time period were 87%, 75% and 66%, respectively. The liver transplant program in the Nordic countries provides comparable outcomes to programs with a MELD-based donor liver allocation system. Unique features comprise the diagnostic spectrum, waiting times and the availability of an integrated waiting list and transplant registry (NLTR).
Vacanti, Joseph P; Kulig, Katherine M
Liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment for liver failure and is available to only a tiny fraction of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Major limitations for the procedure include donor organ shortage, high cost, high level of required expertise, and long-term consequences of immune suppression. Alternative cell-based liver therapies could potentially greatly expand the number of patients provided with effective treatment. Investigative research into augmenting or replacing liver function extends into three general strategies. Bioartificial livers (BALs) are extracorporeal devices that utilize cartridges of primary hepatocytes or cell lines to process patient plasma. Injection of liver cell suspensions aims to foster organ regeneration or provide a missing metabolic function arising from a genetic defect. Tissue engineering recreates the organ in vitro for subsequent implantation to augment or replace patient liver function. Translational models and clinical trials have highlighted both the immense challenges involved and some striking examples of success. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L
According to the Indian chronic kidney disease registry, in 2010 only 2% of end stage kidney disease patients were managed with kidney transplantation, 37% were managed with dialysis and 61% were treated conservatively without renal replacement therapy. In countries like India, where a well-organized deceased donor kidney transplantation program is not available, living donor kidney transplantation is the major source of organs for kidney transplantation. The most common reason to decline a donor for directed living donation is ABO incompatibility, which eliminates up to one third of the potential living donor pool. Because access to transplantation with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end stage kidney disease patients. KPD is a rapidly growing and cost-effective living donor kidney transplantation strategy for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. In principle, KPD is feasible for any centre that performs living donor kidney transplantation. In transplant centres with a large living donor kidney transplantation program KPD does not require extra infrastructure, decreases waiting time, avoids transplant tourism and prevents commercial trafficking. Although KPD is still underutilized in India, it has been performed more frequently in recent times. To substantially increase donor pool and transplant rates, transplant centres should work together towards a national KPD program and frame a uniform acceptable allocation policy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Munn, Stephen R; Evans, Helen M; Gane, Edward J
New Zealand is a geographically isolated country with 4.55 million inhabitants. It has endemic hepatitis B (HBV) infection that is especially evident in Maori and Pacific Island communities and impacts indications for liver transplantation. The country has a socialised medical system that allows for full coverage of the assessment for, and completion of liver transplants in suitable recipients. Between February 1998 and December 2014, the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit (NZLTU) had performed 595 liver transplants in 568 patients, indicating a crude re-transplant rate of 4.8%. Overall 1, 5, and 10 year patient survival rates for all adult (96%, 89%, and 81%, respectively) and pediatric (93%, 92%, and 92%, respectively) recipients compare very favourably with international outcomes from Europe and the United States. Eligibility criteria could be modestly expanded if deceased donor rates improved from the current level of around 10 per million of population per year. This somewhat meagre supply of deceased donor organs, along with significant waiting list attrition, has necessitated the use of living donors, which have been used in more than 50 recipients to date. Despite these limitations, the NZLTU has contributed to improvements in the outcome of transplantation for HBV and hepatitis C through the development of effective antiviral prophylaxis regimes. Furthermore, innovative changes have been made to the manner in which pediatric patients are transitioned to the adult service.
Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Razonable, Raymund R
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common viral pathogens causing clinical disease in liver transplant recipients, and contributing to substantial morbidity and occasional mortality. CMV causes febrile illness often accompanied by bone marrow suppression, and in some cases, invades tissues including the transplanted liver allograft. In addition, CMV has been significantly associated with an increased predisposition to acute and chronic allograft rejection, accelerated hepatitis C recurrence, and other opportunistic infections, as well as reduced overall patient and allograft survival. To negate the adverse effects of CMV infection on transplant outcome, its prevention, whether through antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy, is an essential component to the management of liver transplant recipients. Two recently updated guidelines have suggested that antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy are similarly effective in preventing CMV disease in modest-risk CMV-seropositive liver transplant recipients, while antiviral prophylaxis is the preferred strategy over preemptive therapy for the prevention of CMV disease in high-risk recipients [CMV-seronegative recipients of liver allografts from CMV-seropositive donors (D+/R-)]. However, antiviral prophylaxis has only delayed the onset of CMV disease in many CMV D+/R- liver transplant recipients, and such occurrence of late-onset CMV disease was significantly associated with increased all-cause and infection-related mortality after liver transplantation. Therefore, a search for better strategies for prevention, such as prolonged duration of antiviral prophylaxis, a hybrid approach (antiviral prophylaxis followed by preemptive therapy), or the use of immunologic measures to guide antiviral prophylaxis has been suggested to prevent late-onset CMV disease. The standard treatment of CMV disease consists of intravenous ganciclovir or oral valganciclovir, and if feasible, reduction in pharmacologic immunosuppression
Lau, Lawrence; Kankanige, Yamuna; Rubinstein, Benjamin; Jones, Robert; Christophi, Christopher; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Bailey, James
The ability to predict graft failure or primary nonfunction at liver transplant decision time assists utilization of scarce resource of donor livers, while ensuring that patients who are urgently requiring a liver transplant are prioritized. An index that is derived to predict graft failure using donor and recipient factors, based on local data sets, will be more beneficial in the Australian context. Liver transplant data from the Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, from 2010 to 2013 has been included in the study. The top 15 donor, recipient, and transplant factors influencing the outcome of graft failure within 30 days were selected using a machine learning methodology. An algorithm predicting the outcome of interest was developed using those factors. Donor Risk Index predicts the outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) value of 0.680 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669-0.690). The combination of the factors used in Donor Risk Index with the model for end-stage liver disease score yields an AUC-ROC of 0.764 (95% CI, 0.756-0.771), whereas survival outcomes after liver transplantation score obtains an AUC-ROC of 0.638 (95% CI, 0.632-0.645). The top 15 donor and recipient characteristics within random forests results in an AUC-ROC of 0.818 (95% CI, 0.812-0.824). Using donor, transplant, and recipient characteristics known at the decision time of a transplant, high accuracy in matching donors and recipients can be achieved, potentially providing assistance with clinical decision making.
Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe; Covarrubias-Velasco, Marco Antonio; Rojas-Sánchez, Antonio Gerardo
Patient: Female, 54 Final Diagnosis: Suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomosis stricture Symptoms: Ascites • fatigue • lower limb edema • hepatomegaly Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Transplantology • Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomosis stricture is an unusual vascular complication after orthotopic liver transplantation with the “piggyback” technique. Clinical manifestations are dependent upon the severity of the stenosis. Portopulmonary hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation is a complication that carries high mortality due to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. The pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disorders after orthotopic liver transplantation remains uncertain. Case Report: We report a case of acute right heart pressure overload after surgical correction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomotic stricture in a 54-year-old woman who had preexisting pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with portal hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation. Twenty months posttransplantation, she developed fatigue and progressive ascites. On admission, the patient had hepatomegaly, ascites, and lower limb edema. Symptoms in the patient developed gradually over time. Conclusions: Recurrent portal hypertension by vascular complications is a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical manifestations of suprahepatic inferior vena cava anastomotic stenosis are dependent upon their severity. Sildenafil is an effective drug for treatment of pulmonary arterial hyper-tension after portal hypertension by vascular complications. PMID:24046802
Oh, Dong-Wook; Lee, Sung Koo; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be an effective treatment for bile leakage after liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in liver transplantation in patients who developed bile leaks. Forty-two patients who developed bile leaks after liver transplantation were included in the study. If a bile leak was observed on ERCP, a sphincterotomy was performed, and a nasobiliary catheter was then inserted. If a bile leak was accompanied by a bile duct stricture, either the stricture was dilated with balloons, followed by nasobiliary catheter insertion across the bile duct stricture, or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed. In the bile leakage alone group (22 patients), endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 19 (86.4%) and clinically successful in 17 (77.3%) cases. Among the 20 patients with bile leaks with bile duct strictures, endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 13 (65.0%) and clinically successful in 10 (50.0%) cases. Among the 42 patients who underwent ERCP, technical success was achieved in 32 (76.2%) cases and clinical success was achieved in 27 (64.3%) cases. ERCP is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for bile leaks after liver transplantation. ERCP should be considered as an initial therapeutic modality in post-liver transplantation patients.
Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Sung Koo; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan
Background/Aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be an effective treatment for bile leakage after liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in liver transplantation in patients who developed bile leaks. Methods Forty-two patients who developed bile leaks after liver transplantation were included in the study. If a bile leak was observed on ERCP, a sphincterotomy was performed, and a nasobiliary catheter was then inserted. If a bile leak was accompanied by a bile duct stricture, either the stricture was dilated with balloons, followed by nasobiliary catheter insertion across the bile duct stricture, or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed. Results In the bile leakage alone group (22 patients), endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 19 (86.4%) and clinically successful in 17 (77.3%) cases. Among the 20 patients with bile leaks with bile duct strictures, endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 13 (65.0%) and clinically successful in 10 (50.0%) cases. Among the 42 patients who underwent ERCP, technical success was achieved in 32 (76.2%) cases and clinical success was achieved in 27 (64.3%) cases. Conclusions ERCP is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for bile leaks after liver transplantation. ERCP should be considered as an initial therapeutic modality in post-liver transplantation patients. PMID:25717048
Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo
To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/ length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation.
Ganesh, Swaytha; Almazroo, Omar Abdulhameed; Tevar, Amit; Humar, Abhinav; Venkataramanan, Raman
Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) fills a critically needed gap in the number of livers available for transplant. However, little is known about the functional recovery of the liver in the donor and in the recipient after surgery. Given that both donor and recipients are treated with several drugs, it is important to characterize the time course of recovery of hepatic synthetic, metabolic, and excretory function in these patients. In the absence of data from LDLT, information on the effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of medications can be used as guidance for drug dosing in LDLT patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ling, Qi; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Baohong; Li, Lanjuan; Zheng, Shusen
New-onset diabetes is a frequent complication after solid organ transplantation. Although a number of common factors are associated with the disease, including recipient age, body mass index, hepatitis C infection, and use of immunosuppressive drugs, new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation (NODALT) has the following unique aspects and thus needs to be considered its own entity. First, a liver graft becomes the patient's primary metabolic regulator after liver transplantation, but this would not be the case for kidney or other grafts. The metabolic states, as well as the genetics of the graft, play crucial roles in the development of NODALT. Second, dysfunction of the islets of Langerhans is common in cirrhotic patients and would be exacerbated by immunosuppressive agents, particularly calcineurin inhibitors. On the other hand, minimized immunosuppressive protocols have been widely advocated in liver transplantation because of liver tolerance (immune privilege). Third and last, through the "gut-liver axis," graft function is closely linked to gut microbiota, which is now considered an important metabolic organ and known to independently influence the host's metabolic homeostasis. Liver transplant recipients present with specific gut microbiota that may be prone to trigger metabolic disorders. In this review, we proposed 3 possible sites for the origin of NODALT, which are liver, islets, and gut, to help elucidate the underlying mechanism of NODALT.
Todo, Satoru; Starzl, Thomas E.; Tzakis, Andreas; Benkov, Keith J.; Kalousek, Frantisek; Saheki, Takeyori; Tanikawa, Kyuichi; Fenton, Wayne A.
Hyperammonemia, abnormalities in plasma amino acids and abnormalities of standard liver functions were corrected by orthotopic liver transplantation in a 14-day-old boy with carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I deficiency and in a 35-yr-old man with argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency. The first patient had high plasma glutamine levels and no measureable citrulline, whereas citrulline values were markedly increased in Patient 2. Enzyme analysis of the original livers showed undetectable activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I in Patient 1 and arginosuccinic acid synthetase in Patient 2. Both patients were comatose before surgery. Intellectual recovery of patient 1 has been slightly retarded because of a brain abscess caused by Aspergillus infection after surgery. Both patients are well at 34 and 40 mo, respectively, after surgery. Our experience has shown that orthotopic liver transplantation corrects the life-threatening metabolic abnormalities caused by deficiencies in the urea cycle enzymes carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I and arginosuccinic acid synthetase. Seven other patients–six with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and another with carbamyl phosphate synthetase-I deficiency–are known to have been treated elsewhere with liver transplantation 1½ yr or longer ago. Four of these seven recipients also are well, with follow-ups of 1½ to 5 yr. Thus liver transplantation corrects the metabolic abnormalities of three of the six urea cycle enzyme deficiencies, and presumably would correct all. PMID:1544622
Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Hughes, Robin D
Hepatocyte transplantation is being investigated as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with liver-based metabolic disorders. The progress made in this field to date is reviewed. Protocols have been developed using collagenase perfusion to isolate human hepatocytes from unused donor liver tissue. Hepatocytes with a high viability can often be obtained and can be cryopreserved for later use, though with loss of function on thawing. For clinical use, hepatocytes must be prepared in clean GMP conditions with cells meeting criteria of function and lack of microbial contamination before patient use. Hepatocytes are infused intraportally into the patient's liver, where a proportion of cells will engraft and replace the deficient metabolic function without the need for major surgery. Twenty patients have now received hepatocyte transplantation, including eight children at King's College Hospital. There was a range of aetiologies of liver disease: familial hypercholesterolaemia, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1, urea cycle defects, infantile Refsum disease, glycogen storage disease type Ia, inherited factor VII deficiency and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Clinical improvement and partial correction of the metabolic abnormality was observed in most cases. Considerable progress has been made in developing the technique, but hepatocyte transplantation is limited by the available supply of liver tissue. Hepatocytes derived from stem cells could provide alternative sources of cells in the future.
Dasari, Bobby V M; Schlegel, Andrea; Mergental, Hynek; Perera, M Thamara P R
The process of ageing has an impact on the entire human body including the organ systems. In transplantation, professionals are daily faced with risk assessment of suitable donor offers , whether to accept a liver graft for a specific recipient. In this context, livers from elderly donors are more frequently accepted for transplantation, to increase the donor pool and compensate the high waiting list mortality. In the current practice it is not unusual to accept 60-year old donor livers for transplantation, as the donor demographics have significantly changed over the years. However, controversy exists regarding the use of livers from donors above 70 or 80 years, particular in combination with other risk factors, e.g. liver steatosis, warm ischaemia or long cold storage. This review focuses first on the impact of ageing on liver morphology and function. Second, we will highlight outcome after transplantation from elderly donors. Finally, we describe further risk factors and donor-recipient selection under the scope of old donor organs and include our institutional experience and policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J
Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.
Schreiber, Peter W.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja
Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn’t differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic. PMID:29338022
Wibaux, Cécile; Legroux-Gerot, Isabelle; Dharancy, Sébastien; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Declerck, Nicole; Canva, Valérie; Mathurin, Philippe; Pruvot, François-René; Cortet, Bernard
Osteoporosis is common in liver transplant recipients as a result of both iatrogenic factors and preexisting hepatic osteodystrophy. To assess the prevalences of osteoporosis and fractures and to identify risk factors for these two abnormalities in patients awaiting liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease. Between January 2006 and December 2007, patients on a liver transplant waiting list underwent a routine evaluation comprising the identification of risk factors for osteoporosis, radiographs of the spine, bone mineral density measurements (BMD), and laboratory tests (phosphate and calcium levels, hormone assays, liver function tests, and bone turnover markers). We studied 99 patients (70 males and 20 females; mean age, 55 ± 8 years) including 75% with alcohol-induced cirrhosis with or without hepatocarcinoma. Among them, 36% had radiographic vertebral fractures, 38% had osteoporosis, 35% had osteopenia, and 88% had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (25(OH)vitamin D3<20 ng/mL). Lower BMD values were associated with vertebral fractures; the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each BMD decrease of 1 SD were as follows: spine, 1.45 (95%CI, 1.1-1.9); total hip, 2.1 (95%CI, 1.3-3.2); and femoral neck, 2 (95%CI, 1.3-3.1) (P<0.05). Levels of bone resorption markers correlated negatively with BMD at the spine and hip. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score correlated negatively with hip BMD. Our findings suggest high prevalences of low BMD values and vertebral fractures among patients awaiting liver transplantation. Bone status should be evaluated routinely in candidates to liver transplantation. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Chang, Yuan-Min; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chen, Teng-Wei; Hsieh, Chung-Bao
The aim of this study was to examine donor complications, satisfaction with the liver donation process, and factors associated with re-donation. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess donor complications and used questionnaires (including the Likert scale for donation satisfaction and simple yes/no responses for willingness to re-donate) in 110 adults who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) at Tri-Service General Hospital. The following clinical characteristics were determined: donation volume; first-degree relative; education; duration of hospital stay; occupation (donor-associated); MELD score; Child classification; complications; outcome (recipient-associated); and graft/recipient weight ratio (donor-recipient-associated). Descriptive statistics and mean values were compared using t-tests and p values <0.05 were considered significant. Twelve donors among 110 participants experienced complications above Clavien grade II. No surgical mortalities were observed. There were no differences in age, gender, left/right liver graft, donation volume, length of hospital stay, or satisfaction in donor complications. Ninety-four donors had satisfaction (score=4 and 5) about the donation process and no dissatisfaction was reported (score=1). Based on multivariate analysis, the intention to re-donate among liver donors was related to first-degree relatives, donor satisfaction, and recipient complications (P<0.05). Factors associated with a willingness to re-donate included first-degree relatives of the recipient, donor satisfaction with the donation process, and recipient complications. This study not only showed the safety of liver donation, but also had a positive effect on the intention to re-donate to enhance motivation for liver donation and increase the recruitment of living liver donors.
Wang, Connie W; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Feng, Sandy; Hayssen, Hilary; Segev, Dorry L; Lai, Jennifer C
The emerging epidemic of older patients with cirrhosis has led to a sharp increase in the number of ≥65 year olds considering liver transplantation (LT). However, clinicians lack objective measures to risk stratify older patients. We aimed to determine whether the short physical performance battery (SPPB), a well-validated geriatric measure of physical function, has greater prognostic value in older versus younger LT candidates. Adult outpatients listed for LT with laboratory Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥ 12 underwent physical function testing using the SPPB, consisting of gait speed, chair stands, and balance. Patients were categorized by age ("younger," < 65 years; "older," ≥ 65 years) and SPPB ("impaired," ≤ 9; "robust," > 9). Competing risks models associated age and SPPB with wait-list death/delisting. Of 463 LT candidates, 21% were ≥ 65 years and 18% died or were delisted. Older patients had slower gait (1.1 versus 1.3 m/seconds; P < 0.001), a trend of slower chair stands (12.8 versus 11.8 seconds; P = 0.06), and a smaller proportion able to complete all balance tests (65% versus 78%; P = 0.01); SPPB was lower in older versus younger patients (10 versus 11; P = 0.01). When compared to younger robust patients as a reference group, younger impaired patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.77; P = 0.03) and older impaired patients (HR, 2.70; P = 0.003) had significantly higher risk of wait-list mortality, but there was no difference in risk for older robust patients (HR 1.38; P = 0.35) [test of equality, P = 0.01]. After adjustment for Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-sodium (MELD-Na) score, only older impaired patients had an increased risk of wait-list mortality compared to younger robust patients (HR, 2.36; P = 0.01; test of equality P = 0.05). In conclusion, functional impairment, as assessed by the SPPB, predicts death/delisting for LT candidates ≥65 years independent of MELD
Zicker, Michelle; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha
Liver transplant seems to be an effective option to prolong survival in patients with end-stage liver disease, although it still can be followed by serious complications. Invasive fungal infections (ifi) are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of fungal infections in Brazilian liver transplant recipients is unknown. The aim of this observational and retrospective study was to determine the incidence and epidemiology of fungal infections in all patients who underwent liver transplantation at Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital between 2002-2007. A total of 596 liver transplants were performed in 540 patients. Overall, 77 fungal infections occurred in 68 (13%) patients. Among the 77 fungal infections, there were 40 IFI that occurred in 37 patients (7%). Candida and Aspergillus species were the most common etiologic agents. Candida species accounted for 82% of all fungal infections and for 67% of all IFI, while Aspergillus species accounted for 9% of all fungal infections and for 17% of all IFI. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant Candida isolates. Invasive aspergillosis tended to occur earlier in the post-transplant period. These findings can contribute to improve antifungal prophylaxis and therapy practices in Brazilian centres.
Bruinsma, Bote G.; Berendsen, Tim A.; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Yeh, Heidi; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut
The current standard for liver preservation is limited in duration. Employing a novel subzero preservation technique that includes supercooling and machine perfusion can significantly improve preservation and prolong storage times. By loading rat livers with cryoprotectants to prevent both intra- and extracellular ice formation and protect against hypothermic injury, livers can be cooled to −6 °C without freezing and kept viable for up to 96 hours. Here, we describe the procedures of loading cryoprotectants by means of subnormothermic machine perfusion (SNMP), controlled cooling to a supercooled state, followed by SNMP recovery and orthotopic liver transplantation. PMID:25692985
Yang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Yang, Kwangho; Lee, Tae Beom; Hwang, Hong Pil; Ahn, Sungwoo; You, Heecheon
Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry. Automatic segmentation algorithms using histogram analysis, hybrid level-set methods, and a customized region growing method were developed. User-friendly interfaces such as sequential and hierarchical user menus, context-sensitive on-screen hotkey menus, and real-time sound and visual feedback were implemented. Blood vessels were excluded from the liver for accurate liver graft volumetry. A large sphere-based interactive method was developed for dividing the liver into left and right lobes with a customized cutting plane. The proposed system was evaluated using 50 CT datasets in terms of graft weight estimation accuracy and task completion time through comparison to the manual tracing method. The accuracy of liver graft weight estimation was assessed by absolute difference (AD) and percentage of AD (%AD) between preoperatively estimated graft weight and intraoperatively measured graft weight. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of liver graft weight estimation were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using ten cases randomly selected. The proposed system showed significantly higher accuracy and efficiency in liver graft weight estimation (AD = 21.0 ± 18.4 g; %AD = 3.1% ± 2.8%; percentage of %AD > 10% = none; task completion time = 7.3 ± 1.4 min) than the manual tracing method (AD = 70
Burra, Patrizia; Germani, Giacomo; Masier, Annalisa; De Martin, Eleonora; Gambato, Martina; Salonia, Andrea; Bo, Patrizio; Vitale, Alessandro; Cillo, Umberto; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Senzolo, Marco
The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure patient long-term survival but also to offer the opportunity to achieve psychologic and physical integrity. Quality of life after liver transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual function. Before liver transplantation, sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are reported in men and women mainly due to abnormality of physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in some cases, origin of liver disease. Successful liver transplantation should theoretically restore hormonal balance and improve sexual function both in men and women, thus improving the reproductive performance. However, after transplantation, up to 25% of patients report persistent sexual dysfunction, and approximately one third of patients describe the appearance of de novo sexual dysfunction. Despite the described high prevalence of this condition, epidemiologic data are relatively scant. Further studies on pathophysiology and risk factors in the field of sexual function after liver transplantation along with new strategies to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after surgery are needed.
Delis, Spiros G; Bakoyiannis, Andreas; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Weppler, Debbie; Levi, David; Tzakis, Andreas G
Liver transplantation has been reported in the literature as an extreme intervention in cases of severe and complicated hepatic trauma. The main indications for liver transplant in such cases were uncontrollable bleeding and postoperative hepatic insufficiency. We here describe four cases of orthotopic liver transplantation after penetrating or blunt liver trauma. The indications were liver failure, extended liver necrosis, liver gangrene and multiple episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension, respectively. One patient died due to postoperative cerebral edema. The other three patients recovered well and remain on immunosuppression. Liver transplantation should be considered as a saving procedure in severe hepatic trauma, when all other treatment modalities fail. PMID:19340909
Habib, Shahid; Khan, Khalid; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Meister, Edward; Rana, Abbas; Boyer, Thomas
Background We evaluated the concept of whether liver failure patients with a superimposed kidney injury receiving a simultaneous liver and kidney transplant (SLKT) have similar outcomes compared to patients with liver failure without a kidney injury receiving a liver transplantation (LT) alone. Methods Using data from the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, patients were divided into five groups based on pre-transplant model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores and categorized as not having (serum creatinine (sCr) ≤ 1.5 mg/dL) or having (sCr > 1.5 mg/dL) renal dysfunction. Of 30,958 patients undergoing LT, 14,679 (47.5%) had renal dysfunction, and of those, 5,084 (16.4%) had dialysis. Results Survival in those (liver failure with renal dysfunction) receiving SLKT was significantly worse (P < 0.001) as compared to those with sCr < 1.5 mg/dL (liver failure only). The highest mortality rate observed was 21% in the 36+ MELD group with renal dysfunction with or without SLKT. In high MELD recipients (MELD > 30) with renal dysfunction, presence of renal dysfunction affects the outcome and SLKT does not improve survival. In low MELD recipients (16 - 20), presence of renal dysfunction at the time of transplantation does affect post-transplant survival, but survival is improved with SLKT. Conclusions SLKT improved 1-year survival only in low MELD (16 - 20) recipients but not in other groups. Performance of SLKT should be limited to patients where a benefit in survival and post-transplant outcomes can be demonstrated. PMID:28496531
Andersson, D; Castedal, M; Friman, V
Liver transplant recipients are at an increased risk for liver failure when infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Therefore, it is important to vaccinate these individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate how well liver transplanted patients in our unit were protected against HAV and HBV infection. Furthermore we investigated the vaccination rate and the antibody response to vaccination in these liver transplanted patients. Patients liver transplanted from January 2007 until August 2010 with a posttransplant check-up during the period March-November 2010 were included (n = 51). Information considering diagnose, date of transplantation, Child-Pugh score, and vaccination were collected from the patient records. Anti-HAV IgG and anti-HBs titers in serum samples were analyzed and protective levels were registered. Of the patients 45% were protected against hepatitis A infection and 29% against hepatitis B infection after transplantation. Only 26% were vaccinated according to a complete vaccination schedule and these patients had a vaccine response for HAV and HBV of 50% and 31%, respectively. An additional 31% received ≥ 1 doses of vaccine, but not a complete vaccination and the vaccine response was much lower among these patients, stressing the importance of completing the vaccination schedule. Even when patients were fully vaccinated, they did not respond to the same degree as healthy individuals. Patients seemed to be more likely to respond to a vaccination if they had a lower Child-Pugh score, suggesting that patients should be vaccinated as early as possible in the course of their liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burra, Patrizia; Belli, Luca Saverio; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Volpes, Riccardo; Marzioni, Marco; Giannini, Edoardo; Toniutto, Pierluigi
The present document contains the recommendations of an expert panel of transplant hepatologists, appointed by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), on how to manage the most common aspects of liver transplantation: the topics covered include: new treatments for HCV in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation; antiviral treatments in patients with HCV recurrence after liver transplantation; prophylaxis for HBV recurrence after liver transplantation; indications for liver transplantation in alcoholic liver disease; and Immunosuppressive therapy. The statements on each topic were approved by participants at the AISF Transplant Hepatologist Expert Meeting (organized by the Permanent Committee on Liver Transplantation in Mondello on 4-5 October 2015), and are graded according to the Oxford classification of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarici, K B; Karakas, S; Otan, E; Ince, V; Koc, C; Koc, S; Bayraktar, H; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Gungor, S; Kablan, Y; Yilmaz, S
The outcome of medical treatment is worse in fulminant liver failure (FLF) developing on acute or chronic ground. Recently, liver transplantations with the use of living and cadaveric donors have been performed in these diseases and good results obtained. In this study, we aimed to present the factors affecting the recovery of cerebral functions after liver transplantation in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) developing in FLF, to identify irreversible patient groups and to prevent unnecessary liver transplantation. In Inonu University's Liver Transplant Institute, 69 patients who made an emergency notice to the National Coordination Center for liver transplantation owing to FLF from January 2012 to December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 52 patients who underwent liver transplantation and recovered normal brain function, and group 2 had 17 patients who underwent liver transplantation and did not recover normal brain function and had cerebral death. All patients were evaluated before surgery for clinical encephalopathy stage, light reflex, and convulsions. Groups were compared and assessed according to age (>40, 10-40 and <10 years), body mass index, etiologic factor, preoperative laboratory values, transplantation type, mortality, and encephalopathy level. Multivariate analysis was done for specific parameters. Prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and total bilirubin values were significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding ammonia and lactate levels. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding sodium and potassium levels from serum electrolytes. However, the averages of both groups were within normal limits. pH and total bilirubin levels were meaningful for multivariate analysis. HE reversibility, mortality, and morbidity are important in patients with HE who undergo liver
Heckman, Jason T; Devera, Michael B; Marsh, J Wallis; Fontes, Paulo; Amesur, Nikhil B; Holloway, Shane E; Nalesnik, Michael; Geller, David A; Steel, Jennifer L; Gamblin, T Clark
The impact of locoregional therapy prior to liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma utilizing either transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), yttrium-90 ((90)Y), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or resection prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is largely unknown. We sought to examine locoregional therapies and their effect on survival compared with transplantation alone. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database. 123 patients were included. Patients were analyzed in two groups. Group I consisted of 50 patients that received therapy (20 TACE; 16 (90)Y; 13 RFA, 3 resections). Group II consisted of 73 patients transplanted without therapy. Median list time was 28 days (range 2-260 days ) in group I, and 24 days (range 1-380 days) in group II. Median time from therapy to OLT was 3.8 months (range 9 days to 68 months). Twelve patients (24%) were successfully downstaged (8 TACE, 2 (90)Y, 2 RFA/resection). Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival were 81%, 74%, and 74%, respectively. Survival was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.53). The 12 patients downstaged did not have a significant difference in survival as compared with the patients who received therapy but did not respond or the patients who were transplanted without therapy (P = 0.76). Our report addresses locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma as a bridge to transplant. There was no statistical difference in overall survival between patients treated and those not treated prior to transplant. We provide further evidence that locoregional therapy is a safe tool for patients on the transplant list, does not impact survival, and can downstage selected patients to allow life-saving liver transplantation.
West, James M
Anesthesiologists have clearly established their place in the history of medical ethics. Our involvement goes back to 1966 when Henri Beecher published his landmark paper on research and informed consent. Participation in the ethics of transplantation is no less important than our previous work. Organ transplant has been life saving for many but also has given rise to many misunderstandings not just from the public but also among our own colleagues. These include methods of allocation and donation, the role that affluence may play in receiving an organ, the definition of death and donation after circulatory death. As perioperative physicians and important members of the transplant team, anesthesiologists are expected to participate in all aspects of care including ethical judgments. This article discusses some of the issues that seem to cause the most confusion and angst for those of us involved in both liver transplantation and in the procurement of organs. It will discuss the definition of death, donation after circulatory death, the anesthesiologists' role on the selection committee, living donor liver transplantation, and transplantation of patients with alcohol-related liver disease.
Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung Tat
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the background of cirrhosis since this treatment modality can cure both diseases at once. Over the years, the applicability of OLT for HCC has evolved. In Asia, including Hong Kong, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is a universal problem having to be faced in all transplant centers. Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) has therefore been developed to counteract organ shortage and the high prevalence of HCC. The application of LDLT for HCC is a complex process involving donor voluntarism, selection criteria for the recipient and justification with respect to long-term survival in comparison to the result of deceased donor liver transplant. This article reviews the authors' experience with OLT for HCC patients in Hong Kong, with emphasis on the applicability and outcome of LDLT for HCC. Donor voluntarism has a significant impact on the application of LDLT. "Fast-track" LDLT in the setting of recurrence following curative treatment carries a high risk of recurrence even though the tumor stage fulfills the standard criteria. Although the survival outcome may be worse following LDLT than DDLT for HCC, LDLT is still the main treatment option for patients with transplantable HCC in Hong Kong, and a reasonable survival outcome can be achieved in selected patients with extended indications. It is particularly true that LDLT provides the only hope for patients with advanced HCC under the constricting problem of organ shortage.
Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P
AIM To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. RESULTS One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance (r2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation. PMID:27895402
Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P
To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance ( r 2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.
McLean, Kenneth A; Camilleri-Brennan, Julian; Knight, Stephen R; Drake, Thomas M; Ots, Riinu; Shaw, Catherine A; Wigmore, Stephen J; Harrison, Ewen M
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver allografts are increasingly used for transplantation. However, the posttransplantation clinical and quality of life outcomes of DCD recipients are traditionally considered to be inferior compared with donation after brain death (DBD) allograft recipients. Decision making for such marginal organs can be difficult. This study investigated the optimal decision to accept or decline a DCD liver allograft for a patient based on their current health. A Markov decision process model was constructed to predict the 5-year clinical course of patients on the liver transplant waiting list. Clinical outcomes were determined from the UK transplant registry or appropriate literature. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were determined using the condition-specific short form of liver disease quality of life (SF-LDQoL) questionnaire. There were 293/374 (78.3%) eligible patients who completed the SF-LDQoL questionnaire. A total of 73 respondents (24.9%) were before transplant and 220 were after transplant (DBD recipient, 56.3%; DCD recipient, 8.5%; ischemic cholangiopathy patient, 2.4%; retransplant recipient, 7.9%). Predictive modeling indicated that QALYs gained at 5 years were significantly higher in DCD recipients (3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.44-4.10) compared with those who remained on the waiting list for a DBD transplant with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores of 15-20 (3.36; 95% CI, 3.28-3.43), or >20 (3.07; 95% CI, 3.00-3.14). There was no significant advantage for individuals with MELD scores <15 (3.55; 95% CI, 3.47-3.63). In conclusion, this model predicts that patients on the UK liver transplant waiting list with MELD scores >15 should receive an offered DCD allograft based on the QALYs gained at 5 years. This analysis only accounts for donor-recipient risk pairings seen in current practice. The optimal decision for patients with MELD scores <15 remains unclear. However, a survival benefit was observed
Lué, Alberto; Solanas, Estela; Baptista, Pedro; Lorente, Sara; Araiz, Juan J; Garcia-Gil, Agustin; Serrano, M Trinidad
The age of liver donors has been increasing in the past several years because of a donor shortage. In the United States, 33% of donors are age 50 years or older, as are more than 50% in some European countries. The impact of donor age on liver transplantation (LT) has been analyzed in several studies with contradictory conclusions. Nevertheless, recent analyses of the largest databases demonstrate that having an older donor is a risk factor for graft failure. Donor age is included as a risk factor in the more relevant graft survival scores, such as the Donor Risk Index, donor age and Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation, and the Balance of Risk. The use of old donors is related to an increased rate of biliary complications and hepatitis C virus-related graft failure. Although liver function does not seem to be significantly affected by age, the incidence of several liver diseases increases with age, and the capacity of the liver to manage or overcome liver diseases or external injuries decreases. In this paper, the importance of age in LT outcomes, the role of donor age as a risk factor, and the influence of aging on liver regeneration are reviewed.
Lué, Alberto; Solanas, Estela; Baptista, Pedro; Lorente, Sara; Araiz, Juan J; Garcia-Gil, Agustin; Serrano, M Trinidad
The age of liver donors has been increasing in the past several years because of a donor shortage. In the United States, 33% of donors are age 50 years or older, as are more than 50% in some European countries. The impact of donor age on liver transplantation (LT) has been analyzed in several studies with contradictory conclusions. Nevertheless, recent analyses of the largest databases demonstrate that having an older donor is a risk factor for graft failure. Donor age is included as a risk factor in the more relevant graft survival scores, such as the Donor Risk Index, donor age and Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation, and the Balance of Risk. The use of old donors is related to an increased rate of biliary complications and hepatitis C virus-related graft failure. Although liver function does not seem to be significantly affected by age, the incidence of several liver diseases increases with age, and the capacity of the liver to manage or overcome liver diseases or external injuries decreases. In this paper, the importance of age in LT outcomes, the role of donor age as a risk factor, and the influence of aging on liver regeneration are reviewed. PMID:27275089
Sass, David A; Doyle, Alden M
This article describes the evolution of solid organ kidney and liver transplantation and expounds on the challenges and successes that the early transplant researchers and clinicians encountered. The article highlights the surgical pioneers, delves into the milestones of enhanced immunosuppression protocols, discusses key federal legislative and policy changes, and expounds on the ongoing disparities of organ supply and demand and the need for extended criteria and live donor organs to combat these shortages. Finally, recent changes in organ allocation and distribution policies are discussed. The authors also spotlight novel interventions that will further revolutionize abdominal transplantation in the next 50 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, W; Wai, C T; Da Costa, M; Tambyah, P A; Prabhakaran, K; Lee, K H
Tuberculosis is a rare but serious complication after transplantation. We report a case and discuss its presentation and management. A 60-year-old Indonesian male presented initially with fever, acute confusion and rapidly progressive right upper lobe pneumonia 3.5 months post-liver transplant, and was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis by positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli and tuberculosis culture. Standard anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered but was complicated by interaction with cyclosporine and drug-induced cholestasis. A high level of suspicion, prompt antituberculosis treatment and close follow-up are essential in management of post-transplant tuberculosis.
Wen, Jessica W; Furth, Susan L; Ruebner, Rebecca L
The natural history and survival of children with fibrocystic liver-kidney disease undergoing solid organ transplantation have infrequently been described. We report outcomes in a cohort of US children with fibrocystic liver-kidney disease receiving solid organ transplants over 20 yr. Retrospective cohort study of pediatric transplant recipients with diagnoses of fibrocystic liver-kidney disease from 1/1990 to 3/2010, using data from the SRTR. Subjects were categorized by the first transplanted organ: LT, KT, or SLK. Primary outcomes were death, re-transplant, transplant of the alternate organ, or initiation of dialysis. Seven hundred and sixteen subjects were transplanted in this period. Median age at first transplant was 9.7 yr. Of the LT, 14 (19%) required a second liver transplant at median of 0.2 yr, and five (7%) required kidney transplant or dialysis at a median of 9.0 yr. Of the KT, 188 (31%) required a second kidney transplant or dialysis at a median of 5.9 yr. Twenty-nine (5%) subsequently received liver transplant at a median of 6.0 yr. Among patients in this registry, far more children underwent kidney than liver transplants. The risk of subsequently needing transplantation of an alternate organ was low. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique
The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts.
Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique
The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts. PMID:25152573
Chen, H-M; Hu, R-H; Shih, F-Jong; Shih, F-J
This study aimed to explore the dilemmas of Taiwanese overseas liver transplant recipient families (OLTRF) across three overseas liver transplant (OLT) stages in Taiwan and Mainland China. An exploratory qualitative method was employed using a purposive sample of OLTRF, who received guided face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Data were subjected to content analysis. Nineteen OLTRF (15 female, 4 male) aged between 29 and 71 years (mean 55.1) for 19 patients with end-stage liver diseases were interviewed. OLT stages including predeparture stage (first stage), stay in China stage (second stage), and reentry to Taiwan stage (third stage). Ten kinds of dilemmas were encountered: (1) unable to get transplantation immediately (first to second stages); (2) dilemma of choosing overseas transplantation (first to second stages); (3) uncertainty about the transplantation outcomes (second to third stages); (4) care pressure (second to third stages); (5) poor diet adaptation (second to third stages); (6) lack of trust in the medical care quality (second stage); (7) worry about not fulfilling family responsibilities (second stage); (8) lack of information (all stages); (9) financial pressure (all stages); and (10) frustration when seeking medical care (all stages). Taiwanese OLTRF's perspectives of their dilemmas through the OLT process were first revealed in this study. Both Western and Eastern health professionals might be empowered by better understanding of OLTRF's living experiences and concerns during the stages of overseas liver transplantation. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roeb, E; Graf, J; Meyer, H J
Following the introduction of the MELD score, the survival rates have worsened after liver transplantation (LTX) in Germany. Existing organ shortages, shorter survival rates after LTX, and failures in the liver allocation process provide true challenges. Facilitated by a structured questionnaire, the appropriate German liver transplantation actors were approached with regard to these challenges for the first time. The aim was to provide a balanced experts' view in an anonymous fashion thereby identifying areas for potential improvement. Data collection was performed by a structured, standardised, anonymous survey of all LTX centres in Germany. We received 75 % replies of the questionnaires, 35 of 36 participants responded to more than 75 % of all questions. The following key points were highlighted. A minimum amount of LTX per centre was deemed important and monetary incentives must not exist. The ultimate goal of LTX is a prolongation of life and social as well as occupational reintegration. Quality management and transparent LTX registers are prerequisites for both adequate organ allocation and distribution of resources in order to achieve the best possible transplant outcomes. The German liver transplant experts consider transparency of organ allocation and systematic evaluation of the quality of transplant centres and the transplantation process itself to be mandatory, however, executed in a participatory way. A scoring system to facilitate the decision making process in order to predict the likelihood of satisfactory LTX outcome thereby circumventing some of the ethical and constitutional doubts would be highly appreciated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Burra, Patrizia; De Martin, Eleonora; Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica
Women constitute a particular group among patients with chronic liver disease and in the post-liver transplantation (LT) setting: they are set apart not only by traditional differences with respect to men (ie, body mass index, different etiologies of liver disease, and accessibility to transplantation) but also in increasingly evident ways related to hormonal changes that characterize first the fertile age and subsequently the postmenopausal period (eg, disease course variability and responses to therapy). The aim of this review is, therefore, to evaluate the role of the interplay of factors such as age, gender, and hormones in influencing the natural history of chronic liver disease before and after LT and their importance in determining outcomes after LT. As the population requiring LT ages and the mean age at transplantation increases, older females are being considered for transplantation. Older patients are at greater risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoporosis, and a worse response to antiviral therapy. Female gender per se is associated with a greater risk for osteoporosis because of metabolic changes after menopause, the bodily structure of females, and, in the population of patients with chronic liver disease, the greater prevalence of cholestatic and autoimmune liver diseases. With menopause, the fall of protective estrogen levels can lead to increased fibrosis progression, and this represents a negative turning point for women with chronic liver disease and especially for patients with hepatitis C. Therefore, the notion of gender as a binary female/male factor is now giving way to the awareness of more complex disease processes within the female gender that follow hormonal, social, and age patterns and need to be addressed directly and specifically. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Cantisani, G P C; Zanotelli, M L; Gleisner, A L M; de Mello Brandão, A; Marroni, C A
Mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) has been shown to be as effective and as safe as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in renal transplant patients. Nevertheless, compared to MMF its use in liver transplant patients has been limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of EC-MPS as a primary immunosuppressant or as a replacement for MMF in liver transplant patients. Ninety among 470 liver transplant recipients were receiving or had added an antimetabolite to their immunosuppressant therapy. The most common reason for this change was renal dysfunction (47.8%) or diabetes (32.2%). EC-MPS was started at a median of 30 months after liver transplantation. The mean administered daily dose was 720 mg/d. At least one gastrointestinal symptom was reported by 25 patients. Abdominal pain (16.6%) and diarrhea (14.5%) were the most frequent. EC-MPS had to be discontinued in two patients, while six others required dose reduction to resolve the symptoms. Hematological adverse events were infrequent: three patients had leukopenia and one, anemia, all of which responded to dosage reduction. There was a creatinine reduction within 6 months of drug commencement and maintenance of the lower creatinine levels at 1 year among patients who began EC-MPS for renal dysfunction. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower among patients on EC-MPS than on MMF. In conclusion, EC-MPS appears to have a similar efficacy and safety profile as MMF in liver transplant patients. Hematological and gastrointestinal adverse events were infrequent; seldom had the drug to be discontinued.
Afshar, Soheil; Porter, Melanie; Barton, Belinda; Stormon, Michael
As survival rates for pediatric liver transplant continue to increase, research attention is turning toward long-term functional consequences, with particular interest in whether medical and transplant-related factors are implicated in neurocognitive outcomes. The relative importance of different factors is unclear, due to a lack of methodological uniformity, inclusion of differing primary diagnoses, varying transplant policies, and organ availability in different jurisdictions. This cross-sectional, single-site study sought to address various methodological limitations in the literature and the paucity of studies conducted outside of North America and Western Europe by examining the intellectual and academic outcomes of Australian pediatric liver transplant recipients (N = 40). Participants displayed significantly poorer intellectual and mathematical abilities compared with the normative population. Greater time on the transplant waitlist was a significant predictor of poorer verbal intelligence, working memory, mathematical abilities, and reading but only when considering the subgroup of children with biliary atresia. These findings support reducing the time children wait for a transplant as a priority. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Uzunova, Yordanka; Prodanova, Krasimira; Spasov, Lyubomir
Using a two-factor logistic regression analysis an estimate is derived for the probability of absence of infections in the early postoperative period after pediatric liver transplantation. The influence of both the bilirubin level and the international normalized ratio of prothrombin time of blood coagulation at the 5th postoperative day is studied.
Plank, Lindsay D; Russell, Kylie
The purpose of this study was to review the most recent findings on approaches to managing the obesity and muscle wasting that are found in patients before and after liver transplantation. A number of articles have contributed to the accumulating evidence that morbid obesity is not an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation with survival outcomes similar across BMI groups. Obesity is, however, a risk factor for early post-transplant complications and obesity-related comorbidities markedly increase this risk. Very limited data are as yet available, dietary, or otherwise, related to amelioration of these comorbidities and evidence that weight loss leads to improved outcomes in obese patients is lacking. Abdominal computed tomography imaging is increasingly being used to identify muscle wasting, and poorer post-transplant survival is seen in patients with significant muscle wasting. This modality has confirmed the persistence of depleted muscle stores after transplant extending well beyond 1 year. Coupled with this is a high incidence of weight gain and metabolic syndrome and the associated risks. Although dietary intervention and exercise are considered possible approaches to address these issues, work in these areas so far is sparse. An urgent need exists for interventional studies on the basis of nutrition and/or exercise to address the challenges presented by both obesity and muscle wasting, which likely coexist in many patients in both the pretransplant and the post-transplant periods.
Nagai, Shunji; Safwan, Mohamed; Collins, Kelly; Schilke, Randolph E; Rizzari, Michael; Moonka, Dilip; Brown, Kimberly; Patel, Anita; Yoshida, Atsushi; Abouljoud, Marwan
The new Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Organ Sharing Network (OPTN/UNOS) simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (SLK) policy has been implemented. The aim of this study was to review liver transplant outcomes utilizing the new SLK policy. Liver transplant alone (LTA) and SLK patients between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. Graft survival and post-transplant kidney function were investigated among LTA patients meeting the chronic kidney disease (CKD) criteria of the new policy (LTA-CKD group). To validate our findings, we reviewed and applied our analysis to the OPTN/UNOS registry. A total of 535 patients were eligible from our series. The LTA-CKD group (n = 27) showed worse 1-year graft survival, compared with the SLK group (n = 44), but not significant (81% vs. 93%, P = 0.15). The LTA-CKD group significantly increased a risk of post-transplant dialysis (odds ratio = 5.59 [95% CI = 1.27-24.7], P = 0.02 [Ref. normal kidney function]). Post-transplant dialysis was an independent risk factor for graft loss (hazard ratio = 7.25, 95% CI = 3.3-15.91, P < 0.001 [Ref. SLK]). In the validation analysis based on the OPTN/UNOS registry, the hazard of 1-year-graft loss in the LTA-CKD group (n = 751) was 34.8% higher than the SLK group (n = 2856) (hazard ratio = 1.348, 95% CI = 1.157-1.572, P < 0.001). Indicating SLK for patients who meet the CKD criteria may significantly improve transplant outcomes. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.
Verghese, Priya S; Garvey, Catherine A; Mauer, Michael S; Matas, Arthur J
Little is published regarding the effect of advertising for kidney donors on transplant centers. At our center, families of nine children used media appeals. Per candidate, there were 8 to 260 potential donor calls, 92 (11.6%) were medically ineligible, 326 (41.1%) voluntarily did not proceed or an alternate donor had been approved, 38 (4.8%) were ABO incompatible, and 327 (41.1%) had positive crossmatch or unsuitable human leukocyte antigens. Media appeals resulted in four living donor transplants and five nondirected donors to other candidates, and we made directed changes in our center. The ethical debate of advertising for organ donors continues.
Ko, Dami; Muehrer, Rebecca J; Bratzke, Lisa C
Although self-management is essential for liver transplant recipients, there is no review that has synthesized findings related to self-management in this population. This narrative review aimed to synthesize the current findings and identify the gaps in knowledge about self-management in liver recipients. A search of PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsychINFO, ProQuest, and Web of Science was conducted using the following terms: [Self-care OR Self-management OR Health behavior] AND [Liver transplantation]. Peer-reviewed published research articles focusing on self-management of adult recipients were selected. A total of 23 articles were included for review. Two reviewers independently reviewed the full text of selected articles and extracted the data about definitions, measurements, and findings regarding self-management. Three areas of self-management were identified, including medication nonadherence (n = 11), alcohol recidivism (n = 11), and health maintenance (n = 5). Reported rates of medication nonadherence ranged from 8% to 66%. Medication nonadherence was related to recipients' demographic (eg, age or sex), transplant-related (eg, time since transplant), and pretransplant variables (eg, history of substance/alcohol abuse). Reported alcohol recidivism rates ranged from 3% to 95%. Age, pretransplant variables (eg, abstinent time before transplant), and personality disorder were identified to be related to alcohol recidivism after transplant. The health maintenance studies discussed behaviors such as smoking, clinic appointment attendance, or vaccination/health screening behaviors of recipients. Self-management studies in liver recipients have been narrowly focused on medication nonadherence and alcohol recidivism. To improve self-management in recipients, self-management beyond medication nonadherence and alcohol recidivism should be comprehensively examined.
Tumin, Dmitry; Hayes, Don; Washburn, W Kenneth; Tobias, Joseph D; Black, Sylvester M
Liver transplantation (LT) recipients in the United States have low rates of paid employment, making some eligible for Medicaid public health insurance after transplant. We test whether recent expansions of Medicaid eligibility increased Medicaid enrollment and insurance coverage in this population. Patients of ages 18-59 years receiving first-time LTs in 2009-2013 were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry and stratified according to insurance at transplantation (private versus Medicaid/Medicare). Posttransplant insurance status was assessed through June 2015. Difference-in-difference multivariate competing-risks models stratified on state of residence estimated effects of Medicaid expansion on Medicaid enrollment or use of uninsured care after LT. Of 12,837 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 6554 (51%) lived in a state that expanded Medicaid eligibility. Medicaid participation after LT was more common in Medicaid-expansion states (25%) compared to nonexpansion states (19%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of 7279 patients with private insurance at transplantation demonstrated that after the effective date of Medicaid expansion (January 1, 2014), the hazard of posttransplant Medicaid enrollment increased in states participating in Medicaid expansion (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.0; P = 0.01), but not in states opting out of Medicaid expansion (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.5-1.3; P = 0.37), controlling for individual characteristics and time-invariant state-level factors. No effects of Medicaid expansion on the use of posttransplant uninsured care were found, regardless of private or government insurance status at transplantation. Medicaid expansion increased posttransplant Medicaid enrollment among patients who had private insurance at transplantation, but it did not improve overall access to health insurance among LT recipients. Liver Transplantation 22 1075-1084 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the
Kalra, Avash; Biggins, Scott W
The 'Final Rule,' issued by the Health Resources and Service Administration in 2000, mandated that liver allocation policy should be based on disease severity and probability of death, and - among other factors - should be independent of a candidate's residence or listing. As a result, the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has explored policy changes addressing geographic disparities without compromising outcomes. Major paradigm shifts are underway in U.S. liver allocation policy. New hepatocellular carcinoma exception policy incorporates tumor characteristics associated with posttransplantation outcomes, whereas a National Liver Review Board will promote a standardized process for awarding exception points. Meanwhile, following extensive debate, new allocation policy aims to reduce geographic disparity by broadening sharing to the UNOS region and 150-mile circle around the donor hospital for liver transplant candidates with a calculated model for end-stage liver disease score at least 32. Unnecessary organ travel will be reduced by granting 3 'proximity points' to candidates within the same donation service area (DSA) as a liver donor or within 150 nautical miles of the donor hospital, regardless of DSA or UNOS region. This review provides an evaluation of major policy changes in liver allocation from 2016 to 2018.
Danesh, Ahmad; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asghari, Fariba; Jafarian, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar
Background Although liver transplantation is the last resort for treating end stage liver diseases, this medical procedure is not available for all needful patients because of inadequate organ supply. Therefore, guidelines have been developed by medical experts to regulate the process. Some professionals believe that medical criteria are inadequate for organ allocation in all situations and may not secure fairness of organ allocation. Objectives The current study has been designed to identify decision criteria about allocation of donated liver to potential recipients from public points of view. Patients and Methods This is a qualitative study that was conducted through individual interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Individual interviews were conducted among patients’ companions and nurses in one of the two liver transplant centers in Iran. Group discussions were conducted among groups of ordinary people who had not dealt previously with the subject. Data was analyzed by Thematic Analysis method. Results Most of the participants in this study believe that in equal medical conditions, some individual and societal criteria could be used to prioritize patients for receiving donated livers. The criteria include psychological acceptance, ability to pay post-operative care costs, being breadwinner of the family, family support, being socially valued, ability to be instructed, lack of mental disorders, young age of the recipient, being on waiting list for a long time, lack of patient’s role in causing the illness, first time transplant recipient, critical medical condition, high success rate of transplantation, lack of concurrent medical illnesses, not being an inmate at the time of receiving transplant, and bearing Iranian nationality. Conclusions Taking public opinion into consideration may smooth the process of organ allocation to needful patients with equal medical conditions. It seems that considering these viewpoints in drafting organ allocation guidelines
Kömürcü, Özgür; Camkıran Fırat, Aynur; Kaplan, Şerife; Torgay, Adnan; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet; Arslan, Gülnaz
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intraoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative outcomes in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. After ethics committee approval was obtained, we retrospectively analyzed the records of patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplant from January 2000 to December 2013. A total 389 orthotopic liver transplants were performed in our center, but patients aged < 15 years (179 patients) were not included in the analyses. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on their maximum intraoperative blood glucose level: group 1 (patients with intraoperative blood glucose level < 200 mg/dL) and group 2 (patients with intraoperative blood glucose level > 200 mg/dL). Postoperative complications between the 2 groups were compared. There were 58 patients (37.6%; group 1, blood glucose < 200 mg/dL) who had controlled blood glucose and 96 patients (62.3%; group 2, blood glucose > 200 mg/dL) who had uncontrolled blood glucose. The mean age and weight for groups 1 and 2 were similar. There were no differences between the 2 groups regarding the duration of anhepatic phase (P = .20), operation time (P = .41), frequency of immediate intraoperative extubation (P = .14), and postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (P = .06). There were no significant differences in frequency of patients who had postoperative infectious complications, acute kidney injury, or need for hemodialysis. Mortality rates after liver transplant were similar between the 2 groups (P = .81). Intraoperative hyperglycemia during orthotopic liver transplant was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection, acute renal failure, or mortality.
Rela, Mohamed; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is currently the commonest form of liver transplantation in Asia. Efforts to improve the number of deceased donor liver transplantation have not been uniformly successful. We believe that THE unique combination of demographic, social, economic and political factors that exist in Asia will ensure that LDLT will continue to remain the predominant form of liver transplantation. While efforts to increase deceased donation rates should continue and intensify, progress in LDLT should also be supported and encouraged, as it will be the main workhorse of liver transplantation in Asia in the near and medium-term future.
Rana, Anil Kumar Singh; Agarwal, Nitin; Dutta, Sushant; Dokania, Manoj Kumar
Efforts to increase the dismal deceased renal transplantation (DRT): live renal transplantation (LRT) ratio in our country have gathered momentum recently, with governmental and non-governmental projects focussing on building public awareness and capacity-building, and appropriate legislation. Worldwide, efforts at increasing the number of organs from the deceased pool have focussed on the use of 'expanded criteria donors', including deceased cardiac donors (DCD). 'Reuse' transplant, where an organ is transplanted after removal from the first recipient, is a rare strategy, used more commonly in liver than in kidney transplantation. Exceptional circumstances, where other organs have been harvested from transplant recipients, are rare. We describe the successful transplants of two renal grafts obtained from a 19-year-old brain-dead liver transplant recipient; this is probably the second case in English-language literature. A 19-year-old male patient with hepatitis E-induced fulminant hepatic failure underwent live-related liver transplantation. On postoperative day 2, cerebral edema set in, and the patient was declared brain-dead. Despite the economical and emotional trauma, the family opted for donation of the well-perfused kidneys. The kidneys were transported in HTK solution (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) to our centre. Recipient 1 was a 32-year-old woman (B positive) and recipient 2 was a 29-year-old man (also B positive); the kidneys were placed extraperitoneally and anastomosed end-to-side to the external iliac artery and vein. Recipient 2 experienced delayed graft function; however, both are doing well 15 months posttransplant.
Adler, Joel T; Yeh, Heidi; Markmann, James F; Nguyen, Louis L
Liver transplantation centers are unevenly distributed within the Donor Service Areas (DSAs) of the United States. This study assessed how market competition and liver transplantation center density are associated with liver transplantation volume within individual DSAs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 53,156 adult liver transplants in 45 DSAs with 110 transplantation centers identified from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 2003 and 2012. The following measures were derived annually for each DSA: market competition using the Herfindahl Hirschman Index, transplantation center density by the Average Nearest Neighbor method, liver quality by the Liver Donor Risk Index, and patient risk by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. A hierarchical mixed effects negative binomial regression model of the relationship between liver transplants and market factors was created annually. Patient and graft survival were investigated with a Cox proportional hazards model. Transplantation center density was associated with market competition (p < 0.0001), listings for organ transplantation (p < 0.0001), and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease at transplantation (p = 0.0005). More liver transplantation centers (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.03; p = 0.04), greater market competition (IRR = 1.36; p = 0.02), increased listings (IRR = 1.14; p < 0.0001), more donors (IRR = 1.24; p < 0.0001), and higher Liver Donor Risk Index (IRR = 3.35; p < 0.0001) were associated with more transplants. No market variables were associated with increased mortality after transplantation. After controlling for demographic and market factors, a greater concentration of centers was associated with more liver transplants without impacting overall survival. These results warrant additional investigation into the relationship between geospatial factors and liver transplantation volume with consideration for the optimization of scarce resources. Copyright © 2015 American
Burra, Patrizia; Rodriguez-Castro, Kryssia I
De novo neoplasms account for almost 30% of deaths 10 years after liver transplantation and are the most common cause of mortality in patients surviving at least 1 year after transplant. The risk of malignancy is two to four times higher in transplant recipients than in an age- and sex-matched population, and cancer is expected to surpass cardiovascular complications as the primary cause of death in transplanted patients within the next 2 decades. Since exposure to immunosuppression is associated with an increased frequency of developing neoplasm, long-term immunosuppression should be therefore minimized. Promising results in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence have been reported with the use of mTOR inhibitors including everolimus and sirolimus and the ongoing open-label prospective randomized controlled SILVER. Study will provide more information on whether sirolimus-containing vs mTOR-inhibitor-free immunosuppression is more efficacious in reducing HCC recurrence. PMID:26269665
Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Dzebisashvili, Nino; MacLeod, Kara E; Lentine, Krista L; Gheorghian, Adrian; Schnitzler, Mark A; Hohmann, Samuel; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E; Axelrod, David A
Accurate assessment of the impact of donor quality on liver transplant (LT) costs has been limited by the lack of a large, multicenter study of detailed clinical and economic data. A novel, retrospective database linking information from the University HealthSystem Consortium and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry was analyzed using multivariate regression to determine the relationship between donor quality (assessed through the Donor Risk Index [DRI]), recipient illness severity, and total inpatient costs (transplant and all readmissions) for 1 year following LT. Cost data were available for 9059 LT recipients. Increasing MELD score, higher DRI, simultaneous liver-kidney transplant, female sex, and prior liver transplant were associated with increasing cost of LT (P < 0.05). MELD and DRI interact to synergistically increase the cost of LT (P < 0.05). Donors in the highest DRI quartile added close to $12,000 to the cost of transplantation and nearly $22,000 to posttransplant costs in comparison to the lowest risk donors. Among the individual components of the DRI, donation after cardiac death (increased costs by $20,769 versus brain dead donors) had the greatest impact on transplant costs. Overall, 1-year costs were increased in older donors, minority donors, nationally shared organs, and those with cold ischemic times of 7-13 hours (P < 0.05 for all). In conclusion, donor quality, as measured by the DRI, is an independent predictor of LT costs in the perioperative and postoperative periods. Centers in highly competitive regions that perform transplantation on higher MELD patients with high DRI livers may be particularly affected by the synergistic impact of these factors. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Lu, Amy; Monge, Humberto; Drazan, Kenneth; Millan, Maria; Esquivel, Carlos O
To review the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 26 patients evaluated for liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital in an attempt to identify risk factors and prognostic predictors of survival. A retrospective review of the records of 26 consecutive patients who were evaluated for possible liver transplantation for acute liver failure from May 1, 1995, to January 1, 2000. Pretransplant patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected, and the data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Clinical assessment of encephalopathy did not predict outcome. Patients with abnormal computed tomography (CT) of the brain had a twofold increase in mortality compared with those patients with normal studies (p = 0.03). Patients requiring mechanical ventilation and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) also had a poor prognosis. Predictors of poor outcome after fulminant hepatic failure include abnormal CT scan, mechanical ventilation, and requirement for hemofiltration.
Hughes, Michael G.; Rosen, Hugo R.
Hepatitis C is a leading etiology of liver cancer and cause for liver transplantation. Although new therapies have improved the rates of sustained response, a large proportion of patients (~50%) fail to respond to antiviral treatment, thus remaining at risk for disease progression. While chimpanzees have been used to study HCV biology and treatments, their cost is quite high and their use is strictly regulated; indeed, the NIH no longer supports the breeding of chimpanzees for study. The development of HCV therapies has been hindered by the relative paucity of small animal models to study HCV pathogenesis. This review presents the strengths of the human liver transplant, highlighting the advances derived from this model, including insights into viral kinetics and quasispecies, viral receptor binding and entry, innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, consideration is made of current and emerging antiviral therapeutic approaches based on translational research results. PMID:19877210
Griesemer, Adam D.; Parsons, Ronald F.; Graham, Jay A.; Emond, Jean C.; Samstein, Benjamin
Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. PMID:25610698
Grąt, Michał; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Grąt, Karolina; Wronka, Karolina Maria; Krasnodębski, Maciej; Barski, Krzysztof; Zborowska, Hanna; Patkowski, Waldemar; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof; Krawczyk, Marek
Although up to 50% of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) resume alcohol consumption after liver transplantation (LT), numerous studies indicate that long-term results are not compromised. This study focused on evaluating the impact of ALD on outcomes up to and beyond the fifth year after LT. Among the 432 primary LT recipients included in this study, 97 underwent transplantation for ALD. Alcohol relapse rate at 10 yr was 33.5%, with younger recipient age being the only independent predictor (p = 0.019). Survival of patients with ALD (77.0%) was similar to those without (79.0%) up to the fifth post-transplant year (p = 0.655) but worse during the five subsequent years among the five-yr survivors (70.6% vs. 92.9%; p = 0.002). ALD was an independent risk factor for poorer survival beyond the fifth post-transplant year (p = 0.049), but not earlier (p = 0.717). Conversely, alcohol relapse increased the risk of death only during the first five post-transplant years (p = 0.039). There were no significant differences regarding graft failure incidence between ALD and non-ALD recipients up to the fifth post-transplant year (7.3% vs. 11.6%; p = 0.255) and beyond (12.9% vs. 5.0%; p = 0.126). In conclusion, pre-transplant diagnosis of ALD yields negative effects on post-transplant outcomes beyond the fifth post-transplant year, not attributable to recidivism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schneider, Kai Markus; Wirtz, Theresa H; Kroy, Daniela; Albers, Stefanie; Neumann, Ulf Peter; Strowig, Till; Sellge, Gernot; Trautwein, Christian
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most common healthcare-associated infections. Due to increasing numbers of recurrences and therapy failures, CDI has become a major disease burden. Studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can both be a safe and highly efficacious therapy for patients with therapy-refractory CDI. However, patients undergoing solid organ transplantation are at high risk for CDI due to long-term immunosuppression, previous antibiotic therapy, and proton pump inhibitor use. Additionally, these patients may be especially prone to adverse events related to FMT. Here, we report a successful FMT in a patient with severe therapy-refractory CDI after liver transplantation.
Gayowski, Timothy; Marino, Ignazio R.; Singh, Nina; Doyle, Howard; Wagener, Marilyn; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.
Background One of the most controversial areas in patient selection and donor allocation is the high-risk patient. Risk factors for mortality and major infectious morbidity were prospectively analyzed in consecutive United States veterans undergoing liver transplantation under primary tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Methods Twenty-eight pre-liver transplant, operative, and posttransplant risk factors were examined univariately and multivariately in 140 consecutive liver transplants in 130 veterans (98% male; mean age, 47.3 years). Results Eighty-two percent of the patients had post-necrotic cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis or ethanol (20% ethanol alone), and only 12% had cholestatic liver disease. Ninety-eight percent of the patients were hospitalized at the time of transplantation (66% United Network for Organ Sharing [UNOS] 2, 32% UNOS 1). Major bacterial infection, posttransplant dialysis, additional immunosuppression, readmission to intensive care unit (P=0.0001 for all), major fungal infection, posttransplant abdominal surgery, posttransplant intensive care unit stay length of stay (P<0.005 for all), donor age, pretransplant dialysis, and creatinine (P<0.05 for all) were significantly associated with mortality by univariate analysis. Underlying liver disease, cytomegalovirus infection and disease, portal vein thrombosis, UNOS status, Childs-Pugh score, patient age, pretransplant bilirubin, ischemia time, and operative blood loss were not significant predictors of mortality. Patients with hepatitis C (HCV) and recurrent HCV had a trend towards higher mortality (P=0.18). By multivariate analysis, donor age, any major infection, additional immunosuppression, post-transplant dialysis, and subsequent transplantation were significant independent predictors of mortality (P<0.05). Major infectious morbidity was associated with HCV recurrence (P=0.003), posttransplant dialysis (P=0.001), pretransplant creatinine, donor age, median blood loss, intensive care unit
Chang, Yaojen; Gallon, Lorenzo; Jay, Colleen; Shetty, Kirti; Ho, Bing; Levitsky, Josh; Baker, Talia; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John; Abecassis, Michael; Hazen, Gordon; Skaro, Anton I
There are complex risk-benefit tradeoffs with different transplantation strategies for end-stage liver disease patients on renal support. Using a Markov discrete-time state transition model, we compared survival for this group with 3 strategies: simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation, liver transplantation alone (LTA) followed by immediate kidney transplantation if renal function did not recover, and LTA followed by placement on the kidney transplant wait list. Patients were followed for 30 years from the age of 50 years. The probabilities of events were synthesized from population data and clinical trials according to Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores (21-30 and >30) to estimate input parameters. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of uncertainty on survival. Overall, the highest survival rates were seen with SLK transplantation for both MELD score groups (82.8% for MELD scores of 21-30 and 82.5% for MELD scores > 30 at 1 year), albeit at the cost of using kidneys that might not be needed. Liver transplantation followed by kidney transplantation led to higher survival rates (77.3% and 76.4%, respectively, at 1 year) than placement on the kidney transplant wait list (75.1% and 74.3%, respectively, at 1 year). When uncertainty was considered, the results indicated that the waiting time and renal recovery affected conclusions about survival after SLK transplantation and liver transplantation, respectively. The subgroups with the longest durations of pretransplant renal replacement therapy and highest MELD scores had the largest absolute increases in survival with SLK transplantation versus sequential transplantation. In conclusion, the findings demonstrate the inherent tension in choices about the use of available kidneys and suggest that performing liver transplantation and using renal transplantation only for those who fail to recover their native renal function could free up available donor kidneys. These results could inform
Posner, Andrew D; Sultan, Samuel T; Zaghloul, Norann A; Twaddell, William S; Bruno, David A; Hanish, Steven I; Hutson, William R; Hebert, Laci; Barth, Rolf N; LaMattina, John C
Transplant surgeons conventionally select against livers displaying high degrees (>30%) of macrosteatosis (MaS), out of concern for primary non-function or severe graft dysfunction. As such, there is relatively limited experience with such livers, and the natural history remains incompletely characterized. We present our experience of transplanted livers with high degrees of MaS and microsteatosis (MiS), with a focus on the histopathologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-nine cases were identified with liver biopsies available from both the donor and the corresponding liver transplant recipient. Donor liver biopsies displayed either MaS or MiS ≥15%, while all recipients received postoperative liver biopsies for cause. The mean donor MaS and MiS were 15.6% (range 0%-60%) and 41.3% (7.5%-97.5%), respectively. MaS decreased significantly from donor (M=15.6%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=0.86%), P<.001. Similarly, MiS decreased significantly from donor biopsies (M=41.3%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=1.8%), P<.001. At a median of 68 days postoperatively (range 4-384), full resolution of MaS and MiS was observed in 27 of 29 recipients. High degrees of MaS and MiS in donor livers resolve in recipients following liver transplantation. Further insight into the mechanisms responsible for treating fatty liver diseases could translate into therapeutic targets. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Olivera-Martínez, Marco Antonio; Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F
Hepatitis C represents more than 35% of liver transplant candidates worldwide. Meanwhile, hepatitis B continues to be an important cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia and Africa. Recurrent viral liver disease is a significant event after liver transplantation and continues to be one of the main causes of graft dysfunction and loss in the middle and long-term follow-up. Mechanisms of liver reinfection and disease recurrence vary between these two viruses and pre-emptive as well as the therapeutic approaches are different. Hepatitis B patients can be managed with immune globulin immediately after liver transplant and various agents such as nucleotide and nucleoside analogues can be associated. As a result, disease recurrence has been delayed or prevented in these patients. Individuals transplanted for hepatitis C are known to have universal reinfection and a high rate of disease recurrence has been reported in the literature. Strategies to treat hepatitis C recurrence are limited to the use of pegylated interferon and ribavirin when disease is demonstrated histologically and biochemically, although other strategies have been described with limited or no success. We herein review the mechanisms of disease recurrence and the current as well as the future therapeutic approaches to prevent and to treat these diseases.
Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo
BACKGROUND T lymphocytes are an essential component of allograft rejection and tolerance. The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the characteristics of T cell subsets in patients who underwent deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) versus living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Between April 2013 and June 2014, 64 patients underwent adult liver transplantation. The distribution of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets before transplantation and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-transplantation were monitored serially. RESULTS In the serial peripheral blood samples, the absolute CD3+ T cell counts in the LDLT group were higher than those in the DDLT group (p=0.037). The CD4+, CD8+, CD4/CD8, Vδ1, Vδ2, and γδ T cell counts did not change significantly over time in either group. The Vδ1/Vδ2 ratio was higher in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection than in patients without CMV infection (0.12 versus 0.26; p=0.033). The median absolute CD3+ and CD8+ T cell counts in patients with biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) were 884 (range, 305-1,320) and 316 (range, 271-1,077), respectively, whereas they were 320 (range, 8-1,167) and 257 (range, 58-1,472) in patients without BPAR. The absolute CD3+ and CD8 T cell counts were higher in patients with BPAR than in patients without BPAR (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS With the exception of CD3+ T cells, T cell populations did not differ significantly between patients who received DDLT versus LDLT. In liver transplantation patients, CMV infection and BPAR were closely associated with T cell population changes.
Kettelhut, Valeriya V; Nayar, Preethy
CONTEXT-Transplant center performance profiling provides important information for various concerned parties. Comparing a transplant center's performance against the performance of the best-in-class centers may help in understanding the performance thresholds for the underperforming centers. OBJECTIVES-(1) To identify and describe "Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-red-flag" performers and the "best-in-class" performers and (2) to examine the relationships between a center's performance profile and outcomes such as 1-year observed mortality, 1-month observed mortality, 1-year risk-adjusted mortality, and volume. METHODS-The data for analysis was obtained from the published reports on the Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients (SRTR) website for adult liver transplant programs compiled for the rolling 2 1/2-year cohorts of patients and included 7 cohorts of liver transplant recipients in the study from January through July 1, 2002, through December 31, 2010. We defined 4 performance profiles: CMS-red-flag, lower-than-expected, higher-than-expected, and best-in-class performers. RESULTS-The current SRTR methods classify approximately 7% of the adult liver centers as CMS-red-flag performers and 6% of the centers as best-in-class performers in every reported period. Neither of the low-volume centers (<30 liver transplants per 2 1/2-year cohort) was profiled as CMS-red-flag until the 2010 reporting period. The transplant center's profile was significantly associated with the 1-year and 1-month observed mortality rates in every reported cohort (P< .001). CONCLUSION-The CMS-red-flag profile can be characterized with the following: (1) the highest observed 1-year mortality, (2) the highest observed 1-month mortality, (3) a very large difference between the observed and adjusted mortality rates, and (4) the center volume greater than 30 liver transplants per 2 1/2-year cohort. The SRTR methods are not sensitive for performance profiling in the centers
Beresford, Thomas P; Lucey, Michael R
For teams around the world, alcoholic liver disease patients comprise the largest, and clinically most controversial, group applying for liver transplant. And yet evaluation decisions for them remain highly variable by locale. Targeting standardized assessment, we provide guidelines on what information the transplant team should seek, from what sources, and how best to make use of it. This report focuses on 'what to do and how to do it' in providing appropriate assessments for this complex patient group. Proper evaluation includes (a) taking the clinical history from the patient and a required, corroborating third person, (b) assessing patient cognition, (c) establishing alcohol/substance use diagnosis to differentiate alcohol dependence, abuse and polysubstance dependence, (d) assessing ambivalence in primary alcohol addiction, (e) measuring social stability and (f) using Vaillant's factors for abstinence prognosis. Properly applied, these six factors will allow standardized selection in most cases taken across programs despite differences in resources, available expertise and decision practices. This report focuses on the essentials of the psychiatric/behavioral evaluation for 'alcoholic' persons referred for liver transplant. Attention to those essentials offers clinical standardization across transplant programs in different locales.
de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Ducatti, Liliana; Mendes, Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli; Andraus, Wellington; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro
OBJECTIVES: Although liver transplantation procedures are common and highly expensive, their cost structure is still poorly understood. This study aimed to develop models of micro-costs among patients undergoing liver transplantation procedures while comparing the role of individual clinical predictors using tree regression models. METHODS: We prospectively collected micro-cost data from patients undergoing liver transplantation in a tertiary academic center. Data collection was conducted using an Intranet registry integrated into the institution’s database for the storing of financial and clinical data for transplantation cases. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients were included and accounted for 300 procedures. When evaluating specific costs for the operating room, intensive care unit and ward, we found that in all of the sectors but the ward, human resources were responsible for the highest costs. High cost supplies were important drivers for the operating room, whereas drugs were among the top four drivers for all sectors. When evaluating the predictors of total cost, a MELD score greater than 30 was the most important predictor of high cost, followed by a Donor Risk Index greater than 1.8. CONCLUSION: By focusing on the highest cost drivers and predictors, hospitals can initiate programs to reduce cost while maintaining high quality care standards. PMID:28658432
El-Gendi, Ahmed; Fadel, Shady; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Shawky, Ahmed
Primary liver transplantation is recommended for central POSTTEXT III and POSTTEXT IV hepatoblastoma. Aim is to prospectively assess safety, oncological efficacy of aggressive non-transplant extended hepatic resections in those patients. A prospective study included 18 children with central PRETEXT III and IV, 3 had primary liver transplantation whereas 15 underwent hepatic resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Median tumor volume was 317 ml (range 135-546). After 4 cycles chemotherapy, POST-TEXT was III in 12 and IV in 3 patients. There was no perioperative mortality. Postoperative complications were 2 bile leaks, one temporary decompensation and one sub-phrenic collection requiring drainage. 1 and 3 years disease free survival was 93.3% and 73.3% respectively. 3 years overall survival was 86.6%. Four patients developed recurrence, of which two died. Early recurrence within one year occurred in one patient. All recurrences were distant metastases. Extended major hepatic resection for selected cases of POST-TEXT III and IV hepatoblastoma is technically challenging but feasible approach with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Oncological outcomes are comparable to liver transplantation without the long-term commitment of immunosuppression or donor risk and morbidity however; potential donor should always be prepared for plan B if needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Popescu, I; Ionescu, M; Tulbure, D; Ciurea, S; Băilă, S; Braşoveanu, V; Hrehoreţ, D; Sârbu-Boeţi, P; Pietrăreanu, D; Alexandrescu, S; Dorobanţu, B; Gheorghe, L; Gheorghe, C; Mihăilă, M; Boroş, M; Croitoru, M; Herlea, V
We analyze the experience of the Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation from the Fundeni Clinical Institute (Bucharest, Romania) regarding orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in adult recipients, with whole liver grafts from cadaveric donors, between April 2000 (when the first successful LT was performed in Romania) and December 2004. This series includes 37 OLTs in adult recipients (16 women and 21 men, aged between 29-57 years--average 46 years). Other two LT with whole liver cadaveric grafts and two reduced-size LT were performed in children; also, in the same period, due to the acute organ shortage, other methods of LT were performed in 28 patients (21 living donor LT, 6 split LT and one "do mino" LT), that were not included in the present series. The indications for OLT were HBV cirrhosis--10, HBV+HDV cirrhosis--4, HCV cirrhosis--11, HBV+HCV cirrhosis--2, biliary cirrhosis--5, Wilson disease--2, alcoholic cirrhosis--1, non-alcoholic liver disease--1, autoimmune cirrhosis--1. With three exceptions, in which the classical transplantation technique was used, the liver was grafted following the technique described by Belghiti. Local postoperative complications occurred in 15 patients (41%) and general complications in 17 (46%); late complications were registered in 18 patients (49%) and recurrence of the initial disease in 6 patients (16%). Intrao- and postoperative mortality was 8% (3/37). There were two patients (5%) who died because of immunosuppressive drug neurotoxicity at more than 30 days following LT. Four patients (11%) died lately because of PTLD, liver venoocclusive disease, recurrent autoimmune hepatitis and liver venoocclusive disease, myocardial infarction, respectively. Thirty-four patients survived the postoperative period (92%); according to Kaplan-Meier analysis, actuarial patient-survival rate at month 31 was 75%.
Marques, D M; Teixeira, H R S; Lopes, A R F; Martins-Pedersoli, T A; Ziviani, L C; Mente, Ê D; Castro-E-Silva, O; Galvão, C M; Mendes, K S
The goal of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality and daytime sleepiness of patients eligible for liver transplants. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on liver transplant candidates from a transplant center in the interior of São Paulo State. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires were applied to obtain demographic and clinical characteristics and to assess sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. The mean (±SD) score on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale of the 45 liver transplantation candidates was 7.00 ± 2.83 points, with 28.89% having scores >10 points, indicating excessive daytime sleepiness. The mean score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was 6.64 ± 4.95 points, with 60% of the subjects showing impaired sleep quality, with scores >5 points. The average sleep duration was 07:16 h. Regarding sleep quality self-classification, 31.11% reported poor or very poor quality. It is noteworthy that 73.33% of patients had to go to the bathroom, 53.33% woke up in the middle of the night, and 40.00% reported pain related to sleeping difficulties. Comparison of subjects with good and poor sleep quality revealed a significant difference in time to sleep (P = .0002), sleep hours (P = .0003), and sleep quality self-classification (P = .000072). Liver transplant candidates have a compromised quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. In clinical practice, we recommend the evaluation and implementation of interventions aimed at improving the sleep and wakefulness cycle, contributing to a better quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roullet, S; Defaye, M; Quinart, A; Adam, J-P; Chiche, L; Laurent, C; Neau-Cransac, M
The persistent scarcity of donors has prompted liver transplantation teams to find solutions for increasing graft availability. We report our experience of liver transplantations performed with grafts from older donors, specifically over 70 and 80 years old. We analyzed our prospectively maintained single-center database from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014, with 380 liver transplantations performed in 354 patients. Six groups were composed according to donor age: <40 (n = 84), 40 to 49 (n = 67), from 50 to 59 (n = 62), from 60 to 69 (n = 76), from 70 to 79 (n = 64), and ≥80 years (n = 27). Donors <40 years of age had a lower body mass index, died more often from trauma, and more often had cardiac arrest and high transaminase levels. In contrast, older donors (≥70 years of age) died more often from stroke. Recipients of grafts from donors <50 years of age were more frequently infected by hepatitis C virus; recipients of oldest grafts more often had hepatocellular carcinoma. Cold ischemia time was the shortest in donors >80 years of age. Patient survival was not significantly different between the groups. In multivariate analysis, factors predicting graft loss were transaminase peak, retransplantation and cold ischemia time but not donor age. Older donors >70 and >80 years of age could provide excellent liver grafts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lupaşcu, Cristian; Apopei, Oana; Vlad, Nutu; Vasiluta, Ciprian; Trofin, Ana-Maria; Zabara, Mihai; Vornicu, Alexandra; Lupaşcu-Ursulescu, Corina; Nitu, Mioara; Crumpei, Felicia; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel
Hematoma of the graft is a life threatening complication of liver transplantation (LT) and there has been no overt conclusion in the literature about optimal management except in scarcely reported cases. It may be either intrahepatic or subcapsular, then again it may develop spontaneously or following parenchimal injuries or transhepatic percutaneous invasive manoeuvers. In this report we describe a rare case of large spontaneous graft intra- and perihepatic hematoma. A 62 year-old man underwent a whole graft orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for decompensated chronic liver disease due to alcoholic cirrhosis. The surgical procedure was uneventful. During the early postoperative course, routine Doppler ultrasound examination and CT-scan revealed an extrahepatic paracaval hematoma, 7 days after transplantation, which was stable and conservatively managed until the 18-th postoperative day, when rapidly expanding intraparenchimal hematoma involving the right hemiliver, several other perihepatic hematomas, significant right pleural effusion and hemorrhagic ascites were described. The patient was successfully treated conservatively (nonsurgically) with slow recovery of the liver allograft and discharged one month later in good general status. Celsius.
Diaz, Hector Toro; Mayorga, Maria; Barritt, A. Sidney; Orman, Eric S.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.
The number of liver transplants (LTs) performed in the US increased until 2006, but has since declined despite an ongoing increase in demand. This decline may be due in part to decreased donor liver quality and increasing discard of poor quality livers. We constructed a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model informed by current donor characteristics to predict future LT trends through the year 2030. The data source for our model is the United Network for Organ Sharing database, which contains patient level information on all organ transplants performed in the US. Previous analysis showed that liver discard is increasing and that discarded organs are more often from donors who are older, obese, have diabetes, and donated after cardiac death. Given that the prevalence of these factors is increasing, the DES model quantifies the reduction in the number of LTs performed through 2030. In addition, the model estimates the total number of future donors needed to maintain the current volume of LTs, and the effect of a hypothetical scenario of improved reperfusion technology. We also forecast the number of patients on the waiting list and compare this to the estimated number of LTs to illustrate the impact that decreased LTs will have on patients needing transplants. By altering assumptions about the future donor pool, this model can be used to develop policy interventions to prevent a further decline in this life saving therapy. To our knowledge, there are no similar predictive models of future LT use based on epidemiologic trends. PMID:25391681
Woodle, E.S.; Ward, R.E.; Vera, D.R.
Tc-NGA is a new liver imaging agent which binds to hepatic binding protein (HBP), a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of Tc-NGA imaging in liver transplantation. The molar Tc-NGA dose was standardized according to patient weight (0.7 nmole/kg). After a 30 minute dynamic imaging study (5 mCi, IV), kinetic analysis of time activity data (heart, liver), provided values for receptor concentration, (HBP), and hepatic blood flow, Q. Eleven Tc-NGA imaging studies were performed in transplant candidates and 22 studies were performed in seven transplant recipients. Preservation damage was manifested bymore » diffuse patchiness in tracer distribution which resolved during the following two weeks. Histologically proven, localized hepatic infarcts were demonstrated in three recipients. Lobar infarction was demonstrated in one recipient. Hepatic regeneration was later demonstrated in this patient after hepatic lobectomy. Hepatic blood flow was markedly decreased in the early postoperative period, but improved with time. Increased (HBP) was demonstrated with regeneration. Markedly decreased (HBP) and Q were obtained in several candidates who died awaiting transplantation. These studies indicate that TC-NGA liver imaging provides a valuable new means for: (1) evaluation of preservation damage, (2) early demonstration of hepatic infarction, (3) evaluation of hepatic rejection, and (4) selection of patients for hepatic transplantation.« less
Uemura, Tadahiro; Nikkel, Lucas E; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Ramprasad, Varun; Schaefer, Eric; Kadry, Zakiyah
Advanced age donors have inferior outcomes of liver transplantation for Hepatitis C (HCV). Aged donors grafts may be transplanted into young or low model for end stage liver disease (MELD) patients in order to offset the effect of donor age. However, it is not well understood how to utilize liver grafts from advanced aged donors for HCV patients. Using the UNOS database, we retrospectively studied 7508 HCV patients who underwent primary liver transplantation. Risk factors for graft failure and graft survival using advanced aged grafts (donor age ≥ 60 years) were analyzed by Cox hazards models, donor risk index (DRI) and organ patient index (OPI). Recipient's age did not affect on graft survival regardless of donor age. Advanced aged grafts had significant inferior survival compared to younger aged grafts regardless of MELD score (P < 0.0001). Risk factors of HCV patients receiving advanced aged grafts included donation after cardiac death (DCD, HR: 1.69) and recent hospitalization (HR: 1.43). Advanced aged grafts showed significant difference in graft survival of HCV patients with stratification of DRI and OPI. In conclusion, there was no offsetting effect by use of advanced aged grafts into younger or low MELD patients. Advanced aged grafts, especially DCD, should be judiciously used for HCV patients with low MELD score. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.
Croome, Kris P; McAlister, Vivian; Adams, Paul; Marotta, Paul; Wall, William; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto
Previous studies have shown a higher incidence of biliary complications following donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation compared with donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplantation. The endoscopic management of ischemic type biliary strictures in patients who have undergone DCD liver transplants needs to be characterized further. A retrospective institutional review of all patients who underwent DCD liver transplant from January 2006 to September 2011 was performed. These patients were compared with all patients who underwent DBD liver transplantation in the same time period. A descriptive analysis of all DCD patients who developed biliary complications and their subsequent endoscopic management was also performed. Of the 36 patients who received DCD liver transplants, 25% developed biliary complications compared with 13% of patients who received DBD liver transplants (P=0.062). All DCD allograft recipients who developed biliary complications became symptomatic within three months of transplantation. Ischemic type biliary strictures in DCD allograft recipients included disseminated biliary strictures in two patients, biliary strictures of the hepatic duct bifurcation in three patients and biliary strictures of the donor common hepatic duct in three patients. There was a trend toward increasing incidence of total biliary complications in recipients of DCD liver allografts compared with those receiving DBD livers, and the rate of diffuse ischemic cholangiopathy was significantly higher. Focal ischemic type biliary strictures can be treated effectively in DCD liver transplant recipients with favourable results. Diffuse ischemic type biliary strictures in DCD liver transplant recipients ultimately requires retransplantation.
Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro
During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing
Manas, Derek; Burnapp, Lisa; Andrews, Peter Antony
The British Transplantation Society Guidelines for Living Donor Liver Transplantation was published in July 2015 and is the first national guideline in the field of living donor liver transplantation. The guideline aims to review the evidence relating to the evaluation process of both recipient and donor candidates; address the moral and ethical issues surrounding the procedure; outline the technical aspects of the procedure, including the middle hepatic vein controversy and the "small for size syndrome"; review donor and recipient outcomes and complications including donor mortality; and examine evidence relating to the advantages and disadvantages of living donor liver transplantation. In line with previous guidelines published by the BTS, the guideline has used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system to rate the strength of evidence and recommendations. This article summarizes the Statements of Recommendation contained in the guideline, which provide a framework for the delivery of living liver donation in the United Kingdom and may be of wide international interest. It is recommended that the full guideline document is consulted for details of the relevant references and evidence base. This may be accessed at http://www.bts.org.uk/BTS/Guidelines_Standards/Current/BTS/Guidelines_Standards/Current_Guidelines.aspx?hkey=e285ca32-5920-4613-ac08-fa9fd90915b5.
Yu, Songfeng; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Longyu; Ye, Yufu; Geng, Lei; Yu, Zhiyong; Yan, Sheng; Wu, Lihua; Wang, Weilin; Zheng, Shusen
Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donors could have potential to increase the donor pool. However, knowledge is extremely limited in this setting because currently available data are mostly from case reports. We aimed to assess the outcomes and experiences of liver transplantation from HBsAg positive donors in a single centre study. From January 2010 to February 2013, 42 adult patients underwent liver transplantation from HBsAg positive donors and 327 patients from HBsAg negative ones. The outcomes including complications and survival of two groups were compared and antiviral therapy retrospectively reviewed. HBsAg positive liver grafts were more likely to be allocated to patients with hepatitis B (HBV)-related diseases. Post-transplant evaluation showed similar graft function regaining pace and no differences in complications such as primary non-function, acute rejection and biliary complications. Patient and graft survivals were comparable to that of HBsAg negative grafts. Furthermore, HBsAg persisted after transplant in all patients that received positive grafts. The donor HBV serum status determined the one of the recipient after transplantation. No HBV flare-ups were observed under antiviral therapy of oral nucleotide analogues, regardless of using hepatitis B immunoglobulin combination. Utilization of HBsAg positive liver grafts seems not to increase postoperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore it is a safe way to expand the donor pool when no suitable donor is available. Our experience also suggests that hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be abandoned in recipients of HBsAg positive liver grafts, in whom HBV prophylaxis could be the only oral antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lan, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Fei; Wei, Yong-Gang; Li, Bo
Liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most effective treatments for end-stage liver disease caused by related risk factors when liver resection is contraindicated. Additionally, despite the decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) over the past two decades, the absolute number of HBsAg-positive people has increased, leading to an increase in HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, a large demand exists for LT. While the wait time for patients on the donor list is, to some degree, shorter due to the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), there is still a shortage of liver grafts. Furthermore, recipients often suffer from emergent conditions, such as liver dysfunction or even hepatic encephalopathy, which can lead to a limited choice in grafts. To expand the pool of available liver grafts, one option is the use of organs that were previously considered “unusable” by many, which are often labeled “marginal” organs. Many previous studies have reported on the possibilities of using marginal grafts in orthotopic LT; however, there is still a lack of discussion on this topic, especially regarding the feasibility of using marginal grafts in LDLT. Therefore, the present review aimed to summarize the feasibility of using marginal liver grafts for LDLT and discuss the possibility of expanding the application of these grafts. PMID:29930466
Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo
Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the “6-mo rule”. Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The “Group of Italian Regions” suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups. PMID:25356027
Mikolasevic, Ivana; Filipec-Kanizaj, Tajana; Mijic, Maja; Jakopcic, Ivan; Milic, Sandra; Hrstic, Irena; Sobocan, Nikola; Stimac, Davor; Burra, Patrizia
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is a challenging and multisystem disease that has a high socioeconomic impact. NAFLD/NASH is a main cause of macrovesicular steatosis and has multiple impacts on liver transplantation (LT), on patients on the waiting list for transplant, on post-transplant setting as well as on organ donors. Current data indicate new trends in the area of chronic liver disease. Due to the increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, NASH cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma caused by NASH will soon become a major indication for LT. Furthermore, due to an increasing incidence of MetS and, consequently, NAFLD, there will be more steatotic donor livers and less high quality organs available for LT, in addition to a lack of available liver allografts. Patients who have NASH and are candidates for LT have multiple comorbidities and are unique LT candidates. Finally, we discuss long-term grafts and patient survival after LT, the recurrence of NASH and NASH appearing de novo after transplantation. In addition, we suggest topics and areas that require more research for improving the health care of this increasing patient population. PMID:29662288
Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William; Olausson, Michael; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Nowak, Greg; Duraj, Frans; Isoniemi, Helena; Rasmussen, Allan; Karlsen, Tom H; Foss, Aksel
The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75 years. Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver graft from donors aged 20 to 49 years (D20-49 group). Median donor age was 77 years (range, 75-86 years) in the D75 group and 41 years (range, 20-49 years) in the D20-49 group. Median recipient age was 59 years (range, 31-73 years) in the D75 group and 58 years (range, 31-74 years) in the D20-49 group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient/graft survival values were 87/87%, 81/81%, and 71/67% for the D75 group and 88/87%, 75/73%, and 75/73% for the D20-49 group, respectively. Patient (P = 0.89) and graft (P = 0.79) survival did not differ between groups. The frequency of biliary complications was higher in the D75 group (29.6/13%, P = 0.03). Selected livers from donors over age 75 years should not be excluded based on age, which does not compromise patient or graft survival despite a higher frequency of biliary complications.
Franco, C C; Martínez, J M A; Bellido, C B; Artacho, G S; Gómez, L M M; Diez-Canedo, J S; Aunión, C D; Ruiz, F J P; Bravo, M A G
The progressive increase in the number of liver transplantation candidates has brought with it a consequent increase in waiting list mortality, making it necessary to revise donor selection criteria and to analyze the factors that optimize outcomes. This retrospective observational study of 1802 liver transplantations performed in Andalusia between 2000 and 2010 analyzes the outcomes from donors aged 70 years or older (n = 211) in terms of survival rates of the graft and the recipient, the type of transplant, donor age, and DMELD (Donor-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score. The most frequent reasons for transplantation were alcoholic cirrhosis (45.5%), hepatitis C cirrhosis (20.4%), and liver cancer (11.8%). The overall survival rate at 5 years was 67%; with a significant decrease in survival rates for recipients with a DMELD greater than 1400 (44%). In the 70-year-old-plus donor group, the overall patient and graft survival rates were 57% and 52%, respectively. The re-transplantation rate increased proportionately with donor age: 5.9% between 70 and 74 years, 9.5% from 75 to 79 years, and 17.6% from 80 to 84 years. In the alcoholic cirrhosis recipient sub-group, the overall survival rate at 5 years was 69% (P < .05) compared to 34% in hepatitis C patients (P < .05). The widening of the donor age selection criteria is therefore a safe option, provided that a DMELD score less than 1400 is obtained. Although re-transplantation rates increase progressively with donor age, they remain less than 10%. It is necessary to carefully screen recipients of older organs, taking into account that the best results are obtained for patients who have alcoholic cirrhosis, are hepatitis C negative, and have a DMELD score that is less than 1,400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Erim, Yesim; Scheel, Jennifer; Beckmann, Mingo; Klein, Christian-Georg; Paul, Andreas
The Transplant Evaluation Rating Scale (TERS) was developed to provide a standardized evaluation of the psychosocial functioning of patients, before transplantation. Yet, the first 2 items of the TERS are based on psychiatric diagnoses referring to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R, which leads to a duplication of disorder-specific and symptom-specific contents, that makes it complex to rate. Moreover, the TERS has not been updated to DSM revisions and DSM is not used for the official clinical routine documentation in several European countries. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the psychometric properties of a diagnoses-corrected version of the TERS (items 1 and 2 omitted). In 85 patients awaiting liver transplantation, the discrimination capacities, predictive value, convergent validity, and interrater reliability of the original version (TERS10) and the diagnoses-corrected version (TERS8) were analyzed. In both versions, patients with psychiatric diagnoses (69.4%) exhibited significantly higher TERS mean values than patients without psychiatric disorders. This also held for patients who were temporarily not found eligible for transplantation in the psychosocial evaluation (25.9%) compared with patients who were eligible for listing for transplantation. Furthermore, the area under the curve was >0.90 for both versions and a cutoff of 32.25 is suggested for TERS8 (sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 87.3%). Our results substantiate good psychometric properties of the revised (diagnoses corrected) TERS, which is of great benefit for standardized psychosocial evaluation before liver transplantation. Further, validation of TERS8 and its cutoff in other samples of (liver) transplantation patients is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asthana, Sonal; Maguire, Connor; Lou, Lawrence; Meier, Michael; Bain, Vincent; Townsend, Derek R; Townsend, Rex; Lien, Dale; Bigam, David; Kneteman, Norman; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James
Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a complication of portal hypertension, defined by the presence of liver disease, abnormal pulmonary gas exchange and evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations producing a right-to-left intrapulmonary shunt. Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice; however, severe hypoxemia (PaO(2) < 50 mmHg on room air) is considered a contraindication to LT. This approach disadvantages some patients, particularly young patients with no intrinsic cardio-respiratory disease. We discuss one such patient who improved with LT despite having extremely severe HPS (PaO2 < 29 mmHg).
Doblecki-Lewis, S; Palaios, E; Bejarano, P A; Tzakis, A G; Selvaggi, G; Morris, M I
Gas gangrene is a rare and devastating infectious process that can occur after liver transplantation, most often following hepatic artery thrombosis. We here report 3 cases of gas gangrene following orthotopic liver transplantation. Blood cultures were positive for Clostridium clostridiiforme in one case. In 2 other cases liver tissue from explanted specimens was positive for Enterobacter cloacae. Ultrasound demonstrated hepatic artery thrombosis and computed tomography imaging revealed diffuse liver necrosis with gas formation in each case. All 3 patients were successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics and emergent re-transplantation. We review previously published cases of gas gangrene after liver transplant and emphasize the importance of hepatic artery thrombosis in the development of this syndrome as well as the frequent involvement of non-clostridial organisms. Early diagnosis and aggressive combined medical and surgical treatment including re-transplantation are essential for successful treatment of these rare and catastrophic infections.
Kaiser, Thorsten; Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Parthaune, Tanja; Schmidt, Michael; Thiery, Joachim
Introduction The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is used in many countries to prioritize organ allocation for the majority of patients who require orthotopic liver transplantation. This score is calculated based on the following laboratory parameters: creatinine, bilirubin and the international normalized ratio (INR). Consequently, high measurement accuracy is essential for equitable and fair organ allocation. For serum creatinine measurements, the Jaffé method and enzymatic detection are well-established routine diagnostic tests. Methods A total of 1,013 samples from 445 patients on the waiting list or in evaluation for liver transplantation were measured using both creatinine methods from November 2012 to September 2013 at the university hospital Leipzig, Germany. The measurements were performed in parallel according to the manufacturer’s instructions after the samples arrived at the institute of laboratory medicine. Patients who had required renal replacement therapy twice in the previous week were excluded from analyses. Results Despite the good correlation between the results of both creatinine quantification methods, relevant differences were observed, which led to different MELD scores. The Jaffé measurement led to greater MELD score in 163/1,013 (16.1%) samples with differences of up to 4 points in one patient, whereas differences of up to 2 points were identified in 15/1,013 (1.5%) samples using the enzymatic assay. Overall, 50/152 (32.9%) patients with MELD scores >20 had higher scores when the Jaffé method was used. Discussion Using the Jaffé method to measure creatinine levels in samples from patients who require liver transplantation may lead to a systematic preference in organ allocation. In this study, the differences were particularly pronounced in samples with MELD scores >20, which has clinical relevance in the context of urgency of transplantation. These data suggest that official recommendations are needed to determine which
Prigent, Gwénolé; Aït-Ammar, Nawel; Levesque, Eric; Fekkar, Arnaud; Costa, Jean-Marc; El Anbassi, Sarra; Foulet, Françoise; Duvoux, Christophe; Merle, Jean-Claude; Dannaoui, Eric; Botterel, Françoise
Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest and the EUCAST reference method. Isolates were analyzed by FKS sequencing and genotyped based on microsatellites or multilocus sequence typing (MLST) profiles. Ninety-four patients were included, and 39 patients were colonized or infected and treated with echinocandin. Echinocandin resistance appeared in 3 (8%) of the treated patients within 1 month of treatment. One patient was colonized by resistant Candida glabrata, one by resistant Candida dubliniensis, and one by resistant Candida albicans Molecular analysis found three mutations in FKS2 HS1 (F659S, S663A, and D666E) for C. glabrata and one mutation in FKS1 HS1 (S645P) for C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Susceptible and resistant isolates belonged to the same genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study on echinocandin resistance in Candida spp. in a liver transplant population. Most resistant isolates were found around/in digestive sites, perhaps due to lower diffusion of echinocandin in these sites. This work documents the risk of emergence of resistance to echinocandin, even after short-term treatment. Copyright © 2017 Prigent et al.
Zhou, Jie; Hu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Qijun; Li, Zhiwei; Xiang, Jie; Yan, Sheng; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shusen
De novo malignancies occur after liver transplantation because of immunosuppression and improved long-term survival. But the spectrums and associated risk factors remain unclear. To describe the overall pattern of de novo cancers in liver transplant recipients. Data from Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from October 1987 to December 2009 were analyzed. The spectrum of de novo cancer was analyzed and logistic-regression was used to identify predictors of do novo malignancies. Among 89,036 liver transplant recipients, 6,834 recipients developed 9,717 post-transplant malignancies. We focused on non-skin malignancies. A total of 3,845 recipients suffered from 4,854 de novo non-skin malignancies, including 1,098 de novo hematological malignancies, 38 donor-related cases, and 3,718 de novo solid-organ malignancies. Liver transplant recipients had more than 11 times elevated cancer risk compared with the general population. The long-term overall survival was better for recipients without de novo cancer. Multivariate analysis indicated that HCV, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, re-transplantation, combined transplantation, hepatocellular carcinoma, immunosuppression regime of cellcept, cyclosporine, sirolimus, steroids and tacrolimus were independent predictors for the development of solid malignancies after liver transplantation. De novo cancer risk was elevated in liver transplant recipients. Multiple factors including age, gender, underlying liver disease and immunosuppression were associated with the development of de novo cancer. This is useful in guiding recipient selection as well as post-transplant surveillance and prevention.
Le Dinh, Hieu; de Roover, Arnaud; Kaba, Abdour; Lauwick, Séverine; Joris, Jean; Delwaide, Jean; Honoré, Pierre; Meurisse, Michel; Detry, Olivier
The renewed interest in donation after cardio-circulatory death (DCD) started in the 1990s following the limited success of the transplant community to expand the donation after brain-death (DBD) organ supply and following the request of potential DCD families. Since then, DCD organ procurement and transplantation activities have rapidly expanded, particularly for non-vital organs, like kidneys. In liver transplantation (LT), DCD donors are a valuable organ source that helps to decrease the mortality rate on the waiting lists and to increase the availability of organs for transplantation despite a higher risk of early graft dysfunction, more frequent vascular and ischemia-type biliary lesions, higher rates of re-listing and re-transplantation and lower graft survival, which are obviously due to the inevitable warm ischemia occurring during the declaration of death and organ retrieval process. Experimental strategies intervening in both donors and recipients at different phases of the transplantation process have focused on the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury and already gained encouraging results, and some of them have found their way from pre-clinical success into clinical reality. The future of DCD-LT is promising. Concerted efforts should concentrate on the identification of suitable donors (probably Maastricht category III DCD donors), better donor and recipient matching (high risk donors to low risk recipients), use of advanced organ preservation techniques (oxygenated hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, venous systemic oxygen persufflation), and pharmacological modulation (probably a multi-factorial biologic modulation strategy) so that DCD liver allografts could be safely utilized and attain equivalent results as DBD-LT. PMID:22969222
Lin, Chih-Che; Chen, Chao-Long
Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital mainly relies on live donor LT (LDLT). Owing to taking the risk of LD, we are obligated to adopt strict selection criteria for HCC patients and optimize the pre-transplant conditions to ensure a high disease-free survival similar to those without HCC, even better than deceased donor LT (DDLT). Better outcomes are attributed to excellent surgical results and optimal patient selection. The hospital mortality of primary and salvage LDLT are lower than 2% in our center. Although Taiwan Health Insurance Policy extended the Milan to University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria in 2006, selection criteria will not be consolidated to take into account only by the morphologic size/number of tumors but also by their biology. The criteria are divided into modifiable image morphology, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with standard uptake value (SUV) and unmodifiable unfavorable pathology such as HCC combined with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), sarcomatoid type, and poor differentiation. Downstaging therapy is necessary for HCC patients beyond criteria to fit all modifiable standards. The upper limit of downstaging treatment seems to be extended by more effective drug eluting transarterial chemoembolization in cases without absolute contraindications. In contrast, the pitfall of unmodifiable tumor pathology should be excluded by the findings of pretransplant core biopsy/resection if possible. More recently, achieving complete tumor necrosis in explanted liver could almost predict no recurrence after transplant. Necrotizing therapy is advised if possible before transplant even the tumor status within criteria to minimize the possibility of tumor recurrence. LDLT with low surgical mortality in experienced centers provides the opportunities of optimizing the pre-transplant tumor conditions and timing of transplant to achieve better
Meza, Juan-Carlos; Muñoz-Buitrón, Evelyn; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cañas, Carlos Alberto; Tobón, Gabriel J
Still's disease (SD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent arthritis and in many cases with fever of unknown origin. Diagnosis of SD is challenging because of nonspecific characteristics and especially in the case of a patient with solid organ transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy where multiple causes of fever are possible. There is no diagnostic test for SD, even though some useful diagnostic criteria or laboratory findings, such as serum ferritin levels, have been proposed, and useful imaging studies for the diagnosis or followup of SD have not been developed. We report the case of a 9-year-old child who presented with high grade fever associated with joint pain after a history of liver transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy. Laboratory tests showed increased acute phase reactants, elevated ferritin, and leukocytosis. An 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed identifying abnormal hypermetabolic areas localized in spleen, transplanted liver, and bone marrow secondary to inflammatory process. All infectious, autoimmune, and malignant causes were ruled out. A diagnosis of SD was performed and a steroid-based regimen was initiated with adequate response and no evidence of recurrence. To our knowledge this is the first case of SD following a solid organ transplant.
Woodle, E.S.; Vera, D.R.; Ward, R.E.
Tc-NGA is a hepatocyte receptor-specific imaging agent whose uptake by the liver has been shown to be dependent upon blood flow and receptor concentration. The combination of anatomic and physiologic information obtained with Tc-NGA may provide a new tool for studying hepatic function in liver transplant recipients. To evaluate the potential role of Tc-NGA in liver transplant recipients, studies were performed in four groups of pigs: controls (n=18); common bile duct (CBD) ligation (n=8); orthotopic liver transplant (n=9); and acute hepatic artery ligation (n=1). Serial studies performed in two animals with CBD ligation demonstrated normal imaging anatomy with minor changesmore » in the hepatic time-activity curves when compared to control studies. Studies in liver-transplanted animals showed significant changes in the hepatic time-activity curves during acute rejection and in preservation-related ischemic injury. Tc-NGA also demonstrated focal areas of hepatic infarction in a hepatic allograft within 24 hours of transplantation. The hepatic artery ligation study showed massive changes in the hepatic time-activity curve within two hours after ligation, with a diffuse decrease in hepatic activity. These results indicate that: (1) extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction causes only minor changes in Tc-NGA uptake; (2) Tc-NGA uptake by the liver is very sensitive to acute hepatic ischemia; (3) Tc-NGA may indicate the presence of preservation damage in the early postoperative period; and (4) Tc-NGA hepatic time-activity curves demonstrate significant changes during acute rejection.« less
Kamei, Hideya; Imai, Hisashi; Onishi, Yasuharu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kojiro; Ogura, Yasuhiro
Background Despite of recent development of imaging modalities, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is rarely diagnosed. Therefore, living donor liver transplantation using a liver graft with IPSS has not been previously published. Materials and Methods We report a 28-year-old male patient with end-stage liver disease secondary to Wilson disease. His 26-year-old brother was a potential living donor, who had an IPSS of 25 mm in diameter at segment 6 as shown by computed tomography. Liver function tests were normal, and blood ammonia concentration was in the upper limit of normal. Results Living donor liver transplantation was uneventfully performed. After surgery, a recipient liver function tests showed a quick recovery, and serum ammonia levels were consistently normal. Although thrombosis inside the IPSS was confirmed by computed tomography on postoperative day 21, this thrombosis disappeared at 3 months posttransplant with anticoagulants. Currently (12 months posttransplant), the patient has fully recovered, and the IPSS is still the same size. Conclusions Based on our experience, liver allografts with IPSS can be accepted as potential liver allografts. PMID:27500240
McDowell, Dermot T; Darani, Alexandre; Shun, Albert; Thomas, Gordon; Holland, Andrew J A
Citation counts can identify landmark papers. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the top-cited articles in the pediatric liver transplantation literature. A search strategy for the Scopus ® database was designed for pediatric liver transplantation publications from 1945 to 2014. The 50 top-cited articles were analyzed. Author co-citation analysis was performed using VOSviewer techniques. There were 2896 articles published between 1969 and 2015. The mean citation count of the top 50 cited articles was 166 (range 95-635). There were three case reports in this top-cited list. There were 15 collaborations in this top-cited list with nine being international. The top-cited publications originated in 12 countries, with the USA and the UK contributing 31 and seven articles, respectively. There were 14 authors with four or more publications in this list. There was a single author with nine publications in the top-cited list. These top-cited papers were found in 16 journals, with three journals collectively publishing over 50% of these publications. Pediatric liver transplantation research is an evolving entity. Surgical techniques and case reports are influential articles. Collaborations at a national and international level produce highly cited articles, which are found in influential journals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hrehoreţ, D; Alexandrescu, S; Grigorie, R; Herlea, V; Anghel, R; Popescu, I
While hepatocellular carcinoma is a common indication for liver transplantation, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma represents a controversial indication for this procedure, due to lower disease-free and overall survival rates achieved by liver transplantation in such patients. Hence, in the last years, few centers reported satisfactory survival rates after liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma, in highly selected groups of patients. Herein we present the clinicopathological characteristics, the pre- and postoperative management and the favorable outcome of a patient undergoing liver transplantation for an unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We consider that reporting the patients with such favorable outcomes is useful, since collecting the data presented by different centers may contribute to identification of a selected group of patients with cholangiocarcinoma who may benefit from liver transplantation. A 62-year old female patient with a primary liver tumor developed on HBV liver cirrhosis, was admitted in our center for therapeutical management. Since preoperative work-up suggested that the tumor is an unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (due to its location and underlying liver disease), we decided to perform liver transplantation. The pathological examination of the explanted liver revealed that the tumor was a stage I intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in present, 15 months after transplantation, the patient is alive, without recurrence. Liver transplantation may represent a valid therapeutical option in selected patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Patients with early stage intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas unresectable due to the underlying liver cirrhosis seem to benefit mostly by liver transplantation. Further studies are needed to identify the favorable prognostic factors in order to select the most appropriate candidates for liver transplantation. The most suitable immunosuppressive
Yoon, Kyung Chul; Song, Sanghee; Jwa, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Ok-Kyoung; Hong, Suk Kyun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kim, Myoung Soo; Hwang, Shin; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo
Split liver transplantation (SLT) should be cautiously considered because the right tri-sectional (RTS) graft can be a marginal graft in adult recipients. Herein, we analyzed the outcomes of RTS-SLT in Korea, where > 75% of adult liver transplantations are performed by living donor liver transplantation. Among 2,462 patients who underwent deceased donor liver transplantations (DDLT) from 2005 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 86 adult patients (3.4%) who received a RTS graft (RTS-SLT group). The outcomes of the RTS-SLT group were compared to those of 303 recipients of whole liver (WL-DDLT group). Recipients' age, laboratory Model for End-Stage-Liver Disease (L-MELD) score, ischemic time, and donor recipient weight ratio (DRWR) were not different between the two groups (P >0.05). However, malignancy was uncommon (4.7 vs. 36.3%), and donor was younger (25.2 vs. 42.7 years) in the RST-SLT group than in the WL-DDLT group (P <0.05). The technical complication rates and the 5-year graft survival rates (89.0 vs. 92.8%) were not different between the two groups (P >0.05). The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) (63.1%) and graft-failure-free survival rate (63.1%) of the RTS-SLT group were worse than that of the WL-DDLT group (79.3% and 79.3%) (P <0.05). The factors affecting graft survival rates were not definite. However, the factors affecting OS in the RTS-SLT group were L-MELD score >30 and DRWR ≤1.0. In the subgroup analysis, OS was not different between the two groups if the DRWR was >1.0, regardless of the L-MELD score (P >0.05). In conclusion, sufficient volume of the graft estimated from DRWR-matching could lead to better outcomes of adult SLTs with a RTS graft, even in patients with high L-MELD scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Gedik, Ender; İlksen Toprak, Hüseyin; Koca, Erdinç; Şahin, Taylan; Özgül, Ülkü; Ersoy, Mehmet Özcan
The goal of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different regimens on blood glucose levels of living-donor liver transplant. The study participants were randomly allocated to the dextrose in water plus insulin infusion group (group 1, n = 60) or the dextrose in water infusion group (group 2, n = 60) using a sealed envelope technique. Blood glucose levels were measured 3 times during each phase. When the blood glucose level of a patient exceeded the target level, extra insulin was administered via a different intravenous route. The following patient and procedural characteristics were recorded: age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, end-stage liver disease, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, total anesthesia time, total surgical time, and number of patients who received an extra bolus of insulin. The following laboratory data were measured pre- and postoperatively: hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, potassium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and albumin. No hypoglycemia was noted. The recipients exhibited statistically significant differences in blood glucose levels during the dissection and neohepatic phases. Blood glucose levels at every time point were significantly different compared with the first dissection time point in group 1. Excluding the first and second anhepatic time points, blood glucose levels were significantly different as compared with the first dissection time point in group 2 (P < .05). We concluded that dextrose with water infusion alone may be more effective and result in safer blood glucose levels as compared with dextrose with water plus insulin infusion for living-donor liver transplant recipients. Exogenous continuous insulin administration may induce hyperglycemic attacks, especially during the neohepatic phase of living-donor liver transplant surgery. Further prospective studies that include homogeneous patient subgroups and diabetic recipients are needed to support the
Oliveira, Ramon Antônio; Turrini, Ruth Natália Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito
to investigate the evidence available in the literature on non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy among patients undergoing liver transplantation. integrative literature review, including research whose sample consisted of patients aged over 18 years undergoing liver transplantation. It excluded those containing patients undergoing multiple organ transplants. For the selection of articles, Medline / Pubmed, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus and Embase were searched. The search period corresponded to the initial date of indexation of different bases, up to the deadline of February 10, 2015, using controlled and uncontrolled descriptors: liver transplantation, hepatic transplantation, liver orthotopic transplantation, medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and patient compliance. were located 191 investigations, 10 of which met the objectives of the study and were grouped into four categories, namely: educational process and non-adherence; non-adherence related to the number of daily doses of immunosuppressive medications; detection methods for non-adherence and side effects of therapy. there were risk factors related to the health service, such as control and reduction of the number of doses; related to the individual, such as being male, divorced, alcohol or other substances user, exposed to low social support and being mentally ill. investigar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre a não adesão à terapêutica imunossupressora entre pacientes submetidos ao transplante de fígado. revisão integrativa da literatura, que incluiu investigações cuja amostra era composta por pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, submetidos a transplante de fígado. Excluíram-se as que continham pacientes submetidos a transplantes de múltiplos órgãos. Para a seleção dos artigos foram consultadas as bases Medline/Pubmed, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus e Embase. O período de busca determinado correspondeu à data inicial de indexação das
Fisher, Robert A
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A2ALDLT), outside of Asia, remains an important yet underutilized gift of life. For patients with end-stage liver disease, A2ALDLT is a proven transplantation option, with lower waiting list mortality and suffering, and equivalent or better allograft and patient survival than deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT). The risks to living donors and the benefit to their recipients have been carefully defined with long-term level 1 and 2 evidence-based study. An overview of the development and practice of living donor liver transplant (LDLT), including donor and recipient surgical allograft innovation, is provided. The issues of recipient selection, outcomes and morbidity, including disease-variable study and challenges past and present are presented in comparison with DDLT cohorts, and future insights are described. Central to practice is the careful and concise review of donor evaluation and selection and donor outcome, morbidity, quality of life and present and future strategies for donor advocacy and growth of the technique.
Anand, Anil C
Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with newer directly acting antivirals (DAAs) and lead to sustained viral response (SVR) in majority of patients and SVR has been documented to be associated with reversal of liver cirrhosis. The improved SVR rates and safety profiles of DAAs have led to the treatment of patients with decompensated cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation (LT). Several clinical trials of DAAs in decompensated HCV patients have recently demonstrated SVR rates above 80%, which have been associated with significant improvements, in the Child-Pugh-Turcotte scores/or model for end-stage liver disease scores in a proportion of patients. Moreover, it has been shown that HCV RNA becomes negative after 2-4 weeks of treatment, and those who are transplanted after becoming HCV RNA negative will be have very low the risk of HCV recurrence after transplantation. Some of the patients may have reached the "point of no return" and may proceed to worsening of decomposition over time. To avoid the risk of worsening, there is an additional option of treating these patients after LT should they develop recurrent HCV infection. Currently there are no guidelines as to select patients who would benefit from treatment prior to LT as opposed to those who will be better off being treated after the transplant surgery. The article discusses a possible approach for such selection.
Han, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Yang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Lin-Wei; Hu, An-Bin; Tai, Qiang; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; He, Xiao-Shun
In 2011, a pilot program for deceased organ donation was initiated in China. We describe the first successful series of liver transplants in the pilot program. From July 2011 to August 2012, our center performed 26 liver transplants from a pool of 29 deceased donors. All organ donation and allograft procurement were conducted according to the national protocol. The clinical data of donors and recipients were collected and summarized retrospectively. Among the 29 donors, 24 were China Category II donors (organ donation after cardiac death), and five were China Category III donors (organ donation after brain death followed by cardiac death). The recipients were mainly the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The one-year patient survival rate was 80.8% with a median follow-up of 422 (2-696) days. Among the five mortalities during the follow-up, three died of tumor recurrence. In terms of post-transplant complications, 9 recipients (34.6%) experienced early allograft dysfunction, 1 (3.8%) had non-anastomotic biliary stricture, and 1 (3.8%) was complicated with hepatic arterial thrombosis. None of these complications resulted in patient death. Notably, primary non-function was not observed in any of the grafts. With careful donor selection, liver transplant from deceased donors can be performed safely and plays a critical role in overcoming the extreme organ shortage in China.
Brennan, Todd V; Lunsford, Keri E; Vagefi, Parsia A; Bostrom, Alan; Ma, Michael; Feng, Sandy
It is unclear whether a concomitant kidney transplant grants survival benefit to liver transplant (LT) candidates with renal dysfunction (RD). We retrospectively studied LT candidates without RD (n = 714) and LT candidates with RD who underwent either liver transplant alone (RD-LTA; n = 103) or simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (RD-SLKT; n = 68). RD was defined as renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement or modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD)-glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . RD-LTAs had worse one-yr post-transplant survival compared to RD-SLKTs (79.6% vs. 91.2%, p = 0.05). However, RD-LTA recipients more often had hepatitis C (60.2% vs. 41.2%, p = 0.004) and more severe liver disease (MELD 37.9 ± 8.1 vs. 32.7 ± 9.1, p = 0.0001). Twenty RD-LTA recipients died in the first post-transplant year. Evaluation of the cause and timing of death relative to native renal recovery revealed that only four RD-LTA recipients might have derived survival benefit from RD-SLKT. Overall, 87% of RD-LTA patients recovered renal function within one month of transplant. One yr after RD-LTA or RD-SLKT, serum creatinine (1.5 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p = 0.63) and prevalence of stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; 5.9% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.11) were comparable. Our series provides little evidence that RD-SLKT would have yielded substantial short-term survival benefit to RD-LTA recipients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cepeda-Franco, C; Bernal-Bellido, C; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Ruiz-Matas, J H; Suárez-Artacho, G; Marín-Gómez, L M; Tinoco-González, J; Díaz-Aunión, C; Padillo-Ruiz, F J; Gómez-Bravo, M Á
Recently, there has been a large discrepancy between the number of patients on the waiting list for a liver transplant and the availability of deceased donors, with an increase in annual wait list mortality rates. Elderly donor livers are thought to be marginal grafts; however, in recent years, their utilization has constantly increased. The aim of this study is to evaluate the utilization of elderly donors in Andalusia and post-transplant outcomes. This retrospective observational study of 2408 liver transplants, performed in Andalusia between 2000 and 2014, analyzes the outcomes from donors aged 70 plus (n = 423) in terms of survival rates of the graft and the recipient, the type of transplant, donor age, and D-MELD score (product of donor age and preoperative Model for End-stage Liver Disease score). The most frequent indications for transplant were alcoholic cirrhosis (49.2%), hepatitis C cirrhosis (13%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (12.5%). The overall survival at 5 years was 64%, with a significant fall in survival for recipients with a D-MELD greater than 1500 (57%; P = .045). In the 70-year-old-plus donor group, the overall patient survival was 58.4%. The retransplant rate increased proportionately with donor age. In the alcoholic cirrhosis recipient subgroup, the overall survival at 5 years was 67.6% (P < .05) compared with 33.5% in patients with hepatitis C. Use of elderly donors is a safe strategy to reduce the scarcity of donors, provided that a D-MELD score below 1500 is obtained. Retransplant rates increase progressively with donor age. It is necessary to carefully screen recipients of older organs, taking into account that the best results are obtained for alcoholic cirrhosis, negative viral load hepatitis C, and a D-MELD score below 1500. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sheikh, Amin; Cundy, Tim; Evans, Helen Maria
Patients transplanted for cholestatic liver disease are often significantly fat-soluble vitamin deficient and malnourished pretransplant, with significant corticosteroid exposure post-transplant, with increasing evidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome post-LT. Our study aimed to assess growth, body composition, and BMD in patients post-pediatric LT. Body composition and bone densitometry scans were performed on 21 patients. Pre- and post-transplant anthropometric data were analyzed. Bone health was assessed using serum ALP, calcium, phosphate, and procollagen-1-N-peptide levels. Median ages at transplant and at this assessment were 2.7 and 10.6 years, respectively. Physiological markers of bone health, median z-scores for total body, and lumbar spine aBMD were normal. Bone area was normal for height and BMAD at L3 was normal for age, indicating, respectively, normal cortical and trabecular bone accrual. Median z-scores for weight, height, and BMI were 0.6, -0.9, 1.8 and 0.6, 0.1, 0.8 pre- and post-transplant, respectively. Total body fat percentages measured on 21 body composition scans revealed 2 underweight, 7 normal, 6 overweight, and 6 obese. Bone mass is preserved following pediatric LT with good catch-up height. About 52% of patients were either overweight/obese post-transplant, potentially placing them at an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and its sequelae in later life. BMI alone is a poor indicator of nutritional status post-transplant. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rostved, Andreas A; Lundgren, Jens D; Hillingsø, Jens; Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Rasmussen, Allan
The impact of early allograft dysfunction on the outcome after liver transplantation is yet to be established. We explored the independent predictive value of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score measured in the post-transplant period on the risk of mortality or re-transplantation. Retrospective cohort study on adults undergoing orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation from 2004 to 2014. The MELD score was determined prior to transplantation and daily until 21 days after. The risk of mortality or re-transplantation within the first year was assessed according to quartiles of MELD using unadjusted and adjusted stepwise Cox regression analysis. We included 374 consecutive liver transplant recipients of whom 60 patients died or were re-transplanted. The pre-transplant MELD score was comparable between patients with good and poor outcome, but from day 1 the MELD score significantly diversified and was higher in the poor outcome group (MELD score quartile 4 versus quartile 1-3 at day 10: HR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.8-9.0). This association remained after adjustment for non-identical blood type, autoimmune liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted HR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.9-9.5 for MELD scores at day 10). The post-transplant MELD score was not associated with pre-transplant MELD score or the Eurotransplant donor risk index. Early determination of the MELD score as an indicator of early allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation was a strong independent predictor of mortality or re-transplantation and was not influenced by the quality of the donor, or preoperative recipient risk factors.
Todo, S; Fung, J J; Starzl, T E; Tzakis, A; Demetris, A J; Kormos, R; Jain, A; Alessiani, M; Takaya, S; Shapiro, R
The new immunosuppressive drug FK 506 was used from the outset with low doses of prednisone to treat 120 recipients of primary liver grafts and 20 more patients undergoing liver retransplantation. The patient survival rate after 2 to 8 months in the primary liver transplantation series is 93.3%, with original graft survival of 87.5%. Of the 20 patients in the hepatic retransplant series, 17 (85%) are living. Almost all of the surviving patients have good liver function. In addition 11 hearts, 2 double lungs, and a heart-lung have been transplanted under FK 506, with survival of all 14 patients. With all of the organ systems so far tested, including the kidney (which has been reported elsewhere), rejection usually has been controlled without additional drugs and with lower average steroid doses than in the past. Nephrotoxicity has been observed, but not to an alarming degree, and there has been a notable absence of hypertension. There is a suggestion that serum cholesterol may be lowered by FK 506, but this is unproved. Although the adverse reactions of FK 506 and the immunosuppressive mechanisms resemble those of cyclosporine, our preliminary observations suggest that FK 506 may have a more advantageous therapeutic index. PMID:1697743
Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rostved, Andreas A; Adam, René; Thygesen, Lau C; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gómez Bravo, Miguel A; Cherqui, Daniel; Filipponi, Franco; Boudjema, Karim; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Soubrane, Olivier; García-Valdecasas, Juan C; Prous, Joan F; Pinna, Antonio D; O'Grady, John; Karam, Vincent; Duvoux, Christophe; Rasmussen, Allan
Studies suggest that vascular invasion may be a superior prognostic marker compared with traditional selection criteria, e.g. Milan criteria. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of micro and macrovascular invasion in a large database material. Patients liver transplanted for HCC and cirrhosis registered in the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR) database were included. The association between the Milan criteria, Up-to-seven criteria and vascular invasion with overall survival and HCC specific survival was investigated with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Of 23,124 patients transplanted for HCC, 9324 had cirrhosis and data on explant pathology. Patients without microvascular invasion, regardless of number and size of HCC nodules, had a five-year overall survival of 73.2%, which was comparable with patients inside both Milan and Up-to-seven criteria. Patients without macrovascular invasion had an only marginally reduced survival of 70.7% after five years. Patients outside both Milan and Up-to-seven criteria without micro or macrovascular invasion still had a five-year overall survival of 65.8%. Vascular invasion as a prognostic indicator remains superior to criteria based on size and number of nodules. With continuously improving imaging studies, microvascular invasion may be used for selecting patients for transplantation in the future. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Li-Ping; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Yang, Jia-Yin
Objective: To compare the outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) versus deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in different selection criteria. Methods: Data of patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation between 2005 and 2013 at our center were reviewed. Clinical data of LDLT recipients and DDLT recipients were compared. The postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate after LDLT versus DDLT were compared in the Milan recipients, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients. Results: Data of 255 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Seventeen DDLT recipient and 9 LDLT recipients died during the perioperative period. Among the remaining 229 recipients (NLDLT=66, NDDLT=163), 96 patients met the Milan criteria, 123 recipients met the UCSF criteria, 135 patients met the up-to-seven criteria, 216 patients met the Hangzhou criteria, and 229 recipients met the Chengdu criteria. The overall RFS and OS rates of the Milan recipients, the UCSF recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients after LDLT and DDLT were all similar. Conclusion: Using well-studied selection criteria, LDLT offers similar outcomes to DDLT for patient with HCC, even using expanded selection criteria. PMID:26430399
Chen, Li-Ping; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Yang, Jia-Yin
To compare the outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) versus deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in different selection criteria. Data of patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation between 2005 and 2013 at our center were reviewed. Clinical data of LDLT recipients and DDLT recipients were compared. The postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate after LDLT versus DDLT were compared in the Milan recipients, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients. Data of 255 patients were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Seventeen DDLT recipient and 9 LDLT recipients died during the perioperative period. Among the remaining 229 recipients (NLDLT=66, NDDLT=163), 96 patients met the Milan criteria, 123 recipients met the UCSF criteria, 135 patients met the up-to-seven criteria, 216 patients met the Hangzhou criteria, and 229 recipients met the Chengdu criteria. The overall RFS and OS rates of the Milan recipients, the UCSF recipients, the up-to-seven recipients, the Hangzhou recipients and the Chengdu recipients after LDLT and DDLT were all similar. Using well-studied selection criteria, LDLT offers similar outcomes to DDLT for patient with HCC, even using expanded selection criteria.
Gomez, D; Homer-Vanniasinkam, S; Graham, AM; Prasad, KR
Liver ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to protect the liver from the detrimental effects of ischaemic-reperfusion injury (IRI), which contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality following major liver surgery. Recent studies have focused on the role of IPC in liver regeneration, the precise mechanism of which are not completely understood. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanism of liver regeneration and the role of IPC in this setting. Relevant articles were reviewed from the published literature using the Medline database. The search was performed using the keywords “liver”, “ischaemic reperfusion”, “ischaemic preconditioning”, “regeneration”, “hepatectomy” and “transplantation”. The underlying mechanism of liver regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of cytokines, growth factors and the metabolic demand of the liver. IPC, through various mediators, promotes liver regeneration by up-regulating growth-promoting factors and suppresses growth-inhibiting factors as well as damaging stresses. The increased understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in IPC will enable the development of alternative treatment modalities aimed at promoting liver regeneration following major liver resection and transplantation. PMID:17278187
Atkison, Paul R; Ross, B Catherine; Williams, Sandy; Howard, John; Sommerauer, John; Quan, Douglas; Wall, William
Liver transplantation is now routine therapy for a variety of childhood liver diseases; however, there are no detailed reports of long-term results from a Canadian centre. We reviewed data from the first 16 years of a pediatric liver transplantation program to determine survival, complications and long-term outcomes. The outcomes to December 2000 for all children (age less than 18 years) who received a liver transplant at the London Health Sciences Centre between April 1984 and December 1999 were reviewed. The recipients were grouped according to the period in which they received the transplant (period 1, April 1984 to July 1988; period 2, August 1988 to December 1993; or period 3, January 1994 to December 1999). Data were obtained from medical charts; in-person interviews, questionnaires or telephone contact with patients and their families; contact with referring physicians; and school records. Outcome measures included patient survival, retransplantation, complications and long-term outcomes (specifically steroid withdrawal and growth and development). A total of 116 children (29 in period 1, 46 in period 2 and 41 in period 3) (median age 5.6 years at the time of the procedure) received a total of 140 liver grafts (32 in period 1, 57 in period 2 and 51 in period 3). Of the 116 patients, 23 (20%) were less than 1 year old at the time of transplantation. Biliary atresia was the most common indication for liver transplantation (57 [49%] of the 116 patients). The number of patients surviving to 1 year after transplantation was 20 (69%) of the 29 patients from period 1, 40 (87%) of the 46 patients from period 2 and 38 (93%) of the 41 patients from period 3. The percentage of patients receiving reduced size grafts from adult donors, including live donors, increased from 2/32 (6%) in period 1 to 22/51 (43%) in period 3. Retransplantation was required for 9 (31%) of the 29 patients from period 1, 6 (13%) of the 46 patients from period 2 and 7 (17%) of the 41 patients
Fonouni*, Hamidreza; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Müller, Sascha A.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmidt, Jan
Since introduction of the conventional liver transplantation (CLTx) by Starzl, which was based on the resection of recipient inferior vena cava (IVC) along the liver, the procedure has undergone several refinements. Successful use of venovenous bypass (VVB) was first introduced by Shaw et al., although in recent decades there has been controversy regarding the routine use of VVB during CLTx. With development of piggyback liver transplantation (PLTx), the use of caval clamping and VVB is avoided, leading to fewer complications related to VVB. However, some authors still advocate VVB in PLTx. The great diversity among centers in their use of VVB during CLTx, or even along the PLTx technique, has led to confusion regarding the indication setting for VVB. For this reason, we present an overview of the use of VVB in CLTx, the target of patients for whom VVB could be beneficial, and the needs assessment of VVB for patients undergoing PLTx. Recent studies have shown that with the advancement of surgical skills, refinement of surgical techniques, and improvements in anesthesiology, there are only limited indications for doing CLTx with VVB routinely. PLTx with preservation of IVC can be performed in almost all primary transplants and in the majority of re-transplantations without the need for VVB. Nevertheless, in a few selective cases with severe intra-operative hemodynamic instability, or with a failed test of transient IVC occlusion, the application of VVB is still justifiable. These indications should be judged intra-operatively and the decision is based on each center's preference. PMID:18773054
Jabbour, N; Genyk, Y; Mateo, R; Peyre, C; Patel, R V; Thomas, D; Ralls, P; Palmer, S; Kanel, G; Selby, R R
Liver transplantation is currently the standard of care for patients with end stage liver disease. However due to the cadaveric organ shortage, live donor liver transplantation (LDLT), has been recently introduced as a potential solution. We analyzed and support our initial experience with this procedure at USC. From September 1998 until July 2000, a total of 27 patients underwent LDLT at USC University Hospital and Los Angeles Children's Hospital. There were 12 children with the median age of 10 months (4-114) and 15 adults with the median age of 56 years (35-65). The most common indication for transplantation was biliary atresia for children and hepatitis C for adults. All donors did well postoperatively; the median postoperative stay was five days (5-7) for left lateral segmentectomy and seven days (4-12) for lobar donation. None of the donors required blood transfusion, re-operation or postoperative invasive procedure. However, five of them (18%) experienced minor complications. The survival rate in pediatric patients was 100% and only one graft was lost at nine months due to rejection. Two adult recipients died in the postoperative period, one from graft non-function and one from necrotizing fascitis. 37% of adult recipients experienced postoperative complications, mainly related to biliary reconstruction. Also 26% of the recipients underwent reoperation for some of these complications. LDLT is an excellent alternative to cadaveric transplantation with excellent results in the pediatric population. However, in adult patients it still carries a significant complication rate and it should be used with caution.
Domagała, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Artur; Drozdowski, Jakub; Ostrowski, Krzysztof; Wszola, Michal; Diuwe, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Paczek, Leszek; Chmura, Andrzej
Few reports describing the use of organs donated by transplant recipients have been published. In this case report, kidneys procured from a brain-dead liver recipient were transplanted successfully. A 21-year-old man was referred for liver transplant after an overdose of acetaminophen. The patient's kidney function was initially normal, with proper urine production and normal kidney laboratory parameters. On the third day after admission, the patient's kidney laboratory parameters became elevated and hepatic encephalopathy requiring mechanical ventilation developed. An orthotopic liver transplant was performed the next day. The patient did not recover consciousness, and brain death was diagnosed on the third day after the liver transplant surgery. The maximum serum concentration of creatinine was 5.8 mg/dL (513 μmol/L) before kidney recovery, and urine production was normal. The kidneys were recovered with organ-perfusion support and were preserved by using machine perfusion. The kidneys were transplanted into 2 male recipients. Twelve months after transplant, the recipients remained in good health with satisfactory kidney function. This case demonstrates that transplanting kidneys recovered from liver transplant recipients is possible and beneficial, thus expanding the pool of potential donors.
Kato, Karin; Nagao, Miki; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Oka, Kentaro; Takahashi, Motomichi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji; Ichiyama, Satoshi
Background Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during liver transplantation (LT) and its potential role in clinical course remain unknown. Methods We prospectively analyzed the intestinal microbiota of 38 patients who underwent LT in Kyoto University Hospital. We characterized the microbial compositions of fecal specimens from LT patients using a metagenomics approach by an Illumina MiSeq platform. We analyzed the diversity of microbiota sequentially from pretransplantation until 2 months after LT and also compared the microbiota during an episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) and bloodstream infections (BSI) to the microbial composition of time-matched fecal specimens obtained from patients who did not experience ACR or BSI, respectively. Results Three hundred twenty fecal specimens were analyzed. Dynamic changes were observed in the microbial composition of LT recipients during the perioperative period. Over the course of LT, the mean diversity index decreased during the first 3 weeks after LT and gradually increased during our observation period. The loss of intestinal microbiota diversity was associated with high Child-Pugh scores, high model for end-stage liver disease scores, ACR, and BSI. At the family level, Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae were increased whereas Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae were decreased in ACR patients. Conclusions The microbiota of LT patients was associated with the severity of liver diseases and the presence of ACR and BSI. These results lay the groundwork for more comprehensive investigations of microbiota characteristics to identify diagnostic markers for transplant health and to guide intervention strategies to improve transplant outcomes. PMID:28405600
Kato, Karin; Nagao, Miki; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Oka, Kentaro; Takahashi, Motomichi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji; Ichiyama, Satoshi
Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during liver transplantation (LT) and its potential role in clinical course remain unknown. We prospectively analyzed the intestinal microbiota of 38 patients who underwent LT in Kyoto University Hospital. We characterized the microbial compositions of fecal specimens from LT patients using a metagenomics approach by an Illumina MiSeq platform. We analyzed the diversity of microbiota sequentially from pretransplantation until 2 months after LT and also compared the microbiota during an episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) and bloodstream infections (BSI) to the microbial composition of time-matched fecal specimens obtained from patients who did not experience ACR or BSI, respectively. Three hundred twenty fecal specimens were analyzed. Dynamic changes were observed in the microbial composition of LT recipients during the perioperative period. Over the course of LT, the mean diversity index decreased during the first 3 weeks after LT and gradually increased during our observation period. The loss of intestinal microbiota diversity was associated with high Child-Pugh scores, high model for end-stage liver disease scores, ACR, and BSI. At the family level, Bacteroides , Enterobacteriaceae , Streptococcaceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae were increased whereas Enterococcaceae , Lactobacillaceae , Clostridiaceae , Ruminococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae were decreased in ACR patients. The microbiota of LT patients was associated with the severity of liver diseases and the presence of ACR and BSI. These results lay the groundwork for more comprehensive investigations of microbiota characteristics to identify diagnostic markers for transplant health and to guide intervention strategies to improve transplant outcomes.
Toro-Díaz, Hector; Mayorga, Maria E; Barritt, A Sidney; Orman, Eric S; Wheeler, Stephanie B
The number of liver transplants (LTs) performed in the US increased until 2006 but has since declined despite an ongoing increase in demand. This decline may be due in part to decreased donor liver quality and increasing discard of poor-quality livers. We constructed a discrete event simulation (DES) model informed by current donor characteristics to predict future LT trends through the year 2030. The data source for our model is the United Network for Organ Sharing database, which contains patient-level information on all organ transplants performed in the US. Previous analysis showed that liver discard is increasing and that discarded organs are more often from donors who are older, are obese, have diabetes, and donated after cardiac death. Given that the prevalence of these factors is increasing, the DES model quantifies the reduction in the number of LTs performed through 2030. In addition, the model estimatesthe total number of future donors needed to maintain the current volume of LTs and the effect of a hypothetical scenario of improved reperfusion technology.We also forecast the number of patients on the waiting list and compare this with the estimated number of LTs to illustrate the impact that decreased LTs will have on patients needing transplants. By altering assumptions about the future donor pool, this model can be used to develop policy interventions to prevent a further decline in this lifesaving therapy. To our knowledge, there are no similar predictive models of future LT use based on epidemiological trends. © The Author(s) 2014.
Al-Moamary, M S; Gorka, T; Al-Traif, I H; Al-Jahdali, H H; Al-Shimemeri, A A; Al-Kanway, B; Abdulkareeem, A A; Abdulkareeem, A A
Several studies have shown that pulmonary abnormalities are common in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, most of these studies were conducted on patients with heterogeneous etiologies. Therefore, we studied these changes in a homogenous group of hepatitis C cirrhotic patients who were potential candidates for liver transplantation. The charts of 81 patients from King Fahad National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with hepatitis C cirrhosis who were evaluated for liver transplantation were reviewed. The following data was retrieved: echocardiography with micro-bubble study, arterial blood gases, and pulmonary function tests of 81 candidates and reviewed over 3 years from 1994 to 1997. The mean age was 53 (+/-9) years with male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Echocardiographic micro-bubble study, revealed 4 of 62 (7%) had an intrapulmonary shunt. Arterial blood gases results were pH of 7.44 (+/-0.4), partial arterial tension of carbon dioxide of 33 mm Hg (+/-4), partial arterial tension of oxygen of 84 mm Hg (+/-12), and alveolar-arterial gradient of 30 mm Hg (+/-10). Eleven percent had obstructive airway disease, 17% had restrictive lung impairment, and 43% had reduced diffusion capacity. Seventy five percent of patients with reduced diffusion capacity had normal lung volumes. Various pulmonary function test abnormalities did not lead to significant differences in arterial blood gases. Pulmonary changes were frequent in liver transplant candidates with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis with reduced diffusion capacity being the most. Apart from the effect of hepatopulmonary syndrome on arterial oxygenation, other pulmonary abnormalities were not significantly different.
Park, Hyejin; Park, Jungchan; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Gaabsoo
Herein, we describe the anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant (CHLT) performed in Korea. Though CHLT is a rare procedure, accumulating evidence suggests that it is a feasible option for patients with coexisting heart and liver failure. A 45-year-old female patient presented with severe cardiac dysfunction requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and secondary congestive hepatopathy. The patient underwent consecutive heart and liver transplantation using extracorporeal circulatory devices-heart transplant with cardiopulmonary bypass, and liver transplant with peripheral ECMO. In this case report, we focus on the specific anesthetic considerations for CHLT pertaining to the challenges associated with dual pathophysiology.
Sharma, Pratima; Bari, Khurram
Liver transplantation (LT) is the standard of care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. LT recipients have excellent short-term and long-term outcomes including patient and graft survival. Since the adoption of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) - based allocation policy, the incidence of post-transplant end stage renal disease has risen significantly. Occurrence of stage 4 chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease substantially increase the risk of post-transplant deaths. Since majority of late post-transplant mortality is due to non-hepatic post-transplant comorbidities, personalized care directed towards risk factor modification may further improve post-transplant survival. PMID:26311603
Narumi, S; Umehara, M; Toyoki, Y; Ishido, K; Kudo, D; Kimura, N; Kobayashi, T; Sugai, M; Hakamada, K
Transplantation for Wilson's disease occupies 1/3 of the cases for metabolic diseases in Japan. At the end of 2009, 109 transplantations had been performed including three deceased donor cases in the Japanese registry. We herein discuss problems of transplantation for Wilson's disease as well as its indication, timing, and social care. We retrospectively reviewed four fulminant cases and two chronic cases who underwent living donor liver transplantation. There were two boys and two girls. Four adolescents of average age 11.3 years underwent living donor liver transplantation. Duration from onset to transplantation ranged from 10 to 23 days. Average Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 27.8 (range=24-31). All patients were administrated chelates prior to transplantation. MELD, New Wilson's index, Japanese scoring for liver transplantation, and liver atrophy were useful tools for transplantation decision making; however, none of them was an independent decisive tool. Clinical courses after transplantation were almost uneventful. One girl, however, developed an acute rejection episode due to noncompliance at 3 years after transplantation. All patients currently survive without a graft loss. No disease recurrence had been noted even using living related donors. Two adults evaluated for liver transplantation were listed for deceased donor liver transplantation. Both candidates developed cirrhosis despite long-term medical treatment. There were no appropriate living donors for them. There are many problems in transplantation for Wilson's disease. The indications for liver transplantation should be considered individually using some decision-making tools. The safety of the living donor should be paid the most attention. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haga, Junko; Shimazu, Motohide; Wakabayashi, Go; Tanabe, Minoru; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Hoshino, Ken; Morikawa, Yasuhide; Kitajima, Masaki; Kitagawa, Yuko
In living donor liver transplantation, the safety of the donor operation is the highest priority. The introduction of the right lobe graft was late because of concerns about donor safety. We investigated donor liver regeneration by the types of resected segments as well as recipients to assess that appropriate regeneration was occurring. Eighty-seven donors were classified into 3 groups: left lateral section donors, left lobe donors, and right lobe donors. Forty-seven adult recipients were classified as either left or right lobe grafted recipients. Volumetry was retrospectively performed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year after the operation. In the right lobe donor group, the remnant liver volume was 45.4%, and it rapidly increased to 68.9% at 1 month and 89.8% at 6 months. At 6 months, the regeneration ratios were almost the same in all donor groups. The recipient liver volume increased rapidly until 2 months, exceeding the standard liver volume, and then gradually decreased to 90% of the standard liver volume. Livers of the right lobe donor group regenerated fastest in the donor groups, and the recipient liver regenerated faster than the donor liver. Analyzing liver regeneration many times with a large number of donors enabled us to understand the normal liver regeneration pattern. Although the donor livers did not reach their initial volume, the donors showed normal liver function at 1 year. The donors have returned to their normal daily activities. Donor hepatectomy, even right hepatectomy, can be safely performed with accurate preoperative volumetry and careful decision-making concerning graft-type selection.
Ali, Yasser; Negmi, H; Elmasry, N; Sadek, M; Riaz, A; Al Ouffi, H; Khalaf, H
Heme-Oxygenase-1 catalyzes hemoglobin into bilirubin, iron, and carbon monoxide, a well known vasodilator. Heme-Oxygenase-1 expression and carbon monoxide production as measured by blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, increase in end stage liver disease patients. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin level and early graft function in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. In a descriptive retrospective study, 39 patients who underwent liver transplantation between the year 2005 and 2006 at KFSH&RC, are included in the study. All patients received general anesthesia with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and air. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentration in percentage were recorded at preoperative time, anhepatic phase, end of surgery, ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The level of lactic acid, prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombin time (PTT), serum total bilirubin and ammonia were also recorded at ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The numbers of blood units transfused were recorded. 39 patients were included in the study with 13/39 for living donor liver transplant (LDLT) compared to 26/39 patients scheduled for deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). The mean age was 35.9 +/- 16.9 years while the mean body weight was 60.3 +/- 20.9 Kg. Female to male ratio was 21/18. The median packed red blood cell (PRBC) units was 4 (Rang 0-40). There was a significant increase in carboxyhemoglobin level during the anhepatic phase, end of surgery and on ICU admission compared with preoperative value (p<0.005). However, there was insignificant changes in methemoglobin level and significant decrease in oxyhemoglobin levels throughout the study period compared to the preoperative value (p<0.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin level on ICU admission and 24 hrs postoperatively were positively correlated with the changes in serum total bilirubin and prothrombin time (R = 0.35, 0.382, 0.325 and 0
Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Hamed, Hosam; Salah, Tarek; Elsarraf, Waleed; Elshobary, Mohamed; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Shehta, Ahmed; Fathy, Omar; Ezzat, Helmy; Yassen, Amr; Elmorshedi, Mohamed; Elsaadany, Mohamed; Shiha, Usama
We report our experience with potential donors for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which is the first report from an area where there is no legalized deceased donation program. This is a single center retrospective analysis of potential living donors (n = 1004) between May 2004 and December 2012. This report focuses on the analysis of causes, duration, cost, and various implications of donor exclusion (n = 792). Most of the transplant candidates (82.3%) had an experience with more than one excluded donor (median = 3). Some recipients travelled abroad for a deceased donor transplant (n = 12) and some died before finding a suitable donor (n = 14). The evaluation of an excluded donor is a time-consuming process (median = 3 d, range 1 d to 47 d). It is also a costly process with a median cost of approximately 70 USD (range 35 USD to 885 USD). From these results, living donor exclusion has negative implications on the patients and transplant program with ethical dilemmas and an economic impact. Many strategies are adopted by other centers to expand the donor pool; however, they are not all applicable in our locality. We conclude that an active legalized deceased donor transplantation program is necessary to overcome the shortage of available liver grafts in Egypt.
Wagener, G; Diaz, G; Guarrera, J V; Minhaz, M; Renz, J F; Sladen, R N
Protein C is a natural thrombin antagonist produced by hepatocytes. Its levels are low in liver failure and predispose patients to increased risk for thrombosis. Little is known about the relationship between protein C activity and hepatic function after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We measured protein C activity of 41 patients undergoing liver transplantation by the Staclot method (normal range, 70%-130%) preoperatively and then daily on postoperative days (POD) 0-5. The mean protein C activity was low before OLT (34.3 ± 4.3%) and inversely correlated with the preoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (Spearman's r = -0.643; P < .0001). Mean activity increased significantly on POD 1 (58.9 ± 4.5%), and remained above preoperative levels through POD 5. Ten patients developed metabolic liver dysfunction defined by a serum total bilirubin >5 mg/dL on POD 7. These patients had significantly lower protein C activity from POD 3 (47.2 ± 9.6% vs 75.9 ± 5.8%; P = .01) to POD 5. Preoperative protein C activity correlated inversely with the severity of liver failure as indicated by preoperative MELD score. Protein C activity recovered rapidly in patients with good allograft function but remained significantly lower in patients who had limited metabolic function as evidenced by increased total bilirubin levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xia, Weiliang; Ke, Qinghong; Wang, Ye; Feng, Xiaowen; Guo, Haijun; Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Min; Shen, Yan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Xiao; Yan, Sheng; Zheng, Shusen
Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver grafts are associated with inferior clinical outcomes and high discard rates because of poor graft quality. We investigated the predictive value of DCD liver biopsy for the pretransplant graft quality evaluation. DCD liver transplants that took place between October 2010 and April 2014 were included (n = 127). Histological features of graft biopsy samples were analyzed to assess risk factors for graft survival. Macrovesicular steatosis ≥ 20% [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.973; P = 0.045] and sinusoidal neutrophilic infiltrate (HR = 6.969; P = 0.005) were confirmed as independent risk factors for graft survival; hepatocellular swelling, vacuolation, and necrosis failed to show prognostic value. Additionally, a donor serum total bilirubin level ≥ 34.2 μmol/L was also associated with a lower probability of graft survival. Our analysis indicates that macrovesicular steatosis ≥ 20% and sinusoidal neutrophilic infiltrate are novel and useful histological markers for DCD liver grafts with unacceptable quality. This finding can be used by transplant surgeons to improve DCD liver acceptance protocols. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Chen, H-M; Shih, F-Jong; Pan, Y-J; Shih, F J; Wang, S-S
This study explored the needs and expectations of Taiwanese overseas liver transplant recipients' families (OLTRFs) across three liver transplantation stages. An exploratory qualitative method was applied to a purposive sample of OLTRFs who received guided face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Data were subjected to content analysis. Nineteen OLTRF members (15 females, 4 males) aged between 29 and 71 years (mean, 55.1 years) for 19 patients who had end-stage liver diseases were interviewed regarding overseas liver transplantation (OLT) across three stages: pre-departure (first stage), stay in mainland China (second stage), and re-entry into Taiwan (third stage). Five types of needs across OLT stages were reported: (a) knowing precise operation schedule in advance (first to second stages); (b) sharing the caring burdens (second to third stages); (c) knowing the updated health status if possible (all stages); (d) obtaining timely psychological support (all stages); and (e) effective communications between health professionals in Taiwan and mainland China to ensure the caring quality (all stages). Furthermore, five expectations were reported: (a) more donor sources (first stage); (b) comprehensive caring strategies for OLT (first stage); (c) a comprehensive consultation system and timely assistance channels for OLT recipients and their families (second to third stages); (d) a legal and accessible therapy process (all stages); and (e) the cooperation with foreign countries and allowed experience sharing for better quality of patient care (all stages). Most ethnic Chinese believe that family is an integrated system; moreover, there is close attachment between OLT recipients and their families. The needs and expectations of the recipients' family across three transplantation stages were first reported in this project. With this knowledge, the health providers of related countries are empowered by a better understanding of the family's needs and expectations of these
Angelico, Roberta; Nardi, Alessandra; Adam, René; Nadalin, Silvio; Polak, Wojciech G; Karam, Vincent; Troisi, Roberto I; Muiesan, Paolo
Split liver transplantation (SLT) has been widely adopted across Europe, resulting in remarkable reduction in the paediatric waiting-list mortality. Left split graft (LSG) is commonly used for paediatric recipients; however, deceased donor criteria selection are not universal. The aim of this study was to analyse the LSG outcome from the European Liver Transplant Registry and to identify risk factors for graft failure. Data from 1500 children transplanted in 2006-2014 with LSG from deceased donors were retrospectively analysed. Overall, graft losses were 343(22.9%) after 5 years from transplantation, 240(70.0%) occurred within the first 3 months. Estimated patient survival was 89.1% at 3 months and 82.9% at 5 years from SLT. Re-transplantation rate was 11.5%. At multivariable analysis, significant risk factors for graft failure at 3 months included the following: urgent SLT (HR = 1.73, P = 0.0012), recipient body weight ≤6 kg (HR = 1.91, P = 0.0029), donor age >50 years (HR = 1.87, P = 0.0039), and cold ischaemic time (CIT) [HR = 1.07 per hour, P = 0.0227]. LSG has good outcomes and SLT is excellent option for paediatric recipients in the current organ shortage era. We identified practical guidelines for LSG donor and recipient selection criteria: donor age may be safely extended up to 50 years in the absence of additional risk factors; thus, children <6 kg and urgent transplantation need CIT <6 h and appropriate graft/recipient size-matching to achieve good outcomes. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.
Anastácio, Lucilene Rezende; Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson
Managing malnutrition before liver transplantation (LTx) while on the waiting list and, excessive weight gain/metabolic disturbances in post-surgery are still a challenge in LTx care. The aim of this review is to support an interdisciplinary nutrition approach of these patients. Cirrhotic patients are frequently malnourished before LTx and this is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the relation between nutritional status versus survival, successful operation and recovery after LTx is well established, prevalence of malnutrition before the operation is still very high. Emerging research has also demonstrated that sarcopenia pre and post-transplant is highly prevalent, despite the weight gain in the postoperative period. The diagnosis of the nutritional status is the first step to address the adequate nutritional therapy. Nutritional recommendations and therapy to manage the nutritional status of LTx patients are discussed in this review, regarding counseling on adequate diets and findings of the latest research on using certain immunonutrients in these patients (branched chain amino-acids, pre and probiotics). Nutrition associated complications observed after transplantation is also described. They are commonly related to the adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs, leading to hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia and weight gain. Excessive weight gain and post-transplant metabolic disorders have long been described in post-LTx and should be addressed in order to reduce associated morbidity and mortality.
Woodle, E.S.; Ward, R.E.; Stadalnik, R.C.
Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) is a new liver imaging agent that binds to hepatic-binding protein, a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of Tc-NGA imaging in clinical liver transplantation. A total of 25 studies were performed in nine patients. Imaging studies performed in the early posttransplant period in patients with good hepatic allograft function revealed diffuse patchiness in tracer distribution, a manifestation of preservation damage. Left lobar infarction was demonstrated within a few hours of ischemic injury. Right posterior segmental infarction was seen in another patient. Comparison of kinetic, clinical, and biochemical data revealedmore » good correlation between hepatic allograft function and Tc-NGA kinetics. Major kinetic alterations were noted during periods of preservation injury, hepatic infarction, and acute rejection. These studies indicate: (1) major alterations in Tc-NGA kinetics occur during preservation injury, hepatic infarction, and acute rejection, and (2) Tc-NGA kinetic data appear to provide an accurate reflection of hepatic allograft function. Tc-NGA imaging has the advantages of being noninvasive and of utilizing standard nuclear medicine instrumentation, including portable imaging devices. In conclusion, Tc-NGA imaging provides a promising noninvasive approach for evaluation of liver function in patients undergoing hepatic transplantation.« less
Gjertsen, H; Weiland, O; Oksanen, A; Söderdahl, G; Broomé, U; Ericzon, B-G
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced cirrhosis is the major indication for liver transplantation globally, and an increasing indication for liver transplantation in Sweden. We have retrospectively examined the 120 patients transplanted for HCV cirrhosis from 1987 through 2005, including 11 who received more than one graft. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year postoperative survivals for all patients transplanted for HCV with or without hepatocellular cancer (HCC) were 77%, 66%, and 53%, respectively. HCV patients without HCC had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals of 78%, 73%, and 61%, compared with 84%, 79% and 74%, respectively, for patients transplanted with chronic liver diseases without cancer or HCV. The number of patients with HCV cirrhosis transplanted in our center is increasing. Compared with patients transplanted for other chronic liver diseases, we experienced inferior results among patients with HCV cirrhosis.
Chen, Yong; Liang, Shaoyong; Long, Feiwu; Li, Jinzheng; Gong, Jianping
The role of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on liver transplantation immune regulation remains unknown. Male Lewis and Brown-Norway (BN) rats were assigned to allograft group (Lewis-to-BN liver transplantation), isograft group (BN-to-BN), and ALR group (Lewis-to-BN, ALR, 100 μg/kg/d, intramuscular injection postoperatively). Rats were sacrificed at indicated times for assessment of cytokines production, T-cell (TC) activation and apoptosis. Kupffer cells (KCs) and TCs were isolated from grafts to assess cytokine expression. Effect of ALR and KCs on TCs was monitored by co-culture of (3)H-thymidine TCs. (1) Treatment with ALR significantly decreased interleukin-2 and interferon-γ expression, promoted TC apoptosis, and prolonged the survival of allografts; (2) KCs in ALR group and isograft group that had significantly increased interleukin-10 and decreased tumor necrosis factor-α expression were able to inhibit TC proliferation and induce their apoptosis relative to KCs in the allograft group; (3) ALR and KCs directly inhibited TC proliferation and activation and induced TC apoptosis. ALR could inhibit TC proliferation and function both in vivo and in vitro and attenuate acute rejection after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, Noboru; Vaidya, Anil; Levi, David M.; Kato, Tomoaki; Nery, Jose R.; Madariaga, Juan R.; Molina, Enrique; Ruiz, Phillip; Gyamfi, Anthony; Tzakis, Andreas G.
Background. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in adult patients has traditionally been performed using conventional caval reconstruction technique (CV) with veno-venous bypass. Recently, the piggyback technique (PB) without veno-venous bypass has begun to be widely used. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of routine use of PB on OLTs in adult patients. Patients and methods. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 1067 orthotopic cadaveric whole liver transplantations in adult patients treated between June 1994 and July 2001. PB was used as the routine procedure. Patient demographics, factors including cold ischemia time (CIT), warm ischemia time (WIT), operative time, transfusions, blood loss, and postoperative results were assessed. The effects of clinical factors on graft survival were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.In all, 918 transplantations (86%) were performed with PB. Blood transfusion, WIT, and usage of veno-venous bypass were less with PB. Seventy-five (8.3%) cases with PB had refractory ascites following OLT (p=NS). Five venous outflow stenosis cases (0.54%) with PB were noted (p=NS). The liver and renal function during the postoperative periods was similar. Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival rates were 85%, 78%, and 72% with PB. Univariate analysis showed that cava reconstruction method, CIT, WIT, amount of transfusion, length of hospital stay, donor age, and tumor presence were significant factors influencing graft survival. Multivariate analysis further reinforced the fact that CIT, donor age, amount of transfusion, and hospital stay were prognostic factors for graft survival. Conclusions. PB can be performed safely in the majority of adult OLTs. Results of OLT with PB are as same as for CV. Liver function, renal function, morbidity, mortality, and patient and graft survival are similar to CV. However, amount of transfusion, WIT, and use of veno-venous bypass are less with PB. PMID:18333273
Aranzana, Elisa Maria de Camargo; Coppini, Adriana Zuolo; Ribeiro, Maurício Alves; Massarollo, Paulo Celso Bosco; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves
Liver transplantation has not increased with the number of patients requiring this treatment, increasing deaths among those on the waiting list. Models predicting post-transplantation survival, including the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and the Donor Risk Index, have been created. Our aim was to compare the performance of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and the Donor Risk Index as prognostic models for survival after liver transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 1,270 patients who received a liver transplant from a deceased donor in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between July 2006 and July 2009. All data obtained from the Health Department of the State of São Paulo at the 15 registered transplant centers were analyzed. Patients younger than 13 years of age or with acute liver failure were excluded. The majority of the recipients had Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis (63.5%). Among the 1,006 patients included, 274 (27%) died. Univariate survival analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model showed hazard ratios of 1.02 and 1.43 for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival, respectively (p<0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for the Donor Risk Index were always less than 0.5, whereas those for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival were significantly greater than 0.5 (p<0.001). The cutoff values for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (≥29.5; sensitivity: 39.1%; specificity: 75.4%) and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival (≥1.9; sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 54.5%), which were calculated using data available before liver transplantation, were good predictors of survival after liver transplantation (p<0.001). The Model for Liver Transplantation Survival displayed similar death prediction performance to that of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. A simpler model
Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung
Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex.
Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Rhee, Sue; Glidden, Dave; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip
Introduction In adult liver transplant recipients, donor BMI is associated with post-transplant obesity but not graft or patient survival. Given the U.S. obesity epidemic and already-limited supply of liver donors, clarifying whether donor BMI affects pediatric outcomes is important. Methods UNOS data on pediatric U.S. liver transplants 1990-2010 was evaluated. Data on transplants 2004-2010 (n=3788) was used for survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models and for post-transplant obesity analysis with generalized estimating equations. Results For children receiving adult donor livers, donor BMI 25-35 kg/m2 was not associated with graft or patient survival in univariate or multivariate analyses. Donor BMI>35 kg/m2 increased the risk of graft loss (HR 2.54, 95%CI 1.29-5.01, p=0.007) and death (HR 3.56, 95%CI 1.64-7.72, p=0.001). For pediatric donors, donor BMI was not associated with graft loss or mortality in univariate or multivariate analysis. Donor overweight/obesity was not a risk factor for post-transplant obesity. Conclusions Overweight/obesity is common among liver transplant donors. This analysis suggests that for adult donors, BMI 25-35 should not by itself be a contraindication to liver donation. Severe obesity (BMI>35) in adult donors increased the risk of graft loss and mortality, even after adjustment for recipient, donor, and transplant risk factors. Post-transplant obesity was not associated with donor BMI in this analysis. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of donor obesity on pediatric liver transplant recipients. PMID:22467594
Modi, Rohan M; Tumin, Dmitry; Kruger, Andrew J; Beal, Eliza W; Hayes, Don; Hanje, James; Michaels, Anthony J; Washburn, Kenneth; Conteh, Lanla F; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid
AIM To examine the effect of center size on survival differences between simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLKT) and liver transplantation alone (LTA) in SLKT-listed patients. METHODS The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for patients ≥ 18 years of age listed for SLKT between February 2002 and December 2015. Post-transplant survival was evaluated using stratified Cox regression with interaction between transplant type (LTA vs SLKT) and center volume. RESULTS During the study period, 393 of 4580 patients (9%) listed for SLKT underwent a LTA. Overall mortality was higher among LTA recipients (180/393, 46%) than SLKT recipients (1107/4187, 26%). The Cox model predicted a significant survival disadvantage for patients receiving LTA vs SLKT [hazard ratio, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.85; 95%CI: 2.21, 3.66; P < 0.001] in centers performing 30 SLKT over the study period. This disadvantage was modestly attenuated as center SLKT volume increased, with a 3% reduction (HR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.95, 0.99; P = 0.010) for every 10 SLKs performed. CONCLUSION In conclusion, LTA is associated with increased mortality among patients listed for SLKT. This difference is modestly attenuated at more experienced centers and may explain inconsistencies between smaller-center and larger registry-wide studies comparing SLKT and LTA outcomes. PMID:29399287
Kim, Young; Stahl, Christopher C; Makramalla, Abouelmagd; Olowokure, Olugbenga O; Ristagno, Ross L; Dhar, Vikrom K; Schoech, Michael R; Chadalavada, Seetharam; Latif, Tahir; Kharofa, Jordan; Bari, Khurram; Shah, Shimul A
Orthotopic liver transplantation is a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma within Milan criteria, but these criteria preclude many patients from transplant candidacy. Recent studies have demonstrated that downstaging therapy can reduce tumor burden to meet conventional criteria. The present study reports a single-center experience with tumor downstaging and its effects on post-orthotopic liver transplantation outcomes. All patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were evaluated by our multidisciplinary liver services team from 2012 to 2016 were identified (N = 214). Orthotopic liver transplantation candidates presenting outside of Milan criteria at initial radiographic diagnosis and/or an initial alpha-fetoprotein >400 ng/mL were categorized as at high risk for tumor recurrence and post-transplant mortality. Of the 214 patients newly diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, 73 (34.1%) eventually underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. The majority of patients who did not undergo orthotopic liver transplantation were deceased or lost to follow-up (47.5%), with 14 of 141 (9.9%) currently listed for transplantation. Among transplanted patients, 21 of 73 (28.8%) were considered high-risk candidates. All 21 patients were downstaged to within Milan criteria with an alpha-fetoprotein <400 ng/mL before orthotopic liver transplantation, through locoregional therapies. Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher but acceptable between downstaged high-risk and traditional candidates (9.5% vs 1.9%; P > .05) at a median follow-up period of 17 months. Downstaged high-risk candidates had a similar overall survival compared with those transplanted within Milan criteria (log-rank P > .05). In highly selected cases, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma outside of traditional criteria for orthotopic liver transplantation may undergo downstaging therapy in a multidisciplinary fashion with excellent post-transplant outcomes. These data support an
Milongo, David; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Huart, Antoine; Esposito, Laure; Breuil, Benjamin; Moulos, Panagiotis; Siwy, Justyna; Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Ribes, David; Lavayssière, Laurence; Del Bello, Arnaud; Muscari, Fabrice; Alric, Laurent; Bureau, Christophe; Rostaing, Lionel; Schanstra, Joost P; Kamar, Nassim
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication after liver transplantation. Kidney biopsies cannot be easily performed before liver transplantation to predict patients at high risk for CKD. The aim of our study was to determine whether pre-, peri- and post-transplant factors, as well as peptides present in preliver transplant urine samples were associated with loss in kidney function at 6 months post-transplantation using proteome analysis. Eighty patients who underwent a liver transplantation and that had pretransplant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) value of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m² (MDRD) were included in the study. GFR decreased significantly after transplantation. At month 6 post-transplantation, 40 patients displayed a CKD, i.e. eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m², while the other 40 patients did not. Although thousands of peptides were identified, none was significantly associated with the development of CKD at 6 months after liver transplantation. Moreover, using a urinary peptidome classifier to detect preexisting CKD, no difference was found in CKD scores between the 2 groups. After analysis of a large number of pre-, peri- and post-transplant parameters, viral hepatitis as a cause for liver transplantation was the sole independent predictive factor for CKD. No difference in peptides with differential urinary abundance between patients who received a graft for virus related liver disease vs. all other causes of liver disease was observed. Urinary peptidome analysis before liver transplantation failed to identify a peptide pattern associated with the development of CKD at 6 months after liver transplantation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adebäck, Petra; Nemeth, Antal; Fischler, Björn
The aim of the study was to evaluate the cognitive and emotional development after pediatric liver transplantation. A total of 21 patients, aged 4-16.9 yr (median 9.6 yr) were tested 1-9 yr (median 4.2 yr) after the transplantation. The pretransplant diagnoses included biliary atresia (eight patients), various metabolic diseases (n = 6), acute liver failure (n = 3), and miscellaneous (n = 4). The cognitive functions were tested with Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI)-R or Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC)-III according to age. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale and the evaluation of human figure drawings according to Koppitz were used to detect emotional problems. All tests in all patients were performed by the same psychologist. A significantly lower result on cognitive tests was seen when compared with the expected normal values (p < 0.01). The number of patients with results within or under the lower normal range was higher than expected. Although the mean value of the Piers-Harris self-concept scale was normal, there was a large spread within the group. Indicators of emotional problems were found in the human figure drawings of 50% of the patients. To some extent, low cognitive scores coincided with low scores on self-concept scale and indicators of emotional difficulties. We conclude that the high degree of cognitive and emotional problems after liver transplantation is an important argument for routine psychologic follow-up and support in these patients.
Kakinuma, Sei; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Mamoru
Allogeneic liver transplantation is still the only effective treatment available to patients with liver failure. However, because there is a serious shortage of liver donors, an alternative therapeutic approach is needed. Transplantation of mature hepatocytes has been evaluated in clinical trials, but the long-term efficacy remains unclear and the paucity of donor cells limits this strategy. Stem-cell transplantation is a more promising alternative approach. Several studies have provided information about the mechanism underlying the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Moreover, in experimental models of liver disease, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells or hepatocyte-like cells derived from multipotent stem cells led to donor cell-mediated repopulation of the liver and improved survival rates. However, before stem-cell transplantation can be applied in the clinic to treat liver failure in humans, it will be necessary to overcome several difficulties associated with the technique.
Rinaldi, Luca; Valente, Giovanna; Piai, Guido
Background Liver transplanted patients need close surveillance for early signs of graft disease. Objectives Transient elastography can safely be repeated over time, offering serial liver stiffness measurement values. Serial stiffness measurements were compared to single baseline stiffness measurements in predicting the appearance of liver-related clinical events and guiding subsequent clinical decisions. Methods One hundred and sixty liver transplanted patients were observed for three years in our real-life practice. Results Liver stiffness measurements were stable in 75% of patients, decreased in 4% of patients, and increased in 21% of patients. The pattern of increased stiffness measurements was associated with both HCV-RNA positive status and the presence of an active biliary complication of liver transplantation and was more predictive of a clinically significant event resulting from any disease of the transplanted liver when compared to a stable pattern or to a single liver stiffness measurement. The procedures that were consequently performed were often diagnostic for unexpected situations, both in HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative patients. Conclusions The pattern of longitudinally increased liver stiffness measurements efficiently supported clinical decisions for individualized management strategies. Repeated transient elastography in real-life clinical practice appears to have a practical role in monitoring liver transplanted patients. PMID:28123442
van Rijn, Rianne; Hoogland, Pieter E R; Lehner, Frank; van Heurn, Ernest L W; Porte, Robert J
Liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly accepted as an extension of the organ pool for transplantation. There is little data on the outcome of liver transplantation with DCD grafts from a pediatric donor. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of liver transplantation with pediatric DCD grafts and to compare this with the outcome after transplantation of livers from pediatric donation after brain death (DBD) donors. All transplantations performed with a liver from a pediatric donor (≤16 years) in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2015 were included. Patient survival, graft survival, and complication rates were compared between DCD and DBD liver transplantation. In total, 74 liver transplantations with pediatric grafts were performed; twenty (27%) DCD and 54 (73%) DBD. The median donor warm ischemia time (DWIT) was 24 min (range 15-43 min). Patient survival rate at 10 years was 78% for recipients of DCD grafts and 89% for DBD grafts (p = 0.32). Graft survival rate at 10 years was 65% in recipients of DCD versus 76% in DBD grafts (p = 0.20). If donor livers in this study would have been rejected for transplantation when the DWIT ≥30 min (n = 4), the 10-year graft survival rate would have been 81% after DCD transplantation. The rate of non-anastomotic biliary strictures was 5% in DCD and 4% in DBD grafts (p = 1.00). Other complication rates were also similar between both groups. Transplantation of livers from pediatric DCD donors results in good long-term outcome especially when the DWIT is kept ≤30 min. Patient and graft survival rates are not significantly different between recipients of a pediatric DCD or DBD liver. Moreover, the incidence of non-anastomotic biliary strictures after transplantation of pediatric DCD livers is remarkably low.
Hoogland, Pieter E. R.; Lehner, Frank; van Heurn, Ernest L. W.; Porte, Robert J.
Background Liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly accepted as an extension of the organ pool for transplantation. There is little data on the outcome of liver transplantation with DCD grafts from a pediatric donor. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of liver transplantation with pediatric DCD grafts and to compare this with the outcome after transplantation of livers from pediatric donation after brain death (DBD) donors. Method All transplantations performed with a liver from a pediatric donor (≤16 years) in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2015 were included. Patient survival, graft survival, and complication rates were compared between DCD and DBD liver transplantation. Results In total, 74 liver transplantations with pediatric grafts were performed; twenty (27%) DCD and 54 (73%) DBD. The median donor warm ischemia time (DWIT) was 24 min (range 15–43 min). Patient survival rate at 10 years was 78% for recipients of DCD grafts and 89% for DBD grafts (p = 0.32). Graft survival rate at 10 years was 65% in recipients of DCD versus 76% in DBD grafts (p = 0.20). If donor livers in this study would have been rejected for transplantation when the DWIT ≥30 min (n = 4), the 10-year graft survival rate would have been 81% after DCD transplantation. The rate of non-anastomotic biliary strictures was 5% in DCD and 4% in DBD grafts (p = 1.00). Other complication rates were also similar between both groups. Conclusions Transplantation of livers from pediatric DCD donors results in good long-term outcome especially when the DWIT is kept ≤30 min. Patient and graft survival rates are not significantly different between recipients of a pediatric DCD or DBD liver. Moreover, the incidence of non-anastomotic biliary strictures after transplantation of pediatric DCD livers is remarkably low. PMID:28426684
Blok, Joris J; Detry, Olivier; Putter, Hein; Rogiers, Xavier; Porte, Robert J; van Hoek, Bart; Pirenne, Jacques; Metselaar, Herold J; Lerut, Jan P; Ysebaert, Dirk K; Lucidi, Valerio; Troisi, Roberto I; Samuel, Undine; den Dulk, A Claire; Ringers, Jan; Braat, Andries E
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT) may imply a risk for decreased graft survival, caused by posttransplantation complications such as primary nonfunction or ischemic-type biliary lesions. However, similar survival rates for DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) LT have been reported. The objective of this study is to determine the longterm outcome of DCD LT in the Eurotransplant region corrected for the Eurotransplant donor risk index (ET-DRI). Transplants performed in Belgium and the Netherlands (January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007) in adult recipients were included. Graft failure was defined as either the date of recipient death or retransplantation whichever occurred first (death-uncensored graft survival). Mean follow-up was 7.2 years. In total, 126 DCD and 1264 DBD LTs were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed different graft survival for DBD and DCD at 1 year (77.7% versus 74.8%, respectively; P = 0.71), 5 years (65.6% versus 54.4%, respectively; P = 0.02), and 10 years (47.3% versus 44.2%, respectively; P = 0.55; log-rank P = 0.038). Although there was an overall significant difference, the survival curves almost reach each other after 10 years, which is most likely caused by other risk factors being less in DCD livers. Patient survival was not significantly different (P = 0.59). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a hazard ratio of 1.7 (P < 0.001) for DCD (corrected for ET-DRI and recipient factors). First warm ischemia time (WIT), which is the time from the end of circulation until aortic cold perfusion, over 25 minutes was associated with a lower graft survival in univariate analysis of all DCD transplants (P = 0.002). In conclusion, DCD LT has an increased risk for diminished graft survival compared to DBD. There was no significant difference in patient survival. DCD allografts with a first WIT > 25 minutes have an increased risk for a decrease in graft survival. Liver Transplantation 22 1107
Yasunami, Yohichi; Nakafusa, Yuki; Nitta, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Goto, Masafumi; Ono, Junko; Taniguchi, Masaru
Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and currently the liver is the favored transplantation site. However, an alternative site is desirable because of the low efficiency of hepatic transplantation, requiring 2-3 donors for a single recipient, and because the transplanted islets cannot be accessed or retrieved. We developed a novel procedure of islet transplantation to the inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ISWAT) of mice and described functional and morphological characteristics of transplanted syngeneic islets. Also, it was determined whether islet allograft rejection in the ISWAT can be prevented by immunosuppressive agents. Furthermore, it was examined whether human islets function when grafted in this particular site of immune-deficient mice. In this site, transplanted islets are engrafted as clusters and function to reverse STZ-induced diabetes in mice. Importantly, transplanted islets can be visualized by CT and are easily retrievable, and allograft rejection is preventable by blockade of co-stimulatory signals. Of much importance, the efficiency of islet transplantation in this site is superior to the liver, in which hyperglycemia of diabetic recipient mice is ameliorated after transplantation of 200 syngeneic islets (the islet number yielded from 1 mouse pancreas) to the ISWAT but not to the liver. Furthermore, human islets transplanted in this particular site function to reverse diabetes in immune-deficient mice. Thus, the ISWAT is superior to the liver as the site of islet transplantation, which may lead to improved outcome of clinical islet transplantation.
Background It has been demonstrated in many studies that quality of life can be improved after liver transplantation in patients with liver disease. Nevertherless quality of life improvement in specific groups of transplantated patients such as those with Familial Amyloid Polineuropathy hasn't yet been explored. The present study aimed to compare the change in quality of life following liver transplantation between patients with Familial Amyloid Polineuropathy (FAP) and patients with liver disease. Results Patient's mental quality of life showed an improvement in all liver disease patients, and a worsening in FAP patients, resulting in a significant difference between the two groups. Regarding physical quality of life, although a similar improvement was seen in both groups, FAP patients had significantly less improvement than the sub-group of decompensated liver disease (Child-Pugh B and C). Conclusion It is concluded that liver transplantation has a less beneficial impact in FAP patient's physical quality of life, probably because they are not so much disabled by their disease at the moment of liver transplantation. The lesser improvement in mental quality of life of FAP patients may be due to their particular psychological profile and greater expectations towards transplantation. PMID:19604387
Leon, Carly D G; Lerret, Stacee M
This article reviews the essential role of nutrition in optimizing care for pediatric patients with liver disease awaiting liver transplant. A review of growth and overall principles of feeding for pediatric patients, from infancy through childhood and into adolescence, is provided including the role of macro- and micronutrients, nutrient distribution, and nutrition supplementation. The importance of a thorough nutrition assessment is reviewed, including focus areas the nurse can address with patients and families such as diet histories, growth, and dietary modifications. Suggestions for monitoring and implementing nutrition strategies are provided.
Hanif, F; Sivaprakasam, R; Butler, A; Huguet, E; Pettigrew, G J; Michael, E D A; Praseedom, R K; Jamieson, N V; Bradley, J A; Gibbs, P
Orthotopic liver transplant (OLTx) has evolved to a successful surgical management for end-stage liver diseases. Awareness and information about OLTx is an important tool in assisting OLTx recipients and people supporting them, including non-transplant clinicians. The study aimed to investigate the nature and quality of liver transplant-related patient information on the World Wide Web. Four common search engines were used to explore the Internet by using the key words 'Liver transplant'. The URL (unique resource locator) of the top 50 returns was chosen as it was judged unlikely that the average user would search beyond the first 50 sites returned by a given search. Each Web site was assessed on the following categories: origin, language, accessibility and extent of the information. A weighted Information Score (IS) was created to assess the quality of clinical and educational value of each Web site and was scored independently by three transplant clinicians. The Internet search performed with the aid of the four search engines yielded a total of 2,255,244 Web sites. Of the 200 possible sites, only 58 Web sites were assessed because of repetition of the same Web sites and non-accessible links. The overall median weighted IS was 22 (IQR 1 - 42). Of the 58 Web sites analysed, 45 (77%) belonged to USA, six (10%) were European, and seven (12%) were from the rest of the world. The median weighted IS of publications originating from Europe and USA was 40 (IQR = 22 - 60) and 23 (IQR = 6 - 38), respectively. Although European Web sites produced a higher weighted IS [40 (IQR = 22 - 60)] as compared with the USA publications [23 (IQR = 6 - 38)], this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Web sites belonging to the academic institutions and the professional organizations scored significantly higher with a median weighted IS of 28 (IQR = 16 - 44) and 24(12 - 35), respectively, as compared with the commercial Web sites (median = 6 with IQR of 0 - 14, p = .001). There
Asrani, Sumeet K; Saracino, Giovanna; O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Gonzales, Stevan; Kim, Peter T; McKenna, Greg J; Klintmalm, Goran; Trotter, James
Over the last decade, liver transplantation of sicker, older non-hepatitis C cirrhotics with multiple co-morbidities has increased in the United States. We sought to identify an easily applicable set of recipient factors among HCV negative adult transplant recipients associated with significant morbidity and mortality within five years after liver transplantation. We collected national (n = 31,829, 2002-2015) and center-specific data. Coefficients of relevant recipient factors were converted to weighted points and scaled from 0-5. Recipient factors associated with graft failure included: ventilator support (five patients; hazard ratio [HR] 1.59; 95% CI 1.48-1.72); recipient age >60 years (three patients; HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.23-1.36); hemodialysis (three patients; HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.16-1.37); diabetes (two patients; HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.14-1.27); or serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dl without hemodialysis (two patients; HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.09-1.22). Graft survival within five years based on points (any combination) was 77.2% (0-4), 69.1% (5-8) and 57.9% (>8). In recipients with >8 points, graft survival was 42% (model for end-stage liver disease [MELD] score <25) and 50% (MELD score 25-35) in recipients receiving grafts from donors with a donor risk index >1.7. In center-specific data within the first year, subjects with ≥5 points (vs. 0-4) had longer hospitalization (11 vs. 8 days, p <0.01), higher admissions for rehabilitation (12.3% vs. 2.7%, p <0.01), and higher incidence of cardiac disease (14.2% vs. 5.3%, p <0.01) and stage 3 chronic kidney disease (78.6% vs. 39.5%, p = 0.03) within five years. The impact of co-morbidities in an MELD-based organ allocation system need to be reassessed. The proposed clinical tool may be helpful for center-specific assessment of risk of graft failure in non-HCV patients and for discussion regarding relevant morbidity in selected subsets. Over the last decade, liver transplantation of sicker, older patient with
Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Cambra, Felix; Caso, Oscar; Manrique, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge; Marcacuzco, Alejandro; Rioja, Paula; Lora, David; Justo, Iago
To analyse the impact of octogenarian donors in liver transplantation. We present a retrospective single-center study, performed between November 1996 and March 2015, that comprises a sample of 153 liver transplants. Recipients were divided into two groups according to liver donor age: recipients of donors ≤ 65 years (group A; n = 102), and recipients of donors ≥ 80 years (group B; n = 51). A comparative analysis between the groups was performed. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean values and SD, and qualitative variables as percentages. Differences in properties between qualitative variables were assessed by χ 2 test. Comparison of quantitative variables was made by t -test. Graft and patient survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. One, 3 and 5-year overall patient survival was 87.3%, 84% and 75.2%, respectively, in recipients of younger grafts vs 88.2%, 84.1% and 66.4%, respectively, in recipients of octogenarian grafts ( P = 0.748). One, 3 and 5-year overall graft survival was 84.3%, 83.1% and 74.2%, respectively, in recipients of younger grafts vs 84.3%, 79.4% and 64.2%, respectively, in recipients of octogenarian grafts ( P = 0.524). After excluding the patients with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis (16 in group A and 10 in group B), the 1, 3 and 5-year patient ( P = 0.657) and graft ( P = 0.419) survivals were practically the same in both groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that overall patient survival was adversely affected by cerebrovascular donor death, hepatocarcinoma, and recipient preoperative bilirubin, and overall graft survival was adversely influenced by cerebrovascular donor death, and recipient preoperative bilirubin. The standard criteria for utilization of octogenarian liver grafts are: normal gross appearance and consistency, normal or almost normal liver tests, hemodynamic stability with use of < 10 μg/kg per minute of vasopressors before procurement, intensive care unit stay < 3 d, CIT < 9 h
Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Cambra, Felix; Caso, Oscar; Manrique, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge; Marcacuzco, Alejandro; Rioja, Paula; Lora, David; Justo, Iago
AIM To analyse the impact of octogenarian donors in liver transplantation. METHODS We present a retrospective single-center study, performed between November 1996 and March 2015, that comprises a sample of 153 liver transplants. Recipients were divided into two groups according to liver donor age: recipients of donors ≤ 65 years (group A; n = 102), and recipients of donors ≥ 80 years (group B; n = 51). A comparative analysis between the groups was performed. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean values and SD, and qualitative variables as percentages. Differences in properties between qualitative variables were assessed by χ2 test. Comparison of quantitative variables was made by t-test. Graft and patient survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS One, 3 and 5-year overall patient survival was 87.3%, 84% and 75.2%, respectively, in recipients of younger grafts vs 88.2%, 84.1% and 66.4%, respectively, in recipients of octogenarian grafts (P = 0.748). One, 3 and 5-year overall graft survival was 84.3%, 83.1% and 74.2%, respectively, in recipients of younger grafts vs 84.3%, 79.4% and 64.2%, respectively, in recipients of octogenarian grafts (P = 0.524). After excluding the patients with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis (16 in group A and 10 in group B), the 1, 3 and 5-year patient (P = 0.657) and graft (P = 0.419) survivals were practically the same in both groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that overall patient survival was adversely affected by cerebrovascular donor death, hepatocarcinoma, and recipient preoperative bilirubin, and overall graft survival was adversely influenced by cerebrovascular donor death, and recipient preoperative bilirubin. CONCLUSION The standard criteria for utilization of octogenarian liver grafts are: normal gross appearance and consistency, normal or almost normal liver tests, hemodynamic stability with use of < 10 μg/kg per minute of vasopressors before procurement, intensive care
Tam, Ngalei; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lin, Jianwei; Wu, Chenglin; Deng, Ronghai; Liao, Bing; Hu, Shuiqing; Wang, Dongping; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Linwei; He, Xiaoshun
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a critical problem due to immunosuppressant related nephrotoxicity in liver transplant (LTx) recipients, especially in patients with pre-transplant risk factors. LTx recipients with uraemia and diabetes have poor prognosis even when treated with dialysis and insulin. Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with diabetic uraemia, but rarely performed in patients after LTx. Two cases of SPK after LTx were performed in our centre and we present our experience here. Two patients received LTx because of HBV related liver cirrhosis; both of them had pre-transplant diabetes mellitus (DM), which worsened after the administration of immunosuppressive drugs. These two patients suffered from CKD and developed uraemia due to diabetic nephropathy and immunosuppressive drugs induced renal toxicity years after LTx. They relied on dialysis and insulin injection. SPK were performed years after LTx and the clinical data was retrospectively analyzed. SPK was successfully performed in these two patients. Pancreatic fluid drainage was achieved via a side-to-side duodenojejunostomy into the proximal jejunum. No serious surgical complications, including pancreatitis or pancreatic fistula were observed postoperatively. In both cases, kidney and pancreatic grafts were functioning well as evidenced by euglycemia without the need for insulin injections and normal serum-creatinine level 7days after the operation. One of the patients presented with renal graft impairment 1week after the operation. FK506 was tapered and rapamycin was used when the renal graft biopsy indicated drug toxicity. The patient's kidney graft function recovered gradually after the adjustment. Both patients have good function of liver, kidney and pancreas grafts during a 60-month and 30-month period of follow up. SPK could serve as an effective option for patients with diabetes and uremia after LTx
Roque, L; Sankarankutty, A K; Silva, O C; Mente, E D
A wide variety of pulmonary conditions are found in cirrhotic patients and may compromise the pleura, diaphragm, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature, influencing the results of liver transplantation. To evaluate the pulmonary function (lung capacities, volumes, and gasometric study) of patients with liver cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation. Cirrhotic patients, subdivided into 3 groups stratified by liver disease severity using the Child-Pugh-Turcotte score, were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In spirometry, the parameters evaluated were total lung capacity, forced volume in the first second, and the relationship between forced volume in the first minute and forced vital capacity. Blood gas analysis was performed. In the control group, arterial oxygenation was evaluated by peripheral oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. Of the 55 patients (75% men, 51 ± 12.77 years), 11 were Child A (73% men, 52 ± 14.01 years), 23 were Child B (75% men, 51 ± 12.77 years), and 21 were Child C (95% men, 50 ± 12.09 years). The control group had 20 individuals (50% men, 47 ± 8.15 years). Pulmonary capacities and volumes by the parameters evaluated were within the normal range. Arterial blood gas analysis detected no hypoxemia, but a tendency to low partial gas pressure was noted. In this population of cirrhotic patients the parameters of spirometry were normal in relation to the lung capacities and volumes in the different groups. No hypoxemia was detected, but a tendency to hypocapnia in the blood gas was noted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Sayyed J; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Manisha P; Shah, Priya S; Varyani, Umesh T; Wakhare, Pavan S; Shinde, Saiprasad G; Ghodela, Vijay A; Patel, Minaxi H; Trivedi, Varsha B; Trivedi, Hargovind L
One third of healthy willing living kidney donors are rejected due to ABO blood group incompatibility and donor specific antibody. This increases pre-transplant dialysis duration leading to increased morbidity and mortality on the kidney transplantation waiting list. Over the last decade kidney paired donation is most rapidly increased source of living kidney donors. In a kidney transplantation program dominated by living donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation is a legal and valid alternative strategy to increase living donor kidney transplantation. This is more useful in countries with limited resources where ABO incompatible kidney transplantation or desensitization protocol is not feasible because of costs/infectious complications and deceased donor kidney transplantation is in initial stages. The matching allocation, ABO blood type imbalance, reciprocity, simultaneity, geography were the limitation for the expansion of kidney paired donation. Here we describe different successful ways to increase living donor kidney transplantation through kidney paired donation. Compatible pairs, domino chain, combination of kidney paired donation with desensitization or ABO incompatible transplantation, international kidney paired donation, non-simultaneous, extended, altruistic donor chain and list exchange are different ways to expand the donor pool. In absence of national kidney paired donation program, a dedicated kidney paired donation team will increase access to living donor kidney transplantation in individual centres with team work. Use of social networking sites to expand donor pool, HLA based national kidney paired donation program will increase quality and quantity of kidney paired donation transplantation. Transplant centres should remove the barriers to a broader implementation of multicentre, national kidney paired donation program to further optimize potential of kidney paired donation to increase transplantation of O group and sensitized
Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Shah, Pankaj R; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Rizvi, Sayyed J; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Manisha P; Shah, Priya S; Varyani, Umesh T; Wakhare, Pavan S; Shinde, Saiprasad G; Ghodela, Vijay A; Patel, Minaxi H; Trivedi, Varsha B; Trivedi, Hargovind L
One third of healthy willing living kidney donors are rejected due to ABO blood group incompatibility and donor specific antibody. This increases pre-transplant dialysis duration leading to increased morbidity and mortality on the kidney transplantation waiting list. Over the last decade kidney paired donation is most rapidly increased source of living kidney donors. In a kidney transplantation program dominated by living donor kidney transplantation, kidney paired donation is a legal and valid alternative strategy to increase living donor kidney transplantation. This is more useful in countries with limited resources where ABO incompatible kidney transplantation or desensitization protocol is not feasible because of costs/infectious complications and deceased donor kidney transplantation is in initial stages. The matching allocation, ABO blood type imbalance, reciprocity, simultaneity, geography were the limitation for the expansion of kidney paired donation. Here we describe different successful ways to increase living donor kidney transplantation through kidney paired donation. Compatible pairs, domino chain, combination of kidney paired donation with desensitization or ABO incompatible transplantation, international kidney paired donation, non-simultaneous, extended, altruistic donor chain and list exchange are different ways to expand the donor pool. In absence of national kidney paired donation program, a dedicated kidney paired donation team will increase access to living donor kidney transplantation in individual centres with team work. Use of social networking sites to expand donor pool, HLA based national kidney paired donation program will increase quality and quantity of kidney paired donation transplantation. Transplant centres should remove the barriers to a broader implementation of multicentre, national kidney paired donation program to further optimize potential of kidney paired donation to increase transplantation of O group and sensitized
Azevedo, L D; Stucchi, R S; de Ataíde, E C; Boin, I F S F
Graft dysfunction after liver transplantation is a serious complication that can lead to graft loss and patient death. This was a study to identify risk factors for early death (up to 30 days after transplantation). It was an observational and retrospective analysis at the Liver Transplantation Unit, Hospital de Clinicas, State University of Campinas, Brazil. From July 1994 to December 2012, 302 patients were included (>18 years old, piggyback technique). Of these cases, 26% died within 30 days. For analysis, Student t tests and chi-square were used to analyze receptor-related (age, body mass index, serum sodium, graft dysfunction, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, renal function, and early graft dysfunction [EGD type 1, 2, or 3]), surgery (hot and cold ischemia, surgical time, and units of packed erythrocytes [pRBC]), and donor (age, hypotension, and brain death cause) factors. Risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression model adjusted by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test with significance set at P < .05. We found that hyponatremic recipients had a 6.26-fold higher risk for early death. There was a 9% reduced chance of death when the recipient serum sodium increased 1 unit. The chance of EGD3 to have early death was 18-fold higher than for EGD1 and there was a 13% increased risk for death for each unit of pRBC transfused. Donor total bilirubin, hyponatremia, massive transfusion, and EGD3 in the allocation graft should be observed for better results in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martínez-Llordella, M; Puig-Pey, I; Orlando, G; Ramoni, M; Tisone, G; Rimola, A; Lerut, J; Latinne, D; Margarit, C; Bilbao, I; Brouard, S; Hernández-Fuentes, M; Soulillou, J-P; Sánchez-Fueyo, A
Immunosuppressive drugs can be completely withdrawn in up to 20% of liver transplant recipients, commonly referred to as 'operationally' tolerant. Immune characterization of these patients, however, has not been performed in detail, and we lack tests capable of identifying tolerant patients among recipients receiving maintenance immunosuppression. In the current study we have analyzed a variety of biological traits in peripheral blood of operationally tolerant liver recipients in an attempt to define a multiparameter 'fingerprint' of tolerance. Thus, we have performed peripheral blood gene expression profiling and extensive blood cell immunophenotyping on 16 operationally tolerant liver recipients, 16 recipients requiring on-going immunosuppressive therapy, and 10 healthy individuals. Microarray profiling identified a gene expression signature that could discriminate tolerant recipients from immunosuppression-dependent patients with high accuracy. This signature included genes encoding for gammadelta T-cell and NK receptors, and for proteins involved in cell proliferation arrest. In addition, tolerant recipients exhibited significantly greater numbers of circulating potentially regulatory T-cell subsets (CD4+ CD25+ T-cells and Vdelta1+ T cells) than either non-tolerant patients or healthy individuals. Our data provide novel mechanistic insight on liver allograft operational tolerance, and constitute a first step in the search for a non-invasive diagnostic signature capable of predicting tolerance before undergoing drug weaning.
Huda, Kamrul A S M; Guo, Lei; Haga, Sanae; Murata, Hiroshi; Ogino, Tetsuya; Fukai, Moto; Yagi, Takahito; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Ozaki, Michitaka
Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is one of the most important transcription factors for liver regeneration. This study was designed to examine the effects of constitutively activated STAT3 (STAT3-C) on post-transplant liver injury and regeneration in a rat 20% partial liver transplant (PLTx) model by ex vivo adenoviral gene transfer. Adenovirus encoding the STAT3-C gene was introduced intraportally into liver grafts and clamped for 30 min during cold preservation. After orthotopic PLTx, liver graft/body weights and serum biochemistry were monitored, and both a histological study and DNA binding assay were performed. STAT3-C protein expression and its binding to DNA in the liver graft were confirmed by Western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively. This treatment modality promoted post-Tx liver regeneration effectively and rapidly. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ALT) and bilirubin decreased in rats with STAT3-C. However, albumin (a marker of liver function) did not. Ex vivo gene transfer of STAT3-C to liver grafts reduced post-Tx injury and promoted liver regeneration. Thus, the activation of STAT3 in the liver graft may be a potentially effective clinical strategy for improving the outcome of small-for-size liver transplantation.
Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Glidden, Dave; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip
Obesity is extremely common in adult liver transplant recipients and healthy U.S. children. Little is known about the prevalence or risk factors for post-transplant obesity in pediatric liver transplant recipients. UNOS data on all U.S. liver transplants 1987–2010 in children 6 months–20 yr at transplant were analyzed. Subjects were categorized as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese by CDC guidelines. Predictors of weight status at and after transplant were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Of 3043 children 6–24 months at transplant, 14% were overweight. Of 4658 subjects 2–20 yr at transplant, 16% were overweight and 13% obese. Children overweight/obese at transplant were more likely to be overweight/obese at one, two, and five yr after transplant in all age groups after adjusting for age, ethnicity, primary diagnosis, year of transplant, and transplant type. Weight status at transplant was not associated with overweight/ obesity by 10 yr after transplant. The prevalence of post-transplant obesity remained high in long-term follow-up, from 20% to 50% depending on age and weight status at transplant. Weight status at transplant is the strongest predictor of post-transplant overweight/obesity. To optimize long-term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant recipients, monitoring for obesity and its comorbidities is important. PMID:22093689
ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; DUCATTI, Liliana; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBURQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro
Background Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate and the main purposes of treatment are to prevent cerebral edema and infections, which often are responsible for patient death. The orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment and improves the 1-year survival. Aim To describe an alternative technique to auxiliary liver transplant on acute liver failure. Method Was performed whole auxiliary liver transplantation as an alternative technique for a partial auxiliary liver transplantation using a whole liver graft from a child removing the native right liver performed a right hepatectomy. The patient met the O´Grady´s criteria and the rational to indicate an auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation was the acute classification without hemodynamic instability or renal failure in a patient with deterioration in consciousness. Results The procedure improved liver function and decreased intracranial hypertension in the postoperative period. Conclusion This technique can overcome some postoperative complications that are associated with partial grafts. As far as is known, this is the first case of auxiliary orthotopic liver transplantation in Brazil. PMID:26176253
Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru
Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…
Yang, Kun; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Chong-Cheng; Wen, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Guo, Dong-Jiao; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun
Abstract Nowadays, de novo malignancies have become an important cause of death after transplantation. According to the accumulation of cases with liver transplantation, the incidence of de novo gastric cancer is anticipated to increase among liver transplant recipients in the near future, especially in some East Asian countries where both liver diseases requiring liver transplantation and gastric cancer are major burdens. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the relationship between de novo gastric cancer and liver transplantation. Herein, we report a case of stage IIIc gastric cancer after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma, who was successfully treated by radical distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy but died 15 months later due to tumor progression. Furthermore, we extract some lessons to learn from the case and review the literatures. The incidence of de novo gastric cancer following liver transplantations is increasing and higher than the general population. Doctors should be vigilant in early detection and control the risk factors causing de novo gastric cancer after liver transplantation. Curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is still the mainstay of treatment for such patients. Preoperative assessments, strict postoperative monitoring, and managements are mandatory. Limited chemotherapy could be given to the patients with high risk of recurrence. Close surveillance, early detection, and treatment of posttransplant cancers are extremely important and essential to improve the survival. PMID:26886605
Gartner, J. Carlton; Bergman, Ira; Malatack, J. Jeffrey; Zitelli, Basil J.; Jaffe, Ronald; Watkins, John B.; Shaw, Byers W.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Starzl, Thomas E.
A 7-year-old girl with progressive ataxia, spasticity, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and sea-blue histiocytes in her bone marrow underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. After an initial period of stabilization, she has shown progression of neurologic symptoms with recurrence of storage material in the transplanted liver. PMID:2999691
Wan, Ping; Yu, Xin; Xia, Qiang
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged as an alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) because of the increasing number of patients waiting for liver transplantation (LT). However, whether it can achieve operative outcomes similar to those achieved with DDLT for adult patients remains controversial. We conducted this meta-analysis to compare the operative outcomes of LDLT and DDLT recipients. A literature search was performed to identify clinical controlled studies comparing LDLT and DDLT that were published before October 2013. Four perioperative outcomes [duration of the recipient operation (DRO), red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirement, length of the hospital stay, and cold ischemia time (CIT)] and 5 postoperative complication outcomes (biliary complications, vascular complications, intra-abdominal bleeding, perioperative death, and retransplantation) were the main outcomes assessed. Nineteen studies with a total of 5450 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In comparison with DDLT, LDLT was associated with a significantly longer DRO and a shorter CIT. We found that biliary complications [odds ratio (OR) = 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.97-4.81, P < 0.001], vascular complications (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.32-3.54, P = 0.002), and retransplantation (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.83, P = 0.02) occurred more frequently for LDLT recipients, and the subgroup analysis indicated that the biliary complication rate decreased dramatically with greater LDLT experience. No significant difference was observed in RBC transfusion requirements, the lengths of hospital stays, intra-abdominal bleeding rates, or perioperative mortality between LDLT and DDLT recipients. In conclusion, LDLT is associated with a higher rate of surgical complications after transplantation. A reduction of postoperative complication rates can be achieved as centers gain greater experience with LDLT. However, LDLT is still
Immediate postoperative tracheal extubation in a liver transplant recipient with encephalopathy and the Mayo end-stage liver disease score of 41: A CARE-compliant case report revealed meaningful challenge in recovery after surgery (ERAS) for liver transplantation.
Li, Jianbo; Wang, Chengdi; Chen, Nan; Song, Jiulin; Sun, Yan; Yao, Qin; Yan, Lunan; Yang, Jiayin
Immediate postoperative tracheal extubation (IPTE) is one of the most important subject in recovery after surgery (ERAS) for liver transplantation. However, the criteria for IPTE is not uniform at present. We reported a successful IPTE in a liver transplant recipient with encephalopathy and a high Mayo end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 41, which beyond the so-called criteria reported in the literature. The patient was 48-year-old man, admitted in September 2016 for end-stage liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B. End-stage liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B with encephalopathy and a high MELD score of 41. He was involved in our ERAS project and was extubated at the end of the liver transplantation in the operating room. As a result, the patient was not reintubated and had an excellent postoperative recovery, staying in intensive care unit (ICU) for just 2 days and discharged home on day 10. We believed IPTE in liver transplant recipients with severe liver dysfunction is a meaningful challenge in ERAS for liver transplantation. Our case and literature review suggest 3 things: IPTE in liver transplantation is generally feasible and safe; the encephalopathy or high MELD score should not be the only limiting factor; and a more systematic predicting system for IPTE in liver transplantation should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ndimbie, O K; Frezza, E; Jordan, J A; Koch, W; van Thiel, D H
Five hundred thirty-three liver transplant recipients were seen for follow-up care over a 6-month period. Of these, 23 (4.3%) had a hemoglobin level of < or = 9 g/dl, with 19 being eligible for inclusion in this study. The median hemoglobin level was 8.7 g/dl. Two patients had iron-deficiency anemia. All of the patients were on therapeutic drugs which can suppress erythropoiesis or shorten the lifespan of mature erythrocytes. Six patients (31.6%) were viremic for human parvovirus B19 but none was B19 immunoglobulin M seropositive. Two patients were immunoglobulin M seropositive for cytomegalovirus. The patients with circulating B19 DNA were not easily distinguished from those without the virus by their laboratory results. The absence of reticulocyte counts for these patients contributed to this inability to differentiate B19 from other causes of anemia, particularly drug myelotoxicity. The high likelihood of making a specific diagnosis with the increasing availability of PCR should spur the search for this virus in the liver transplant population. PMID:8914771
Song, Bianying; Schulze, Mareike; Goldschmidt, Imeke; Haux, Reinhold; Baumann, Ulrich; Marschollek, Michael
Complications may occur after a liver transplantation, therefore proper monitoring and care in the post-operation phase plays a very important role. Sometimes, monitoring and care for patients from abroad is difficult due to a variety of reasons, e.g., different care facilities. The objective of our research for this paper is to design, implement and evaluate a home monitoring and decision support infrastructure for international children who underwent liver transplant operation. A point-of-care device and the PedsQL questionnaire were used in patients' home environment for measuring the blood parameters and assessing quality of life. By using a tablet PC and a specially developed software, the measured results were able to be transmitted to the health care providers via internet. So far, the developed infrastructure has been evaluated with four international patients/families transferring 38 records of blood test. The evaluation showed that the home monitoring and decision support infrastructure is technically feasible and is able to give timely alarm in case of abnormal situation as well as may increase parent's feeling of safety for their children.
Prieto, Martín; García-Eliz, María
Hepatitis B is currently an excellent indication for liver transplantation due to the highly effective strategies of prophylaxis and treatment for recurrent hepatitis B infection. The combined administration of low-dose hepatitis B hyperimmune gamma globulin and a nucleoside/nucleotide analogue with a high genetic barrier to resistance, such as entecavir (except for patients with lamivudine resistance) or tenofovir, represents the standard for the prophylaxis of recurrent hepatitis B infection and is used in most centers. The drawbacks of long-term administration of hyperimmune gamma globulin have led to research on regimens in which this agent is withdrawn after a certain amount of time in combination treatment, a strategy that appears to be safe in patients with undetectable viremia at the time of liver transplantation if the patients adhere to the treatment. In recent years, there has also been research into regimens of gamma-globulin-free prophylaxis, based only on the administration of oral antiviral drugs, which appear to be safe if antivirals with a high genetic barrier to resistance are used. Hepatitis B prophylaxis should be maintained indefinitely; therefore, the total withdrawal of prophylaxis is not an accepted strategy at present in daily clinical practice if not in the context of a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Revilla-Nuin, Beatriz; Parrilla, Pascual; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ramírez, Pablo; Pons, José Antonio
Transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ failure, and modern immunosuppression has allowed important progress in short-term outcomes. However, immunosuppression poorly influences chronic rejection and elicits chronic toxicity in current clinical practice. Thus, a major goal in transplantation is to understand and induce tolerance. It is well established that human regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 play important roles in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The major regulatory T cell subsets and mechanisms of expansion that are critical for induction and long-term maintenance of graft tolerance and survival are being actively investigated. Likewise, other immune cells, such as dendritic cells, monocyte/macrophages or natural killer cells, have been described as part of the process known as “operational tolerance”. However, translation of these results towards clinical practice needs solid tools to identify accurately and reliably patients who are going to be tolerant. In this way, a plethora of genetic and cellular biomarkers is raising and being validated worldwide in large multi-center clinical trials. Few of the studies performed so far have provided a detailed analysis of the impact of immunosuppression withdrawal on pre-existing complications derived from the long-term administration of immunosuppressive drugs and the side effects associated with them. The future of liver transplantation is aimed to develop new therapies which increase the actual low tolerant vs non-tolerant recipients ratio. PMID:27678350
Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro
During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing
Grąt, M; Hołówko, W; Wronka, K M; Grąt, K; Lewandowski, Z; Kosińska, I; Krasnodębski, M; Wasilewicz, M; Gałęcka, M; Szachta, P; Zborowska, H; Patkowski, W; Krawczyk, M
The gut microbial ecosystem plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, the association of microbial community structure with the severity of liver dysfunction is not completely understood. Fecal microflora was assessed in 40 patients with liver cirrhosis listed for primary liver transplantation (LT). Independent associations between fecal microbial counts and serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, international normalized ratio (INR), and the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were established in multiple linear regression models. Bifidobacterium (standardized regression coefficient [sβ] = -0.549; P < 0.001), Enterococcus (sβ = 0.369; P = 0.004), and yeast (sβ = 0.315; P = 0.018) numbers were independently associated with serum bilirubin, while Escherichia coli counts (sβ = 0.318; P = 0.046) correlated with INR, and Bifidobacterium counts (sβ = 0.410; P = 0.009) with serum creatinine. Only Bifidobacterium (sβ = -0.468; P = 0.003) and Enterococcus (sβ = 0.331; P = 0.029) counts were independent predictors of the MELD score. Bifidobacterium/Enterococcus ratio, proposed as a measure of pre-LT gut dysbiosis, was significantly related to the MELD score following the adjustment for the absolute Bifidobacterium (sβ = -0.333; P = 0.029) and Enterococcus (sβ = -0.966; P = 0.003) numbers. This pre-transplant dysbiosis ratio (PTDR) was significantly correlated with Enterococcus (R = -0.897; P < 0.001) but not with Bifidobacterium (R = 0.098; P = 0.546) counts. Among the other components of gut microflora, only hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-producing Lactobacillus strains significantly influenced Enterococcus counts (sβ = 0.349; P = 0.028) and PTDR (sβ = -0.318; P = 0.046). While the abundance of both Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus is related to liver dysfunction, the size of the Enterococcus population seems to be the most important determinant of pre-LT gut dysbiosis in
Scalea, Joseph R; Redfield, Robert R; Foley, David P
Multiple reports have demonstrated that liver transplantation following donation after circulatory death (DCD) is associated with poorer outcomes when compared with liver transplantation from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. We hypothesized that carefully selected, underutilized DCD livers recovered from younger donors have excellent outcomes. We performed a retrospective study of the United Network for Organ Sharing database to determine graft survivals for patients who received liver transplants from DBD donors of age ≥ 60 years, DBD donors < 60 years, and DCD donors < 50 years of age. Between January 2002 and December 2014, 52,271 liver transplants were performed in the United States. Of these, 41,181 (78.8%) underwent transplantation with livers from DBD donors of age < 60 years, 8905 (17.0%) from DBD donors ≥ 60 years old, and 2195 (4.2%) livers from DCD donors < 50 years of age. DCD livers of age < 50 years with < 6 hours of cold ischemia time (CIT) had superior graft survival when compared with DBD livers ≥ age 60 years (P < 0.001). In 2014, there were 133 discarded DCD livers; of these, 111 (83.4%) were from donors < age 50 years old. Young DCD donor livers (age < 50 years old) with short CITs yield results better than that seen with DBD livers > 60 years old. Careful donor organ and recipient selection can lead to excellent results, despite previous reports suggesting otherwise. Increased acceptance of these DCD livers would lead to shorter wait list times and increased national liver transplant rates. Liver Transplantation 22 1197-1204 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Fortune, Brett E; Umman, Veysel; Gilliland, Thomas; Emre, Sukru
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Early detection and timely treatment of HCC is critical for better patient outcomes. Curative therapy consists of surgical hepatic resection or liver transplantation (LTx); however, both are restricted to explicit selective criteria. Liver resection is the gold standard of treatment for noncirrhotic patients but can be done in only a small fraction of cirrhotic patients depending on synthetic dysfunction, degree of portal hypertension, and number and location(s) of tumor(s). Therefore, the best treatment modality in cirrhotic patients with HCC is LTx as it will cure both HCC and the underlying cirrhosis. The limitation to offer transplant to all cirrhotic patients with HCC is the shortage of available donor organs. While these patients are waiting for transplant, their tumors may progress and develop distant metastases and may lead to patients losing their candidacy for LTx. Various ablation therapies can be used to treat HCC, prevent tumor progression, and thus, avoid patients losing the option of LTx. Future directions to improve HCC patient outcomes include advancement in tumor gene analysis and histopathology for better prediction of tumor behavior, improved immunosuppression regimens to reduce tumor recurrence in the posttransplant setting, and efficient use of an expanded donor pool that includes living donor organs. This paper will review the current methods of HCC diagnosis, selection for either hepatic resection or LTx, and will also summarize posttreatment outcomes. We will suggest future directions for the field as we strive to improve outcomes for our HCC patients.
Uzunova, Yordanka; Prodanova, Krasimira; Spassov, Lubomir
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of infections after OLT are usually associated with improved outcomes. This study's objective is to identify reliable factors that can predict postoperative infectious morbidity. 27 children were included in the analysis. They underwent liver transplantation in our department. The correlation between two parameters (the level of blood glucose at 5th postoperative day and the duration of the anhepatic phase) and postoperative infections was analyzed, using univariate analysis. In this analysis, an independent predictive factor was derived which adequately identifies patients at risk of infectious complications after a liver transplantation.
Bahador, Z; Dehghani, S M; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Hafezi, N; Bahador, M; Malek-Hosseini, S A
So far numerous post-transplant outcome predictors have been studied to decrease the loss of resources and grafts after organ transplantation. The role of education, as a predictor, in liver transplantation outcome has so far been studied in several articles. However, in most of the studies it was evaluated as a surrogate for socioeconomic status or other variants. The absolute impact of parents' education has rarely been studied. Adult patients are their own caregivers whereas pediatric liver transplantation recipients are mostly cared by their parents. To evaluate the effect of level of patients' education on the mortality and morbidity of pediatric liver transplant recipients. We studied a group of 91 children who had undergone liver transplantation in our center from March 21, 2012 to July 21, 2013. In this retrospective study, patients' medical charts and questionnaire were used to collect the necessary data. Post-transplantation mortality and complications were divided into two categories: Early (<6 months after liver transplantation), and late (≥6 months after the transplantation). Parents' educational level was also categorized into 5 groups. Multivariate analysis of all groups showed that paternal education is an independent predictor of the late post-transplantation complications (p=0.024). Educational level of children's mothers had no significant correlation with the late post-transplantation complications (p=0.45). Neither maternal (p=0.59) nor paternal (p=0.607) education had significant effect on the late post-transplantation mortality. Paternal educational level of liver transplanted children is associated with the late post-transplantation complications.
Schreiber-Zamora, J; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Borek-Dzięcioł, B; Drozdowska-Szymczak, A; Czaplińska, N; Pawlik, O; Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Wielgoś, M
Immunosuppressive treatment used in pregnant liver recipients may have a negative impact on fetal development and successively a child. The aim of the study was to make a neurological assessment of infants and children born to liver transplant recipients (LTRs) born between December 4, 2001, and February 11, 2013, in the 1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw. The study involved 88 children, of whom 44 children were born to LTR mothers, and 44 children born to women who were not organ recipients and delivered at a similar gestational age. The gestational age of neonates ranged from 33 to 41 weeks, and the birth weight ranged from 1420 g to 4100 g. The neurological examination was performed in children from 7 weeks to 10 years of age. The neurological development was assessed by a specialist in pediatric neurology. The results of the examination were divided according to the following criteria: 1) normal development, 2) slight disorders, 3) moderate disorders, and 4) severe disorders. The Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Normal development was found in 35 of 44 (79.54%) children in the LTR group and 39 of 44 (88.63%) children in the control group (P = .3827). Slight disorders were observed in 6 of 44 (13.63%) children in LTR group and 5 of 44 (11.36%) children in the control group. Moderate disorders were found only in 3 of 44 (6.81%) children in the LTR group. No severe disorders were observed in both groups. Neurological development of children born to the liver recipients who were exposed to chronic immunosuppressive treatment in their fetal lives is the same as that of children whose mothers have not undergone organ transplantation.
Patel, N; Loveland, J; Zuckerman, M; Moshesh, P; Britz, R; Botha, J
Liver transplantation is an accepted treatment modality in the management of MSUD. To our knowledge, o