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Sample records for aboard columbia orbiter

  1. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the orbiter Columbia's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen Oswald, at right, explains Shuttle operations to Ohio Senator John Glenn on the orbiter Columbia's middeck at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  2. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the orbiter Columbia's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen Oswald, at left, explains Shuttle operations to Ohio Senator John Glenn on the orbiter Columbia's middeck at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  3. 'Columbia Hills' from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater was made by draping an image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (image E0300012 from that camera) over a digital elevation model that was derived from two Mars Orbiter Camera images (E0300012 and R0200357).

    This unique view is helpful to the rover team members as they plan the journey of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit to the base of the Columbia Hills and beyond. Spirit successfully completed a three-month primary mission, and so far remains healthy in an extended mission of bonus exploration. As of sol 135 (on May 21, 2004), Spirit sits approximately 680 meters (0.4 miles) away from its first target at the western base of the hills, a spot informally called 'West Spur.' The team estimates that Spirit will reach West Spur by sol 146 (June 1, 2004). Spirit will most likely remain there for about a week to study the outcrops and rocks associated with this location.

    When done there, Spirit will head approximately 620 meters (0.38 miles) to a higher-elevation location informally called 'Lookout Point.' Spirit might reach Lookout Point by around sol 165 (June 20, 2004). On the way, the rover will pass by and study ripple-shaped wind deposits that may reveal more information about wind processes on Mars.

    Lookout Point will provide a great vantage point for scientists to remotely study the inner basin area of the Columbia Hills. This basin contains a broad range of interesting geological targets including the informally named 'Home Plate' and other possible layered outcrops. These features suggest that the hills contain rock layers. Spirit might investigate the layers to determine whether they are water-deposited sedimentary rock.

    Once at Lookout Point, Spirit will acquire 360-degree panoramic images of the entire area to help define the rover's next steps. Assuming the rover stays healthy, Spirit will eventually drive down into the basin to get an up

  4. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the orbiter Columbia's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen Oswald, at left, listens to Ohio Senator John Glenn on the orbiter Columbia's middeck as the senator asks questions regarding Shuttle operations at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  5. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the orbiter Columbia's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at right, sits in the flight deck of the orbiter Columbia as astronaut Stephen Oswald listens to his questions regarding some of the flight equipment at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  6. STS-65 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia (logo), the Official insignia of the NASA STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission. Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-65 insignia features the IML-2 mission and its Spacelab module which will fly aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences. The STS-65 flight crewmembers are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, MS Carl E. Walz, MS Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, and Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai.

  7. Ohio Senator John Glenn sits in the orbiter Columbia's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn sits in the flight deck looking at equipment in the orbiter Columbia at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  8. Ohio Senator John Glenn sits in the orbiter Columbia's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn enjoys a tour of the flight deck in the orbiter Columbia at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  9. STS-65 crew works inside the IML-2 spacelab module aboard Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the spacelab science module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, four members of the STS-65 crew busy themselves with experiments in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Mission Specialist (MS) Donald A. Thomas with his feet hooked on a center aisle stowage unit handrail talks with MS Leroy Chiao in the foreground while Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb takes notes at Rack 5 Biorack (BR) glovebox. Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai reviews her notes in the background. Mukai represents the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan.

  10. Ohio Senator John Glenn sits in the orbiter Columbia's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at left, enjoys a tour of the flight deck in the orbiter Columbia with Astronaut Stephen Oswald at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  11. Ohio Senator John Glenn sits in the orbiter Columbia's flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at left, sits in the flight deck of the orbiter Columbia as astronaut Stephen Oswald explains some of the flight equipment to the senator at the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 at Kennedy Space Center. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  12. STS-65 Earth observation of Lake Chad, Africa, taken aboard Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Chad, Africa. This is another long term ecological monitoring site for NASA scientists. Lake Chad was first photographed from space in 1965. A 25-year length-of-record data set exists for this environmentally important area. A number of these scenes have been digitized, rectified, classified and results show that the lake area has been shrinking and only 15% to 20% of the surface water is visible on space images. NASA's objective in monitoring this lake is to document the intra- and interannual areal changes of the largest standing water body in the Sahelian biome of North Africa. These areal changes are an indicator of the presence or absence of drought across the arguably overpopulated, overgrazed, and over biological carrying capacity limits nations of the Sahel.

  13. New aspects of the RPW instrument antennas aboard Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampl, Manfred; Kapper, Michael; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rucker, Helmut O.; Maksimovic, Milan

    2013-04-01

    The E-field sensors (boom antennas) of the RPW instrument aboard the Solar Orbiter spacecraft are subject to severe influence of the conducting spacecraft body and other large structures such as the solar panels in close vicinity of the antennas. In this contribution we outline our newest results in finding the true properties of the antennas with additional emphasis on the influence of the built-in heating circuit for deployment. Knowledge of the true properties of the connected antenna system and receiver hardware is an essential component in ensuring the overall performance of a scientific radio and plasma wave instrument. Compared to other spaceborne multiport scatterers, the ANT sensors aboard Solar Orbiter are more sophisticated in mechanical design with features including tubular shaped pipes with radiators along with several hinges. This combined with the challenging environment (closest proximity to Sun is about 0.29 AU) makes finding the true properties even more pressing than with previous spaceborne radio astronomy observatories. Our numerical investigations also provide an important benchmark against measured antenna characteristics using a scale model of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft in an anechoic chamber. The current calibration results are to provide useful input to goniopolarimetry techniques like polarization analysis, direction finding and ray tracing, all of which depend crucially on the effective axes, allowing for significant improvements to the corresponding scientific data analysis.

  14. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days. PMID:21033402

  15. Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, RCS engines thrusting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, reaction control system (RCS) engine thrusting and one plume fire glow. One of the thruster firings of the forward RCS is captured with an astronaut's 35mm camera. Astronauts aimed their 35mm camera through the front windows to capture various firings of several of the thrusters which control the orbiter's movements in space.

  16. Astronaut John W. Young egresses the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young egresses the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia after landing on Rogers dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base. George W.S. Abbey, director of flight operations at JSC congratulates him at the bottom of the stairs. Dr. Craig L. Fischer, head of medical operations at JSC is at the top of the stairs preparing to enter the orbiter.

  17. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, Pilot Richards aboard T-38A at Ellington Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Richard N. Richards, wearing navy blue flight coveralls and helmet, sits in T-38A forward cockpit. Richards, along with his fellow crewmembers, is preparing for departure from Ellington Field to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). STS-28, a Department of Defense (DOD) dedicated mission, is scheduled for launch on 08-08-89.

  18. STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia (logo), the Official insignia of the NASA STS-55 mission, displays the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, over an Earth-sky background. This mission is the second dedicated German (Deutsche) Spacelab flight and has accordingly been designated D-2. Depicted beneath the orbiter are the American and German flags flying together, representing the partnership of this laboratory mission. The two blue stars in the border bearing the crewmembers' names signify each of the backup (alternate) payload specialists -- Gerhard Thiele and Renate Brummer. The stars in the sky stand for each of the children of the crewmembers in symbolic representation of the space program's legacy to future generations. The rainbow symbolizes the hope for a brighter tomorrow because of the knowledge and technologies gained from this mission's multifaceted experiments. The crewmembers are Commander Steven R. Nagel, Pilot Terrence T. Henricks. Missi

  19. STS-87 concludes with landing of orbiter Columbia at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Steven Lindsey at the controls, the orbiter Columbia makes a smooth touchdown on Runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, completing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long STS-87 mission of 6.5 million miles. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Winston Scott; Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; along with Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  20. Spacelab-1 module in orbiter Columbia's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Space Shuttle mission STS-9 onboard view show's Spacelab-1 (SL-1) module in orbiter Columbia's payload bay. Spacelab-1 was a cooperative venture of NASA and the European Space Agency. Scientists from eleven European nations plus Canada, Japan and the U.S. provided instruments and experimental procedures for over 70 different investigations in five research areas of disciplines: astronomy and solar physics, space plasma physics, atmospheric physics and Earth observations, life sciences and materials science.

  1. STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Spacelab D2 Official crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers, wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for their Official crew portrait. Five NASA astronauts and two German payload specialists, assigned to fly aboard OV-102 in support of Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2), are pictured. On the front row (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks (holding launch and entry helmet (LEH)), Commander Steven R. Nagel (holding crew insignia), and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt (holding LEH). In the back are (left to right) MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross, and Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter. In the background are the United States and German flags. Portrait made by NASA JSC contract photographer Robert L. Walck.

  2. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > or = 5 keV/micrometers. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target

  3. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V; Frank, A L

    2002-10-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > or = 5 keV/micrometers. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target

  4. STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crew insignia (logo), the Official insignia of the NASA STS-50 United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) mission, captures a Space Shuttle traveling above Earth while trailing the USML banner. The orbiter is oriented vertically in a typical attitude for microgravity science and in this position represents the numeral 1 in the mission's abbreviated title. This flight represents the first in a series of USML flights on which the primary objective is microgravity science, planned and executed through the combined efforts of America's government, industry and academia. Visible in the payload bay (PLB) are the Spacelab module, and the extended duration orbiter (EDO) 'cryo' pallet which will be making its first flight. The small g and Greek letter mu on the Spacelab module symbolize the microgravity environment being used for research in the areas of materials science and fluid physics. The large block U extends outside the patch perimeter, s

  5. INSTALLATION OF SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET INTO THE ORBITER COLUMBIA'S PAYLOAD BAY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    INSTALLATION OF SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET INTO THE ORBITER COLUMBIA'S PAYLOAD BAY KSC-383C-2862.09 P-16229,ARCHIVE-03950 Payload canister rolling into OPF, removal and installed into the Orbiter 102 payload bay.

  6. EPD: the energetic particle instrumentation aboard Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, Javier; Ho, George; Boettcher, Stephan; Martin, Cesar; Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Prieto, Manuel; Panitzsch, Lauri; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Mason, Glenn M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Solar Orbiter is the first mission of ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Its launch is scheduled for October 2018. After a cruise phase and once in its nominal orbit, it will approach the Sun as close as 0.28 AU. Solar Orbiter has a comprehensive scientific instrumentation that can be divided into two categories: remote sensing and in situ instruments. Within the latter category, the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) will be responsible for providing data on solar energetic particles (SEP) including its suprathermal population with a temporal and spectral resolutions never achieved in previous missions focused in the inner Heliosphere. We will present the mission instrumentation; its scientific highlights and then describe EPD and its science.

  7. STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia (logo), the Official insignia of the NASA STS-52 mission, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements to be taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which is part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-1). The LAGEOS II is a joint Italian United States (U.S.) satellite project intended to further our understanding of global plate tectonics. The USMP-1 is a microgravity facility which has French and U.S. experiments designed to test the theory of cooperative phase transitions and to study the solidliquid interface of a metallic alloy in the low gravity environment. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload speci

  8. Characterization of the RPW Electric Antenna System aboard Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettemeier, D.; Rucker, H. O.; Oswald, T.; Sampl, M.; Fischer, G.; Macher, W.; Maksimovic, M.

    2009-12-01

    Radio and Plasma Waves Experiment The Radio and Plasma Waves experiment (RPW) is unique amongst the Solar Orbiter instruments in that it makes both important in situ and remote-sensing measurements. It is of prime importance for the Solar Orbiter mission. RPW will perform measurements to determine the properties, dynamics and interactions of plasma, fields and particles in the near-Sun heliosphere. It will participate in the investigation of the links between the solar surface, corona and inner heliosphere. RPW will explore, at all latitudes, the energetics, dynamics and fine-scale structure of the Sun’s magnetized atmosphere. More specifically, RPW will measure magnetic and electric fields in high time resolution using a number of sensors, to determine the characteristics of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in the solar wind from almost DC to 20 MHz. Electric Antenna System A novel electric antenna design is proposed for the RPW experiment. It consists of a set of three identical monopoles, each of a total length of more than 6 meters, deployed from the corners of the spacecraft and perpendicular to the spacecraft-Sun axis. Each of the three antennas rods has a length of 5m and is mounted on a boom. The antennas are equally spaced, so the angles between the antennas are 120°. Simulation of the Antenna System Performance The electromagnetic wave reception properties of the spacecraft antenna system are influenced by the currents flowing on the conductive surface of the spacecraft body and the impedances at the foot points of the antenna rods. In the specific case of Solar Orbiter the spacecraft body and the antenna system structure is not yet finally defined, however the preliminary known schematics enable a first estimate of the effective length vectors. The foot point voltages for all antenna elements are calculated for linear polarized waves, incident from different directions. Applying the reciprocity theorem a full polarimetric characterization of

  9. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: external measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results from the first measurements made on the exterior of a LEO spacecraft of mean dose equivalent rate and average quality factor as functions of shielding depth for shielding less than 1 g/cm2 Al equivalent. Two sets of measurements were made on the outside of the Mir Orbital Station; one near solar maximum in June 1991 and one near solar minimum in 1997. Absorbed dose was measured using stacks of TLDs. LET spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > o r= 5keV/micrometers was measured using stacks of CR-39 PNTDs. Results from the TLD and PNTD measurements at a given shielding depth were combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Measurements made near solar maximum tend to be greater than those made during solar minimum. Both mean dose rate and mean dose equivalent rate decrease by nearly four orders of magnitude within the first g/cm2 shielding illustrating the attenuation of both trapped electrons and low-energy trapped protons. In order to overcome problems with detector saturation after standard chemical processing, measurement of LET spectrum in the least shielded CR-39 PNTD layer (0.005 g/cm2 Al) was carried out using an atomic force microscope. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: external measurements.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V; Frank, A L

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports results from the first measurements made on the exterior of a LEO spacecraft of mean dose equivalent rate and average quality factor as functions of shielding depth for shielding less than 1 g/cm2 Al equivalent. Two sets of measurements were made on the outside of the Mir Orbital Station; one near solar maximum in June 1991 and one near solar minimum in 1997. Absorbed dose was measured using stacks of TLDs. LET spectrum from charged particles of LET infinity H2O > o r= 5keV/micrometers was measured using stacks of CR-39 PNTDs. Results from the TLD and PNTD measurements at a given shielding depth were combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Measurements made near solar maximum tend to be greater than those made during solar minimum. Both mean dose rate and mean dose equivalent rate decrease by nearly four orders of magnitude within the first g/cm2 shielding illustrating the attenuation of both trapped electrons and low-energy trapped protons. In order to overcome problems with detector saturation after standard chemical processing, measurement of LET spectrum in the least shielded CR-39 PNTD layer (0.005 g/cm2 Al) was carried out using an atomic force microscope. PMID:12440446

  11. Metis aboard the Solar Orbiter space mission: Doses from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telloni, Daniele; Fabi, Michele; Grimani, Catia; Antonucci, Ester

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to calculate the dose released by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the polarimeter of the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS) coronagraph [1] aboard the Solar Orbiter. This investigation is performed with a Monte Carlo method by considering the role of SEP events of proper intensity at a heliocentric distance from the Sun averaged along the spacecraft orbit. Our approach can be extended to other space missions reaching short distances from the Sun, such as Solar Probe Plus. This study indicates that the deposited dose on the whole set of polarimeter lenses and filters during ten years of the Solar Orbiter mission is of about 2000 Gy. For cerium treated lenses, a dose of 106 Gy of gamma radiation from a 60Co source causes a few percent transmittance loss.

  12. On the evening time exosphere of Mars: Result from MENCA aboard Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Thampi, Smitha V.; Das, Tirtha Pratim; Dhanya, M. B.; Naik, Neha; Vajja, Dinakar Prasad; Pradeepkumar, P.; Sreelatha, P.; Supriya, G.; Abhishek J., K.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Thampi, R. Satheesh; Yadav, Vipin K.; Sundar, B.; Nandi, Amarnath; Padmanabhan, G. Padma; Aliyas, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer which provides in situ measurement of the composition of the low-latitude Martian neutral exosphere. The altitude profiles of the three major constituents, i.e., amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (N2 + CO), and amu 16 (O) in the Martian exosphere during evening (close to sunset terminator) hours are reported using MENCA observations from four orbits of MOM during late December 2014, when MOM's periapsis altitude was the lowest. The altitude range of the observation encompasses the diffusively separated region much above the well-mixed atmosphere. The transition from CO2 to O-dominated region is observed near 270 km. The mean exospheric temperature derived using these three mass numbers is 271 ± 5 K. These first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  13. The use of models to predict potential contamination aboard orbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boraas, Martin E.; Seale, Dianne B.

    1989-01-01

    A model of fungal growth on air-exposed, nonnutritive solid surfaces, developed for utilization aboard orbital vehicles is presented. A unique feature of this testable model is that the development of a fungal mycelium can facilitate its own growth by condensation of water vapor from its environment directly onto fungal hyphae. The fungal growth rate is limited by the rate of supply of volatile nutrients and fungal biomass is limited by either the supply of nonvolatile nutrients or by metabolic loss processes. The model discussed is structurally simple, but its dynamics can be quite complex. Biofilm accumulation can vary from a simple linear increase to sustained exponential growth, depending on the values of the environmental variable and model parameters. The results of the model are consistent with data from aquatic biofilm studies, insofar as the two types of systems are comparable. It is shown that the model presented is experimentally testable and provides a platform for the interpretation of observational data that may be directly relevant to the question of growth of organisms aboard the proposed Space Station.

  14. [Characteristic of toxic risks of air pollution by chemical admixtures aboard the piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedieva, L N; Bogomolov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the chemical composition of air revealed by the sanitary-chemical and toxicological investigations in multifactorial ground-based tests and long-term space flights aboard the Salyut- 6, 7, Mir and the International space station have been used to deduce the chemical characteristic and to substantiate methods to and criteria for evaluation of toxic risks to space crews from air chemical pollution. Of particular concern were the toxic risks and crew protection during the first ingress to modules on the stage of station assembly in orbit, in the course of long-term missions, and in the event of acute exposure in off-nominal and emergency conditions. PMID:19711857

  15. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  16. [Light microscopy of statocyst cell elements from Helix lucorum (space experiment aboard the orbital station "MIR")].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Bukiia, R D; Kalandarishvili, E L; Taktakishvili, A D; Davitashvili, M T; Gelashvili, N Sh; Madzhagaladze, N B; Galkin, V A

    2013-01-01

    Statocyst epithelial lining of terrestrial pulmonary snail Helix lucorum is a spatially arranged structure consisting of 13 cell ensembles. Each ensemble has a sensory cell surrounded by companion cells. The sensory cell on the anterior statocyst pole is star-shaped due to multiple protoplasmatic protrusions on its body. The remaining 12 polygon-shaped cells form 3 tires along the statocyst internal perimeter: anterior, middle or equatorial and posterior. There are 4 cells in each tire. Topography of every sensory cell on the statocyst internal surface was described as well as cell nuclei size and form, nucleoli number and patterns of cytoplasm vacuolization. Space free of sensory cells is occupied by supporting or intercalary cells. Exposure to space microgravity over 40, 43, 102 and 135 days aboard the orbital station MIR affected morphology of the sensory cells. Specifically, this appeared as reductions in cell height and, consequently, extension of the statocyst cavity internal diameter and volume in the space-flown snails. PMID:24490279

  17. DSMC simulations in support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter accident investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Boyles, Katie A.; LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2004-06-01

    Three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo simulations of Columbia Shuttle Orbiter flight STS-107 are presented. The aim of this work is to determine the aerodynamic and heating behavior of the Orbiter during aerobraking maneuvers and to provide piecewise integration of key scenario events to assess the plausibility of the candidate failure scenarios. The flight of the Orbiter is examined at two altitudes: 350-kft and 300-kft. The flowfield around the Orbiter and the heat transfer to it are calculated for the undamaged configuration. The flow inside the wing for an assumed damage to the leading edge in the form of a 10- inch hole is studied. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her seven-member crew was followed by an investigation that lasted almost 7 months covering numerous failure scenarios. Due to the lack of physical data about flight STS-107 (especially in the high altitude part of it), numerical simulations were employed to help with the interpretation of the forensic evidence and the evaluation of the plausibility of the candidate scenarios. The conclusion of the investigation was that the physical cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the Thermal Protection System. To protect the aluminum structure of the Orbiter during re-entry, the Orbiter is covered with various materials collectively referred to as the Thermal Protection System. The three major components of the system are various types of heat-resistant tiles, blankets, and the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. The RCC panels are layers of graphite molded to the desired shape at very high temperatures. RCC is used for the Orbiter nose cap, chin panel, forward external tank attachment point, and wing leading edge panels and T-seals. RCC is a material capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2,000 K. Each wing leading edge consists of 22 RCC panels numbered from 1 to 22 moving outward on each wing. Because the shape of the wing changes from inboard to

  18. STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A at 12:12:23:0534 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). In this distant view, a cactus (prickly pear), foliage, and a waterway are seen in the foreground as OV-102, in the distance, rockets toward the beginning of its scheduled record 13-day mission in Earth orbit. An exhaust cloud covers the launch pad area with only the sound supression water system tank visible (at right). OV-102, atop its external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), has cleared the launch tower and is moments away from its roll maneuver. OV-102 is NASA's first extended duration orbiter (EDO). The diamond shock effect is visible at OV-102's three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs).

  19. STS 87: Meal - Suit Up - Depart O&C - Launch Columbia On Orbit - Landing - Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-87 Space Shuttle Columbia mission begins with the introduction of the seven crew members. The seven crew members include: Commander Kevin R. Kregel, pilot Steven W. Lindsey, mission specialists: Winston E. Scott, Kalpana Chawla and Takao Doi and payload specialist Leonid K. Kadenyuk. The United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), the EVA Demonstration Flight Test 5 (EDFT-05), Shuttle Ozone Limb Sending Experiment (SOLSE), Loop Heat Pump (LHP), and Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE) were all shown during this video presentation. The launch of the STS-87 from different Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSFC) areas and Pre-flight training at the Johnson Space Center is presented. The retrieve and recovery spot satellite are also shown. Also, the landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia is presented from different areas at Kennedy Space Flight Center.

  20. STS-55 Columbia/Breakfast, Suit-up, Depart O&C, Launch, On-Orbit, Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Footage of various stages of the STS-55 Columbia launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew exercising on the bicycle and doing various medical experiments.

  1. STS-87 crew and VIPs inspect the orbiter Columbia after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 crew members regard the tiles underneath the orbiter Columbia shortly after its return to Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. Pointing to the tiles is the president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, who is standing next to NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel, at right, looks on as Pilot Steve Lindsey follows behind him to continue inspecting the orbiter. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Mission Specialists Winston Scott; Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA; along with Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  2. STS-35 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, makes night landing at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The night landing sequence of STS-35 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is captured in this series of photographs. Darkness surrounds OV-102 as it nears touchdown on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California (STS035(S)088 and STS035(S)090). At touchdown, dust surges upward behind OV-102 (STS035(S)089). Main landing gear (MLG) hit the runway at 9:54:09 pm (Pacific Standard Time (PST)). Only OV-102' silhouette illuminated by the runway lights is visible during the landing sequence.

  3. The transportation of fine arts materials aboard the space shuttle Columbia. GAS payload No. 481: Vertical horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Ellery; Wishnow, Howard

    1988-01-01

    The Vertical Horizons experiment represents an initial investigation into the transportation of fine arts materials aboard a space shuttle. Within the confines of a GAS canister, artist quality fine arts materials were packaged and exposed to the rigors of space flight in an attempt to identify adverse effects.

  4. In-situ observation of Martian neutral exosphere: Results from MENCA aboard Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pratim Das, Tirtha; Dhanya, M. B.; Thampi, Smitha V.

    2016-07-01

    Till very recently, the only in situ measurements of the Martian upper atmospheric composition was from the mass spectrometer experiments aboard the two Viking landers, which covered the altitude region from 120 to 200 km. Hence, the exploration by the Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) spacecraft of ISRO and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) experiment aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ENvironment (MAVEN) mission of NASA are significant steps to further understand the Martian neutral exosphere and its variability. MENCA is a quadrupole based neutral mass spectrometer which observes the radial distribution of the Martian neutral exosphere. The analysis of the data from MENCA has revealed unambiguous detection of the three major constituents, which are amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (contributions from CO and N2) and amu 16 (atomic O), as well as a few minor species. Since MOM is in a highly elliptical orbit, the MENCA observations pertain to different local times, in the low-latitude region. Examples of such observations would be presented, and compared with NGIMS results. Emphasis would be given to the observations pertaining to high solar zenith angles and close to perihelion period. During the evening hours, the transition from CO2 to O dominated region is observed near 270 km, which is significantly different from the previous observations corresponding to sub-solar point and SZA of ~45°. The mean evening time exospheric temperature derived using these observations is 271±5 K. These are the first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours, which would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  5. STS-87 crew pose in front of the orbiter Columbia after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-87 crew pose in front of the orbiter Columbia shortly after landing on Runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34- minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. From left to right are Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Commander Kevin Kregel; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine; Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Pilot Steven Lindsey. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  6. Results of the joint utilization of laser integrated experiments flown on payload GAS-449 aboard Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The high peak power neodymium YAG laser and the HeNe laser aboard GAS-449 have demonstrated the survivability of the devices in the micro-gravity, cosmic radiation, thermal, and shock environment of space. Some pharmaceuticals and other materials flown in both the active and passive status have demonstrated reduction in volume and unusual spectroscopic changes. X-ray detectors have shown cosmic particle hits with accompanying destruction at their interaction points. Some scattering in the plates is in evidence. Some results of both active and passive experiments on board the GAS-449 payload are evaluated.

  7. Computational Aerodynamics of Shuttle Orbiter Damage Scenarios in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    2004-01-01

    In support of the Columbia Accident Investigation, inviscid computations of the aerodynamic characteristics for various Shuttle Orbiter damage scenarios were performed using the FELISA unstructured CFD solver. Computed delta aerodynamics were compared with the reconstructed delta aerodynamics in order to postulate a progression of damage through the flight trajectory. By performing computations at hypervelocity flight and CF4 tunnel conditions, a bridge was provided between wind tunnel testing in Langley's 20-Inch CF4 facility and the flight environment experienced by Columbia during re-entry. The rapid modeling capability of the unstructured methodology allowed the computational effort to keep pace with the wind tunnel and, at times, guide the wind tunnel efforts. These computations provided a detailed view of the flowfield characteristics and the contribution of orbiter components (such as the vertical tail and wing) to aerodynamic forces and moments that were unavailable from wind tunnel testing. The damage scenarios are grouped into three categories. Initially, single and multiple missing full RCC panels were analyzed to determine the effect of damage location and magnitude on the aerodynamics. Next is a series of cases with progressive damage, increasing in severity, in the region of RCC panel 9. The final group is a set of wing leading edge and windward surface deformations that model possible structural deformation of the wing skin due to internal heating of the wing structure. By matching the aerodynamics from selected damage scenarios to the reconstructed flight aerodynamics, a progression of damage that is consistent with the flight data, debris forensics, and wind tunnel data is postulated.

  8. STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, SSME abort at KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, launch attempt from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A comes to an abrupt halt when space shuttle main engine (SSME) number 3 fails to fully ignite. The SSME failure initiated a main engine abort sequence by the orbiter onboard computers. Ignition of the SSMEs began at T-6.6 seconds and shutdown was completed at about T-3 seconds, resulting in an on-the-pad abort of STS-55. This was the first time in the post-Challenger era that an SSME shutdown has halted a Shuttle launch countdown, and only the third time in the history of the program. OV-102, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), had been scheduled to lift off from LC Pad 39A at 9:51 am (Eastern Standard Time (EST)). The fixed service structure (FSS) tower appears to the left of OV-102. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-93PC-475.

  9. STS-62 Columbia/Breakfast, Suit-up, Depart O&C, Launch, On-Orbit, Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage of various stages of the STS-62 Columbia launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing medical experiments, such as using the Lower Body Negative Pressure unit, and during a demonstration of the effects of microgravity using M&Ms and marshmallows. The Gulf of Mexico and a hurricane are seen from the Orbiter.

  10. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR... Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  11. Analyses of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Fiber Optic Systems,' is correlated with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low Earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit, and post-orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating fiber optic systems.

  12. Development and swimming behavior of Medaka fry in a spaceflight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107).

    PubMed

    Niihori, Maki; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Baba, Shoji A

    2004-09-01

    A space experiment aimed at closely observing the development and swimming activity of medaka fry under microgravity was carried out as a part of the S*T*A*R*S Program, a space shuttle mission, in STS-107 in January 2003. Four eggs laid on earth in an artificially controlled environment were put in a container with a functionally closed ecological system and launched on the Space Shuttle Columbia. Each egg was held in place by a strip of Velcro in the container to be individually monitored by close-up CCD cameras. In the control experiment, four eggs prepared using the same experimental set-up remained on the ground. There was no appreciable difference in the time course of development between space- and ground-based embryos. In the ground experiment, embryos were observed to rotate in place enclosed with the egg membrane, whereas those in the flight unit did not rotate. One of the four eggs hatched on the 8th day after being launched into space. All four eggs hatched in the ground unit. The fry hatched in space was mostly motionless, but with occasional control of its posture with respect to references in the experimental chamber. The fry hatched on ground were observed to move actively, controlling their posture with respect to the gravity vector. These findings suggest that the absence of gravity affects the initiation process of motility of embryos and hatched fry. PMID:15459450

  13. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., FR Doc. 2013-04429, on page 14952, column 1, correct the DATES section to read as follows: DATES... Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  14. Effects of flexibility on AGS performance. [Annular suspension pointing system Gimbal System aboard Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, H. L.; Cunningham, D. C.; Worley, H. E.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has had under development the Annular Suspension Pointing System Gimbal System (AGS) since early 1979. The AGS is an Orbiter cargo bay mounted subarcsecond 3 axis inertial pointer that can accommodate a wide range of payloads which require more stringent pointing than the Orbiter can provide. This paper will describe the AGS, state performance requirements and the control law configuration. Then an approach to investigating the flexible body effects on control system design will be discussed.

  15. STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, SSME abort at KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, launch attempt from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A comes to an abrupt halt when space shuttle main engine (SSME) number 3 fails to fully ignite. The SSMEs shutdown at T-3 seconds, resulting in an on-the-pad abort of STS-55. This was the first time in the post-Challenger era that an SSME shutdown has halted a Shuttle launch countdown, and only the third time in the history of the program. OV-102 had been scheduled to lift off from LC Pad 39A at 9:51 am (Eastern Standard Time (EST)). An exhaust cloud drifts away from the mobile launcher platform on which OV-102, the external tank, and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are mounted. The fixed service structure (FSS) tower and the retracted rotating service structure (RSS) are visible to the left of OV-102. In the foreground are a waterway, trees, and birds. In the background and to the right at LC Pad 39B is Discovery, OV-103, undergoing preparations for lift off on Mission STS-

  16. Columbia Hills, Mars: Aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Whelley, P.L.; Neakrase, L.D.V.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bridges, N.T.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Di, K.; Foley, D.J.; Golombek, M.P.; Herkenhoff, K.; Knudson, A.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Li, R.; Michaels, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places, into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim. Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Columbia Hills, Mars: aeolian features seen from the ground and orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Whelley, Patrick L.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Di, Kaichang; Foley, Daniel J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knudson, Amy; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Li, Ron; Michaels, Timothy; Squyres, Steven W.; Sullivan, Robert; Thompson, Shane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abundant wind-related features occur along Spirit's traverse into the Columbia Hills over the basaltic plains of Gusev Crater. Most of the windblown sands are probably derived from weathering of rocks within the crater, and possibly from deposits associated with Ma'adim Vallis. Windblown particles act as agents of abrasion, forming ventifacts, and are organized in places into various bed forms. Wind-related features seen from orbit, results from atmospheric models, and considerations of topography suggest that the general wind patterns and transport pathways involve: (1) winter nighttime winds that carry sediments from the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis into the landing site area of Spirit, where they are mixed with locally derived sediments, and (2) winter daytime winds that transport the sediments from the landing site southeast toward Husband Hill; similar patterns occur in the summer but with weaker winds. Reversals of daytime flow out of Gusev Crater and nighttime wind flow into the crater can account for the symmetry of the bed forms and bimodal orientations of some ventifacts.

  18. Initial Mars Upper Atmospheric Structure Results from the Accelerometer Science Experiment aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Tolson, R. H.; Blanchard, R. C.; Zurek, R. W.; Forbes, J. M.; Murphy, J.

    2006-12-01

    Designed for aerobraking, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006, and successfully completed aerobraking on August 30, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude was fine tuned to the density surface that safely used the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 445 orbits, providing 890 vertical structures. MRO periapsis precesses from near the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis is brought dramatically from 40,000km at MOI to 480 km at aerobraking completion (ABX). Without aerobraking this would have required an additional 400kg of fuel. After ABX, two small propulsive orbital adjustment maneuvers September 5, 2006 and September 11, 2006 established the final Primary Science Orbit (PSO). Each of the 445 aerobraking orbits provides, a pair of vertical structures inbound toward periapsis and outbound from periapsis, with a distribution of density, scale heights, temperatures, and pressures along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (> 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: Where did the water go? Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extends vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both the lower atmosphere and the upper atmosphere, thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from

  19. A Survey of Radiation Measurements Made Aboard Russian Spacecraft in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate prediction of ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit is necessary in order to minimize risks to astronauts, spacecraft and instrumentation. To this end, models of the radiation environment, the AP-8 trapped proton model and the AE-8 trapped electron model, have been developed for use by spacecraft designers and mission planners. It has been widely acknowledged for some time now by the space radiation community that these models possess some major shortcomings. Both models cover only a limited trapped particle energy region and predictions at low altitudes are extrapolated from higher altitude data. With the launch of the first components of the International Space Station with numerous constellations of low-Earth orbit communications satellites now being planned and deployed, the inadequacies of these trapped particle models need to be addressed. Efforts are now underway both in the U.S. and in Europe to refine the AP-8 and AE-8 trapped particle models. This report is an attempt to collect a significant fraction of data for use in validation of trapped radiation models at low altitudes.

  20. Ground based impact testing of Orbiter thermal protection system materials in support of the Columbia accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Justin Hamilton

    On January 16, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) was launched for a nominal 16-day mission of microgravity research. Fifteen days and 20 hours after launch, and just 16 minutes before its scheduled landing, the OV-102 vehicle disintegrated during its descent. The entire crew was lost. Film and video cameras located around the launch complex captured images of the vehicle during its ascent. Of note were data that showed a piece of debris strike the port wing at approximately 82 sec after lift-off (T+82). As resulting analysis would show, the source of the debris was the left bipod ramp of the Shuttle external tank. This foam debris struck the Orbiter leading edge at sufficient velocity to breech the thermal protection system (TPS). During reentry at the end of the mission, the hot plasma impinged inside the Orbiter wing and aerodynamic forces ultimately failed the wing structure. This thesis documents the activities conducted to evaluate the effects of foam impact on Orbiter TPS. These efforts were focused on, to the greatest extent practical, replicating the impact event during the STS-107 mission ascent. This thesis fully documents the test program development, methodology, results, analysis, and conclusions to the degree that future investigators can reproduce the tests and understand the basis for decisions made during the development of the tests.

  1. Implementing recommendations of the Columbia accident investigation board: development of on-orbit IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottens, Brian P.; Parker, Bradford; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2005-03-01

    One of NASA"s Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts has been to develop thermography for the on-orbit inspection of the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) portion of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE). This paper addresses the capability of thermography to detect cracks in RCC by using in-plane thermal gradients that naturally occur on-orbit. Crack damage, which can result from launch debris impact, is a detection challenge for other on-orbit sensors under consideration for RTF, such as the Intensified Television Camera and Laser Dynamic Range Imager. We studied various cracks in RCC, both natural and simulated, along with material characteristics, such as emissivity uniformity, in steady-state thermography. Severity of crack, such as those likely and unlikely to cause burn through were tested, both in-air and in-vacuum, and the goal of this procedure was to assure crew and vehicle safety during re-entry by identification and quantification of a damage condition while on-orbit. Expected thermal conditions are presented in typical shuttle orbits, and the expected damage signatures for each scenario are presented. Finally, through statistical signal detection, our results show that even at very low in-plane thermal gradients, we are able to detect damage at or below the threshold for fatality in the most critical sections of the WLE, with a confidence exceeding 1 in 10,000 probability of false negative.

  2. Implementing Recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board - Development of on-Orbit RCC Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Brian; Parker, Brad; Stephen, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    One of NASA s Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts has been to develop thermography for the on-orbit inspection of the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) portion of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE). This paper addresses the capability of thermography to detect cracks in RCC by using in-plane thermal gradients that naturally occur on-orbit. Crack damage, which can result from launch debris impact, is a detection challenge for other on-orbit sensors under consideration for RTF, such as the Intensified Television Camera and Laser Dynamic Range Imager. We studied various cracks in RCC, both natural and simulated, along with material characteristics, such as emissivity uniformity, in steady-state thermography. Severity of crack, such as those likely and unlikely to cause burn through were tested, both in-air and in-vacuum, and the goal of this procedure was to assure crew and vehicle safety during re-entry by identification and quantification of a damage condition while on-orbit. Expected thermal conditions are presented in typical shuttle orbits, and the expected damage signatures for each scenario are presented. Finally, through statistical signal detection, our results show that even at very low in-plane thermal gradients, we are able to detect damage at or below the threshold for fatality in the most critical sections of the WLE, with a confidence exceeding 1 in 10,000 probability of false negative.

  3. Implementing Recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board: Development of On-Orbit IR Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Brian P.; Parker, Bradford; Stephan, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    One of NASA's Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts has been to develop thermography for the on-orbit inspection of the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) portion of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE). This paper addresses the capability of thermography to detect cracks in RCC by using in-plane thermal gradients that naturally occur on-orbit. Crack damage, which can result from launch debris impact, is a detection challenge for other on-orbit sensors under consideration for RTF, such as the Intensified Television Camera and Laser Dynamic Range Imager. We studied various cracks in RCC, both natural and simulated, along with material characteristics, such as emissivity uniformity, in steady-state thermography. Severity of crack, such as those likely and unlikely to cause burn through were tested, both in-air and in-vacuum, and the goal of this procedure was to assure crew and vehicle safety during reentry by identification and quantification of a damage condition while on-orbit. Expected thermal conditions are presented in typical shuttle orbits, and the expected damage signatures for each scenario are presented. Finally, through statistical signal detection, our results show that even at very low in-plane thermal gradients, we are able to detect damage at or below the threshold for fatality in the most critical sections of the WLE, with a confidence exceeding 1 in 10,000 probability of false negative.

  4. The role of weightlessness in the genetic damage from preflight gamma-irradiation of organisms in experiments aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulina, E. N.; Anikeeva, I. D.; Kostina, L. N.; Kogan, I. G.; Palmbakh, L. R.; Mashinsky, A. L.

    The effect of weightlessness on chromosomal aberration frequency in preflight irradiated Crepis capillaris seeds, on the viability, fertility and mutation frequency in Arabidopsis thaliana, and on the frequency of nondisjunction and loss of X chromosomes in preflight irradiated Drosophila melanogaster gametes was studied aboard the Salyut 6 orbital station. The following effects were observed: a flight-time dependent amplification of the effects of preflight ?-irradiation in A. thaliana with respect to all the parameters studied; unequal effects in seeds and seedlings of Crepis capillaris; and a significant increase in the frequency of nondisjunction and loss of chromosomes during meiosis in Drosophila females. These observations are discussed in terms of the data of ground-based model experiments and flight experiments with a different time of exposure of objects to weightlessness. An attempt is made to elucidate the role of weightlessness in the modification of ionizing radiation effects.

  5. Columbia (STS-65) landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) comes to a graceful halt with the help of a parachute after a 14-day mission. The five member crew performed materials processing experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload 2 (USMP-2), and also conducted experiments designed to enable or extend space flight technology aboard the Office of Aeornautics and Space Technology 2 payload (OAST-2).

  6. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its

  7. Main characteristics of biological components of developing life support system observed during the experiments aboard orbital complex MIR.

    PubMed

    Sychev, V N; Shepelev, E Y; Meleshko, G I; Gurieva, T S; Levinskikh, M A; Podolsky, I G; Dadasheva, O A; Popov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, the orbital complex MIR has witnessed several incubator experiments for determination of spaceflight effects on embryogenesis of Japanese quail. First viable chicks who had completed the whole embryological cycle in MIR microgravity hatched out in 1990; it became clear that newborns would not be able to adapt to microgravity unaided. There were 8 successful incubations of chicks in the period from 1990 to 1999. In 1995-1997 the MIR-NASA space science program united Russian and US investigators. As a result, experiments Greenhouse-1 and 2 were performed with an effort to grow super dwarf wheat from seed to seed, and experiment Greenhouse-3 aimed at receiving two successive generations of Brassica rapa. But results of these experiments could not be used for definitive conclusions concerning effects of spaceflight on plant ontogenesis and, therefore, experiments Greenhouse-4 and 5 were staged within the framework of the Russian national space program. The experiments finally yielded wheat seeds. Some of the seeds was left on the space station and, being planted, gave viable seedlings which, in their turn, produced the second crop of space seeds. PMID:11695432

  8. Main characteristics of biological components of developing life support system observed during the experiments aboard orbital complex MIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, V. N.; Shepelev, E. Ya.; Meleshko, G. I.; Gurieva, T. S.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Popov, V. V.

    Since 1990, the orbital complex MIR has witnessed several incubator experiments for determination of spaceflight effects on embryogenesis of Japanese quail. First viable chicks who had completed the whole embryological cycle in MIR microgravity hatched out in 1990; it became clear that newborns would not be able to adapt to microgravity unaided. There were 8 successful incubations of chicks in the period from 1990 to 1999. In 1995-1997 the MIR-NASA space science program united Russian and US investigators. As a result, experiments Greenhouse-1 and 2 were performed with an effort to grow super dwarf wheat from seed to seed, and experiment Greenhouse-3 aimed at receiving two successive generations of Brassica rapa. But results of these experiments could not be used for definitive conclusions concerning effects of spaceflight on plant ontogenesis and, therefore, experiments Greenhouse-4 and 5 were staged within the framework of the Russian national space program. The experiments finally yielded wheat seeds. Some of the seeds was left on the space station and, being planted, gave viable seedlings which, in their turn, produced the second crop of space seeds.

  9. STS-65 Payload Specialist Mukai enters IML-2 spacelab module aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During STS-65 aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai is ready to begin one of her busy twelve hour shifts as she enters the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module via the spacelab tunnel (note hatch opening behind her). The tunnel connects the IML-2 module with the OV-102's crew compartment. Mounted on a rack handrail and on an forward end cone bracket are video cameras that will record the two weeks of experimenting inside the module. Mukai is a representative from the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan.

  10. Characterization of Deposits on Glass Substrate as a Tool in Failure Analysis: The Orbiter Vehicle Columbia Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, J. D.; Melroy, P.; McDanels, S.; Wallace, T.; Zapata, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    In connection with the accident investigation of the space shuttle Columbia, an analysis methodology utilizing well established microscopic and spectroscopic techniques was implemented for evaluating the environment to which the exterior fused silica glass was exposed. Through the implementation of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction, details emerged regarding the manner in which a charred metallic deposited layer formed on top of the exposed glass. Due to nature of the substrate and the materials deposited, the methodology proved to allow for a more detailed analysis of the vehicle breakup. By contrast, similar analytical methodologies on metallic substrates have proven to be challenging due to strong potential for error resulting from substrate contamination. This information proved to be valuable to not only those involved in investigating the break up of Columbia, but also provides a potential guide for investigating future high altitude and high energy accidents.

  11. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  12. STS-109/Columbia/HST Pre-Launch Activities/Launch On Orbit-Landing-Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The STS-109 Space Shuttle Mission begins with introduction of the seven crew members: Commander Scott D. Altman, pilot Duane G. Carey, payload commander John M. Grunsfeld, mission specialists: Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Richard M. Linnehan, and Michael J. Massimino. Spacewalking NASA astronauts revive the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) sightless infrared eyes, outfitting the observatory with an experimental refrigerator designed to resuscitate a comatose camera. During this video presentation John Grunsfeld and Rick Linnehan bolt the new cryogenic cooler inside HST and hung a huge radiator outside the observatory and replaces the telescope power switching station. In the video we can see how the shuttle robot arm operator, Nancy Currie, releases the 13-ton HST. Also, the landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia is presented.

  13. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  14. Space Shuttle Columbia launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the tremendous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia's seven member crew's mission included continuing experimentation in the Marshall managed payloads including the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) and the keel-mounted accelerometer that characterizes the very low frequency acceleration environment of the orbiter payload bay during space flight, known as the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE).

  15. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, rises above KSC LC Pad 39A during liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, rises above Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A after liftoff at 12:43 pm Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). An exhaust cloud covers the launch pad area and the glow of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and solid rocket booster (SRB) firings is reflected in a nearby marsh as OV-102 atop its external tank (ET) heads toward Earth orbit. A small flock of birds is visible at the right. Once in Earth's orbit, STS-65's six NASA astronauts and a Japanese Payload Specialist aboard OV-102 will begin two weeks of experimentation in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  16. Space debris and micrometeorite events experienced by WL experiment 701 in prolonged low Earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, D.S.; Dueber, R.E. ); Taylor, E.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Air Force Systems Command Weapons Laboratory experiment 701 (Space Environment Effects on Fiber Optic Systems) was housed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility and placed into orbit on April 6, 1984, by the shuttle Challenger. It was retrieved 69 months later by the shuttle Columbia on January 12, 1990. During this period in orbit, the experiment experienced numerous debris or micrometeorite impacts. Impact flux values, crater characteristics, and shock phenomena on the experiment's space-exposed surfaces were observed to be similar to returned materials of the Solar Max satellite. This paper presents the analysis of preliminary data, describes data reduction techniques, and outlines areas of future study.

  17. Space debris and micrometeorite events experienced by WL experiment 701 in prolonged low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. S.; Dueber, R. E.; Taylor, E. W.

    1991-06-01

    Air Force Systems Command Weapons Laboratory experiment 701 (Space Environment Effects on Fiber optic Systems) was housed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility and placed into orbit on April 6, 1984, by the shuttle challenger. It was retrieved 69 months later by the shuttle Columbia on January 12, 1990. During this period in orbit, the experiment experienced numerous debris or micrometeorite impacts. Impact flux values, crater characteristics, and shock phenomena on the experiment's space-exposed surfaces were observed to be similar to returned materials of the Solar Max satellite. This paper presents the analysis of preliminary data, describes data reduction techniques, and outlines areas of future study.

  18. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, begins its roll maneuver after clearing the fixed service structure (FSS) tower as it rises above Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. In the foreground of this horizontal scene is Florida brush and a waterway. Beyond the brush, the shuttle's exhaust cloud envelops the immediate launch pad area. Launch occurred at 12:43 pm Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). The glow of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and solid rocket booster (SRB) firings is reflected in the nearby waterway. Once in Earth orbit, STS-65's six NASA astronauts and a Japanese Payload Specialist aboard OV-102 will begin two weeks of experimentation in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2).

  19. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, clears launch tower after liftoff from KSC LC 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, heads skyward after clearing the fixed service structure (FSS) tower at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Florida plant life appears in the foreground. The exhaust cloud produced by OV-102's solid rocket boosters (SRBs) covers the launch pad area with the exception of the sound suppression water system tower. OV-102's starboard side and the right SRB are visible from this angle. Launch occurred at 12:43 pm Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). Once in Earth orbit, STS-65's six NASA astronauts and a Japanese Payload Specialist aboard OV-102 will begin two weeks of experimentation in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2).

  20. Observations of Mercury's Surface-Bounded Exosphere from Orbit: Results from the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, W. E.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Killen, R. M.; Merkel, A. W.; Sarantos, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, conducted orbital observations of Mercury's dayside and nightside exosphere from 29 March 2011 to the end of the mission on 30 April 2015. Over slightly more than four Earth-years, MASCS measured emission profiles versus altitude for calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), and magnesium (Mg) at a daily cadence. These species exhibit different spatial distributions, suggesting distinct source processes. MASCS observed seasonal variations in all three species that are remarkably repeatable from one Mercury year to the next, and did so consistently during the entire 17-Mercury-year duration of the orbital phase of the mission. Whereas MASCS has characterized the seasonal variation, it has provided, at best, only weak evidence for the episodic behavior observed in ground-based studies of Na. Joint analyses of MASCS observations and surface precipitation patterns for energetic particles inferred from observations by the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) on MESSENGER have not yielded clear correlations. This lack of correlation may be due in part to the MASCS observational geometries. MASCS has conducted a number of searches for other, weakly emitting species. Hydrogen data from the orbital phase are consistent with profiles observed during MESSENGER's flybys of Mercury. Oxygen detections have proven elusive, and the previously reported observation with a brightness of 4 R may only be an upper limit. Ongoing analysis of weak species data suggests that additional species are present.

  1. Columbia Accident Probe Widens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board has identified about a dozen shuttle program safety concerns it will address in its final report, in addition to foam shedding from the Lockheed Martin external tank-believed by many board members to be the direct cause for the loss of Columbia and her crew. As new evidence narrows the location of Columbia's left-wing breach to a lower corner of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) Panel 8 and its adjoining T-seal, the board is broadening its penetration of other shuttle safety issues. As the board works in Houston, United Space Alliance technicians here at Kennedy last week sent the first six of 22 RCC panels from the orbiter Atlantis left wing to Vought Aircraft Industries Inc. in Dallas for extensive testing to assess their integrity. The move is a key step toward both returning the shuttle to flight with Atlantis and obtaining more data on RCC panels subjected to fewer flights, and less exposure to the weather, than the older panels used on Columbia.

  2. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  3. 'Columbia Hills' Oblique View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This perspective view of a three-dimensional terrain model shows the shape of the 'Columbia Hills' landscape where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working since mid-2004. North is toward the lower left. 'Husband Hill' is at the center, with the 'Inner Basin' behind it. This view is from images taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and processed into a three-dimensional terrain model by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This is a perspective view of the steepness of the 'Columbia Hills,' showing sites nicknamed 'Tennessee Valley,' 'Larry's Lookout,' 'Inner Basin,' 'Home Plate,' and the basin and summit beyond. This orbital view comprises images taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and processed by the U.S. Geological Survey as a three-dimensional terrain model.

  4. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, IML-2 crew during egress training in MAIL Bldg 9NE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and seated in front of the side hatch crew escape system (CES) pole trainer, listen as crew training staffer describes the sky genie. From left are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, MS Carl E. Walz, MS Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, and Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai. Mukai represents the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. The STS-65 crew was in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE for crew egress training. The seven-member crew will support the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  5. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Pointing Control System Performance During Transfer Orbit and Initial On-Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quast, Peter; Tung, Frank; West, Mark; Wider, John

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO, formerly AXAF) is the third of the four NASA great observatories. It was launched from Kennedy Space Flight Center on 23 July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and was successfully inserted in a 330 x 72,000 km orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). Through a series of five Integral Propulsion System burns, CXO was placed in a 10,000 x 139,000 km orbit. After initial on-orbit checkout, Chandra's first light images were unveiled to the public on 26 August, 1999. The CXO Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) subsystem is designed to perform attitude control and determination functions in support of transfer orbit operations and on-orbit science mission. After a brief description of the PCAD subsystem, the paper highlights the PCAD activities during the transfer orbit and initial on-orbit operations. These activities include: CXO/IUS separation, attitude and gyro bias estimation with earth sensor and sun sensor, attitude control and disturbance torque estimation for delta-v burns, momentum build-up due to gravity gradient and solar pressure, momentum unloading with thrusters, attitude initialization with star measurements, gyro alignment calibration, maneuvering and transition to normal pointing, and PCAD pointing and stability performance.

  6. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA - Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  7. Spacelab Module for USML-1 Mission in Orbiter Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Spacelab module for the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission, showing logos of the Spacelab mission on the left and the USML-1 mission on the right. The USML-1 was one part of a science and technology program that opened NASA's next great era of discovery and established the United States' leadership in space. From investigations designed to gather fundamental knowledge in a variety of areas to demonstrations of new equipment, USML-1 forged the way for future USML missions and helped prepare for advanced microgravity research and processing aboard the Space Station. Thirty-one investigations comprised the payload of the first USML-1 mission. The experiments aboard USML-1 covered five basic areas: fluid dynamics, the study of how liquids and gases respond to the application or absence of differing forces; crystal growth, the production of inorganic and organic crystals; combustion science, the study of the processes and phenomena of burning; biological science, the study of plant and animal life; and technology demonstrations. The USML-1 was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-50) on June 25, 1992.

  8. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A rare rain allowed this reflection of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it was towed 16 Nov. 1982, to the Shuttle Processing Area at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (from 1976 to 1981 and after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, following its fifth flight in space. Columbia was launched on mission STS-5 11 Nov. 1982, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on concrete runway 22. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines withtwo solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials

  9. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  10. Gemini 8 spacecraft hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 spacecraft, with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini 8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission.

  11. Columbia turns after rolling out of KSC's OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Photographed from overhead, the orbiter Columbia begins to turn after rolling out of KSC's Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3, bound for the Shuttle Landing Facility's (SLF) Mate-Demate Device. At the SLF the orbiter is to be mated to the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft for a ferry flight to Palmdale, Calif. On the rear of the orbiter can be seen the tail cone, a fairing that is installed over the aft fuselage of the orbiter to decrease aerodynamic drag and buffet when the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft is transporting the orbiter cross- country. It is 36 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 22 feet high. Columbia, the oldest of four orbiters in NASA's fleet, will undergo extensive inspections and modifications in Boeing's Orbiter Assembly Facility during a nine-month orbiter maintenance down period (OMDP), the second in its history. Orbiters are periodically removed from flight operations for an OMDP. Columbia's first was in 1994. Along with more than 100 modifications on the vehicle, Columbia will be the second orbiter to be outfitted with the multifunctional electronic display system, or 'glass cockpit.' Columbia is expected to return to KSC in July 2000

  12. [Comparative study of the proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and aboard a stratospheric balloon].

    PubMed

    Tixador, R; Richoilley, G; Gasset, G; Planel, H

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlessness in the biological response are discussed. PMID:6814711

  13. NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia: Synopsis of the Report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's space shuttle Columbia broke apart on February 1, 2003 as it returned to Earth from a 16-day science mission. All seven astronauts aboard were killed. NASA created the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), chaired by Adm. (Ret.) Harold Gehman, to investigate the accident. The Board released its report (available at [http://www.caib.us]) on August 26, 2003, concluding that the tragedy was caused by technical and organizational failures. The CAIB report included 29 recommendations, 15 of which the Board specified must be completed before the shuttle returns to flight status. This report provides a brief synopsis of the Board's conclusions, recommendations, and observations. Further information on Columbia and issues for Congress are available in CRS Report RS21408. This report will not be updated.

  14. Shuttle Columbia Mated to 747 SCA with Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The crew of NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), seen mated with the Space Shuttle Columbia behind them, are from viewers left: Tom McMurtry, pilot; Vic Horton, flight engineer; Fitz Fulton, command pilot; and Ray Young, flight engineer. The SCA is used to ferry the shuttle between California and the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and other destinations where ground transportation is not practical. The NASA 747 has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the additional weight of the orbiters. Small vertical fins have also been added to the tips of the horizontal stabilizers for additional stability due to air turbulence on the control surfaces caused by the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the

  15. STS-107 Columbia's engine no. 2 removal for inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Tim Appleby, with United Space Alliance, inspects the flow line on Columbia after the engines were removed. The inspection is the result of small cracks being discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters. Program managers decided to conduct inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  16. Heavy Cosmic Ray Measurement Aboard Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Krause, J.; Fischer, E.; Enge, W.

    1985-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 plastic track detectors was exposed to cosmic radiation during the 10 days mission aboard Spacelab-1. A part of the stack was rotated one revolution within 7 days. The impact time of most of the particles was correlated with the orbit position of the shuttle and thus with geomagnetic field parameters. The analysis of heavy particles with charge Z greater than or equal to 6 in the energy range 50-150 MeV per nucleon with special emphasis on geomagnetically forbidden particles is reported.

  17. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  18. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  19. STS-90 Columbia RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the Rotating Service Structure (RSS) rolled back, at left, the Space Shuttle Columbia is nearly ready for launch of STS-90. Rollback of the RSS is a major preflight milestone, typically occurring during the T-11-hour hold on L-1 (the day before launch). The scheduled launch of Columbia on Apr. 16 from Launch Pad 39B was postponed 24 hours due to difficulty with network signal processor No. 2 on the orbiter. This device formats data and voice communications between the ground and the Space Shuttle. The unit, which is located in the orbiter's mid-deck, will be removed and replaced. Prior to launch, one of the final steps will be to load the external tank with approximately 500,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for fueling the orbiters three main engines. Tanking had not yet begun when the launch scheduled for Apr. 16 was scrubbed. STS-90 is slated to be the launch of Neurolab, a nearly 17-day mission to examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  20. Columbia's second mission. STS-2, the first flight of a used spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A short description of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia's second orbital test flight is presented. Included are discussions of the robot arm tests, Earth survey experiments, as well as the problems encountered.

  1. Astronaut John Glenn aboard the U.S.S. Randolph after MA-6 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 space flight, relaxes aboard the carrier U.S.S. Randolph following his earth-orbital mission. Glenn was transferred to the Randolph from the U.S.S. Noa after his return from his earth-orbital mission.

  2. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  3. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA/Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  4. Apollo 16 Crew Aboard Rescue Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Command Module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on April 27, 1972 after an 11-day moon exploration mission. The 3-man crew is shown here aboard the rescue ship, USS Horton. From left to right are: Mission Commander John W. Young, Lunar Module pilot Charles M. Duke, and Command Module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II. The sixth manned lunar landing mission, the Apollo 16 (SA-511) lifted off on April 16, 1972. The Apollo 16 mission continued the broad-scale geological, geochemical, and geophysical mapping of the Moon's crust, begun by the Apollo 15, from lunar orbit. This mission marked the first use of the Moon as an astronomical observatory by using the ultraviolet camera/spectrograph which photographed ultraviolet light emitted by Earth and other celestial objects. The Lunar Roving Vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was also used.

  5. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  6. Imaging sprites aboard TARANIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Grosjean, Olivier

    TLE (Transient Luminous Event) is the generic name for phenomena which occur over thundercloud from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere (20 to 100 km-height). They are called sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets . . . Each class of phenomenon has their own properties: duration, vertical and horizontal extension, delay after their parent lightning. They are mainly observed from ground since 1990 and from space since 2004 with the ISUAL experiment. All these observations have been done pointing at the limb. We propose an experiment, to image and characterize TLEs and lightning from space, which novelty is looking at the nadir. This concept was tested by the CEA with the Lightning and Sprite Observations on board the International Space Station from 2001 to 2004. The advantage of this point of view is that other radiations (as gamma-rays, electron beams, or electrostatic field) emitted mainly vertically and simultaneously to TLE or lightning can be observed with the same satellite, but the difficulty is how the superimposed light from lightning and TLE can be differentiate. Taking account this constraint and other ones due to satellite accommodation, we define a set of sensors allowing the detection, the localisation and the characterisation of lightning and TLE. Our studies show that two cameras and four photometers are necessary to reach those objectives. This experiment, called MCP for MicroCameras and Photometers, will be aboard TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites) which is a microsatellite project of the CNES Myriade program with a launch planned in 2011. The photometer set will be provided by a Japanese team joining Hokkaido and Tohoku Universities and ISAS/JAXA. In this talk, we will present the main scientific goals of MCP. Need requirement studies (particularly radiometric analysis including sensor trade-off) will be described. We will finish describing the actual development status of the sensors.

  7. Columbia is moved from the OPF to the SLF for a ferry trip to California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The orbiter Columbia (foreground) moves under the Mate-Demate Device at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The crane seen above it will lift the orbiter so that the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) in the background can move underneath Columbia, which will then be attached to the back of the SCA for a ferry flight to Palmdale, Calif. On the rear of the orbiter is the tail cone, a fairing that is installed over the aft fuselage of the orbiter to decrease aerodynamic drag and buffet when the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft is transporting the orbiter cross- country. It is 36 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 22 feet high. Columbia, the oldest of four orbiters in NASA's fleet, will undergo extensive inspections and modifications in Boeing's Orbiter Assembly Facility during a nine-month orbiter maintenance down period (OMDP), the second in its history. Orbiters are periodically removed from flight operations for an OMDP. Columbia's first was in 1994. Along with more than 100 modifications on the vehicle, Columbia will be the second orbiter to be outfitted with the multifunctional electronic display system, or 'glass cockpit.' Columbia is expected to return to KSC in July 2000.

  8. STS-87 Columbia Landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Steven Lindsey at the controls, the orbiter Columbia touches its main gear down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5 to complete the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long STS-87 mission of 6.5 million miles. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Winston Scott; Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; along with Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  9. STS-87 Columbia landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Steven Lindsey at the controls, the orbiter Columbia makes a smooth touchdown on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, completing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long STS-87 mission of 6.5 million miles. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Winston Scott; Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; along with Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  10. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA - Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  11. System performance and on-orbit operations of the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) on the first United States microgravity laboratory mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Schaefer, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the design, the performance, and on-orbit operations of the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) system flown for the first time aboard the Orbiter Columbia on STS-50. Four experiments were carried out: (1) crystal growth of (Hg,Zn)Te by chemical vapor transport, (2) seeded Bridgman growth of Zn-doped CdTe, (3) Bridgman growth of Se-doped GaAs, and (4) crystal growth of (Hg,Zn)Te by directional solidification. The results of a system performance data analysis demonstrate that all the elements of the CGF system functioned flawlessly. Seven out of eight samples carried on board yielded the best possible science return to date, surpassing previous microgravity material processing experiments in space.

  12. Intstallation of Spacelab 1 in Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technicians inspect the European made Spacelab installed in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia before Spacelab's first flight. The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-83PC-665 (41070); High angle view into the cargo bay of the Shuttle Columbia features the access tunnel for the dual Spacelab moduels. The tunnel allows the astronaut crewmembers to travel between the orbiter crew compartment and the Spacelab habitable modules in shirt-sleeve conditions. The airlock adapter (right) allows access to space in the event of an unscheduled extravehicular activity (EVA). The Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-83PC-666 (41071); This view shows the connection between the access tunnel and the Spacelab 1 module in the cargo bay of the Columbia prior to roll-out to the launch pad. The 'Z' in the tunnel matches the elevations of the orbiter and Spacelab hatches, and permits longitudinal movements during luanch and landing without excess str

  13. Understanding the Columbia Space Shuttle Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, Doug

    2004-06-16

    On February 1, 2003, the NASA space shuttle Columbia broke apart during re-entry over East Texas at an altitude of 200,000 feet and a velocity of approximately 12,000 mph. All aboard perished. Prof. Osheroff was a member of the board that investigated the origins of this accident, both physical and organizational. In his talk he will describe how the board was able to determine with almost absolute certainty the physical cause of the accident. In addition, Prof. Osherhoff will discuss its organizational and cultural causes, which are rooted deep in the culture of the human spaceflight program. Why did NASA continue to fly the shuttle system despite the persistent failure of a vital sub-system that it should have known did indeed pose a safety risk on every flight? Finally, Prof. Osherhoff will touch on the future role humans are likely to play in the exploration of space.

  14. New Columbia Admission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2011-01-12

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Health Care, District of Columbia, Census and the National Archives . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. STS-65 Commander Cabana with SAREX-II on Columbia's, OV-102's, flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana is seen on the Space Shuttle Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck with the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) (configuration C). Cabana is equipped with the SAREX-II headset and holds a cable leading to the 2-h window antenna mounted in forward flight deck window W1 (partially blocked by the seat headrest). SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a project to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques. As on several previous missions, SAREX was used on this flight as an educational opportunity for students around the world to learn about space firsthand by speaking directly to astronauts aboard the shuttle.

  16. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  17. Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation into the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia, and addresses the importance of a failure analysis strategy for the investigation of the Columbia accident. The main focus of the presentation is on the usefulness of electron microscopy for analyzing slag deposits from the tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) wing panels of the Columbia orbiter.

  18. STS-39 Discovery in the VAB and Columbia Tow From HB-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The orbiter Discovery sits inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) after its rollover from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF). In the VAB, Discovery will be mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters for its launch. Shown also is Columbia orbiter being towed from the High Bay 2.

  19. Landing of the STS-62 Space Shuttle Columbia at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia is about to touch down on the Shuttle Landing Facility following almost 14 days in Earth orbit. The giant Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where Columbia had been mated to its external tank and two solid rockets, is in the background. Touchdown occurred at 8:09 a.m. (EST), March 18, 1994.

  20. Workers in the VAB move sling into place to lift Columbia to mobile launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Workers in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) move a specially-built sling into place to lift Orbiter Columbia from the transfer aisle to the mobile launcher platform (27015); Columbia is lifted from the floor of the VAB transfer aisle (27016).

  1. VIEW ACROSS COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL AND THE WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ACROSS COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL AND THE WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL DIVERSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING NORTH - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  2. STS-93 Columbia after rollout to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia sits on Launch Pad 39B less than two weeks after liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-96. Columbia was rolled out June 7 in preparation for the launch of STS-93 with its payload of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Rotating Service Structure will be moved into place around it on Tuesday, June 8. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Columbia (OV-102) is the first of NASA's orbiter fleet, delivered to Kennedy Space Center in March 1979. Columbia initiated the Space Shuttle flight program at KSC when it lifted off Launch Pad 39A on April 12, 1981.

  3. STS-93 Columbia after rollout to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This closeup of Space Shuttle Columbia on Launch Pad 39B shows the Rotating Service Structure, at left, which will be moved into place on Tuesday, June 8. Columbia was rolled out June 7, less than two weeks after the liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-96, in preparation for the launch of STS-93. The mission payload is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, which will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Columbia (OV-102) is the first of NASA's orbiter fleet, delivered to Kennedy Space Center in March 1979. Columbia initiated the Space Shuttle flight program at KSC when it lifted off Launch Pad 39A on April 12, 1981.

  4. STS-93 Columbia after rollout to Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Shuttle Columbia sits on Launch Pad 39B less than two weeks after liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-96. Columbia was rolled out June 7 in preparation for the launch of STS-93 with its payload of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Rotating Service Structure, at left, will be moved into place on Tuesday, June 8. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Columbia (OV-102) is the first of NASA's orbiter fleet, delivered to Kennedy Space Center in March 1979. Columbia initiated the Space Shuttle flight program at KSC when it lifted off Launch Pad 39A on April 12, 1981.

  5. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KSC employees accompany the orbiter Atlantis as it is moved aboard an orbiter transporter to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). In the background are OPF bays 1 and 2. In the VAB it will be lifted to vertical and placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  6. Branding time at Columbia.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, M C

    1996-08-19

    This week Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. introduces a national advertising blitz believed to be the largest ever by a healthcare provider. The hospital giant wants to instill its brand name in the American lexicon, and it's willing to spend millions to do so. PMID:10159472

  7. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  8. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  9. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  10. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  11. Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board gathers for a second day for its third public hearing, held in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The CAIB was set up to examine STS-107 and analyze exploratory tests. Navy Admiral Harold W. 'Hal' Gehman Jr. was designated as the Chairman of the Board. From left to right in this photo sit Board Members Steven B. Wallace, Scott Hubbard, Dr. John Logsdon, Rear Admiral Stephen Turcotte, Hal Gehman, General Duane Deal, Dr. Douglas Osheroff, and Maj. General Kenneth W. Hess. Not shown are Maj. General John Barry, Dr. James N. Hallock, Roger Tetrault, Dr. Sheila Widnall, and Dr. Sally Ride. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  12. Oblique View of Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This perspective view looking toward the northeast shows part of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater. At the center is the winter campaign site of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit.

    On its 805th Martian day, or sol, (April 8, 2006), Spirit was parked on a slope tilting 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight on the solar panels during the southern winter season. Science observations were formulated to take advantage of the long time during which the rover was parked. The plan focused on two tasks: tracking atmospheric and surface dynamics by periodically surveying the surface and atmosphere; and extensively examining surrounding terrains, rocks and soils using the panoramic camera and the miniature thermal emission spectrometer, coupled with long duration measurements using the alpha particle X-ray and Moessbauer spectrometers of rock and soil targets. For reference, the feature known as 'Home Plate' is approximately 90 meters (295 feet) wide.

    An image from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbital Camera, catalogued as E03_00012 and courtesy Malin Space Science Systems, was used as the base image for this figure. The perspective was generated using elevation data generated from analyses of the camera's stereo images by the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz.

  13. Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) on Orbit Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an on-orbit animation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). In 1999, the AXAF was renamed the CXO in honor of the late Indian-American Novel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It is designed to observe x-rays from high energy regions of the Universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. It produces picture-like images of x-ray emissions analogous to those made in visible light, as well as gathers data on the chemical composition of x-ray radiating objects. The CXO helps astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of x-rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes, and other exotic celestial objects. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  14. Workers Search for Columbia's Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Members of a US Forest Service search team walk a grid during a Columbia recovery search near the Hemphill, Texas site. The group is accompanied by a space program worker able to identify potential hazards of Shuttle parts. Workers from every NASA Center and numerous federal, state, and local agencies searched for Columbia's debris in the recovery effort. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  15. STS-1: Columbia Briefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A video presentation on an update of the STS-1 Columbia Shuttle is shown. Hugh Harris is the moderator. He introduces Don Phillips, Chief STS Test OPS, who presents the status of the vehicle. Terry William, Chief of Mechanical Systems, discusses the debonding of the panels. A question and answer period from the news media is shown. The various topics of discussion from the news media include: 1) Repair of thermal tiles; 2) Launch dates; and 3) Landing and launch sites and 4) Low pressure/high pressure tanking tests. An audio presentation is given of questions from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Washington. On March 12, 1981, another STS-1 Columbia update is shown. Bob Schick, Shuttle Test Director, and Bob Sieck, Flight Project Engineer answers questions about the actual repair time of the panels and a very detailed description of the three areas of debonding is presented. A brief launch date statement from Dr. Allen Lovelace, Acting NASA Administrator is given and John Lardley, Shuttle Associate Director, discusses the flight readiness review.

  16. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The orbiter Atlantis is moved aboard an orbiter transporter from the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 3 over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). In the background (right) are OPF bays 1 and 2. In the VAB it will be lifted to vertical and placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  17. (abstract) Hermes Global Orbiter: Mission to Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, L.; Nelson, R.; Weiss, J.; Smythe, W.; Evans, M.; Gatz, E.; Kuo, S.; Lane, A.; Linick, S.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Manatt, K.; Martin, W.; Morris, R.; Ocampo, A.; Spradlin, G.; Wallis, B.; Yen, C.; Danielson, G.; Garvin, J.; Guest, J.; Hapke, B.; McClintock, W.; Simmons, K.; Russell, C.; Cruz, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Hermes Global Orbiter is a proposed Discovery-class mission. Hermes will be launched aboard a Delta II rocket in 1999 and will be placed in an elliptical polar orbit about Mercury. Remote sensing measurements of the planet's surface, atmosphere, and magnetosphere will be performed. Key mission goals include mapping the entire surface at 1 km resolution, characterizing the surface composition, texture and topography, searching for water ice at the poles, characterizing the atmosphere, and constraining the interior structure.

  18. STS-87 Columbia landing at KSC (Drag Chute Deployed)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With Commander Kevin Kregel and Pilot Steven Lindsey at the controls, the orbiter Columbia touches its main gear down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5 to complete the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long STS-87 mission of 6.5 million miles. Also onboard the orbiter are Mission Specialists Winston Scott; Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; along with Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  19. STS-87 Columbia Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Like a rising sun lighting up the afternoon sky, the Space Shuttle Columbia soars from Launch Pad 39B at 2:46:00 p.m. EST, November 19, on the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201 satellite. The crew members include Mission Commander Kevin Kregel.; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., Winston Scott, and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 16-day STS-87 mission, the crew will oversee experiments in microgravity; deploy and retrieve a solar satellite; and test a new experimental camera, the AERCam Sprint. Dr. Doi and Scott also will perform a spacewalk to practice International Space Station maneuvers.

  20. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Aboard Command Module Yankee Clipper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is a view of astronaut Richard F. Gordon attaching a high resolution telephoto lens to a camera aboard the Apollo 12 Command Module (CM) Yankee Clipper. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  1. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA/Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  2. Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Volume One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board's independent investigation into the February 1, 2003, loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its seven-member crew lasted nearly seven months. A staff of more than 120, along with some 400 NASA engineers, supported the Board's 13 members. Investigators examined more than 30,000 documents, conducted more than 200 formal interviews, heard testimony from dozens of expert witnesses, and reviewed more than 3,000 inputs from the general public. In addition, more than 25,000 searchers combed vast stretches of the Western United States to retrieve the spacecraft's debris. In the process, Columbia's tragedy was compounded when two debris searchers with the U.S. Forest Service perished in a helicopter accident. This report concludes with recommendations, some of which are specifically identified and prefaced as 'before return to flight.' These recommendations are largely related to the physical cause of the accident, and include preventing the loss of foam, improved imaging of the Space Shuttle stack from liftoff through separation of the External Tank, and on-orbit inspection and repair of the Thermal Protection System. The remaining recommendations, for the most part, stem from the Board's findings on organizational cause factors. While they are not 'before return to flight' recommendations, they can be viewed as 'continuing to fly' recommendations, as they capture the Board's thinking on what changes are necessary to operate the Shuttle and future spacecraft safely in the mid- to long-term. These recommendations reflect both the Board's strong support for return to flight at the earliest date consistent with the overriding objective of safety, and the Board's conviction that operation of the Space Shuttle, and all human space-flight, is a developmental activity with high inherent risks.

  3. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, J. R.; Jenkins, D. R.; White, D. J.; Goodman, P. A.; Reingold, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Volume II of the Report contains appendices that were cited in Volume I. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board produced many of these appendices as working papers during the investigation into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Other appendices were produced by other organizations (mainly NASA) in support of the Board investigation. In the case of documents that have been published by others, they are included here in the interest of establishing a complete record, but often at less than full page size. Contents include: CAIB Technical Documents Cited in the Report: Reader's Guide to Volume II; Appendix D. a Supplement to the Report; Appendix D.b Corrections to Volume I of the Report; Appendix D.1 STS-107 Training Investigation; Appendix D.2 Payload Operations Checklist 3; Appendix D.3 Fault Tree Closure Summary; Appendix D.4 Fault Tree Elements - Not Closed; Appendix D.5 Space Weather Conditions; Appendix D.6 Payload and Payload Integration; Appendix D.7 Working Scenario; Appendix D.8 Debris Transport Analysis; Appendix D.9 Data Review and Timeline Reconstruction Report; Appendix D.10 Debris Recovery; Appendix D.11 STS-107 Columbia Reconstruction Report; Appendix D.12 Impact Modeling; Appendix D.13 STS-107 In-Flight Options Assessment; Appendix D.14 Orbiter Major Modification (OMM) Review; Appendix D.15 Maintenance, Material, and Management Inputs; Appendix D.16 Public Safety Analysis; Appendix D.17 MER Manager's Tiger Team Checklist; Appendix D.18 Past Reports Review; Appendix D.19 Qualification and Interpretation of Sensor Data from STS-107; Appendix D.20 Bolt Catcher Debris Analysis.

  4. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  5. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  6. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired. PMID:24483559

  7. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia glides in for a touchdown on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at approximately 6:46 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt, Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K.Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell.

  8. The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 LAUNCH VIEW --- The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule at 3:18:00 p.m. (EST), February 22, 1996. Visible at left is the White Room on the orbiter access arm through which the flight crew had entered the orbiter. Onboard Columbia for the scheduled two-week mission were astronauts Andrew M. Allen, commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and astronauts Maurizio Cheli, Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni. Cheli and Nicollier represent the European Space Agency (ESA), while Guidioni represents the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  9. Orbital Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-68 crew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour told a post-flight audience at JSC that this sunrise was one of the most scenic sunrises/ sunsets witnessed during the week and a half long Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2) mission. Jutting clouds, back-lit by the dawn colors, are sandwiched between the blue airglow and the silhouetted horizon of Earth.

  10. Dwarf Wheat grown aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dwarf wheat were photographed aboard the International Space Station in April 2002. Lessons from on-orbit research on plants will have applications to terrestrial agriculture as well as for long-term space missions. Alternative agricultural systems that can efficiently produce greater quantities of high-quality crops in a small area are important for future space expeditions. Also regenerative life-support systems that include plants will be an important component of long-term space missions. Data from the Biomass Production System (BPS) and the Photosynthesis Experiment and System Testing and Operations (PESTO) will advance controlled-environment agricultural systems and will help farmers produce better, healthier crops in a small area. This same knowledge is critical to closed-loop life support systems for spacecraft. The BPS comprises a miniature environmental control system for four plant growth chambers, all in the volume of two space shuttle lockers. The experience with the BPS on orbit is providing valuable design and operational lessons that will be incorporated into the Plant Growth Units. The objective of PESTO was to flight verify the BPS hardware and to determine how the microgravity environment affects the photosynthesis and metabolic function of Super Dwarf wheat and Brassica rapa (a member of the mustard family).

  11. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a higher thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (cooler in the day, warmer at night); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (warmer at night, cooler in the day). During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these thermal variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  12. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates warmth; blue indicates coolness. Areas with higher temperatures are more likely to be rocky, as rocks absorb heat. Lower temperatures denote small particles and fewer rocks. During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these temperature variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  13. Columbia River Impact Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    A preliminary impact evaluation was conducted to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection programs for evaluating cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River due to past practices at the Hanford Site. The results of this evaluation were used to develop this plan to ensure collection of sufficient data for adequate characterization of the Columbia River along the 100 Area for CERCLA purposes. The evaluation used to develop the plan is not a risk assessment; the plan presented here is only a mechanism to collect additional data to support a future risk assessment.

  14. Understanding Columbia's Reentry Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Soon after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident occurred last year, a group of CFD analysts from NASA centers and private industry was organized to help determine the cause of the accident. This group was under the direction of the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch of the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division at the Johnson Space Center. For external flow simulations, noncommercia2 CFD codes that specialize in hypersonic or high Mach number flows were used. These tools were used to determine heating rates, pressures, and temperatures for a large number of vehicle damage scenarios. Lockheed Martin Space Operations was called upon to provide CFD support in the area of internal flows within the shuttle wing cavity, and for these simulations, FLUENT 6.1 was chosen. Two large-scale, simplified models were m to understand the flow patterns once a breach of the internal wing cavity was initiated. The results were primarily used to visualize flow patterns within the wing cavity. The first CFD model included the entire lee wing without the wheel well cavity. The purpose of the first model, which did not include the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) cavity along the wing leading edge, was to visualize the flow field within the wing cavity immediately after the leading edge spar breach, This model assumed that the flow coming into the wing cavity was normal to the spar. It included all of the primary vents that allow for flow between the main cavities of the wing. A six-inch diameter hole was modeled in the spar at the approximate location where the spar breach was judged to have occurred, which was between RCC panels 8 and 9. The results of the modeling showed that at this location, the high temperature, high velocity gas stream entering the wing cavity impinged on the outboard wheel well cavity. Instrumentation in the Shuttle wheel well cavity registered abnormal temperatures during reentry, so the FLUENT results helped support the conclusion of the accident investigation

  15. STS-52 Columbia, OV-102, rises above KSC LC Pad 39B after liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, leaves Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B on its way toward a ten-day Earth-orbital mission. OV-102 is barely visible at the top of the exhaust cloud which covers the launch pad. The Atlantic Ocean creates the background. The photograph was taken from the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) piloted by astronaut Steven R. Nagel. Liftoff occurred at 1:09:39 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)).

  16. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, thermal protection system (TPS) tile repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    On Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, underside, technician prepares surface during thermal protection system (TPS) tile repair / replacement. OV-102 is being refurbished for the STS-28 Department of Defense (DOD) dedicated mission in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) high bay 2. Technician stands on scaffolding next to deployed landing gear. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-87PC-126.

  17. Columbia undergoes final shakedown during seven-day STS-4 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The launch preparations for the Space Transportation System 4 flight of the space shuttle Columbia are described. The details of the spacecraft's mission profile are given. Several experiments and payloads are described. An account of the remote manipulator system is given. Studies of long-term thermal extremes on the orbiter subsystems and a survey of orbiter induced contamination of the payload bay are identified as mission priorities.

  18. Autonomous orbital navigation using Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simple method of determining the six elements of elliptic satellite orbits has been developed for use aboard manned and unmanned spacecraft orbiting the earth, moon, or any planet. The system requires the use of a horizon sensor or other device for determining the local vertical, a precision clock or timing device, and Apollo-type navigation equipment including an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a digital computer, and a coupling data unit. The three elements defining the in-plane motion are obtained from simultaneous measurements of central angle traversed around the planet and elapsed flight time using a linearization of Kepler's equation about a reference orbit. It is shown how Kalman filter theory may also be used to determine the in-plane orbital elements. The three elements defining the orbit orientation are obtained from position angles in celestial coordinates derived from the IMU with the spacecraft vertically oriented after alignment of the IMU to a known inertial coordinate frame.

  19. STS-65 Mission Specialist Thomas with newt in IML-2 module aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas is seen in the spacelab science module at the Rack 1 Workbench making an observation of one of the newts. Smaller organisms, such as the newts, are able to develop from embryos and hatch during the mission as part of an overall program to determine if development occurs normally in the space environment. Temporary home for the newts, the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) (out of frame) also contained Medaka and goldfish. Thomas joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for two weeks of experimenting onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, in Earth orbit.

  20. STS-65 Mission Specialist Chiao in front of IML-2 Rack 3 aboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Leroy Chiao is seen in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module in front of Rack 3 and above center aisle equipment. Chiao has just made an observation of the goldfish container (silver apparatus on left between his right hand and knee). The Rack 3 Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) also contains Medaka and newts. Chiao joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for two weeks of experimenting onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, in Earth orbit.

  1. Orbit to orbit transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Orbital transfer vehicle propulsion options for SPS include both chemical (COTV) and electrical (EOTV) options. The proposed EOTV construction method is similar to that of the SPS and, by the addition of a transmitting antenna, may serve as a demonstration or precursor satellite option. The results of the studies led to the selection of a single stage COTV for crew and priority cargo transfer. An EOTV concept is favored for cargo transfer because of the more favorable orbital burden factor over chemical systems. The gallium arsenide solar array is favored over the silicon array because of its self annealing characteristics of radiation damage encountered during multiple transitions through the Van Allen radiation belt. Transportation system operations are depicted. A heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) delivers cargo and propellants to LEO, which are transferred to a dedicated EOTV by means of an intraorbit transfer vehicle (IOTV) for subsequent transfer to GEO. The space shuttle is used for crew transfer from Earth to LEO. At the LEO base, the crew module is removed from the shuttle cargo bay and mated to a COTV for transfer to GEO. Upon arrival at GEO, the SPS construction cargo is transferred from the EOTV to the SPS construction base by IOTV. Crew consumables and resupply propellants are transported to GEO by the EOTV. Transportation requirements are dominated by the vast quantity of materials to be transported to LEO and GEO.

  2. ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VERNER, COOLIE, ED.

    PREPARED UNDER THE SPECIAL EDITORSHIP OF COOLIE VERNER, THIS JOURNAL ISSUE REVIEWS THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT, TRACES THE GROWTH OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DURING THE PERIOD 1915-63, DISCUSSES RECENT TRENDS AND ACTIVITIES IN VOCATIONAL AND NONVOCATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL…

  3. The Columbia University Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavarkovsky, Jerome; Haas, Warren J.

    In 1971, a management consulting firm undertook a case study of the Columbia University libraries to improve library performance by reviewing and strengthening the organization and recasting staff composition and deployment patterns. To implement the study's recommendations, an administrative structure was proposed which would emphasize functional…

  4. A LIBRARY PROGRAM FOR COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STONE, C. WALTER; AND OTHERS

    PART OF THE PLANNING NECESSARY FOR THE NEW CITY OF COLUMBIA, MARYLAND (PROJECTED POPULATION OF 125,000) HAS BEEN THE ORGANIZATION OF AN OPTIMUM PROGRAM OF INFORMATION SERVICES FOR ALL AREAS OF ITS LIFE--BOTH FOR THE COMMUNITY IN GENERAL AND FOR ITS SCHOOLS, INDUSTRIES, AND BUSINESSES. COMMUNICATIONS, TECHNOLOGY AND RELATED SYSTEMS HAVE BEEN…

  5. STS-1: Columbia Complete Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A video presentation of the STS-1 Columbia Mission is shown. The video begins with footage of the STS-1 Columbia arriving at Kennedy Space Center on March 24, 1979. The various milestones that were shown include: 1) STS-1 Columbia Shuttle Rocket Booster (SRB) stacking; 2) External Tank (ET) lift and mating; 3) Move to VAB and Mating; 4) Rollout to pad 39A; 5) Flight Readiness Firing (FRF) on February 19, 1981; 6) Launch day; and 7) Return to Kennedy Space Center. John W. Young, Commander and Robert L. Crippen, Pilot are shown having a traditional breakfast before the suit up and drive out to the launch pad. Footage of the lift-off along with Shuttle Rocket Booster (SRB) separation is shown. After lift-off, there is a shot of the crew in the mid-deck and also a view of thunderstorms over the Amazon Basin. The video ends with a view of Columbia returning to Kennedy Space Center on April 25, 1981.

  6. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, MS Adamson prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    On middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) James C. Adamson watches as open jars of peanut butter and jelly and a jar lid freefloat in front of middeck lockers. Adamson holds a tortilla covered with the two ingredients. Behind Adamson is the galley.

  7. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, Pilot Richards adjusts LES before bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Richard N. Richards, adjusts launch and entry suit (LES) neck ring after donning launch and entry helmet (LEH). Richards prepares for shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  8. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, lands on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California at 8:29:11 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). OV-102's starboard side is captured in this profile view as its nose landing gear (NLG) glides above the runway before touch down and wheel stop.

  9. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, lands on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California at 8:29:11 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). OV-102's port side is captured in this profile view as its nose landing gear (NLG) glides above the runway before touch down and wheel stop.

  10. View of payload bay of STS-62 Columbia and Dexterous End Effector (DEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 70mm frame, photographed through the aft flight deck windows of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, features activity with the Dexterous End Effector (DEE) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). This scene also provides an overview of many of the United States Microgravity Payload 2 (USMP) elements as well as OAST-2 experiments.

  11. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  12. Unlocking the Mystery of Columbia's Tragic Accident Through Materials Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Jerman, Gregory; Coston, James

    2003-01-01

    The wing and underbelly reconstruction of Space Shuttle Columbia took place at the Shuttle Landing Facility Hangar after the accident which destroyed STS-107. Fragments were placed on a grid according to their original location on the orbiter. Some Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels of the left wing leading edge and other parts from both leading edges were recovered and incorporated into the reconstruction. The recovered parts were tracked on a database according to a number and also tracked on a map of the orbiter. This viewgraph presentation describes the process of failure analysis undertaken by the Materials and Processes (M&P) Problem Resolution Team. The team started with factual observations about the accident, and identified highest level questions for it to answer in order to understand where on the orbiter failure occured, what component(s) failed, and what was the sequence of events. The finding of Columbia's MADS/OEX data recorder shifted the focus of the team's analysis to the left wing leading edge damage. The team placed particular attention on slag deposits on some of the RCC panels. The presentation lists analysis techniques, and lower level questions for the team to answer.

  13. NASA Educational Briefs for the Classroom. Orbits of Bodies in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The difference between an orbit and a revolution is explained and it is shown why space shuttle Columbia's period of revolution was longer than its orbital period. Parameters of orbits examined include apoapsis, periapsis, apogee, perigee, aphelion, perihelion, orbital plane, and inclination. Orbit velocity and duration, Newton's law of gravitation, and Kepler's three laws of motion are considered. The principles involved in geostationary satellites are also explored.

  14. Orbital pseudotumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS) Images Skull anatomy References Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s ...

  15. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  16. Orbital cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , and beta-hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and can lead ...

  17. The on-orbit optical performance of STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Charles W.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) is a versatile, general purpose instrument installed aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in February, 1997. During the following Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV) period, STIS has been made operational and aligned, and initial checkout and calibration completed. The overall optical performance goals have largely been achieved and a summary of these results is presented.

  18. Mars Observer/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the integrated Mars Observer/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) payload is ready for encapsulation in the Titan III nose fairing. The TOS booster maiden flight was dedicated to Thomas O. Paine, a former NASA administrator who strongly supported interplanetary exploration and was an early backer of the TOS program. Launched September 25, 1992 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center aboard a Titan III rocket and the TOS, the Mars Observer spacecraft was to be the first U.S. spacecraft to study Mars since the Viking missions 18 years prior. Unfortunately, the Mars Observer spacecraft fell silent just 3 days prior to entering orbit around Mars.

  19. Space flight effects on Paramecium tetraurelia flown aboard Salyut 6 in the Cytos I and Cytos M experiments.

    PubMed

    Panel, H; Tixador, R; Nefedov, Y u; Gretchko, G; Richoilley, G; Bassler, R; Monrozies, E

    1981-01-01

    Results of the Cytos M experiment and complementary results of the Cytos I experiment flown aboard the Soviet orbital station Salyut 6 are shown. Space flight of Paramecia cultures resulted in a stimulating effect on cell proliferation, in a larger cell volume, in changes in cell dry weight, cell total protein and the electrolyte content of the culture media in which the organisms were grown. The assumption of a possible effect of weightlessness on membrane permeability is discussed. PMID:11541725

  20. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), overhead cranes move above the orbiter Atlantis in order to lift it to vertical. When vertical, the orbiter will be placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  1. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from an upper level in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), the orbiter Atlantis waits in the transfer aisle after its move from the Orbiter Processing Facility. In the VAB it will be lifted to vertical and placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  2. Skylab 3 crewmen aboard prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three crewmen of the Skylab 3 mission are seen aboard the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans, following their successful 59-day visit to the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. They are, left to right, Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot; Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot; and Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander. They are seated atop a platform of a fork-lift dolly. Recovery support personnel are wearing face masks to prevent exposing the crewmen to disease.

  3. Peculiarities of ultrastructure of Chlorella cells growing aboard the Bion-10 during 12 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. F.; Sytnik, K. M.

    The ultrastructure of Chlorella cells grown in darkness on a solid agar medium with organic additions aboard the Bion-1O biosatellite was studied. Certain differences in submicroscopic organization of organelles in the experimental cells were revealed compared to the Earth control. The changes are registered mainly in ultrastructure of energetic organelles - mitochondria and plastids of the experimental cells, in particular, an increase of mitochondria and their cristae size, as well as an increase of the total volume of mitochondrion per cell were established. The decrease of the starch amount in the plastid stroma and the electron density of the latter was also observed. In many experimental cells, the increase of condensed chromatin in the nuclei has been noted. Ultrastructural rearrangements in cells after laboratory experiment realized according to the thermogram registered aboard the Bion-10 were insignificant compared to the flight experiment. Data obtained are compared to results of space flight experiments carried out aboard the Bion-9 (polycomponent aquatic system) and the orbital station Mir (solid agar medium).

  4. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. STS-87 Columbia rolls out to LC 39B in preparation for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The orbiter Columbia, mated to its external tank and two solid rocket boosters, is prepared to roll out of Kennedy Space Centers (KSCs) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to Pad 39-B. Columbia is scheduled to launch on Nov. 19 for STS-87 on a 16-day flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-4 mission. This mission also features the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-201 satellite and a spacewalk to demonstrate assembly and maintenance operations for future use on the International Space Station.

  6. [Orbital inflammation].

    PubMed

    Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N

    2014-12-01

    Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. PMID:25455557

  7. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  8. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Columbia River. From this point, the boundary line— (1) Goes 1.5 miles straight north along the R9E-R10E... the Klickitat River until it joins the Columbia River, and then continues 0.4 mile southwest in a straight line to the Washington-Oregon State line in the center of the Columbia River, section 3, T2N,...

  9. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Columbia River. From this point, the boundary line— (1) Goes 1.5 miles straight north along the R9E-R10E... the Klickitat River until it joins the Columbia River, and then continues 0.4 mile southwest in a straight line to the Washington-Oregon State line in the center of the Columbia River, section 3, T2N,...

  10. STS-90 Columbia landing at KSC's runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the space center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission include Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  11. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  12. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  13. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  14. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  15. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  16. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  17. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  19. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  1. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  2. 106. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROWENA LOOPS AT COLUMBIA RIVER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROWENA LOOPS AT COLUMBIA RIVER. I-84, RAILROAD AND COLUMBIA RIVER HIGHWAY TO RIGHT, MASONRY RAIL IN FOREGROUND. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  4. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Columbia Gorge. 9.178 Section 9.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.178 Columbia Gorge. (a) Name. The name of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Columbia Gorge. 9.178 Section 9.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.178 Columbia Gorge. (a) Name. The name of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.869 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.869 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.869 Columbia River. (a) The draws of the... 6 p.m. Monday through Friday except federal holidays. (b) The draw of the Port of Hood River...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.1035 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term drawtender, as used in this section means the operator of the drawspan, whether that person may be a...

  8. 33 CFR 117.869 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.869 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.869 Columbia River. (a) The draws of the... 6 p.m. Monday through Friday except federal holidays. (b) The draw of the Port of Hood River...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.1035 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term drawtender, as used in this section means the operator of the drawspan, whether that person may be a...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.1035 Section 117.1035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term drawtender, as used in this section means...

  11. 33 CFR 117.869 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.869 Section 117.869 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.869 Columbia River. (a) The draws of the Interstate 5 Bridges, mile 106.5,...

  12. Physiology of chimpanzees in orbit. Part 2: Interface document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, A.

    1972-01-01

    Interface requirements are presented for the design and development of an earth orbiting experiment to be known as POCO, Physiology of Chimpanzees in Orbit. The POCO experiment may be designed to operate within an orbiting space station (provided artificial gravity measures are not employed), a Saturn 4-B workshop, an Apollo command module or service module, a Saturn-1B spacecraft LM adapter, or aboard one of the presently conceived appendages connected by an umbilical to a space station. This document sets forth the experiment definition and requirements and describes the hardware under development to accomplish these objectives.

  13. 1. WEST MULTNOMAH VIADUCT, VIEW LOOKING EAST. Historic Columbia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST MULTNOMAH VIADUCT, VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  15. Surgical treatment of orbital floor fractures.

    PubMed

    Rankow, R M; Mignogna, F V

    1975-01-01

    Ninety patients with orbital floor fractures were treated by the Otolaryngology Service of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Of these 90 patients, 58 were classified as coexisting and 32 as isolated. All fractures with clinical symptoms and demonstrable x-ray evidence should be explored. Despite negative findings by routine techniques, laminography may confirm fractures in all clinically suspicious cases. In this series, 100% of the patients explored had definitive fractures. A direct infraorbital approach adequately exposes the floor of the orbit. An effective and cosmetic subtarsal incision was utilized. Implants were employed when the floor could not be anatomically reapproximated or the periorbita was destroyed. PMID:1119982

  16. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: From Launch to the Primary Science Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Martin D.; Graf, James E.; Zurek, Richard W.; Eisen, Howard J.; Jai, Benhan; Erickson, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA, aboard an Atlas V-401 launch vehicle on August 12, 2005. The MRO spacecraft carries a very sophisticated scientific payload. Its primary science mission is to to provide global, regional survey, and targeted observations from a low altitude orbit for one Martian year (687 Earth days). After a seven month interplanetary transit, the spacecraft fired its six main engines and established a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars. During the post-MOI early check-out period, four instruments acquired engineering-quality data. This was followed by five months of aerobraking operations. After aerobraking was terminated, a series of propulsive maneuvers were used to establish the desired low altitude science orbit. As the spacecraft is readied for its primary science mission, spacecraft and instrument checkout and deployment activities have continued.

  17. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  18. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  19. Space shuttle orbiter reusable surface insulation flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The first five flights of the orbiter Columbia provided the initial data required to certify the operational performance of the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS). The flight performance characteristics of the RIS TPS are discussed. The discussion is based primarily on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation. TPS modifications of the future orbiters (OV-099, 103, and subs) are also discussed.

  20. STS-90 Columbia is transferred from OPF bay 3 to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia was transferred from Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 3 today to the Vehicle Assembly Building, where it will be mated to its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Here it is shown backing out of the bay, with first motion occurring at 10:48 a.m. Columbia is being prepared for the STS-90 mission, carrying the Neurolab payload. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. The launch is targeted for April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT.

  1. Mortality among British Columbia pilots.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P

    1991-04-01

    We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640

  2. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  3. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.)

    1997-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  4. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1998-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  5. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. In the background are training personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  6. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crew eats preflight breakfast at KSC O and C Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 crewmembers eat preflight breakfast at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building before boarding Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Sitting around table (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Leestma, Pilot Richard N. Richards, Commander Brewster H. Shaw, MS James C. Adamson, and MS Mark N. Brown. A cake decorated with the STS-28 mission insignia is in the center of the table.

  7. STS-32 Pilot Wetherbee prepares meal on middeck of Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Pilot James D. Wetherbee having run out of shelf space, uses his mouth to temporarily 'park' a spoon during meal time preparations on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. He prepares to open a can while a packet of whole wheat tortillas floats in front of him. Attached to the forward middeck lockers are the Shuttle Particle Monitor 2, Inflight Maintenance (INFLT MAINT) Checklist, a beverage container with drinking water, an air sampler, and American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE) supplies.

  8. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, Pilot Bowersox uses sky-genie during egress exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Kenneth D. Bowersox participates in post landing emergency egress training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Bowersox, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), exited the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), a shuttle mockup, through an overhead window and now lowers himself to the ground using the sky-genie device. Technicians look on from below.

  9. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, KSC liftoff from a remote control tracking device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, riding atop the external tank(ET), begins its roll maneuver after lifting off from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex (LC) pad at 9:24:51 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). Exhaust plumes billow from the solid rocket booster (SRB) skirts. The glow of the three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) is visible. This photo was taken by a remote control tracking device mounted 1600 feet from epicenter.

  10. LEO Flight Testing of GaAs on Si Solar Cells Aboard MISSES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Clark, Eric B.; Ringel, Steven A.; Andre, Carrie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Scheiman, David A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Maurer, William F.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Walters, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research efforts have demonstrated small area (0.04 cm) GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) solar cells with AM0 efficiencies in excess of 17%. These results were achieved on Si substrates coated with a step graded buffer of Si(x),Ge(1-x) alloys graded to 100% Ge. Recently, a 100-fold increase in device area was accomplished for these devices in preparation for on-orbit testing of this technology aboard Materials International Space Station Experiment number 5 (MISSE5). The GaAs/Si MISSE5 experiment contains five (5) GaAs/Si test devices with areas of lcm(exp 2) and 4cm(exp 4) as well as two (2) GaAs on GaAs control devices. Electrical performance data, measured on-orbit for three (3) of the test devices and one (1) of the control devices, will be telemetered to ground stations daily. After approximately one year on orbit, the MISSE5 payload will be returned to Earth for post flight evaluation. This paper will discuss the development of the GaAs/Si devices for the MISSE5 flight experiment and will present recent ground and on-orbit performance data.

  11. Orbiter Return-To-Flight Entry Aeroheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian; Bourland, Gary; Bouslog, Stan; Cassady, Amy; Horvath, Tom; Berry, Scott A.; Gnoffo, Peter; Wood, Bill; Reuther, James; Driver, Dave; Chao, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia accident on February 1, 2003 began an unprecedented level of effort within the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community to support the Space Shuttle Program. During the approximately six month time frame of the primary Columbia Accident Investigation Board activity, many technical disciplines were involved in a concerted effort to reconstruct the last moments of the Columbia and her crew, and understand the critical events that led to that loss. Significant contributions to the CAIB activity were made by the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community(REF CAIB) in understanding the re-entry environments that led to the propagation of an ascent foam induced wing leading edge damage to a subsequent breech of the wing spar of Columbia, and the subsequent breakup of the vehicle. A core of the NASA hypersonic aerothermodynamics team that was involved in the CAIB investigation has been combined with the United Space Alliance and Boeing Orbiter engineering team in order to position the Space Shuttle Program with a process to perform in-flight Thermal Protection System damage assessments. This damage assessment process is now part of the baselined plan for Shuttle support, and is a direct out-growth of the Columbia accident and NASAs response. Multiple re-entry aeroheating tools are involved in this damage assessment process, many of which have been developed during the Return To Flight activity. In addition, because these aeroheating tools are part of an overall damage assessment process that also involves the thermal and stress analyses community, in addition to a much broader mission support team, an integrated process for performing the damage assessment activities has been developed by the Space Shuttle Program and the Orbiter engineering community. Several subsets of activity in the Orbiter aeroheating communities support to the Return To Flight effort have been described in previous publications (CFD?, Cavity Heating? Any BLT? Grid Generation?). This work will

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Berthed in Columbia's Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),in its origianl configuration, berthed in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-109 mission silhouetted against the airglow of the Earth's horizon. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    This is Volume Four of a set of six reports produced by NASA and other organizations which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Technical Documents included in this volume are: Appendix F.1 Water Absorption by Foam; Appendix F.2 Follow the TPS; Appendix F.3 MADS Sensor Data; Appendix F.4 ET Cryoinsulation; Appendix F.5 Space Shuttle STS-107 Columbia Accident Investigation, and External Tank Working Group Final Report - Volume 1.

  14. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  15. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  16. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  17. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  18. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  19. 76 FR 36526 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 20, 2011, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), filed an application pursuant to section 7(c..., Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273; telephone...

  20. 75 FR 6371 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application February 2, 2010. Take notice that on January 20, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500..., Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston,...

  1. 75 FR 57012 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application September 9, 2010. Take notice that on August 26, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 1700 MacCorkle Avenue... Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273;...

  2. 78 FR 33399 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 10, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC. (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory..., Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia, 25325-1273,...

  3. 78 FR 33400 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 10, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory..., Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273,...

  4. 77 FR 66825 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 22, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC. (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... application should be directed to Michael Walker, Manager, FERC Certificates, Columbia Gas Transmission,...

  5. 76 FR 28967 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 11, 2011, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas..., Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation, PO Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325 at (304) 357- 2359...

  6. 75 FR 33289 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application June 4, 2010. Take notice that on May 28, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500... should be directed to Fredric J. George, Lead Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation, P.O....

  7. 75 FR 51030 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on August 5, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite... Transmission, L.P. (Texas Eastern), approximately 2 miles of 16-inch pipeline on Columbia's Line 1528...

  8. STS-65 Pilot Halsell cleans window on the aft flight deck of Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the aft flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-65 Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr cleans off overhead window W8. Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz looks on (photo's edge). A plastic toy dinosaur, velcroed in front of W9, also appears to be watching the housekeeping activity. A variety of onboard equipment including procedural checklists, a spotmeter, a handheld microphone, and charts are seen in the view. The two shared over fourteen days in Earth orbit with four other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  9. STS-28 crew egresses Columbia, OV-102, at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 crewmembers are greeted by NASA Associate Administrator for Space Flight William B. Lenoir, NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly, and Flight Operations Directorate (FCOD) Director Donald R. Puddy as they egress Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. The crew spent five days in Earth orbit for a Department of Defense (DOD) dedicated mission. The astronauts, wearing navy blue flight coveralls (jumpsuits) are, from left to right, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown, Pilot Richard N. Richards, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw. Visible in the background are OV-102's wing and tail section and ground servicing vehicles.

  10. STS-28 crew egresses Columbia, OV-102, at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During post landing activity, the five astronaut crewmembers for STS-28 egress Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. The crew spent five days in Earth orbit for a Department of Defense (DOD) dedicated mission. They are greeted by NASA Associate Administrator for Space Flight William B. Lenoir and NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly. The astronauts, wearing navy blue flight coveralls (jumpsuits), are, from bottom of steps to top, Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Mission Specialist (MS) James C. Adamson, MS David C. Leestma, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and MS Mark N. Brown.

  11. On-orbit structural health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    On-orbit structural health monitoring aboard space platforms requires the development of sensor systems for assessing impact damage from particles and debris, the effects of atomic oxygen erosion, and the integrity of power systems, storage tanks, pressure vessels, and major structural elements. The task of implementing such a smart structure diagnostic system during the initial phase of the NASA Space Station Freedom is evaluated, with a view to more complete smart structures implementation in the course of station evolution. The data processing/cataloguing task may ultimately require AI and neural networks.

  12. On-orbit structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.

    1990-12-01

    On-orbit structural health monitoring aboard space platforms requires the development of sensor systems for assessing impact damage from particles and debris, the effects of atomic oxygen erosion, and the integrity of power systems, storage tanks, pressure vessels, and major structural elements. The task of implementing such a smart structure diagnostic system during the initial phase of the NASA Space Station Freedom is evaluated, with a view to more complete smart structures implementation in the course of station evolution. The data processing/cataloguing task may ultimately require AI and neural networks.

  13. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (South Runway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 6:46:34 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt, Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell. This was Columbias 11th landing at KSC and the 38th landing at the space center in the history of the Shuttle program.

  14. Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

  15. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (side view with sunrise)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With its drag chute deployed, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 6:46:34 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt , Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. Mission elapsed time for STS-94 was 15 days,16 hours, 44 seconds. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell. This was Columbias 11th landing at KSC and the 38th landing at the space center in the history of the Shuttle program.

  16. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  17. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (drag chute deployed)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    With its drag chute deployed, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 6:46:34 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt , Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. Mission elapsed time for STS-94 was 15 days,16 hours, 44 seconds. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell. This was Columbias 11th landing at KSC and the 38th landing at the space center in the history of the Shuttle program.

  18. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (drag chute deploy)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 6:46:34 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt, Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell. This was Columbias 11th landing at KSC and the 38th landing at the space center in the history of the Shuttle program.

  19. Orbital cellulitis.

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, D P; Habashi, S; Hinton, A H; Kotecha, B

    1992-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an emergency. It may cause blindness and progress to life-threatening sequelae such as brain abscess, meningitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Successful management is dependent upon urgent referral and immediate treatment. Although isolated eyelid erythema and swelling usually indicate primary infection anterior to the orbital septum, they may also be the first signs of an underlying frontal or ethmoidal sinusitis. The condition always requires emergency referral to both an ophthalmologist and otorhinolaryngologist. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1388488

  20. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  1. First results from the GPS atmospheric remote sensing experiment TOR aboard TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Grunwaldt, L.; Heise, S.; Köhler, W.; Schmidt, T.; Choi, K.-R.; Michalak, G.; König, R.; Rothacher, M.; Wickert, J.

    2009-04-01

    The TerraSAR-X satellite was launched on 15 June 2007 into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of about 514 km and about 98 ° orbit inclination. In addition to synthetic aperture radar and laser communication payloads, TerraSAR-X accommodates the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) experiment. TOR's hardware consists of the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) and a laser retro-reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). IGOR, a dual frequency, geodetic-grade GPS receiver instrument, provides signal-to-noise ratios, pseudorange and carrier phase observations of an occulting and a reference satellite at sampling rates of up to 50 Hz for remote sensing of atmospheric refractivity using the radio occultation (RO) technique. For precise orbit determination pseudorange and carrier phase data from all satellites in view are sampled at 0.1 Hz. Three brief RO tests were conducted with TOR in 2007; a 32-day campaign was performed in January/February 2008 and from 25 July to 17 November 2008 occultation events were recorded continuously for 117 days. We describe first results from an analysis of about 19.000 setting radio occultation events observed during that last campaign. Atmospheric refractivity profiles derived from TOR data are intercompared with ECMWF analyses; ECMWF analysis data are interpolated to the time and location of the RO measurement. At altitudes of about 2-25 km the mean fractional refractivity bias with respect to ECMWF is less than ±0.5%, its standard deviation varies between 0.5% and 1% in the altitude range 5-20 km increasing to about 2% at altitudes below 5 km and above 20 km. Unlike the RO receivers aboard the CHAMP and GRACE satellites the IGOR aboard TerraSAR-X employs an open-loop tracking technique to improve L1 carrier phase tracking at altitudes below 5 to 6 km. Consistent with earlier findings from the COSMIC constellation, open-loop tracking significantly reduces the 50%-altitude, the tangent point altitude which is

  2. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  3. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1986-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Columbia Glacier in Alaska is one of many vanishing around the world. Glacier retreat is one of the most direct and understandable effects of climate change. The consequences of the decline in ...

  4. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, IML-2 Official crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) Official crew portrait shows its seven crewmembers wearing launch and entry suits (LESs). The six NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist take a break from STS-65 training to pose for their portrait. Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, holding mission insignia, MS Leroy Chiao, Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, MS Donald A. Thomas, holding launch and entry helmet (LEH), and Carl E. Walz. Mukai represents the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan.Portrait made by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  5. Analysis of Carbon/Carbon Fragments From the Columbia Tragedy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tallant, David R.; Simpson, Regina L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive investigation following the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia accident of February 1, 2003 determined that hot gases entered the wing through a breach in the protective reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) leading edge. In the current study, the exposed edges of the recovered RCC from the vicinity of the breach are examined with scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron microscopy of the exposed edges revealed regions of pointed carbon fibers, characteristic of exposure to high temperature oxidizing gases. The Raman technique relates the observed 1350 and 1580 to 1600 cm(-1) bands to graphitic dom ains and their corresponding temperatures of formation. Some of the regions showed evidence of exposure temperatures beyond 2700 ?C during the accident.

  6. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (before main gear touchdown)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia glides in for a touchdown on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at approximately 6:46 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt, Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K.Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell.

  7. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    PubMed

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous. PMID:11973852

  8. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  9. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  10. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission...-Satellite Service geostationary-orbit space stations operating in the 10.95-11.2 GHz, 11.45-11.7 GHz,...

  11. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  12. Working aboard the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Reiter, T

    1996-11-01

    For more than ten years, the Mir station has been the World's only permanently manned laboratory in low earth orbit. With an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees, its ground track covers more than 85% of the Earth's surface, where approximately 95% of the population lives. For the transfer of up to three crew members per trip to and from Mir, the 6.9 t Soyuz spacecraft is used. In general, the station's crew is changed every six months, with an overlap during the exchange of between one and two weeks. A Progress spacecraft (an unmanned derivative of the Soyuz vehicle) visits the station every three months to resupply it, with up to 2.1 t of payload, and to reboost it to maintain its nominal orbital altitude. The station's core module, injected into orbit in February 1986, contains the central control post for most onboard systems, the computer for attitude control, and the telemetry and communications system. It also contains the station's largest work space, which is 7.0 m long and varies in width between 1.5 and 2.5 m. PMID:11541437

  13. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  14. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  15. Stellarator Research at Columbia University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F. A.; Caliri, C.; Clark, A. W.; Febre, A.; Hammond, K. C.; Massidda, S. D.; Sweeney, R. M.; Pedersen, T. S.; Sarasola, X.; Spong, D. A.; Kornbluth, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral plasmas were formed and heated by Electron Cyclotron and Electron Bernstein Waves at 2.45 GHz in the Columbia Nonneutral Torus (CNT) and were characterized with Langmuir probe and fast camera measurements. Future research will take advantage of the low aspect ratio (A = 2.3-2.7), high fraction of trapped particles and large vessel of CNT. The first plasma was obtained in a prototype circular coil tokamak-stellarator hybrid (Proto-CIRCUS). As a result of the toroidal-field coils being tilted and interlinked with each other, the device can be operated at lower plasma-current than a tokamak of comparable size and field, with implications for disruptions and steady state. Additionally, the toroidal magnetic ripple is less pronounced. Comparisons between field-line calculations and experimental mapping is expected to confirm the generation of rotational transform and its dependence on the radial location and tilt of the coils, both of which can be varied. Finally we propose a small EC-heated classical stellarator to improve the production-rate and charge-state of ions in EC-resonant ion sources (ECRIS) over the conventional magnetic-mirror design, and discuss how ions would be extracted, for injection in research and medical accelerators.

  16. STS-106 orbiter Atlantis rolls over to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The orbiter Atlantis heads toward the open door of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on the north side. In the VAB it will be lifted to vertical and placed aboard the mobile launcher platform (MLP) for stacking with the solid rocket boosters and external tank. Atlantis is scheduled to launch Sept. 8 on mission STS-106, the fourth construction flight to the International Space Station, with a crew of seven.

  17. Development of on-orbit fluid gaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, Allan

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to measure liquid mass to plus or minus 1 percent in two-phase tanks in orbit. Viewgraphs present information on concept selection, program status and anticipated results. The program aims at test results showing 1 percent accuracy, the development of a breadboard test article usable in the lab or aboard a KC-135, and a concept that will permit flight article design to proceed.

  18. The Reconstruction and Failure Analysis of the Space Shuttle Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Mayeaux, Brian; McDanels, Steven; Piascik, Robert; Sjaj. Samdee[; Jerman, Greg; Collins, Thomas; Woodworth, Warren

    2009-01-01

    Several days following the Columbia accident a team formed and began planning for the reconstruction of Columbia. A hangar at the Kennedy Space Center was selected for this effort due to it's size, available technical workforce and materials science laboratories and access to the vehicle ground processing infrastructure. The Reconstruction team established processes for receiving, handling, decontamination, tracking, identifying, cleaning and assessment of the debris. Initially, a 2-dimensional reconstruction of the Orbiter outer mold line was developed. As the investigation progressed fixtures which allowed a 3-dimensional reconstruction of the forward portions of the left wing's leading edge was developed. To support the reconstructions and forensic analyses a Materials and Processes (M&P) 'team was formed. This M&P team established processes for recording factual observations, debris cleaning, and engineering analysis. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The Team also assessed left hand airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. A major portion of this analysis was evaluation of metallic deposits were prevalent on left wing leading edge components. Extensive evaluation of the visual, metallurgical and chemical nature of the deposits provided conclusions that were consistent with the visual assessments and interpretations of the NASA lead teams and the findings of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Analytical data collected by the M&P Team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH RCC Panels 8-9, and a correlation was formed between the deposits and overheating in these areas to the wing leading edge components. The analysis of deposits also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1649 C

  19. Alterations in erythrocyte survival parameters in rats after 19.5 days aboard Cosmos 782

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Cummins, J.; Landaw, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were subjected to 19.5 days of weightless space flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite, Cosmos 782. Based on the output of CO-14, survival parameters of a cohort of erythrocytes labeled 15.5 days preflight were evaluated upon return from orbit. These were compared to vivarium control rats injected at the same time. Statistical evaluation indicates that all survival factors were altered by the space flight. The mean potential lifespan, which was 63.0 days in the control rats, was decreased to 59.0 days in the flight rats, and random hemolysis was increased three-fold in the flight rats. The measured size of the cohort was decreased, lending further support to the idea that hemolysis was accelerated during some portion of the flight. A number of factors that might be contributory to these changes are discussed, including forces associated with launch and reentry, atmospheric and environmental parameters, dietary factors, radiation, and weightlessness.

  20. Comparison of Properties of Solid Lubricant Between Two Exposure Experiments Aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Suzuki, Mineo; Kimoto, Yugo

    To evaluate the degradation of materials in low Earth orbit space environment, the Space Environment Exposure Device (SEED) experiments were carried out on the International Space Station. As part of these experiments, changes in the tribological properties of a molybdenum disulfide bonded film that is used as a solid lubricant, were evaluated. The results of friction tests in a vacuum and surface analysis by XPS were compared between two exposure experiments aboard the Service Module (SM) and the Japan Experimental Module (JEM). The investigations revealed silicon and fluorine contaminations in the JEM/SEED flight sample, but with a lower amount of silicon contamination than the SM/SEED flight sample. The JEM/SEED flight sample and ground-based tested samples showed lower friction coefficients than a reference sample at the beginning of the tests. The friction behavior of the JEM/SEED flight sample was similar to those of SM/SEED flight samples.

  1. STS-49 onorbit payload bay (PLB) configuration aboard OV-105 taken by ESC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 onorbit payload bay (PLB) configuration aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is documented by the Electronic Still Camera (ESC) as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography Test (With Downlink). Various elements in the PLB foretell of a busy week ahead for OV-105's crew. In the foreground is the hardware for the Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM), which is a demonstration of extravehicular procedures required for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF). Backdropped against the aft firewall is the vertical perigee stage which EVA crewmembers will attach to the International Telcommunications Organization Satellite (INTELSAT) VI F-3 on 05-10-92. Running along the port side sill longern is the stowed remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. Electronic still photography is a new technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approach

  2. Degradation of electro-optic components aboard LDEF. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Re-measurement of the properties of a set of electro-optic components exposed to the low earth orbital environment aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) indicates that most components survived quite well. Typical components showed some effects related to the space environment unless well protected. The effects were often small but significant. Results for semiconductor infrared detectors, lasers, LED's, filter, mirrors, and black paints will be presented. Semiconductor detectors and emitters were scarred but reproduced their original characteristics. Spectral characteristics of multi-layer dielectric filters and mirrors were found to be altered and degraded. Increased absorption in black paints indicates an increase in absorption sites, giving rise to enhanced performance as coatings for baffles and sunscreens. We find plastics and multi-layer dielectric coatings to be potentially unstable. Semiconductor devices, metal, and glass are more likely to be stable.

  3. STS-103 Commander Brown arrives at SLF aboard a T-38 jet for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. is happy to arrive at Kennedy Space Center to begin Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Also participating are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, with the European Space Agency, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, also with the European Space Agency. The mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Discovery.

  4. 77 FR 74781 - Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain Corporation Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones around the Columbia Grain facility on...

  5. British Columbia Social Studies Assessment, Summary Report. A Report to the Ministry of Education, British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ted T.; And Others

    An 18-month project assessed social studies in British Columbia during 1976-77. Part of a general educational assessment program of the British Columbia Ministry of Education, the project was carried out in four major phases. During Phase I, an assessment framework was established which represented viewpoints of teachers, students, and the public…

  6. Surface Tension Demonstration Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Astronaut Donald R. Pettit, Expedition Six NASA ISS science officer, photographed this view of a surface tension demonstration using water that is held in place by a metal loop. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition Six crew was delivered to the station via the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-113 mission which was launched on November 23, 2002.

  7. LEO degradation of graphite and carbon-based composites aboard Space Shuttle Flight STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Blaine R.; Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Devries, M. J.; Woollam, John A.; Moore, Arthur W.; Lake, Max

    1995-01-01

    Six different types of carbon and carbon-boron nitride composites were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-46. The samples received a nominal atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm in 42 hours of exposure. Pyrolytic graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite showed significant degradation, and the measured erosion yield was within a factor of two of published values. The erosion yield of pyrolytic boron nitride was found to be 2.6 x 10(exp 26) cu cm/atom in plasma asher exposure, over 42 times lower than that of pyrolytic graphite. This low erosion yield makes graphite plus boron nitride mixtures quite resistant to low Earth orbit exposure. Evidence suggests that the graphitic component was preferentially etched, leaving the surface boron nitride rich. Degradation resistance increases with boron nitride composition. Carbon fiber/carbon composites degraded in low Earth orbit, and the carbon pitch binder was found to etch more easily than the graphite fibers which have much higher degradation resistance.

  8. STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave inspects orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    His last spaceflight behind him, STS-80 Mission Specialist Story Musgrave takes one last look at the orbiter Columbia on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Musgrave became at age 61 the oldest human being to fly into space and in completing his sixth spaceflight ties astronaut John Young's record for most human spaceflight, while also setting a new record for most Shuttle flights. Columbia touched down at 6:49:05 a.m. EST, Dec. 7, wrapping up Mission STS-80 and the final Shuttle flight of 1996.

  9. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  10. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  11. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  12. Network Signal Processor No. 2 after removal from Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Two USA employees, Tim Seymour (at left) and Danny Brown (at right), look at the network signal processor (NSP) that was responsible for postponement of the launch of STS-90 on Apr. 16. The Space Shuttle Columbia's liftoff from Launch Pad 39B was postponed 24 hours due to difficulty with NSP No. 2 on the orbiter. This device formats data and voice communications between the ground and the Space Shuttle. The unit, which is located in the orbiter's mid-deck, was removed and replaced on Apr. 16. Mission managers first noticed the problem at about 3 a.m. during normal communications systems activation prior to tanking operations. As a result, work to load the external tank with the cryogenic propellants did not begin and launch postponement was made official at about 8:15 a.m. STS-90 is slated to be the launch of Neurolab, a nearly 17-day mission to examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  13. Orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  14. Columbia Bay, Alaska: an 'upside down' estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Josberger, E.G.; Driedger, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Circulation and water properties within Columbia Bay, Alaska, are dominated by the effects of Columbia Glacier at the head of the Bay. The basin between the glacier terminus and the terminal moraine (sill depth of about 22 m) responds as an 'upside down' estuary with the subglacial discharge of freshwater entering at the bottom of the basin. The intense vertical mixing caused by the bouyant plume of freshwater creates a homogeneous water mass that exchanges with the far-field water through either a two- or a three-layer flow. In general, the glacier acts as a large heat sink and creates a water mass which is cooler than that in fjords without tidewater glaciers. The predicted retreat of Columbia Glacier would create a 40 km long fjord that has characteristics in common with other fjords in Prince William Sound. ?? 1988.

  15. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Three

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchhoff, C. M.; Reingold, L. A.; Reid, J. A.; Goodman, P. A.; White, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board's (CAIB) independent investigation into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia produced a six volume report. This is Volume III of the report. Volume III contains other technical documents produced by NASA and other organizations, which were provided to the CAIB in support of its inquiry into the tragedy. Technical documents included in the report are: Appendix E.1 CoFR Endorsements; Appendix E.2 STS-107 Image Analysis Team Final Report; Appendix E.3 An Assessment of Potential Material Candidates for the 'Flight Day 2', Radar Object Observed during the NASA Mission STS-107; Appendix E.4 Columbia Early Sighting Assessment Team Final Report.

  16. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  17. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  18. Flexible Metallic Overwrap Concept Developed for On-Orbit Repair of Space Shuttle Orbiter Leading Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzert, Frank J.; Nesbitt, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia accident has focused attention on the critical need for on-orbit repair concepts for leading edges in the event that damage is incurred during space shuttle orbiter flight. Damage that is considered as potentially catastrophic for orbiter leading edges ranges from simple cracks to holes as large as 16 in. in diameter. NASA is particularly interested in examining potential solutions for areas of larger damage since such a problem was identified as the cause for the Columbia disaster. One possible idea for the on-orbit repair of the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) leading edges is an overwrap concept that would use a metallic sheet flexible enough to conform to the contours of the orbiter and robust enough to protect any problem area from catastrophic failure during reentry. The simplified view of the application of a refractory metal sheet over a mockup of shuttle orbiter panel 9, which experiences the highest temperatures on the shuttle during reentry is shown. The metallic overwrap concept is attractive because of its versatility as well as the ease with which it can be included in an onboard repair kit. Reentry of the orbiter into Earth's atmosphere imposes extreme requirements on repair materials. Temperatures can exceed 1650 C for up to 15 min in the presence of an extremely oxidizing plasma environment. Several other factors are critical, including catalysity, emissivity, and vibrational and aerodynamic loads. Materials chosen for this application will need to be evaluated with respect to high-temperature capability, resistance to oxidation, strength, coefficient of thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. The temperature profile across panel 9 during reentry as well as a schematic of the overwrap concept itself is shown.

  19. 78 FR 20315 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500... the application should be directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas...

  20. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  1. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mars Climate Orbiter is free of the protective canister that surrounded it during the move to the pad. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  2. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers remove the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  3. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers place aside a piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  4. The Mars Climate Orbiter at Launch Complex 17A, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Complex 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, workers get ready to remove the last piece of the canister surrounding the Mars Climate Orbiter. Targeted for liftoff on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II (7425) rocket, the orbiter will be the first spacecraft to be launched in the pair of Mars '98 missions. After its arrival at the red planet, the Mars Climate Orbiter will be used primarily to support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, scheduled for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. The orbiter will then monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year, the equivalent of about two Earth years. The spacecraft will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, and characterize seasonal changes on the planet's surface.

  5. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  6. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, soars into the sky after KSC liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, soars into a cloudy sky after liftoff from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A at 12:12:23:0534 pm (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). A low-angle perspective captures OV-102 after it has cleared the launch tower and looks up the long trail of exhaust smoke pouring out the skirt of the left solid rocket booster (SRB) to the top of the external tank (ET). The three space shuttle main engines are visible as is the diamond shock effect produced at the SSME nozzles. This is the beginning of OV-102's scheduled record 13-day mission in Earth orbit. OV-102 is NASA's first extended duration orbiter (EDO).

  7. TYPICAL VIEW OF THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TYPICAL VIEW OF THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN COLUMBIA SOUTHERN DIVISION STRUCTURE AND THE TUMALO FEED CANAL INTERSECTION. LOOKING NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  8. VIEW OF COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL (UPSTREAM) AND THE WEST BRANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL (UPSTREAM) AND THE WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL DIVERSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  9. VIEW OF BEGINNING (UPSTREAM) OF THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL'S "BIG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BEGINNING (UPSTREAM) OF THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL'S "BIG CUT" BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE AND THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN DIVERSION STRUCTURE. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  10. View of elevator tower, Block 31, looking north. Columbia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of elevator tower, Block 31, looking north. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  11. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), participate in exercises in the JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT). Four crewmembers are pictured in the stations they will man for the launch and entry phases of the mission. They are joined by the fifth crewmember, 'borrowed' for a moment from the middeck. At forward controls are Pilot Richard N. Richards (left) and Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr. Behind them are Mission Specialist (MS) James C. Adamson (left) and MS David C. Leestma. MS Mark N. Brown stands at aft station. Brown will occupy Columbia's middeck for launch and entry phase of the flight. CCT is located in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Photo was taken by Bill Bowers of JSC.

  12. 76 FR 60853 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. OMB Number: 1651-0058. Form Number: None. Abstract:...

  13. Orbital Winch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert (Inventor); Slostad, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Frank, Scott (Inventor); Barnes, Ian M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Orbital winch having: lower and upper frames; spool having upper and lower flanges with lower flange attached to lower frame; axial tether guide mounted to upper frame; secondary slewing ring coaxial with spool and rotatably mounted to upper frame, wherein secondary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; upper tether guide mounted to inner surface of secondary slewing ring; linear translation means having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted on lower frame; primary slewing ring rotatably mounted within linear translation means allowing translation axially between flanges, wherein primary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; lower tether guide mounted on primary slewing ring's inner surface; pinion rod having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted to lower frame, wherein pinion rod's teeth engage primary and secondary slewing rings' outer surface teeth; and tether passing through axial, upper, and lower tether guides and winding around spool.

  14. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1308 Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  15. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River at Portland, Oreg... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128 Columbia River at Portland, Oreg. The waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1308 Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  17. 78 FR 23487 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation... Transportation has requested that the I-5 Bridges across the Columbia River remain closed to vessel traffic...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1308 Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  19. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  20. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  1. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  2. View from west side of Columbia River (at transformer spread ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west side of Columbia River (at transformer spread yard from No. 3 Powerhouse), looking east to downstream face of Grand Coulee Dam. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  3. 77 FR 33307 - Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA... enforce the Special Local Regulation for the Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races from Tuesday, July 24th... involved in the Annual Kennewick, Washington, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races (Water Follies)....

  4. 75 FR 33296 - Columbia Gulf Transmission Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gulf Transmission Company; Notice of Filing June 2, 2010. Take notice that on May 20, 2010, Columbia Gulf Transmission Company (Columbia Gulf), 5151 San Felipe, Suite... operate minor facilities required to isolate a portion of its existing transmission system to...

  5. 78 FR 69845 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 1700 MacCorkle Avenue SE., Charleston, West... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273 or at (304) 357-2359...

  6. 78 FR 25068 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 5, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas... 12.6 miles of 8-inch diameter looping pipeline connected to its existing transmission system...

  7. 78 FR 15293 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is...: BNSF has requested that the BNSF Swing Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, remain closed...

  8. 77 FR 38004 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation... Columbia River remain closed to vessel traffic to facilitate heavier than normal roadway traffic...

  9. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  10. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  11. Description of the TC 125 aboard the Mercury simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two distinct phases of the TC.125 aboard the Mercury Simulator were described to pilots at a meeting in 1979. A three hour "hand on" phase, during which the pilot learns to use the system, and second; a two hour evaluation phase, during which the pilot analyzes the TC.125 and pratices making typical approaches are presented.

  12. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. 1240.90 Section 1240.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use...

  13. Basic Sciences Instruction, The Columbia University Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formicola, Allan J.; Kahn, Norman

    1992-01-01

    The redesign of basic science curriculum at the Columbia University (New York) dental school is outlined. Goals included development of a medical continuum allowing students to apply basic science to patient care; decompression of crowded second-year content; and facilitation of student pursuit of research and other biomedical interests in third…

  14. Columbia Basin College Facts & Impacts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This fact book for Columbia Basin College (CBC) (Washington) offers statistics on staff and faculty, students, degrees awarded, hot programs, enrollment; student services, financial aid, economic impact, educational partnerships, and governance. CBC serves more than 13,000 students annually and offers associate degrees in arts, science, and…

  15. Organic carbon transport in the Columbia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, Stanley V.; Kilho Park, P.

    1981-12-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) levels in the Columbia River measured monthly from May 1973 to December 1974 ranged from a maximum of 270 μmol l -1 during late spring and early summer to a minimum of 150 μmol l -1 during late autumn. Sampling locations were directly behind the spillway at the Bonneville Dam, 230 km upstream, and at Kalama, Washington, 128km upstream from the river mouth. The average annual TOC contribution from the Columbia River drainage to the north-eastern Pacific is 4·9×10 10 mol with an average concentration of approximately 195μmol l -1. Of this TOC annual export, 89% is dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 11% is particulate organic carbon (OOC). The TOC and DOC levels were most highly correlated with increased oxygen saturation and dischange, while POC correlated more closely to high instream primary productivy as indicated by higher pH and oxygen supersaturation. Variability of DOC in the main channel of the Columbia River from Portland, Oregon, to the estuary during a June 1974 cruise was minimal. The DOC concentrations ranged from 221-260 μmol l -1 with no significant upstream or downstream gradients. Diel variation also was slight, varying randomly during 24h between 235-257 μmol l -1. The relative annual constancy of the DOC is indicative of the refractory nature of a significant proportion of the dissolved organic load of the Columbia River.

  16. INTERIOR COLUMBIA BASIN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PROJECT (ICBEMP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A geographic information system (GIS) spatial data library is maintained through the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management, the library contains more than 200 products which include the following types of data: aquatic, a...

  17. Columbia Star’ thornless trailing blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Star’ is a new thornless, trailing blackberry (Rubus subg. Rubus Watson) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with the Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ...

  18. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  19. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  20. Columbia Basin College Assessment Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This resource guide was published as part of the college-wide assessment and evaluation activities at Columbia Basin College (Washington) in 1997. The purpose in producing the document was to meet the need for some guidelines and written information about how to develop an assessment plan, the different ways to assess that plan, and how to use the…

  1. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  2. Columbia's Grand Narrative of Contemporary Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee; Hartnett, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Lyotard's view of the narrative as a story through which meanings are legitimated. Reviews the development of the core curriculum of New York's Columbia College, arguing that it represents a "grand narrative" of the college. Discusses the effect of this narrative on students and faculty. (26 citations) (AJL)

  3. Columbia Gorge Community College Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jonathon V.

    This is a report on a business survey conducted by Columbia Gorge Community College (CGCC) (Oregon) to review the success and quality of the college's degree and certificate programs in business administration, computer application systems, and computer information systems. The community college surveyed 104 local businesses to verify the…

  4. Survival of pathogenic bacteria under nutrient starvation conditions. [aboard orbiting space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Michael; Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph; Maki, James

    1990-01-01

    The survival of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms in water, under nutrient-limiting conditions, has been investigated in order to ascertain whether human pathogens can survive within a water-distribution system of the kind proposed for the NASA Space Station. Cultures of a strain of pseudomonas aeruginosa and two strains of staphylococcus aureus were incubated at 10, 25, or 37 C, and samples at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and six weeks. While neither of the staphylococcus strains tested were detected after 1 week of starvation, the pseudomonas strain can survive in deionized water at all three temperatures.

  5. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... licensing of two-way in-flight broadband services, including Internet access, to passengers and flight crews... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in IB Docket No. 05-20 (Order) (70 FR 20508-01), recognizing the emergence..., DC 20554. The document is also available for download over the Internet at...

  6. Performance of novel polymer shields aboard the ESA Biopan-5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Radiation exposure of astronaut crew has been identified as a key issue in human spaceflight The reduction of dose by appropriate shielding measures is thus donated an essential role for the future development of space exploration particularly with regard to long-term interplanetary missions Optimization of shielding strategies and design may involve polymeric materials with enhanced hydrogen content specifically developed to attenuate high charge-and-energy HZE particles such as those encountered in galactic cosmic rays GCR The projectile energy loss is proportional to rho cdot Z A and reaches a maximum for hydrogen targets Light elements are also expected to minimize target fragmentation particularly the production of secondary neutrons The LETVAR experiment flow aboard the European Space Agency ESA Biopan-5 mission as part of a 27 kg payload attached to the external surface of the Foton-M2 descent capsule was dedicated to studying the shielding performance of three different polymers in reference to aluminium when exposed to the unshielded space environment in low-earth orbit LEO The mission was launched successfully on May 31 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan and spent 15 6 days at an orbital altitude between 262 and 304 km inclined by 63 r to the equatorial plane After recovery absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer LET were determined in front and behind the material slabs To support data interpretation material samples equivalent to those flown in space were exposed---to the extent possible

  7. 78 FR 28743 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone Columbia River Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone from May 2013 until October 2013....

  8. Modeling of atmospherically induced gas phase optical contamination from orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgin, J. B.; Cooke, D. C.; Tautz, M. F.; Murad, Edmond

    1990-08-01

    We present in this paper results of a predictive code (SOCRATES: spacecraft/orbiter contamination representation accounting for transiently emitted species) which has been developed to assess the effects of contamination on measurements aboard spacecraft in low Earth orbit. SOCRATES is a Monte Carlo code which includes in its present version scattering, collisions leading to kinetic-to-vibrational energy transfer, and reactive collisions. The application of this code to actual measurements aboard spacecraft in low Earth orbit makes it possible to evaluate data obtained on these platforms with a view toward extracting the data of interest from contaminated signals. Molecules considered in the present study include CO2, H2O, OH, H2, and CO.

  9. Petroleum potential of central Columbia basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lingley, W.S. Jr.; Walsh, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Ten deep wildcat wells have been drilled in the 75,000 mi/sup 2/ Columbia basin. These wells penetrated Miocene Columbia River Basalt up to 11,000 ft thick and Paleogene nonmarine siltstones, claystones, shales, coals, sandstones, and volcanogenic rocks exceeding 11,000 ft in aggregate thickness. Lithic and arkosic sandstones range from several inches to more than 60 ft in thickness, average 26 ft thick, and are variedly argillaceous. Mean log-derived sandstone porosity ranges from 18% at 6000 ft to 8% at 14,000 ft drilled-depth. Mean vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.4 to 1.3 within the siliciclastic section. Numerous wet-gas shows were logged in three wells including a 3.1 MMCFGD flow on a 10/64-in. choke with 3,965 psi FTP recorded during a test of Shell's 1-9 Burlington Northern. The Rattlesnake Hills gas field in the south-central Columbia basin produced 1.3 bcf of methane from Columbia River Basalt before depletion in 1941. The east-central basin comprises a plain and the west-central basin includes the hilly Yakima foldbelt where topography mimics structure. The foldbelt includes several northwest and southwest-trending anticlines, most of which are asymmetric, verge to the north, range from 3 to 6 mi across strike, and are longer than 60 mi along trend. These anticlines have numerous faulted surface culminations. Assuming the Paleogene section is conformable with surficial structure, the estimated range of possible in-place gas under these culminations is 40 bcf to 1 tcf. Most of these culminations have not been tested. The potential of the east-central Columbia basin remains unknown.

  10. The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia middeck during STS-32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.; Thomas, Donald A.; Schoess, Jeff N.

    1991-01-01

    Four hours of three-axis microgravity accelerometer data were successfully measured at the MA9F locker location in the Orbiter middeck of Columbia as part of the Microgravity Disturbances Experiment (MDE) on STS-32. These data were measured using the Honeywell In-Space Accelerometer, a small three-axis accelerometer that was hard-mounted onto the Fluid Experiment Apparatus to record the microgravity environment at the exact location of the MDE. Data were recorded during specific mission events such as Orbiter quiescent periods, crew exercise on the treadmill, and numerous Orbiter engine burns. Orbiter background levels were measured to be in the 3 x 10(exp -5) to 2 x 10(exp -4) G range, treadmill operations in the 6 x 10(exp -4) to 5 x 10(exp -3) G range, and Orbiter engine burns from 4 x 10(exp -3) to in excess of 1 x 10(exp -2) G. These data represent some of the first microgravity accelerometer data ever recorded in the middeck area of the Orbiter.

  11. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  12. Wiring inspections and repairs continue on the Space Shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A short during liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia in July was traced to a wire in the payload bay with damaged insulation. As a result of that problem, NASA decided to inspect much of the wiring in all four Space Shuttles and make repairs as required. Here a technician is examining the wires onboard orbiter Endeavour. The next Shuttle mission, STS-103, the Third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission, is currently scheduled for launch no earlier than Nov. 19, 1999.

  13. Wiring inspections and repairs continue on the Space Shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A short during liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia in July was traced to a wire in the payload bay with damaged insulation. As a result of that problem, NASA decided to inspect much of the wiring in all four Space Shuttles and make repairs as required. Here a technician is protecting the wires onboard orbiter Discovery. The next Shuttle mission, STS-103, the Third Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission, is currently scheduled for launch no earlier than Nov. 19, 1999.

  14. STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, its external tank (ET), and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) rise above the mobile launcher platform and begin to clear fixed service structure (FSS) tower (with rotating service structure (RSS) retracted) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Liftoff occurred at 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) some 24 hours after dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS) had cancelled a scheduled launch. An exhaust cloud covers the launch pad. The firing SRBs and space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) are reflected in a nearby waterway. OV-102's launch is highlighted against the early morning darkness.

  15. Air-to-air view of STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff and SRB separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Air-to-air view of STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows solid rocket booster (SRB) separation. Leaving from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A at 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST), OV-102 is backdropped against relatively clear Florida skies some 24 hours after dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS) had cancelled a scheduled launch. An exhaust plume trails behind OV-102. The photo was taken by astronaut Michael L. Coats, acting chief of the Astronaut Office, from the shuttle trainer aircraft (STA).

  16. STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) rises above the mobile launcher platform and is nearly clear of the fixed service structure (FSS) tower at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Plumes of smoke billow from the SRBs and cover the launch pad in a cloud. Liftoff occurred at 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) some 24 hours after dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS) had cancelled a scheduled launch. OV-102's launch is highlighted against the early morning darkness.

  17. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, with drag chute deployed lands at KSC SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, its drag chute fully deployed, completes a record duration mission as it lands on Runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A helicopter flying overhead observes as OV-102's nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) roll along the runway. Landing occurred at 6:38 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). STS-65 mission duration was 14 days 17 hours and 56 minutes. Onboard were six NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist who conducted experiments in support of the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) during the mission.

  18. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, crew during JSC launch emergency egress exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Bonnie J. Dunbar (partially visible at left center) and MS Ellen S. Baker, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEHs), participate in launch emergency egress exercises at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Seated in their ascent seating positions on the aft flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT), a shuttle mockup, Dunbar and Baker listen commands coming from the forward flight deck.

  19. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, Commander Richards and Pilot Bowersox at KSC SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Commander Richard N. Richards (right) and Pilot Kenneth D. Bowersox, standing on runway 33, shake hands in front of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, after a successful landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Landing occurred at 7:42 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)) ending the 14-day record-setting mission in support of the United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1). In the background ground servicing crews and vehicles safe OV-102 and examine thermal protection system (TPS) tiles.

  20. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. Training personnel adjust Richards' and Shaw's LESs. In the background are additional personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  1. STS-35 Columbia, OV-102, crew eats preflight breakfast at KSC O and C Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 crewmembers eat preflight breakfast at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building before boarding Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Sitting around table (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) Robert A.R. Parker, Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, Commander Vance D. Brand, Payload Specialist Sameul T. Durrance, MS Jeffrey A. Hoffman, and MS John M. Lounge. A cake decorated with the STS-35 mission insignia and silk flowers arranged in a shuttle model's payload bay (PLB) are in the center of the table.

  2. STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, crew eats preflight breakfast at KSC O and C Bldg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 crewmembers eat preflight breakfast at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building before boarding Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Sitting around table (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) Marsha S. Ivins, MS Bonnie J. Dunbar, Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, Pilot James D. Wetherbee, and MS G. David Low. A cake decorated with the STS-32 mission insignia is in the center of the table. Crewmembers are wearing red, white, and blue mission polo shirts and have displayed their sunglasses with neckbands on the table in front of them.

  3. STS-83 Columbia Rollout to PAD-39A (fish eye view in VAB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia begins its rollout from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to Launch Pad 39A in preparation for the STS-83 mission. The Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) Spacelab module is the primary payload on this 16-day space flight. The MSL-1 will be used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the seven-member flight crew conducts combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments.

  4. STS-55 Columbia, OV-102, crew poses for onboard portrait in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) portrait in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module. Front (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. In the rear (left to right) are MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  5. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. PMID:11863032

  7. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A. ); Frest, T.J. )

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  8. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  9. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  10. Detection, identification, and classification of mosquito larval habitats using remote sensing scanners in earth-orbiting satellites.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R O; Maxwell, E L; Mitchell, C J; Woodzick, T L

    1985-01-01

    A method of identifying mosquito larval habitats associated with fresh-water plant communities, wetlands, and other aquatic locations at Lewis and Clark Lake in the states of Nebraska and South Dakota, USA, using remote sensing imagery obtained by multispectral scanners aboard earth-orbiting satellites (Landsat 1 and 2) is described. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. PMID:2861917

  11. Detection, identification, and classification of mosquito larval habitats using remote sensing scanners in earth-orbiting satellites*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard O.; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Woodzick, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A method of identifying mosquito larval habitats associated with fresh-water plant communities, wetlands, and other aquatic locations at Lewis and Clark Lake in the states of Nebraska and South Dakota, USA, using remote sensing imagery obtained by multispectral scanners aboard earth-orbiting satellites (Landsat 1 and 2) is described. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. PMID:2861917

  12. Full-Waveform Inversion Method for Data Measured by the CONSERT Instrument aboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statz, C.; Plettemeier, D.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    The primary scientific objective of the Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) aboard Rosetta is to perform a dielectric characterization of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko's nucleus by means of a bi-static sounding between the lander Philae launched onto the comet's surface and the orbiter Rosetta. For the sounding the lander part of CONSERT will receive and process the radio signal emitted by the orbiter part of the instrument and transmit a signal to the orbiter to be received by CONSERT. With data measured during the first science phase, a three-dimensional model of the material distribution with regard to the complex dielectric permittivity of the comet's nucleus is to be reconstructed. In order to perform the 3D characterization of the nucleus we employ a full-waveform least-squares based inversion in time-domain. The reconstruction is performed on the envelope of the received signal. The direct problem of simulating the wave-propagation inside the comet's nucleus is modelled using a wideband nonstandard finite-differences in time-domain approach and a compensation method to account for the differences in free-space path-loss due to the removal of the carrier in the simulation. This approach will yield an approximation of the permittivity distribution including features large compared to the bandwith of the sounding signal. In order to account for restrictions on the measurement positions by the orbitography and limitations on the instrument dynamic range we employ a regularization technique where the permittivity distribution and the gradient with regard to the permittivity is projected in a domain defined by a viable model of the spatial material distribution. The least-squares optimization step of the reconstruction is performed in such domain on a reduced set of parameters. To demonstrate the viability of the proposed approaches we provide reconstruction results based on simulation data and scale-model laboratory

  13. Experimental Aerothermodynamics In Support Of The Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The technical foundation for the most probable damage scenario reported in the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's final report was largely derived from synergistic aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic wind tunnel measurements and inviscid predictions made at NASA Langley Research Center and later corroborated with engineering analysis, high fidelity numerical viscous simulations, and foam impact testing near the close of the investigation. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley and illustrates how the ground-based heating measurements provided early insight that guided the direction and utilization of agency resources in support of the investigation. Global surface heat transfer mappings, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.0075 scale models of the Orbiter configuration with and without postulated damage to the thermal protection system. Test parametrics include angle of attack from 38 to 42 degs, sideslip angles of 38 to 42 degs, sideslip angles of plus or minus 1 deg, Reynolds numbers based upon model length from 0.05 x 10(exp 6) to 6.5 x 10(exp 6), and normal shock density ratios of 5 (Mach 6 Air) and 12 (Mach 6 CF4). The primary objective of the testing was to provide surface heating characteristics on scaled Orbiter models with outer mold line perturbations to simulate various forms of localized surface damage to the thermal protection system. Initial experimental testing conducted within two weeks of the accident simulated a broad spectrum of thermal protection system damage to the Orbiter windward surface and was used to refute several hypothesized forms of thermal protection system damage, which included gouges in the windward thermal protection system tiles, breaches through the wing new the main landing gear door, and protuberances along the wing leading edge that produced asymmetric boundary layer transition. As the forensic phase of the investigation

  14. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    In the course of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted a series of public hearings at Houston, Texas; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Washington, DC. Testimony from these hearings was recorded and then transcribed. This appendix, Volume VI of the Report, is a compilation of those transcripts. Contents: Transcripts of Board Public Hearings; Appendix H.1 March 6, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.2 March 17, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.3 March 18, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H. 4 March 25, 2003 Cape Canaveral, Florida; Appendix H.5 March 26, 2003 Cape Canaveral, Florida; Appendix H.6 April 7, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.7 April 8, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.8 April 23, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.9 May 6, 2003 Houston, Texas; Appendix H.10 June 12, 2003 Washington, DC.

  15. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  16. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Donald J. (Editor); Goodman, Patrick A. (Editor); Reingold, Lester A. (Editor); Kirchhoff, Christopher M. (Editor); Simon, Ariel H. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results of an investigative analysis performed by the Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate at th the specific request of the Defense Columbia Investigation Support Team (DCIST) who was supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB). The work was performed during the period February 20, 2003 through 20 July 2003. An interim release of measurement findings was provided the CAIB on 24 April 2003, and the information was released in public testimony to the CAIB on May 6, 2003 at the Hilton Hotel, Houston, Texas. The overall assessment and conclusions of this report are consistent with the CAIB 6 May 2003 testimony, with one notable exception discussed in Section VI. This report has been reviewed by the AFRL/SN Flight Day Two DCIST appointed assessment team, and is hereby released to the CAIB and DCIST for final disposition.

  17. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  18. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Coast and river mouths, Columbia, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Numerous rivers in Ecuador and Columbia stand out in this South American Pacific coastal scene (1.5N, 79.0W). This region has one of the highest rainfalls in the world with the consequent heavy cloud cover and it is rare to be able to photograph the surface. The Pacific mountain drainage area is small but produces a large volume of runoff and sediment flow into the ocean.

  20. American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  1. Artist concept of STS-34 SSBUV in orbit calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Artist concept titled SSBUV IN ORBIT CALIBRATION shows how the shuttle solar backscatter ultraviolet (UV) (SSBUV) instrument will calibrate ozone measuring space-based instruments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) TIROS satellites NOAA-9 and NOAA-11. During STS-34, SSBUV instruments mounted in get away special (GAS) canisters in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay will use the Space Shuttle's orbital flight path to assess instrument performance by directly comparing data from identical instruments aboard the TIROS satellite, as OV-104 and the satellite pass over the same Earth location within a one-hour window. SSBUV is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Alternate number on image is E66.001.

  2. Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Improved Waste Collection System (IWCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This high angle overall view shows the top side components of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Waste Collection System (WCS) scheduled to fly aboard NASA's Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, for the STS-54 mission. Detailed Test Objective 662, Extended duration orbiter WCS evaluation, will verify the design of the new EDO WCS under microgravity conditions for a prolonged period. OV-105 has been modified with additional structures in the waste management compartment (WMC) and additional avionics to support/restrain the EDO WCS. Among the advantages the new IWCS is hoped to have over the currect WCS are greater dependability, better hygiene, virtually unlimited capacity, and more efficient preparation between shuttle missions. Unlike the previous WCS, the improved version will not have to be removed from the spacecraft to be readied for the next flight. The WCS was documented in JSC's Crew Systems Laboratory Bldg 7.

  3. Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Improved Waste Collection System (IWCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This overall front view shows the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Waste Collection System (WCS) scheduled to fly aboard NASA's Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, for the STS-54 mission. Detailed Test Objective 662, Extended duration orbiter WCS evaluation, will verify the design of the new EDO WCS under microgravity conditions for a prolonged period. OV-105 has been modified with additional structures in the waste management compartment (WMC) and additional avionics to support/restrain the EDO WCS. Among the advantages the new IWCS is hoped to have over the currect WCS are greater dependability, better hygiene, virtually unlimited capacity, and more efficient preparation between shuttle missions. Unlike the previous WCS, the improved version will not have to be removed from the spacecraft to be readied for the next flight. The WCS was documented in JSC's Crew Systems Laboratory Bldg 7.

  4. The Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously-altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands, and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks, and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  5. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  6. Probabilistic Structural Health Monitoring of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yap, Keng C.; Macias, Jesus; Kaouk, Mohamed; Gafka, Tammy L.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2011-01-01

    A structural health monitoring (SHM) system can contribute to the risk management of a structure operating under hazardous conditions. An example is the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) that monitors the debris hazards to the Space Shuttle Orbiter s Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. Since Return-to-Flight (RTF) after the Columbia accident, WLEIDS was developed and subsequently deployed on board the Orbiter to detect ascent and on-orbit debris impacts, so as to support the assessment of wing leading edge structural integrity prior to Orbiter re-entry. As SHM is inherently an inverse problem, the analyses involved, including those performed for WLEIDS, tend to be associated with significant uncertainty. The use of probabilistic approaches to handle the uncertainty has resulted in the successful implementation of many development and application milestones.

  7. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  8. Space Shuttle Columbia Post-Accident Analysis and Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its crew was tragic, the circumstances offered a unique opportunity to examine a multitude of components which had experienced one of the harshest environments ever encountered by engineered materials: a break up at a velocity in excess of Mach 18 and an altitude exceeding 200,000 feet (63 KM), resulting in a debris field 645 miles/l,038 KM long and 10 miles/16 KM wide. Various analytical tools were employed to ascertain the sequence of events leading to the disintegration of the Orbiter and to characterize the features of the debris. The testing and analyses all indicated that a breach in a left wing reinforced carbon/carbon composite leading edge panel was the access point for hot gasses generated during re-entry to penetrate the structure of the vehicle and compromise the integrity of the materials and components in that area of the Shuttle. The analytical and elemental testing utilized such techniques as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) dot mapping, Electron Micro Probe Analysis (EMPA), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the deposition of intermetallics adjacent to the suspected location of the plasma breach in the leading edge of the left wing, Fig. 1.

  9. Crewmen of the Gemini 7 spacecraft arrive aboard aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., (left), pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, are shown just after they arrived aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Greeting the astronauts are Donald Stullken (at Lovell's right), Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division; Dr. Howard Minners (standing beside Borman), Flight Medicine Branch, Cneter Medical Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, and Bennett James (standing behind Borman), a NASA Public Affairs Officer.

  10. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L.-J. Sally

    2008-01-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Concentrations aboard school buses (21 μg/m3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 μg/m3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics. PMID:18985175

  11. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  12. Study of balloon and thermal control material degradation aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Rock, Neil I.; Williams, Kevin D.; Strganac, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The initial results of analysis performed on a number of polymeric materials which were exposed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. These materials include two typical high altitude balloon films (a polyester and a polyethylene) and silver-backed Teflon from thermal control blanket samples. The techniques used for characterizing changes in mechanical properties, chemical structure and surface morphology include Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  13. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  14. EPOP: The Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedly, V. J.; Ruyten, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a one-year feasibility study for an Electric Propulsion Orbital Platform (EPOP), whose primary objective is to provide an instrumented platform for testing electric propulsion devices in space. The first flight, EPOP-1, is planned aboard the Shuttle-deployed Wake Shield Facility in March 1995, and will be designed around a commercial 1.8 kW, 0.5 hydrazine arcjet system. Specific subsystems are described, namely the arcjet and the power conditioning unit, the propellant and power systems, and Wake Shield Facility. Also, system engineering and integration issues are discussed. In an accompanying paper, the diagnostics and data acquisition and control systems are described in more detail.

  15. Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith A.; Quaid, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) was designed at Motorola's Strategic Electronics Division in Chandler, Arizona, to be a key subsystem aboard NASA's Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The unmanned OMV, which was under development at TRW's Federal Systems Division in Redondo Beach, California, was designed to supplement the Shuttle's satellite delivery, retrieval, and maneuvering activities. The RRS was to be used to locate and then provide the OMV with vectoring information to the target satellite (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum fuel consumption approach and rendezvous. The OMV development program was halted by NASA in 1990 just as parts were being ordered for the RRS engineering model. The paper presented describes the RRS design and then discusses new technologies, either under development or planned for development at Motorola, that can be applied to radar or alternative sensor solutions for the Automated Rendezvous and Capture problem.

  16. Orbital surveys of solar stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemphill, W. R.; Theisen, A. F.; Tyson, R. M.; Granata, J. S.

    The Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) is an electro-optical device for imaging natural and manmade materials which have been stimulated to luminesce by the sun. An airborne FLD has been used to detect geochemically stressed vegetation, drought-stressed agricultural crops, industrial and residential pollution effluents, marine oil seeps, phosphate rock, uranium-bearing sandstone, and bioluminescent ocean plankton. Three-dimensional perspective plots of excitation and emission spectra, measured with a laboratory spectrometer, graphically depict similarities and differences in luminescence properties between sample materials. The laboratory data also include luminescence intensities at six Fraunhofer lines in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Both the airborne and laboratory data suggest the feasibility of delineating and monitoring at least some of these luminescing materials from orbital altitude, such as a test flight aboard the Space Shuttle using an improved third-generation FLD.

  17. Air-to-air view of STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, pierces a layer of low lying clouds as it makes its ascent to Earth orbit for a 10-day mission. In this air-to-air view, OV-102 rides atop the external tank (ET) with flames created by solid rocket boosters (SRBs) appearing directly underneath it and a long plume of exhaust smoke trailing behind it and extending to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A below. OV-102 left KSC LC Pad 39A at 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) some 24 hours after dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS) had cancelled a scheduled launch. The photo was taken by astronaut Michael L. Coats, acting chief of the Astronaut Office, from the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA).

  18. STS-65 Columbia, OV-102, lifts off from KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, atop its external tank (ET) rises above the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A after liftoff at 12:43 pm Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). OV-102 starboard side and one of the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are visible in this launch view. The retracted rotating service structure (RSS) is nearly covered in the shuttle's exhaust at the left as OV-102 clears the fixed service structure (FSS) tower. The space shuttle main engines produce a diamond shock effect. Once in orbit, STS-65's six NASA astronauts and a Japanese Payload Specialist will begin two weeks of experimentation in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission.

  19. Columbia, OV-102, forward middeck locker experiments and meal tray assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Overall view of forward middeck locker shows Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) experiment control and monitoring module and sample storage module (on port side) and Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) (on starboard side). Water Dispenser Kit water gun (above CFES module) and meal tray assemblies covered with snack food packages and beverage containers appear around the two experiments. Thanks to a variety of juices and other food items, this array in the middeck probably represents the most colorful area onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Most of the meal items have been carefully fastened to meal tray assemblies (foodtrays) and locker doors (or both). What has not been attached by conventional methods has been safely 'tucked' under something heavy (note jacket shoved into space occupied MLR). MLR is making its second flight and is designed to test the flexibility of making large-size, monodisperse (same size), polystyrene latex micro-spheres using

  20. STS-35 Columbia, OV-102, rolls back to KSC VAB after hydrogen leak discovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Riding a column of light, Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, its external tank (ET), and solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with a pastel dawn at their back, roll back to the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). This unusual photograph was created by using a zoom technique that captured both actual and reflected light. OV-102, moving east to west, was on the move from KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A as the sun crested over the seashore's horizon. Following the rollback, OV-102 was demated from the ET and SRBs. OV-102 was placed in KSC's Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) while engineers investigated the cause of a hydrogen leak that stopped the STS-35 launch countdown during tanking 05-29-90.

  1. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, landing with drag chute deploy at KSC SLF runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, completes its landing sequence on runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). At this point in OV-102's landing, the main landing gear (MLG) and nose landing gear (NLG) ride along the runway surface with the drag chute deployed and at full inflation behind the vehicle. This head-on view looks directly at the crew compartment, includes the full wing span, and shows the vertical tail with deployed rudder/speedbrake system and drag chute. Runway lights appear in the foreground and a flock of birds is barely visible in the distant background. This landing at 7:42 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) included Development Test Objective (DTO) 521, Orbiter drag chute system. It marked the first time for the usage of the parachute system for a KSC landing and the second occurrence in the program.

  2. Astronaut David Wolf draws blood from Martin Fettman for SLS-2 investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Inside the science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Astronaut David A. Wolf draws blood from payload specialists Martin J. Fettman, DVM. Blood samples from crew members are critical to several Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) investigations.

  3. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  4. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  5. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  6. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and

  7. Survey of Columbia River Basin Streams for Giant Columbia River Spire Snail Fluminicola columbiana and Great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA )

    1989-10-01

    Surveys have confirmed the survival of both the giant Columbia River spire snail Fluminicola columbiana and the great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington State, as well as other sites in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. A review of historical collection records suggests that both species exist in still other sites of the Columbia River Basin. At present, there is insufficient information to allow adequate appraisal of either species relative to possible federal or state listing as endangered or threatened species. The results of our studies suggest that additional undiscovered populations of both species exist. There is a relatively good chance that pristine habitat required by spire snails and limpets remains in 37 streams or portions of streams in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana (British Columbia was considered outside the project scope). For a thorough survey, visits to more than 600 sites will be required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  9. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  10. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, the exhaust from the Boeing Delta II rocket with the Mars Polar Lander aboard lights up the clouds as it hurtles skyward. The rocket was launched at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  11. Launch and Early Orbit Operations for CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardel, Nic; Marchese, Franco

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched from Baikonur on 8th of April 2010 aboard a modified Dnepr ICBM, the so-called SS18 Satan. Following the ascent and separation from the launch vehicle the Flight Operations Segment (FOS) in ESOC, Darmstadt started the operations to configure the satellite into the correct mode to acquire science; switching on units, configuring software and ensuring that the satellite health and performance was as expected. This paper will describe the operations performed by the FOS during the first weeks in orbit, including the unexpected problems encountered, their implications and solutions.

  12. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  13. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Columbia Glacier in 1986; 800 meters retreat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Columbia Glacier, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, continued its rapid retreat in 1986, with a retreat of 800 m. Average velocity of the lower portion of the glacier, 10 September 1986 to 26 January 1987, was three km/yr, or about one-half of the velocity during similar periods for the previous three years. This reduced velocity is a new development in the progression of the retreat, and if the calving rate follows the pattern of previous years, will result in continued retreat. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Space Shuttle STS-87 Columbia launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Like a rising sun lighting up the afternoon sky, the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) soared from Launch Pad 39B on the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) and Spartan-201 satellite which were managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center. During the 16-day mission, the crew oversaw experiments in microgravity; deployed and retrieved a solar satellite; and tested a new experimental camera, the AERCam Sprint. Two crew members, Dr. Takao Doi and Winston Scott also performed a spacewalk to practice International Space Station maneuvers.

  16. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  17. Numerical simulation of iodine speciation in relation to water disinfection aboard manned spacecraft I. Equilibria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, J. E.; Sauer, R. L.; Schultz, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Elemental iodine (I2) is currently used as the drinking water disinfectant aboard the Shuttle Orbiter and will also be incorporated into the water recovery and distribution system for the International Space Station Alpha. Controlled release of I2 is achieved using the Microbial Check Valve (MCV), a flow-through device containing an iodinated polymer which imparts a bacteriostatic residual concentration of approximately 2mg/L to the aqueous stream. During regeneration of MCV canisters, I2 concentrations of approximately 300 mg/L are used. Dissolved iodine undergoes a series of hydrolytic disproportionation and related reactions which result in the formation of an array of inorganic species including: I-, I3-, HOI, OI-, IO3-, HIO3, I2OH-, I2O(-2), and H2OI+. Numerical estimation of the steady-state distribution of inorganic iodine containing species in pure water at 25 degrees C has been achieved by simultaneous solution of the multiple equilibrium expressions as a function of pH. The results are reported herein.

  18. Submillimeter limb-emission sounder JEM/SMILES aboard the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Junji; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Ryouta; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Fujii, Yasunori; Nakajima, Takashi; Iida, Yukiei; Iida, Teruhito; Kikuchi, Ken'ichi; Miura, Takeshi; Masuko, Harunobu; Manabe, Takeshi; Ochiai, Satoshi; Seta, Masumichi; Irimajiri, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Yasuko; Suzuki, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoko; Tsujimaru, Sho; Shibasaki, Kazuo; Shiotani, Masato

    2000-12-01

    A submillimeter limb-emission sounder, that is to be aboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, dubbed as KIBO) at the International Space Station, has been designed. This payload, Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-emission Sounder (SMILES), is aimed at global mappings of stratospheric trace gases by means of the most sensitive submillimeter receiver ever operated in space. Such sensitivity is ascribed to a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor (SIS) mixer, which is operated at 4.5 K in a dedicated cryostat combined with a mechanical cooler. SMILES will observe ozone-depletion-related molecules such as ClO, Hcl, HO2, HNO3, BrO and O3 in the frequency bands at 624.32-626.32 GHz and 649.12-650.32 GHz. A scanning antenna will cover tangent altitudes from 10 to 60 km in every 53 seconds, while tracing the latitudes form 38 S to 65 N along its orbit. This global coverage makes SMILES a useful tool of observing the low- and mid- latitudinal areas as well as the Arctic peripheral region. The molecular emissions will be detected by two units of acousto-optic spectrometers (AOS), each of which has coverage of 1.2 GHz with a resolution of 1.8 MHz. This high-resolution spectroscopy will allow us to detect weak emission lines attributing to less-abundant species.

  19. Five-Channel Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Combustion Product Monitoring Aboard Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Borgentun, Carl E.; Bagheri, Mahmood; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous combustion product monitoring aboard manned spacecraft can prevent chronic exposure to hazardous compounds and also provides early detection of combustion events. As future missions extend beyond low-Earth orbit, analysis of returned environmental samples becomes impractical and safety monitoring should be performed in situ. Here, we describe initial designs of a five-channel tunable laser absorption spectrometer to continuously monitor combustion products with the goal of minimal maintenance and calibration over long-duration missions. The instrument incorporates dedicated laser channels to simultaneously target strong mid-infrared absorption lines of CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2. The availability of low-power-consumption semiconductor lasers operating in the 2 to 5 micron wavelength range affords the flexibility to select absorption lines for each gas with maximum interaction strength and minimal interference from other gases, which enables the design of a compact and mechanically robust spectrometer with low-level sensitivity. In this paper, we focus primarily on absorption line selection based on the availability of low-power single-mode semiconductor laser sources designed specifically for the target wavelength range.

  20. The point spread function of the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Acton, Loren W.; Lemen, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The point spread function of the SXT telescope aboard Yohkoh has been measured in flight configuration in three different X-ray lines at White Sands Missile Range. We have fitted these data with an elliptical generalization of the Moffat function. Our fitting method consists of chi squared minimization in Fourier space, especially designed for matching of sharply peaked functions. We find excellent fits with a reduced chi squared of order unity or less for single exposure point spread functions over most of the CCD. Near the edges of the CCD the fits are less accurate due to vignetting. From fitting results with summation of multiple exposures we find a systematic error in the fitting function of the order of 3% near the peak of the point spread function, which is close to the photon noise for typical SXT images in orbit. We find that the full width to half maximum and fitting parameters vary significantly with CCD location. However, we also find that point spread functions measured at the same location are consistent to one another within the limit determined by photon noise. A 'best' analytical fit to the PSF as function of position on the CCD is derived for use in SXT image enhancemnent routines. As an aside result we have found that SXT can determine the location of point sources to about a quarter of a 2.54 arc sec pixel.

  1. 75 FR 70235 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... parallel loop to Columbia's Line SM-116 in Lincoln County. Columbia states that the new pipeline would be... with Line SM-116 at the suction side of the Hamlin compressor station. Columbia estimates that...

  2. 77 FR 26544 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 18, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe... authorization to construct and operate certain natural gas transmission facilities in Chesterfield...

  3. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  4. Application of SSNTDs in radiobiological investigations aboard recoverable satellites.

    PubMed

    Huang, R Q; Gu, R Q; Li, Q

    1997-01-01

    In recent years some Biostack experiments including a wide spectrum of biological objects have been devoted to study of the radiobiological effects on dry seeds aboard recoverable satellites. Some impressive phenomena have been observed. Clearly, the large amount of energy deposited by the highly ionizing heavy nuclei of cosmic rays is the principal reason for the induced aberrations of the chromosomes of wheat root tip cells. A methodical description of the experimental arrangement and procedure of handling and evaluation of given. The preliminary physical and biological results from the experimental "wheat seeds" are presented. PMID:11541794

  5. Protein Crystal Growth Samples Placed Aboard Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Tom Akers places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space Station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-79). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  6. Protein Crystal Growth Samples Placed Aboard Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Michael Clifford places a liquid nitrogen Dewar containing frozen protein solutions aboard Russia's space station Mir during a visit by the Space Shuttle (STS-76). The protein samples were flash-frozen on Earth and will be allowed to thaw and crystallize in the microgravity environment on Mir Space Station. A later crew will return the Dewar to Earth for sample analysis. Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California at Riverside is the principal investigator. Photo credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center.

  7. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  8. High temperature heat pipe experiments aboard the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. ); Secary, C.J. )

    1993-01-10

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most space nuclear power systems, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation. Three SST/potassium heat pipes are being designed, fabricated, and ground tested. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will fly aboard the space shuttle in 1995. Three wick structures will be tested: homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap. Ground tests are described that simulate the space shuttle environment in every way except gravity field.

  9. Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Langelier, K.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bowes, V.

    1994-12-31

    Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

  10. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Five

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    Volume V of the Report contains appendices that were not cited in VolumeI. These consist of documents produced by NASA and other organizations, which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia The contents include:. Appendix G.1 Requirements and Procedures for Certification of Flight Readiness; Appendix G.2 Appendix R, Space Shuttle Program Contingency Action Plan; Appendix G.3 CAIB Charter, with Revisions; Appendix G.4 Group 1 Matrix Brief on Maintenance, Material, and Management; Appendix G.5 Vehicle Data Mapping(VDM) Team Final Report, Jun 13, 2003; Appendix G.6 SRB Working Group Presentation to CAIB; Appendix G. 7 Starfire Team Final Report, Jun 3, 2003; Appendix G.8 Using the Data and Observations from Flight STS-107, Executive Summary; Appendix G.9 Contracts, Incentives, and Safety/Technical Excellence; Appendix G.10 Detailed Summaries: Rogers Commission Report, ASAP Report, SIAT Report; Appendix G.11 Foam Application and Production Chart; Appendix G.12 Crew Survivability Report; and Appendix G.12 Aero/Aerothermal/ Thermal/Structures Team FinalReport, August 6, 2003.

  11. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, and USML-1 processing at KSC O and C and OPF buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) vehicle and payload processing conducted at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Clean-suited crewmembers and technicians examine and test USML-1 spacelab (SL) module systems during preflight procedures in Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building (41070). In the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3, OV-102 payload bay (PLB) overall view shows thermal blanket covered USML-1 SL module and extended duration orbiter (EDO) pallet (left of SL module) before SL tunnel installation as workers continue to establish mechanical interfaces between USML-1 and OV-102 (41071); and closeup view shows the installation ofthe EDO pallet near the rear bulkhead (41072). View provided by KSC with alternate numbers KSC-92PC-592 for S92-41072; KSC-92PC-758 for S92-41070; and KSC-92PC-840 for S92-41071.

  12. 77 FR 74907 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4096-DR), dated 12/05/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy....

  13. 75 FR 17791 - District of Columbia Disaster # DC-00002

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00002 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Disaster Area District of Columbia. The Interest Rates...

  14. 75 FR 11583 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00001

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00001 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for public assistance only... disaster: Primary Disaster Area: District of Columbia. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical...

  15. 76 FR 72021 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00004

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00004 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4044-DR), dated 11/08/2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident...

  16. 76 FR 60852 - District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of an emergency for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3337-EM), dated August 28, 2011.... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121-5208 (the Stafford Act), as...

  17. 77 FR 47907 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00005 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4073-DR), dated 07/31/2012. Incident: Severe Storms....

  18. 76 FR 62131 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00003 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4036-DR), dated 09/28/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene....

  19. Prospects for Adult Literacy Policy in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Intended to assist in the formulation of effective policies for adult literacy in British Columbia, this paper reviews the current discussion of adult literacy policy and programming across Canada. It also reviews existing policies in Canada and in British Columbia, in education ministries, and in other ministries with interests and activities…

  20. COLUMBIA/SNAKE RIVER TEMPERATURE TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the States of Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working in coordination with the Columbia River Tribes to establish a temperature TMDL for the mainstems of the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Both rivers are on state 303(d) lists of impaired waters for exceedances of water qua...

  1. 40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false District of Columbia. 81.309 Section 81.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.309 District of Columbia. District of...

  2. Managing the Columbia Basin for Sustainable Economy, Society, Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) is a vast region of the Pacific Northwest covering parts of the United States, Canada and Tribal lands. As the Columbia River winds its way from Canada into the US, the river passes through numerous multi-purpose reservoirs and hydroelectric genera...

  3. Universities Under Financial Crisis: The Case of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.

    1987-01-01

    The consequences of the 1980-83 economic recession in Canada for the political climate in British Columbia and for the University of British Columbia are discussed. The University's response to budgetary cuts is placed in a provincial and national context, and the implications of reductions in public support for higher education are addressed.…

  4. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

  5. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230 Section 162.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash. (a) Grand Coulee Dam discharge...

  6. 76 FR 42549 - Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races. This regulation which restricts navigation... Hydroplane Races (Water Follies). During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may operate...

  7. 77 FR 24146 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is necessary to accommodate maintenance of the train signaling system scheduled for April 30, 2012....

  8. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  9. A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

  10. Advanced Ionospheric Sensing using GROUP-C and LITES aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Chakrabarti, S.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Powell, S. P.; O'Hanlon, B.; Bishop, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometer Co-located (GROUP-C) and Limb-imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) experiments are manifested for flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2016 as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 payload. The two experiments provide technical development and risk-reduction for future DoD space weather sensors suitable for ionospheric specification, space situational awareness, and data products for global ionosphere assimilative models. In addition, the combined instrument complement of these two experiments offers a unique opportunity to study structures of the nighttime ionosphere. GROUP-C includes an advanced GPS receiver providing ionospheric electron density profiles and scintillation measurements and a high-sensitivity far-ultraviolet photometer measuring horizontal ionospheric gradients. LITES is an imaging spectrograph that spans 60-140 nm and will obtain high-cadence limb profiles of the ionosphere and thermosphere from 150-350 km altitude. In the nighttime ionosphere, recombination of O+ and electrons produces optically thin emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm that can be used to tomographically reconstruct the two-dimensional plasma distribution in the orbital plane below ISS altitudes. Ionospheric irregularities, such as plasma bubbles and blobs, are transient features of the low and middle latitude ionosphere with important implications for operational systems. Irregularity structures have been studied primarily using ground-based systems, though some spaced-based remote and in-situ sensing has been performed. An ionospheric observatory aboard the ISS would provide new capability to study low- and mid-latitude ionospheric structures on a global scale. By combining for the first time high-sensitivity in-track photometry, vertical ionospheric airglow spectrographic imagery, and recent advancements in UV tomography, high-fidelity tomographic reconstruction of

  11. The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

  12. Preliminary orbital parallax catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, M.

    1981-01-01

    The study is undertaken to calibrate the more reliable parallaxes derived from a comparison of visual and spectroscopic orbits and to encourage observational studies of other promising binaries. The methodological techniques used in computing orbital parallaxes are analyzed. Tables summarizing orbital data and derived system properties are then given. Also given is a series of detailed discussions of the 71 individual systems included in the tables. Data are listed for 57 other systems which are considered promising candidates for eventual orbital parallax determination.

  13. Orbiter Window Hypervelocity Impact Strength Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Lynda R.

    2011-01-01

    When the Space Shuttle Orbiter incurs damage on its windowpane during flight from particles traveling at hypervelocity speeds, it produces a distinctive damage that reduces the overall strength of the pane. This damage has the potential to increase the risk associated with a safe return to Earth. Engineers at Boeing and NASA/JSC are called to Mission Control to evaluate the damage and provide an assessment on the risk to the crew. Historically, damages like these were categorized as "accepted risk" associated with manned spaceflight, and as long as the glass was intact, engineers gave a "go ahead" for entry for the Orbiter. Since the Columbia accident, managers have given more scrutiny to these assessments, and this has caused the Orbiter window engineers to capitalize on new methods of assessments for these damages. This presentation will describe the original methodology that was used to asses the damages, and introduce a philosophy new to the Shuttle program for assessing structural damage, reliability/risk-based engineering. The presentation will also present a new, recently adopted method for assessing the damage and providing management with a reasonable assessment on the realities of the risk to the crew and vehicle for return.

  14. SEASAT B orbit synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

  15. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  16. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  17. An apparatus for preparing benthic samples aboard ship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, Phillip N.; Girard, Thomas L.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a safe and effective apparatus for washing and reducing the volume of benthic samples collected by grab samplers aboard ship. The sample is transferred directly from the dredge to the apparatus and then washed with water pumped through pipes in the apparatus and from onboard hoses. Wastewater and materials smaller than 0.541 mm in diameter are washed overboard. Larger materials, including benthic organisms, collect on an upper 0.64-cm screen and on a lower 30-mm-mesh stainless steel bolt cloth. A collection jar is screwed into the bottom of the apparatus. Therefore, transfer of sample material from the apparatus to the jar is quick and easy. This apparatus has several advantages for use aboard ship over others described in the literature, especially in rough seas, in cold weather, and at night. The apparatus provides a safe and convenient platform for washing and reducing samples, and samples can be prepared while the vessel is traveling at full speed.

  18. Microgravity accelerometer characterization on Columbia STS-32 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoess, Jeff; Thomas, Don; Dunbar, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    The Honeywell In-Space Accelerometer (HISA) is a three-axis microgravity accelerometer instrument package recently developed by Honeywell Systems and Research Center (SRC) to monitor oscillatory and transient accelerations onboard spacecraft and spaceborne structures. The HISA was designed to be co-located with materials and life sciences experiments to record real-time accelerometer event data, sampling time, and temperature. The HISA was originally developed to monitor the microgravity disturbances associated with a polymer morphology experiment developed by 3M Company in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The HISA was first flight tested with the 3M experiment on the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-34 in October 1989. The HISA was successfully flown on a second shuttle mission (Columbia STS-32 in January 1990) in support of the NASA JSC-sponsored Microgravity Disturbances Experiment (MDE), which focused on the effects of microgravity disturbances on the growth of high-quality Indium crystals. The primary objective of the STS-32 MDE experiment was to investigate the effects of crew-induced gravity disturbances on the microstructure (crystal defects and uniformity of impurity distribution) of float-zone-grown crystals. The float-zone technique involves establishing a suspended molten zone between two cylindrical samples a pure, single-crystal sample and an impure, polycrystalline sample. Microgravity disturbances due to crew treadmill activity and orbiter maneuvering system thruster firings were sensed and recorded by the HISA to understand their effects on the stability of the float zone. The principle of operation of the HISA, the flight configuration of the HISA supporting the MDE experiment, and the characterization of STS-32 treadmill disturbance data are summarized.

  19. Soyuz 25 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Six mini-grab sample containers (m-GSCs) were returned aboard Soyuz 25. The toxicological assessment of 6 m-GSCs from the ISS is shown. The recoveries of the 3 internal standards, C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene, from the GSCs averaged 76, 108 and 88%, respectively. Formaldehyde badges were not returned aboard Soyuz 25.

  20. 76 FR 76430 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 60853) on September 30, 2011, allowing for a 60-day... Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Documents Required Aboard...

  1. Crew of Gemini 10 arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Crew of Gemini 10 space flight, Astronauts John W. Young (left) and Michael Collins (right), arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal. Greeting them are Ben James, Senior NASA Public Affairs Officer aboard ship and John C. Stonesifer, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Landing and Recovery Division.

  2. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  3. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  4. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  5. 29 CFR 783.35 - Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees serving as âwatchmenâ aboard vessels in port. 783... § 783.35 Employees serving as “watchmen” aboard vessels in port. Various situations are presented with... aid in the operation of the vessel as a means of transportation. See Desper v. Starved Rock Ferry...

  6. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  7. On-orbit analysis of radiation shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Golightly, M. J.; Zapp, N.; Petrov, V.; Wilson, J. W.; Nealy, J. E.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    Ground- and space-based experiments have validated the selection of polyethylene as an effective shield for radiation protection of humans from cosmic radiation exposure during spaceflight. Theoretical models that describe the physical interactions and transport of energetic ions through matter first identified the superior shielding performance of hydrogenous materials. Analytical transport models of space-like particle beams predicted that water would out-perform materials with higher effective charge, and plastics with low effective charge, particularly polyethylene (CH2), appeared to be even more promising. Experiments with accelerated particle beams confirmed the analytical predictions, and experimental measurements continue to provide validation of the use of polyethylene and other proposed shield materials for radiation protection during spaceflight. Due to the anisotropic radiation environment in low Earth orbit, vector flux models of incident radiation field and careful measurements on-orbit are required to definitively assess the effectiveness of polyethylene to protect the skin, eyes, and deeper tissues in that setting. An experiment is proposed herein in which operational and scientific detectors already aboard the ISS can be used to characterize the effectiveness of polyethylene as a radiation shield for reducing risks from geomagnetically trapped protons, cosmic ions, and albedo neutrons. Results are necessary for optimization of retrofit shield design, ab initio design of spacecraft, and development of analytical tools used in these activities and other operational aspects of radiation health and protection for human spaceflight.

  8. Participation in the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengil, Gordon H.; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument [1,2] carried aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, has observed strong echoes from cloud tops at 1.064 microns on 61% of its orbital passes over the winter north pole (235deg L(sub S), < 315deg) and on 58% of the passes over the winter south pole (45deg < L(sub S), < 135deg). The clouds are unlikely to be composed of water ice since the vapor pressure of H2O is very low at the Martian nighttime polar temperatures measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [3], and by an analysis of MGS radio occultations [4]. Dust clouds can also be ruled out since no correlation is seen between clouds and global dust storms. The virtually certain composition for the winter polar clouds is CO2 ice.

  9. On-orbit performance of the Extended Gyrocompass Controller for the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanneman, P. A.; Lee, B. B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the Earth Acquisition Mode Extended Gyrocompass Controller flown aboard the NASA-CNES TOPEX/Poseidon Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem spacecraft for providing highly accurate measurements of the surface elevations over all the ocean basins. Particular attention is given to the on-orbit performance of the Extended Gyrocompass Controller used during quaternion initialization and Update Filter convergence processing, both of these procedures requiring maintenance of the spacecraft attitude control and knowledge. The development of the Extended Gyrocompass control technique is reviewed, and the results of the on-orbit yaw attitude control and knowledge performance provided by this algorithm are presented.

  10. A human factors evaluation of the robotic interface for Space Station Freedom orbital replaceable units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Hwang, Ellen Y.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay

    1992-01-01

    An orbital replaceable unit (ORU) is often defined as any orbital unit aboard Space Station with a wearout life of less than 30 years. The capability of successful changeout of these units by remote manipulation is critical to the ORU to telerobot interface design. A human factors evaluation of the selected interface showed certain inadequacies of the alignment target concept that was part of the interface package. Alternative target concepts which addressed these inadequacies were developed and are presented. Recommendations will be incorporated into NASA requirements documents which ORU suppliers and manufacturers must then build to.

  11. Columbia River monitoring: Distribution of tritium in Columbia River water at the Richland Pumphouse

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents the results of a special study conducted as part of the SESP to supplement the routine Columbia River monitoring program and provide information relative to the dispersion and distribution of Hanford origin contaminants entering the river through the seepage of ground water along the Hanford Site. Sampling was conducted along cross sections to determine the distribution of tritium within the Columbia River at Richland, Washington. The investigation was also designed to evaluate the relationship between the average tritium concentrations in the river water at this location and in water collected from the routine SESP river monitoring system located at the city of Richland drinking water intake (Richland Pumphouse). This study was conducted during the summers of 1987 and 1988. Water samples were collected along cross sections located at or near the Richland Pumphouse monitoring station.

  12. Orbital Evolution of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2011-10-01

    The synthetic orbital frequencies and eccentricities of main belt asteroids computed by Knezevic and Milani [2] show evidence that the structure of the asteroid belt has been determined by a dense of web of high-order resonances. By examining the orbital frequency distribution at high resolution, we discover a correlation between asteroid number density, mean orbital eccentricity and Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent. In particular, the orbital eccentricities of asteroids trapped in resonance tend to be higher than those of non-resonant asteroids and we argue that this is observational evidence for orbital evolution due to chaotic diffusion.

  13. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.

  15. Orbit correction in an orbit separated cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plostinar, C.; Rees, G. H.

    2014-04-01

    The orbit separated proton cyclotron (OSC) described in [1] differs in concept from that of a separated orbit cyclotron (SOC) [2]. Synchronous acceleration in an OSC is based on harmonic number jumps and orbit length adjustments via reverse bending. Four-turn acceleration in the OSC enables it to have four times fewer cryogenic-cavity systems than in a superconducting linac of the same high beam power and energy range. Initial OSC studies identified a progressive distortion of the spiral beam orbits by the off-axis, transverse deflecting fields in its accelerating cavities. Compensation of the effects of these fields involves the repeated use of a cavity field map, in a 3-D linac tracking code, to determine the modified arc bends required for the OSC ring. Subsequent tracking studies confirm the compensation scheme and show low emittance growth in acceleration.

  16. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  17. New Storke-Doherty lectureship at Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The founding of the Storke-Doherty Lectureship has been jointly announced by the Department of Geological Sciences and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University.Funds permitting, a Storke-Doherty Lectureship will be awarded annually to a junior scientist at the observatory who is in no more than his or her second year of residence. The lectureship lasts 4 years and is accompanied by 24 months of department and observatory salary support. The recipient is responsible for teaching a topical seminar.The award is intended to recognize the potential for scholarly excellence and encourage outstanding young scientists to pursue careers in the basic research environment. The name of the recipient will be announced in January or February of each year.

  18. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  19. Environmental noise assessment STS-1 Columbia launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnicki, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    An environmental noise assessement of the initial launch of the Space Transportation System, STS-1 Columbia was conducted. The principal objective of the environmental noise assessment was to measure the noise generated during the initial launch of the space shuttle to ascertain the validity of the levels predicted in the 1979 environmental impact statement. In the 1979 study information obtained for expendable launch vehicles, Titan, Saturn and Atlas was used to predict the noise levels that would be generated by the simultaneous firing of the two solid rocket boosters and the three space shuttle main engines. Fifteen monitoring sites were established in accessable areas located from 4,953 to 23,640 meters from the launch pad. Precision sound level meters were used to capture the peak level during the launch. Data obtained was compared to the predicted levels and were also compared to the identified levels, standards and criteria established by the federal agencies with noise abatement and control responsibilities.

  20. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M. R.; Word, J. Q.; Barrows, E. S.; Mayhew, H. L.; Clark, D. R.

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  1. Orbit Determination Support for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); Truong, Son H.; Cuevas, Osvaldo O.; Slojkowski, Steven

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Complex 17 aboard a Delta II 7425-10 expendable launch vehicle on June 30, 2001. The spacecraft received a nominal direct insertion by the Delta expendable launch vehicle into a 185-km circular orbit with a 28.7deg inclination. MAP was then maneuvered into a sequence of phasing loops designed to set up a lunar swingby (gravity-assisted acceleration) of the spacecraft onto a transfer trajectory to a lissajous orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, about 1.5 million km from Earth. Because of its complex orbital characteristics, the mission provided a unique challenge for orbit determination (OD) support in many orbital regimes. This paper summarizes the premission trajectory covariance error analysis, as well as actual OD results. The use and impact of the various tracking stations, systems, and measurements will be also discussed. Important lessons learned from the MAP OD support team will be presented. There will be a discussion of the challenges presented to OD support including the effects of delta-Vs at apogee as well as perigee, and the impact of the spacecraft attitude mode on the OD accuracy and covariance analysis.

  2. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  3. [Diseases of the orbit].

    PubMed

    Lukasik, S; Betkowski, A; Cyran-Rymarz, A; Szuber, D

    1995-01-01

    Diseases of the orbital cavity require more attention because of its specific anatomic structure and placement. Their curing requires cooperation of many medical specialties. Analysis consider orbital fractures, mainly caused by car accidents (69.2%). The next half of them consider inflammatory processes and tumor in equal numbers. Malignant tumors of orbital cavity occur most frequently (48.0%), less frequent are pseudotumors--pseudotumor orbitae (36.0%) and rare--malignant ones (16.0%). Malignant tumors more frequently infiltrate the orbit in neighborhood (63.3%), less frequently they come out from orbit tissue (16.7%). It should be emphasized that the number of orbit inflammations decreases in subsequent years, whereas occurrence of orbit tumors increases. PMID:9454170

  4. Solar Sail Optimal Orbit Transfers to Synchronous Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Robert B.; Coverstone, Victoria; Prussing, John E.; Lunney, Bryan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A constant outward radial thrust acceleration can be used to reduce the radius of a circular orbit of specified period. Heliocentric circular orbits are designed to match the orbital period of Earth or Mars for various radial thrust accelerations and are defined as synchronous orbits. Minimum-time solar sail orbit transfers to these synchronous heliocentric orbits are presented.

  5. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard...., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice Tentatively Approving and Authorizing Transaction. SUMMARY: All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc. (AHI), Celerity AHI...

  6. Columbia River Treaty History and 2014/2024 Review

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    The Columbia River, the fourth largest river on the continent as measured by average annual flow, generates more power than any other river in North America. While its headwaters originate in British Columbia, only about 15 percent of the 259,500 square miles of the Columbia River Basin is actually located in Canada. Yet the Canadian waters account for about 38 percent of the average annual volume, and up to 50 percent of the peak flood waters, that flow by The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington. In the 1940s, officials from the United States and Canada began a long process to seek a joint solution to the flooding caused by the unregulated Columbia River and to the postwar demand for greater energy resources. That effort culminated in the Columbia River Treaty, an international agreement between Canada and the United States for the cooperative development of water resources regulation in the upper Columbia River Basin. It was signed in 1961 and implemented in 1964.

  7. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  8. Detailed geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: West Spur to Cumberland Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Rice, M. S.; Squyres, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater is one of the most intensively studied regions on Mars. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has been investigating the Columbia Hills for over 5 years. During this time, Spirit has acquired thousands of images and spectroscopic observations from several outcrops and many soil samples and float rocks. The Hills exhibit a remarkable variety of textures and compositions, as indicated by diverse rock and soil types. Many studies of local regions within the Columbia Hills have been published from MER data, as have high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Additionally, the MRO Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument has acquired 13 hyperspectral observations of the Columbia Hills at 18m/pixel resolution. Previous work has had a spectroscopic and mineralogical focus, with sparsely-sampled structural measurements. To date, these data sets have not been integrated into a single detailed and comprehensive geologic map. We present a preliminary geologic map of the Columbia Hills. Our goal is to integrate observations from multiple instruments and spacecraft into a single map, illuminating the geographic context of geologic observations. Our study is unique in that we incorporate detailed structural measurements, localized stratigraphic sequences, and the footprints of remote sensing and in-situ observations. We also map the distribution of textures, such as vesicular vs. nodular rocks; small impact craters; probable flow margins; boundaries marking textural and color changes relating to differences in process and mineralogy; and the rover’s traverse path. We measure the strike and dip of planar features such as foliations and bedding planes from stereo-derived topography and provide estimates of the uncertainty in these measurements. We place the measurements in a regional

  9. The Evolution of Spaceborne Microwave Sounders for the U.S. Polar-Orbiting Weather Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James C.; Krimschansky, Sergey; Patel, Probodh; Hildebrand, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is the next generation space-borne microwave sounder. It is the latest and most advanced version of a series of satellite-based microwave sounders, currently under development by NASA for the future U.S. operational polar-orbiting weather satellite system, called the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellite System), slated to begin orbiting around the end of this decade. This paper will present a brief history of the evolution of the space-borne microwave sounders, from its early-day scientific experiments, through the operational sounder aboard today's polar orbiting weather satellites, and ending in the ATMS development. It will also describe the evolution of microwave radiometer technology that enabled the space-borne microwave radiometry, from its early versions with simple, nadir-viewing, fixed-horn antennas to the present-day scanning reflector antennas with broad-band MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers, plus on-board calibrations.

  10. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  11. 77 FR 48149 - Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 24, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C. (Columbia), P.O. Box 1273... directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1273,...

  12. 75 FR 33298 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 4, 2010. Take notice that on May 20, 2010 Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San... directed to Fredic J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273,...

  13. 78 FR 62015 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on September 25, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe..., Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273,...

  14. 78 FR 53742 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On August 14, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed with the Federal Energy... application may be directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O....

  15. 76 FR 2371 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 5, 2011. Take notice that on December 22, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia... J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West...

  16. 75 FR 26224 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization May 4, 2010. Take notice that on April 22, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151..., Regulatory Affairs, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, 5151 San Felipe, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas 77056, or...

  17. 78 FR 3893 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 7, 2013, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) 5151 San Felipe... directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273,...

  18. 77 FR 36532 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 1, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia), 5151 San Felipe... Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West Virginia 25325-1273, phone (304)...

  19. 75 FR 52519 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate August 19, 2010. On August 9, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed with the... Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston,...

  20. 75 FR 24936 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, and D&B Resources; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, and D&B Resources; Notice of Application April 28, 2010. Take notice that on April 22, 2010, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia Gas) 5151... directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273,...