Science.gov

Sample records for aboard cruise ships

  1. Interpopulation study of medical attendance aboard a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The study carried out aboard a cruise ship in the years 1993-1998 involved ship passengers of various nationalities including 3872 Germans aged 23-94 years and 1281 Americans aged 25-94 years. Both nationality groups were divided into two age subgroups: till 64, and 65-94 years. The German younger age subgroup (mean age 53.2 years) consisted of 59% of the passengers, whereas the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 72 years) was made up of 41% of the ships passengers. On the other hand, 73% of the Americans belonged to the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 73,4 years), whereas 27% to the younger one (mean age 52.8 years). The number of onboard consultations and their causes were determined. The occurrence of chronic illnesses in both 65-94 years subgroups was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher frequency of consultations was found in the Germans (24.38%) than in the Americans (14.05%) (p=0.001). The difference was particularly striking in the people over 65 years of age (30.87% of the Germans as compared with 14.22% of the Americans, p=0.001). The Germans were nearly 4-times more frequently seen than the Americans for cardio-vascular diseases and almost 3-times more often because of gastrointestinal disorders. The discrepancies in the consultation rates were mainly caused by the different insurance systems of both nations. Chronic illnesses as estimated by means of the questionnaire prevailed in the German passengers. The statistically significant differences (13.3% versus 20%, p=0.01 and 0.001) regarded the locomotor system, urinary tract diseases and a group of illnesses including neurological, ophthalmological, ear, skin, malignant diseases and diabetes. PMID:19227739

  2. [Medicine aboard cruise ships--law insurance specifics].

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Frenzel, R; Muehlberger, T

    2013-04-01

    The booming cruise industry, associated with ships with more passengers and crew on board, results in growing medical needs for the ship doctor. The ship's doctor insurance policy includes different jurisdictions, namely national law, international law, tort law, insurance law and labor law. In addition, international agreements must be taken into account, which complicates the design of an adequate insurance policy. Equally high are the costs and defense costs for the ship's doctor in case of liability. In order to limit the liability for all parties is to ask for appropriately qualified medical staff, hired on board. PMID:23589048

  3. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships. PMID:26350312

  4. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  5. Norwalk virus-associated gastroenteritis traced to ice consumption aboard a cruise ship in Hawaii: comparison and application of molecular method-based assays.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A S; Moe, C L; Glass, R I; Monroe, S S; Estes, M K; Chapman, L E; Jiang, X; Humphrey, C; Pon, E; Iskander, J K

    1994-01-01

    Investigation of an outbreak of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis on a cruise ship provided an opportunity to assess new molecular method-based diagnostic methods for Norwalk virus (NV) and the antibody response to NV infection. The outbreak began within 36 h of embarkation and affected 30% of 672 passengers and crew. No single meal, seating, or food item was implicated in the transmission of NV, but a passenger's risk of illness was associated with the amount of ice (but not water) consumed (chi-square for trend, P = 0.009). Of 19 fecal specimens examined, 7 were found to contain 27-nm NV-like particles by electron microscopy and 16 were positive by PCR with very sensitive NV-specific primers, but only 5 were positive by a new highly specific antigen enzyme immunoassay for NV. Ten of 12 serum specimen pairs demonstrated a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer to recombinant baculovirus-expressed NV antigen. The amplified PCR band shared only 81% nucleotide sequence homology with the reference NV strain, which may explain the lack of utility of the fecal specimen enzyme immunoassay. This report, the first to document the use of these molecular method-based assays for investigation of an outbreak, demonstrates the importance of highly sensitive viral diagnostics such as PCR and serodiagnosis for the epidemiologic investigation of NV gastroenteritis. Images PMID:8150941

  6. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  7. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  8. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  9. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  10. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  11. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before travel. Passengers should practice good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Passengers should report their respiratory ... from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/en/shipsancomp.pdf?ua=1 . Chapter 6 - ...

  12. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  13. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  14. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  15. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  16. 47 CFR 80.217 - Suppression of interference aboard ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppression of interference aboard ships. 80.217 Section 80.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... interference aboard ships. (a) A voluntarily equipped ship station receiver must not cause harmful...

  17. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  18. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  19. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  20. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  1. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  2. Apollo 16 Crew Aboard Rescue Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Command Module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on April 27, 1972 after an 11-day moon exploration mission. The 3-man crew is shown here aboard the rescue ship, USS Horton. From left to right are: Mission Commander John W. Young, Lunar Module pilot Charles M. Duke, and Command Module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II. The sixth manned lunar landing mission, the Apollo 16 (SA-511) lifted off on April 16, 1972. The Apollo 16 mission continued the broad-scale geological, geochemical, and geophysical mapping of the Moon's crust, begun by the Apollo 15, from lunar orbit. This mission marked the first use of the Moon as an astronomical observatory by using the ultraviolet camera/spectrograph which photographed ultraviolet light emitted by Earth and other celestial objects. The Lunar Roving Vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was also used.

  3. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter. PMID:26394316

  4. Seafarers and passengers who disappear without a trace from aboard ships.

    PubMed

    Low, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    It is a fact that not only ships, but also seafarers and passengers vanish without a trace at sea, be it in the past or in present times. Several examples for this phenomenon are given. A scheme of the ship conditions found after discovering that single persons or even whole crews had disappeared from board is provided as an orientation, before describing in detail the more than 18 reasons for vanishing from ships for good, giving examples where appropriate. These reasons are in their majority logical, but strange and bizarre reasons also exist. Causes may e.g. be the sea state, crimes, suicide, alcohol, piracy. A chapter concerning passengers lost from large modem cruise ships, especially in the Caribbean, follows. Finally, suggestions are made, for instance psychological aptitude tests, as regards how to maybe help decrease the number of disappearing persons, especially young seafarers, from aboard ships on the high seas. PMID:17312709

  5. Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - United States, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Amy L; Vaughan, George H; Banerjee, Shailendra N

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 to 2004, the reported rates of diarrheal disease (three or more loose stools or a greater than normal frequency in a 24-hour period) on cruise ships decreased 2.4%, from 29.2 cases per 100,000 travel days to 28.5 cases (1,2). Increased rates of acute gastroenteritis illness (diarrhea or vomiting that is associated with loose stools, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, headache, muscle aches, or fever) occurred in years that novel strains of norovirus, the most common etiologic agent in cruise ship outbreaks, emerged (3). To determine recent rates of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships, CDC analyzed combined data for the period 2008-2014 that were submitted by cruise ships sailing in U.S. jurisdiction (defined as passenger vessels carrying ≥13 passengers and within 15 days of arriving in the United States) (4). CDC also reviewed laboratory data to ascertain the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and examined trends over time. During the study period, the rates of acute gastroenteritis per 100,000 travel days decreased among passengers from 27.2 cases in 2008 to 22.3 in 2014. Rates for crew members remained essentially unchanged (21.3 cases in 2008 and 21.6 in 2014). However, the rate of acute gastroenteritis was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 or 2013 for both passengers and crew members, likely related to the emergence of a novel strain of norovirus, GII.4 Sydney (5). During 2008-2014, a total of 133 cruise ship acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported, 95 (71%) of which had specimens available for testing. Among these, 92 (97%) were caused by norovirus, and among 80 norovirus specimens for which a genotype was identified, 59 (73.8%) were GII.4 strains. Cruise ship travelers experiencing diarrhea or vomiting should report to the ship medical center promptly so that symptoms can be assessed, proper treatment provided, and control measures implemented. PMID:26766396

  6. Learning to Work on a Cruise Ship: Accounts from Bali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artini, Luh Putu; Nilan, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at motivations and both formal and informal learning contexts for well-educated young Balinese from poorer areas who enrol in cruise ship training colleges. The major motivations were getting a high income and helping the family. While basic hospitality and tourism skills are acquired, trainees also named other capacities such…

  7. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  9. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  10. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm. PMID

  11. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Diego. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships... § 165.1108 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship”...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Diego. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships... § 165.1108 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship”...

  14. 77 FR 1025 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... zones to encompass only navigable waters within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is located... Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA in the Federal Register (76 FR 50710). We received no comments on the proposed..., within a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that is within the San Pedro Bay port area inside the...

  15. An apparatus for preparing benthic samples aboard ship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, Phillip N.; Girard, Thomas L.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a safe and effective apparatus for washing and reducing the volume of benthic samples collected by grab samplers aboard ship. The sample is transferred directly from the dredge to the apparatus and then washed with water pumped through pipes in the apparatus and from onboard hoses. Wastewater and materials smaller than 0.541 mm in diameter are washed overboard. Larger materials, including benthic organisms, collect on an upper 0.64-cm screen and on a lower 30-mm-mesh stainless steel bolt cloth. A collection jar is screwed into the bottom of the apparatus. Therefore, transfer of sample material from the apparatus to the jar is quick and easy. This apparatus has several advantages for use aboard ship over others described in the literature, especially in rough seas, in cold weather, and at night. The apparatus provides a safe and convenient platform for washing and reducing samples, and samples can be prepared while the vessel is traveling at full speed.

  16. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  17. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  18. 76 FR 5732 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... FR 4833), regarding security zones for cruise ships in the Port of San Diego, California. This..., telephone 202-366-9826. Correction In the notice of proposed rulemaking FR Doc. 2011-1804, beginning on page... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego,...

  19. 76 FR 50710 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... CFR 165.1154, Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California, by providing a...

  20. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  1. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  2. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  3. Crew of Gemini 10 arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Crew of Gemini 10 space flight, Astronauts John W. Young (left) and Michael Collins (right), arrive aboard the recovery ship U.S.S. Guadalcanal. Greeting them are Ben James, Senior NASA Public Affairs Officer aboard ship and John C. Stonesifer, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Landing and Recovery Division.

  4. All Aboard: Leading Change by Canoe, Sailboat, or Cruise Ship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Anyone who wants to make a difference may face a wall of opposition that must be removed with little or no damage. The situation could be delicate, a balance of one's desire and others' resistance. In this article, the author discusses three approaches to leading change; (1) the canoe approach--a one-on-one method that is best used when change…

  5. Research combines with public outreach on a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Prager, Ellen; Wilson, Doug

    An innovative partnership among academia, government, and private industry has created a unique opportunity for oceanographic and meteorological research on a cruise ship. The University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Royal Caribbean International, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Office of Naval Research have collaborated to establish two modern laboratories for oceanic and atmospheric research on the 142,000-ton Royal Caribbean ship Explorer of the Seas.The Explorer of the Seas combines extensive research capabilities with public outreach. Hundreds of passengers experience the planet's atmosphere-ocean systems through laboratory tours and presentations given by experienced guest scientists and graduate students. In addition to weekly public lectures, guided tours of the ocean and atmospheric laboratories are available, and ocean-related films are shown during selected afternoons. Two interactive eco-learning areas onboard are equipped with a series of interactive displays and large informational touch screens that illustrate marine and atmospheric concepts as well as the onboard research program.

  6. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Yan

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. They are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JGOFS cruise designated TN039. Table 1 lists start and end dates of each cruise with its mission. All but the first cruise have been or will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Each cruise is scheduled for a duration of between two weeks and one month. Seven of the cruises, referred to as process cruises, follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipments and towing of a SeaSoar. ADCP data are collected using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises, named the AutoADCP system. The system is an extension of RD instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with {open_quotes}user-exit{close_quotes} programs. It makes it possible to collect ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and insures constant data coverage and uniform data quality.

  7. Acoustic doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from the R/V T.G. THOMPSON is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises on the THOMPSON are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996. The first of these cruises, a transit of the R/V THOMPSON into the northern Arabian Sea area from Singapore, was a calibration and training cruise that took place between September 18 and October 7, 1994. (The cruises on the THOMPSON are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JOGFS cruise designated TN039.) The remaining cruises have been and will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Seven of these cruises, referred to as process cruises, will follow a set cruise track, making hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The remainder of the cruises while not restricted to the set cruise track, will generally stay within the region defined by the track during the deployment and retrieval of moored equipment and the towing of a SeaSoar. Each cruise will last between two weeks and one month. ADCP data will be collected on all the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises. This system, referred to as the AutoADCP, makes it possible to collect the ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and assures constant data coverage and uniform data quality. The AutoADCP system is an extension of RD Instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with ``user exit`` programs. This data report presents ADCP results from the first four JGOFS cruises, TN039 through TN042, concentrating on the data collection and processing methods.

  8. Burn Care on Cruise Ships-Epidemiology, international regulations, risk situation, disaster management and qualification of the ship's doctor.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Hartmann, B; Antonic, V

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing numbers of passengers and crew on board vessels that are becoming larger and larger, the demand for ship's doctors who can adequately treat burns on board has also increased. In the cruise ship industry it is usually those doctor's with internal and general medical training who are recruited from an epidemiological point of view. Training content or recommendations for the treatment of thermal lesions with the limited options available in ship's hospitals and where doctors with no surgical training operate do not yet exist. The guidelines recommended by the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) regarding medical staff have only included physicians with minor surgical skills until now. With the introduction of the ATLS(®) course developed by the American College of Surgeons, the requirements for the qualification of the ship's doctor on board cruise ships shall change from January 2017. The article discusses the question of whether having completed the ATLS(®) course, the ship's doctor is trained to adequately treat thermal lesions or severe burns persons on-board, and presents the current discussion on the training content for ship's doctors within the International Maritime Health Association (IMHA). It also provides an overview of existing international regulatory frameworks, the risks presented by a fire on board, the problem of treating burns victims out of reach of coastal rescue services, and alternative training concepts for ship's doctors regarding the therapy of thermal lesions on-board. PMID:27344547

  9. The significance of dilution in evaluating possible impacts of wastewater discharges from large cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Lincoln C; Beegle-Krause, C-J; George, Kenwyn; McGee, Charles D; Mearns, Alan J; Atkinson, Marlin J

    2006-06-01

    In response to public concerns about discharges from large cruise ships, Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) sampled numerous effluents in the summer of 2000. The data showed that basic marine sanitation device (MSD) technology for black water (sewage) was not performing as expected. Untreated gray water had high levels of conventional pollutants and surprisingly high levels of bacteria. Both black water and gray water discharges sometimes exceeded state water quality standards for toxicants. The state convened a Science Advisory Panel (the Panel) to evaluate impacts associated with cruise ship wastewater discharges. The effluent data received wide media coverage and increased public concerns. Consequently, legislative decisions were made at the State and Federal level, and regulations were imposed before the Panel completed its evaluation. The Panel demonstrated that following the rapid dilution from moving cruise ships, the effluent data from the Summer of 2000 would not have exceeded water quality standards, and environmental effects were not expected. PMID:16406006

  10. 77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... when the safety zone is in place. The pilot onboard the large cruise ship will be authorized to allow... arrangements with the pilot onboard the large cruise ship may enter into this safety zone in accordance...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Tankers and High Interest Vessels, San Francisco Bay and Delta...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for only short periods of time on frequent schedules. High Interest Vessel or HIV means any vessel... either side of any cruise ship, tanker or HIV that is underway, anchored, or moored within the San... ahead, astern and extending 100 yards along either side of any cruise ship, tanker or HIV that...

  12. 77 FR 65816 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River... the Lower Mississippi River between the Port of New Orleans Cruise Ship Terminal, mile marker 96.0... Mississippi River. DATES: This rule is effective December 5, 2012. ADDRESSES: Documents mentioned in...

  13. Cruise ships as a source of avian mortality during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bocetti, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mortality during fall migration has been studied at many anthropogenic structures, most of which share the common feature of bright lighting. An additional, unstudied source of avian mortality during fall migration is recreational cruise ships that are brightly lit throughout the night. I documented a single mortality event of eight Common Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) on one ship during part of one night in fall 2003, but suggest this is a more wide-spread phenomenon. The advertised number of ship-nights for 50 cruise ships in the Caribbean Sea during fall migration in 2003 was 2,981. This may pose a significant, additional, anthropogenic source of mortality that warrants further investigation, particularly because impacts could be minimized if this source of avian mortality is recognized. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  14. 76 FR 4833 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. You may submit.... 165.1108 (b)(2) through June 20, 2011, while this rulemaking is conducted. See 75 FR 82243, December...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships,...

  15. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  16. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  17. 77 FR 36955 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... zones would encompass all navigable waters from the surface to the sea floor within a 100-yard radius of..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... sea floor within a 100-yard radius of any cruise ship which is located within 3 nautical miles...

  18. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  19. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan

    2014-06-01

    The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  20. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Cruise Ship-Humpback Whale Interactions in and Near Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Karin; Gende, Scott M.; Logsdon, Miles G.; Klinger, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interactions between large ships and large whales is important to estimate risks posed to whales by ships. The coastal waters of Alaska are a summer feeding area for humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) as well as a prominent destination for large cruise ships. Lethal collisions between cruise ships and humpback whales have occurred throughout Alaska, including in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP). Although the National Park Service (NPS) establishes quotas and operating requirements for cruise ships within GBNP in part to minimize ship-whale collisions, no study has quantified ship-whale interactions in the park or in state waters where ship traffic is unregulated. In 2008 and 2009, an observer was placed on ships during 49 different cruises that included entry into GBNP to record distance and bearing of whales that surfaced within 1 km of the ship's bow. A relative coordinate system was developed in ArcGIS to model the frequency of whale surface events using kernel density. A total of 514 whale surface events were recorded. Although ship-whale interactions were common within GBNP, whales frequently surfaced in front of the bow in waters immediately adjacent to the park (west Icy Strait) where cruise ship traffic is not regulated by the NPS. When ships transited at speeds >13 knots, whales frequently surfaced closer to the ship's midline and ship's bow in contrast to speeds slower than 13 knots. Our findings confirm that ship speed is an effective mitigation measure for protecting whales and should be applied to other areas where ship-whale interactions are common.

  1. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  2. Exploring Science Applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Aboard UNOLS Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R.; Lachenmeier, T.; Hatfield, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks has been expanding the use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for science support from a variety of ships for several years. The ease and safety of flying from research vessels offers the science community lower cost access to overhead surveys of marine mammals without impact on sensitive populations, monitoring of AUV operations and collection of transmitted data, extensive surveys of sea ice during formation, melt, and sea temperatures through multiple seasons. As FAA expands access to the Arctic airspace over the Chukchi, Beaufort, and Bering Seas, the opportunities to employ UAS in science applications will become easier to exploit. This presentation describes the changes coming through new FAA rules, through the Alaska FAA Test Site, the Pan-Pacific UAS Test Range Complex which includes Oregon and Hawaii, and even Iceland. Airspace access advances associated with recent operations including the NASA-sponsored MIZOPEX, whale detection, and forming sea ice work in October will be presented, as well as a glider UAS connected to very high altitude balloons collecting atmospheric data. Development of safety procedures for use of UAS on UNOLS ships will be discussed.

  3. Measles outbreak on a cruise ship in the western Mediterranean, February 2014, preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lanini, S; Capobianchi, M R; Puro, V; Filia, A; Del Manso, M; Karki, T; Nicoletti, L; Magurano, F; Derrough, T; Severi, E; Bonfigli, S; Lauria, Fn; Ippolito, G; Vellucci, L; Pompa, M G

    2014-01-01

    A measles outbreak occurred in February 2014 on a ship cruising the western Mediterranean Sea. Overall 27 cases were reported: 21 crew members, four passengers.For two cases the status crew or passenger was unknown. Genotype B3 was identified. Because of different nationalities of cases and persons on board,the event qualified as a cross-border health threat. The Italian Ministry of Health coordinated rapid response.Alerts were posted through the Early Warning and Response System. PMID:24650863

  4. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  8. Skylab 3 crewmen aboard prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The three crewmen of the Skylab 3 mission are seen aboard the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans, following their successful 59-day visit to the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. They are, left to right, Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot; Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot; and Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander. They are seated atop a platform of a fork-lift dolly. Recovery support personnel are wearing face masks to prevent exposing the crewmen to disease.

  9. Comparisons of wartime and peacetime disease and non-battle injury rates aboard ships of the British Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Blood, C G; Pugh, W M; Gauker, E D; Pearsall, D M

    1992-12-01

    Disease and non-battle injury rates were computed for ships of the British Royal Navy which were deployed during wartime and peacetime operations. The wartime sick list admission rates were lower aboard carriers, battleships, and cruisers when compared with their counterparts deployed in peacetime; rate differences for battleships and cruisers were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Several categories of disease also yielded significant differences in the wartime/peacetime contrasts. Infections and parasitic disorders aboard carriers, skin diseases aboard battleships, and skin diseases, injuries, and generative system disorders occurring on cruisers were all lower during wartime than on peacetime deployments. Illness rates also varied by ship type, with the lowest rates evidenced aboard carriers. PMID:1470374

  10. A Free-Return Earth-Moon Cycler Orbit for an Interplanetary Cruise Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    A periodic circumlunar orbit is presented that can be used by an interplanetary cruise ship for regular travel between Earth and the Moon. This Earth-Moon cycler orbit was revealed by introducing solar gravity and modest phasing maneuvers (average of 39 m/s per month) which yields close-Earth encounters every 7 or 10 days. Lunar encounters occur every 26 days and offer the chance for a smaller craft to depart the cycler and enter lunar orbit, or head for a Lagrange point (e.g., EM-L2 halo orbit), distant retrograde orbit (DRO), or interplanetary destination such as a near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars. Additionally, return-to-Earth abort options are available from many points along the cycling trajectory.

  11. Using macroalgal δ15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs in Skagway, AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  12. Shipshape: sanitation inspections on cruise ships, 1990-2005, Vessel Sanitation Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Elaine H; Blanton, Curtis J; Otto, Charles

    2008-03-01

    In the course of a successful collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the cruise ship industry on reducing common-source outbreaks, CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) has expanded its training, education, and cruise ship inspection programs. The study reported here evaluated 15 years of ship sanitation inspection data from the National Center for Environmental Health and assessed performance in specific sanitation categories from 1996 to 2005. During the period 1990-2005, scores from cruise ship environmental sanitation inspections steadily improved. The percentage of inspections with violations decreased among five of nine categories. Those five categories were Washing Facilities, Contact Surfaces, Facility Maintenance, Food Handling, and Communicable Disease Practices. Inspection violations increased proportionally in the categories of Swimming Pools and Water System Protection/Chart Recording. Overall continued good performance in most sanitation categories is likely attributable to on-site training during inspections, improvements in ship construction, and a switch from hot-holding temperatures to time limits as a public health control for foods on display. PMID:18348387

  13. Cruise ships flow rate emission evaluated by means of a passive DOAS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masieri, S.; Premuda, M.; Bortoli, D.; Kostadinov, I.; Petritoli, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Giovanelli, G.

    2009-09-01

    The emissions of the cruise ships, in terms of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), are evaluated with the DOAS scanning spectrometer TropoGAS (Tropospheric Gas Analyser Spectrometer) developed at ISAC CNR in close collaboration with the CGE-UE. The slant columns amounts of the above mentioned compounds are obtained with the application of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique to the spectral measurements carried out with the TropoGAS instrument. This last is linked with an optical fibre to a simple scanning optical system allowing for measurements in multiple axis configurations. The measurements are carried out across the Giudecca Channel in Venice, during two field campaigns performed in July and in October 2007. The instrumental setup, the DOAS method and the technique for the evaluation of the ships emissions, are described. The results of flow rate emissions for NO2 and SO2 are presented and discussed. Their mean values are about 12g/s and 4 g/s for NO2 and SO2 respectively.

  14. A study of the medical causes of absence from duty aboard South African merchant ships

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    Levy, S. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 196-200. A study of the medical causes of absence from duty aboard South African merchant ships. Over a period of four and a half years 556 instances occurred in which crew members were put off duty on medical grounds for a period of four or more days. Illness accounted for 297 cases whereas accidents were responsible for 259 cases. Illiness and accident cases were off duty for an average period of 28 and 34 days respectively. Slightly more working days were thus lost on account of accidents. Admission to hospital was required in 90% of illnesses compared with only 36% of accidents. Appendicitis (of questionable veracity), peptic ulceration, and psychiatric disturbances were among the more common causes of incapacity. Forty percent of accidents occurred on deck and in the cargo holds. Fractures occurred most commonly in the upper limbs, especially the hand. Eleven percent of the accidents occurred ashore, mostly due to assault. Further study is required to elucidate whether the emotional problems encountered are brought to sea by the personnel or are a result of life on board ship. The high incidence of accidents stresses the fact that a sea career is one of the more dangerous occupations. PMID:5067298

  15. Honey Bee Swarms Aboard the USNS Comfort: Recommendations for Sting Prevention, Swarm Removal, and Medical Readiness on Military Ships.

    PubMed

    Dunford, James C; Kronmann, Karl C; Peet, Luke R; Stancil, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    The article provides observations of multiple honey bee (Apis mellifera) swarms aboard the USNS Comfort (TAH-20) during the Continuing Promise 2015 mission. A brief overview of swarming biology is given along with control/removal recommendations to reduce sting exposures. The observations suggest that preventive medicine personnel should provide adequate risk communications about the potential occurrence of bee swarms aboard military ships, and medical department personnel should be prepared for the possibility of treating of multiple sting exposures, especially in the Southern Command Area of Operations where the Africanized genotype of A mellifera is common. PMID:27613207

  16. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard - a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, S.; Hermansen, O.; Grythe, H.; Fiebig, M.; Stebel, K.; Cassiani, M.; Baecklund, A.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when ships were not present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime mean concentrations of 60 nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45%, respectively, relative to values when ships are not present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles, while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are present although they carry high pollutant concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60 nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications. Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summertime Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains as one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that

  17. Legionella species colonization of water distribution systems, pools and air conditioning systems in cruise ships and ferries

    PubMed Central

    Goutziana, Georgia; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Karanika, Maria; Kavagias, Antonios; Stathakis, Nikolaos E; Gourgoulianis, Kostantinos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionnaires' disease continues to be a public health concern in passenger ships. This study was scheduled in order to investigate Legionella spp. colonization of water distribution systems (WDS), recreational pools, and air-conditioning systems on board ferries and cruise ships in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella spp. colonization associated with ship water systems and water characteristics. Methods Water systems of 21 ferries and 10 cruise ships including WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were investigated for the presence of Legionella spp. Results The 133 samples collected from the 10 cruise ships WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were negative for Legionella spp. Of the 21 ferries WDS examined, 14 (66.7%) were legionellae-positive. A total of 276 samples were collected from WDS and air conditioning systems. Legionella spp. was isolated from 37.8% of the hot water samples and 17.5% of the cold water samples. Of the total 96 positive isolates, 87 (90.6%) were L. pneumophila. Legionella spp. colonization was positively associated with ship age. The temperature of the hot water samples was negatively associated with colonization of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and that of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14. Increases in pH ≥7.8 and total plate count ≥400 CFU/L, correlated positively with the counts of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14 and Legionella spp. respectively. Free chlorine of ≥0.2 mg/L inhibited colonization of Legionella spp. Conclusion WDS of ferries can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp. and may present a risk of Legionnaires' disease for passengers and crew members. Guidelines and advising of Legionnaires' disease prevention regarding ferries are needed, in particular for operators and crew members. PMID:19025638

  18. Molecular characterization of influenza B virus outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil 2012.

    PubMed

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Silva, Daniela Bernardes Borges da; Silva, Kátia Corrêa Oliveira; Pinho, Margarete Aparecida Benega; Curti, Suely Pires; Paiva, Terezinha Maria de; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, an outbreak of respiratory illness occurred on the cruise ship MSC Armonia in Brazil. A 31-year-old female crew member was hospitalized with respiratory failure and subsequently died. To study the etiology of the respiratory illness, tissue taken at necropsy from the deceased woman and respiratory specimens from thirteen passengers and crew members with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. Influenza real-time RT-PCR assays were performed, and the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza-positive samples was sequenced. Influenza B virus was detected in samples from seven of the individuals, suggesting that it was the cause of this respiratory illness outbreak. The sequence analysis of the HA gene indicated that the virus was closely related to the B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, Victoria lineage, a virus contained in the 2011-12 influenza vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere. Since the recommended composition of the influenza vaccine for use during the 2013 season changed, an intensive surveillance of viruses circulating worldwide is crucial. Molecular analysis is an important tool to characterize the pathogen responsible for an outbreak such as this. In addition, laboratory disease surveillance contributes to the control measures for vaccine-preventable influenza. PMID:24878994

  19. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  20. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  1. ``Out To Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship'' - Production of a Video and Teachers Guide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.; Tauxe, K.

    2004-12-01

    In May 2002, Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI) received a proposal entitled "Motivating Middle School Students with the JOIDES Resolution", from a middle school teacher in New Mexico named Katie Tauxe. Katie was a former Marine Technician who has worked aboard the R/V JOIDES Resolution in the early years of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). She proposed to engage the interest of middle school students using the ODP drillship as the centerpiece of a presentation focused on the lives of the people who work aboard the ship and the excitement of science communicated through an active shipboard experience. The proposal asked for travel funds to and from the ship, the loan of video camera equipment from JOI, and a small amount of funding to cover expendable supplies, video editing, and production at the local Public Broadcasting Station in Los Alamos, NM. Katie sailed on the transit of the JOIDES Resolution through the Panama Canal, following the completion of ODP Leg 206 in late 2002. This presentation will focus on the outcome of this video production effort, which is a 19 minute-long video entitled "Out to Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship", and a teacher's guide that can be found online.

  2. 2010 Joint United States-Canadian Program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy--Cruise HLY1002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Brian D.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    the Healy, resulting in much improved quality of the swath bathymetric and CHIRP subbottom data in comparison with data collected either by the Healy in the lead or the Healy working alone. During periods when the Healy was operating alone (principally when the Louis was diverted for emergency medical evacuations or ship repairs), the Healy was able to deploy a piston-core-sampler (10 meters maximum potential recovery depending on configuration). The coring operations resulted in recovery of cores at five locations ranging from 2.4 to 5.7 meters in length from water depths ranging from 1,157 to 3,700 meters. One of these cores sited on the Alaskan margin recovered the first reported occurrence of methane hydrate from the Arctic Ocean. Ancillary science objectives, including ice observations and deployment of ice-monitoring buoys and water-column sampling to measure acidification of Arctic waters were successfully conducted. The water-column sampling included using 10 full-ocean-depth, water-sampling casts with accompanying conductivity-temperature-depth measurements. Except for the data deemed proprietary, data from the cruise have been archived and are available for download at the National Geophysical Data Center and at cooperating organizations. Outreach staff and guest teachers aboard the two vessels provided near-real-time connection between the research activities and the public through online blogs, web pages, and other media.

  3. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  4. EU legislation on food and potable water safety which could be potentially applied on board ferries and cruise ships: a comparison with US legislation.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jenny; Nichols, Gordon

    2010-06-01

    The high number of people moving around by ferries and cruise ships in conjunction with great amounts of food and potable water transported (occasionally overloaded) and consumed by passengers constitute a possible risk for communicable diseases. Another issue of equally great importance is the food handlers who come from diverse origin and have a different mentality, habits, and background. In this paper an attempt is made to present comparatively EU and US legislation that could be potentially applicable to passenger ships food premises and potable water supplies. Moreover, food and water related hazards, not currently covered by EU legislation, were assessed together with US legislation and other guidelines for cruise ships. PMID:20544443

  5. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  6. Fast application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry aboard ship: how good is the new portable Spectro Xepos analyser?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wien, Katharina; Wissmann, Dirk; Kölling, Martin; Schulz, Horst D.

    2005-09-01

    A technique for onsite application of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to samples from sediment cores aboard a research vessel was developed and tested. The method is sufficiently simple, precise, and fast to be used routinely for high-resolution analyses of depth profiles as well as surface samples. Analyses were performed with the compact high-performance energy-dispersive polarisation X-ray fluorescence (EDPXRF) analyser Spectro Xepos. Contents of the elements Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, K, Sr, Ba, Rb, Cu, Ni, Zn, P, S, Cl and Br were simultaneously determined on 200 225 samples of each core within 24 h of recovery. This study presents a description of the employed shipboard preparation and analysis technique, along with some example data. We show land-based datasets that support our decisions to use powder samples and to reduce the original measuring time for onboard analyses. We demonstrate how well the results from shipboard measurements for the various elements compare with the land-based findings. The onboard geochemical data enabled us to establish an element stratigraphy already during the cruise. Correlation of iron, calcium and silicon enrichment trends with an older reference core provided an age model for the newly retrieved cores. The Spectro Xepos instrument performed without any analytical and technical difficulties which could have been caused by rougher weather conditions or continuous movement and vibration of the research vessel. By now, this XRF technique has been applied during three RV Meteor cruises to approximately 5,000 Late Quaternary sediment samples from altogether 23 gravity cores, 25 multicorer cores and two box cores from the eastern South Atlantic off South Africa/Namibia and the eastern Atlantic off NW Africa.

  7. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  8. Outbreak of respiratory illness on board a ship cruising to ports in southern Europe and northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Christenson, B; Lidin-Janson, G; Kallings, I

    1987-05-01

    A large outbreak of influenza-like and diarrhoeal illness took place over a period of 21 days in April 1984 on board a ship cruising to ports in southern Europe and northern Africa. A cohort study of the 418 passengers was made by postal questionnaire and personal interview. Of the 391 passengers who were interviewed or who returned a questionnaire, 335 (86%) were affected. Of the ill passengers, 295 (88%) had an influenza-like illness. These included 20 with signs of lower respiratory tract infection. In 24 passengers, a viral infection was diagnosed. Influenza B virus infection was identified in 14 cases; other diagnoses were influenza A, para-influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and Epstein-Barr virus infections. In two of the 81 patients tested for Legionella antibodies, a titre of 128 was found; in 16 and 44 patients, titres of 64 and 32 respectively. The outbreak was thus evidently caused by multiple pathogens mainly affecting the respiratory tract. Although most of the passengers acquired their infections on board the ship, a common source was not discovered. A steep rise in the epidemic curve the day after the air-conditioning was switched on, however, is worth noting. If and when similar instances of the 'Sick Boat Syndrome' recur, a search for environmental sources of infection is to be recommended. PMID:3585036

  9. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: (1) All waters... ship that is moored, or is in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: (1) All waters... ship that is moored, or is in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or...

  11. Meteorological observations from ship cruises during summer to the central Arctic: A comparison with reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, C.; Vihma, T.; Jakobson, E.; König-Langlo, G.; Tetzlaff, A.

    2010-05-01

    Near-surface meteorological observations and rawinsonde soundings from Arctic cruises with the German icebreaker RV Polarstern during August 1996, 2001, and 2007 are compared with each other and with ERA-Interim reanalyses. Although the observations are usually applied in the reanalysis, they differ considerably from ERA data. ERA overestimates the relative humidity and temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer and the base height of the capping inversion. Warm biases of ERA near-surface temperatures amount up to 2 K. The melting point of snow is the most frequent near-surface temperature in ERA, while the observed value is the sea water freezing temperature. Both observations and ERA show that above 400 m, in the North Atlantic sector 0-90 E, the warmest August occurred in 2001, and August 2007 had the highest humidity. In the Eastern Siberian and Beaufort Sea region ERA temperatures along 80 and 85 N were highest in 2007.

  12. Rapid detection of norovirus in naturally contaminated food: foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a prevalent pathogen of foodborne diseases; however, its detection in foods other than shellfish is often time consuming and unsuccessful. In 2010, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV was the etiologic agent suspected. The objectives of this study were to report that a handy in-house methodology was suitable for NoV detection in naturally contaminated food, and perform the molecular characterization of food strains. Food samples (blue cheese, Indian sauce, herbal butter, soup, and white sauce) were analyzed by ELISA, two methods of RNA extraction, TRIzol(®) and QIAamp(®), following conventional RT-PCR. The qPCR was used in order to confirm the NoV genogroups. GI and GII NoV genogroups were identified by conventional RT-PCR after RNA extraction by means of the TRIzol(®) method. Two GII NoV samples were successfully sequenced, classified as GII.4; and they displayed a genetic relationship with strains from the Asian continent also isolated in 2010. GII and GI NoV were identified in distinct food matrices suggesting that it was not a common source of contamination. TRIzol(®) extraction followed by conventional RT-PCR was a suitable methodology in order to identify NoV in naturally contaminated food. Moreover, food samples could be processed within 8 h indicating the value of the method used for NoV detection, and its potential to identify foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in food products other than shellfish. This is the first description in Brazil of NoV detection in naturally contaminated food other than shellfish involved in a foodborne outbreak. PMID:23412839

  13. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  14. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  19. Participation in the 1996 Arlindo Cruise to the Indonesian Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John

    1997-01-01

    The objective of Arlindo-Productivity is to understand the factors responsible for regional differences in the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to the SE and NW Monsoons in Indonesia. The hypothesis is that an interplay between circulation and shoaling of the nutricline, as a response to the monsoons, regulates productivity in the Indonesian Seas. My o@jective for the cruise in 1996 was to continue our collaboration with Indonesian scientists by conducting a set of hydrographic, primary production and spectral irradiance observations in the Indonesian Seas. This grant paid for shipping, travel and incidental costs associated with participation in the cruise in December, 1996. Ship costs were borne by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences as part of the collaborative effort. A plan for Arlindo in 1996 was agreed upon in March, 1996, by Indonesian scientists together with Arnold Gordon. The plan called for a 20-day physical oceanography and mooring cruise in November, 1996, followed by a 5-day bio-optical cruise. The bio-optical cruise departed from, and returned to, Ambon, and sampled in the Banda Sea. We completed a series of chlorophyll analyses, both a sampling of surface variability and depth profiles in the Banda Sea. We also completed three MER profiles for depth profiles of spectral irradiance. These data have a useful by-product in that they can be used for vicarious calibration of the OCTS sensor aboard the ADEOS satellite. As such, the data has been transmitted to NASDA in Japan for their use.

  20. Seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. EEZ off California - Data for RV Farnella cruise F7-87-SC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Reid, Jane A.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Dunham, Rachel E.; Clague, David A.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Davis, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and briefly describe ship-board and laboratory data for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research cruise aboard the RV Farnella that took place December 3-21, 1987 (cruise F7-87-SC). The purpose of the cruise was to survey seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off California. Eight seamounts were studied - Rodriguez, San Marcos, Adam, Hoss, Little Joe, Ben, Flint, and Jasper. A geophysical survey of Jasper Seamount took place, but that seamount was not sampled; whereas Adam and Hoss Seamounts were sampled, but not surveyed with geophysics lines.

  1. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2007-10-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  2. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2008-05-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  3. Prolonged femoral external fixation after natural disaster: successful late conversion to intramedullary nail aboard the USNS Mercy hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Sechriest, V Franklin; Lhowe, David W

    2008-01-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004, orthopaedic injuries were a major healthcare problem in parts of South East Asia. We report our late encounter with an Indonesian patient treated acutely with external fixation of a femur fracture. We describe our procedure for conversion of prolonged external fixation (59 days) to an intramedullary nail (IMN) aboard the USNS Mercy and provide two-year follow-up. A review of current literature on conversion of femoral external fixation to IMN is included. This report highlights the potential pitfalls of external fixation of femur fractures in an austere post-natural disaster environment where orthopaedic follow-up care may be delayed or nonexistent. PMID:19069035

  4. Ten years after the crime: Lasting effects of damage from a cruise ship anchor on a coral reef in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, C.S.; Garrison, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    In October 1988, a cruise ship dropped its anchor on a coral reef in Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, creating a distinct scar roughly 128 m long and 3 m wide from a depth of 22 m to a depth of 6 m. The anchor pulverized coral colonies and smashed part of the reef framework. In April 1991, nine permanent quadrats (1 m2) were established inside the scar over a depth range of 9 m to 12.5 m. At that time, average coral cover inside the scar was less than 1%. These quadrats were surveyed again in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1998. Recruits of 19 coral species have been observed, with Agaricia agaricites and Porites spp. the most abundant. Quadrats surveyed outside the scar in June 1994 over the same depth range had a higher percent coral cover (mean = 7.4%, SD = 4.5) and greater average size (maximum length) of coral colonies than in quadrats inside the damaged area. Although coral recruits settle into the scar in high densities, live coral cover has not increased significantly in the last 10 yrs, reflecting poor survival and growth of newly settled corals. The relatively planar aspect of the scar may increase the vulnerability of the recruits to abrasion and mortality from shifting sediments. Ten years after the anchor damage occurred, live coral cover in the still-visible scar (mean = 2.6%, SD = 2.7) remains well below the cover found in the adjacent, undamaged reef.

  5. The impact of shipping, agricultural, and urban emissions on single particle chemistry observed aboard the R/V Atlantis during CalNex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Bon, Daniel M.; Kuster, William C.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2013-05-01

    The Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaign was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the regional impacts of different pollution sources in California. As part of this study, real-time shipboard measurements were made of the size-resolved, single-particle mixing state of submicron and supermicron particles (0.2-3.0 µm aerodynamic diameter) along the California coast where major differences were noted between Southern and Northern California. In Southern California, particles containing soot made up the largest fraction of submicron particles (~38% on average and up to ~89% by number), whereas organic carbon particles comprised the largest fraction of submicron number concentrations (~29% on average and up to ~78% by number) in Northern California including the Sacramento area. The mixing state of these carbonaceous particle types varied during the cruise with sulfate being more prevalent on soot-containing particles in Southern California due to the influence of fresh shipping and port emissions in addition to contributions from marine biogenic emissions. Contributions from secondary organic aerosol species, including amines, and nitrate were more prevalent in Northern California, as well as during time periods impacted by agricultural emissions (e.g., from the inland Riverside and Central Valley regions). These regional differences and changes in the mixing state and sources of particles have implications for heterogeneous reactivity, water uptake, and cloud-nucleating abilities for aerosols in California.

  6. Observations of atmospheric methane and its stable isotope ratio (δ13C) over the Arctic seas from ship cruises in the summer and autumn of 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Novigatsky, Alexander; Thompson, Rona

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. The Arctic has significant sources of CH4, such as from wetlands and possibly also from methane hydrates, which may act as a positive feedback on the climate system. Despite significant efforts in establishing a network of ground-based CH4 observations in the Arctic zone, there is still a lack of measurements over the Arctic Ocean and sub-polar seas. From 21 July to 9 October 2015, concentrations of CH4 and CO2, as well as of the 13C:12C isotopic ratio in CH4, i.e., δ13C, were measured in the marine boundary layer from aboard the Research Vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. Measurements were made using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instrument from Picarro™ (model G2132-i). The cruises covered a vast area including the North Atlantic up to 70°N, the Baltic, North, Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first measurements of their type made in these regions. Concentrations of CH4 typically had low variations (in the range of a few ppb) in the open sea but relatively large variations (of the order of 100 ppb) were recorded near and during stops in ports. High variability of atmospheric CH4 was also registered near the delta of the Lena River in the Laptev Sea, which has been suggested to be a large CH4 reservoir and where bubbles rising through the water column have been observed. The obtained set of δ13CCH4 is characterized by significant range of the measured values varying from open Atlantic to polluted regions near large sea ports. The Keeling plot analyses were implemented to study possible CH4 sources according to its isotopic signature. Footprint analyses are presented for the shipboard observations, as well as comparisons to simulated CH4 concentrations and δ13C using the Lagrangian transport model, FLEXPART. This work has been carried-out with the financial support of

  7. Characterization of a variant strain of Norwalk virus from a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis on a cruise ship in Hawaii.

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, B L; Lew, J F; Moe, C L; Lewis, D C; Humphrey, C D; Monroe, S S; Pon, E W; Glass, R I

    1994-01-01

    A gastroenteritis outbreak affecting at least 217 (41%) of 527 passengers on a cruise ship was caused by a variant strain of Norwalk virus (NV) that is related to but distinct from the prototype NV strain. Consumption of fresh-cut fruit served at two buffets was significantly associated with illness (P < or = 0.01), and a significant dose-response relationship was evident between illness and the number of various fresh-cut fruit items eaten. Seven (58%) of 12 paired serum specimens from ill persons demonstrated at least fourfold rises in antibody response to recombinant NV capsid antigen. A 32-nm small round-structured virus was visualized by electron microscopy in 4 (29%) of 14 fecal specimens, but none of the 8 specimens that were examined by an enzyme immunoassay for NV antigen demonstrated antigen. Four (40%) of 10 fecal specimens were positive by reverse transcriptase-PCR by using primer pairs selected from the polymerase region of NV. In a 145-bp region, the PCR product shared only 72% nucleotide sequence identity with the reference NV strain and 77% nucleotide sequence identity with Southampton virus but shared 95% nucleotide sequence identity with UK2 virus, a United Kingdom reference virus strain. In addition, the outbreak virus was serotyped as UK2 virus by solid-phase immune electron microscopy. The genetic and antigenic divergence of the outbreak strain from the reference NV strain highlights the need for more broadly reactive diagnostic assays and for improved understanding of the relatedness of the NV group of agents. Images PMID:8027335

  8. FRV Deleware II cruise, 30 June to 7 July 1978. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K.

    1982-05-01

    This was the last of three companion cruises designed to provide broad-scale coverage of seasonal shelf conditions occurring between the April and October investigations undertaken aboard ATLANTIS II cruises 99 and 104.

  9. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. THOMPSON: TN043, January 8, 1995--February 4, 1995; TN044, February 8, 1995--February 25, 1995; TN045, March 14, 1995--April 10, 1995; TN046, April 14, 1995--April 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, C.N.; Kim, H.S.; Shi, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data from the R/V T.G. THOMPSON is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises on the THOMPSON are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996. This is the second in a series of data reports covering the ADCP data from the Arabian Sea JGOFS cruises TNO43 through TNO46. ADCP data are being collected on all the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises. This system, referred to as the AutoADCP, makes it possible to collect the ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and assures constant data coverage and uniform data quality. This data report presents ADCP results from the second group of four JGOFS cruises, TNO43 through TNO46, concentrating on the data collection and processing methods. The ADCP data itself reside in a CODAS data base at Brookhaven National Laboratory and is generally available to JGOFS investigators through contact with the authors. The CODAS data base and associated ADCP processing software were developed over a number of years by Eric Firing and his group at the University of Hawaii. The CODAS software is shareware available for PC`s or Unix computers and is the single most widely used ADCP processing program for ship mounted units.

  10. Survey report of NOAA Ship McArthur II cruises AR-04-04, AR-05-05 and AR-06-03: habitat classification of side scan sonar imagery in support of deep-sea coral/sponge explorations at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Intelmann, Steven S.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Bowlby, C. Edward; Brancato, Mary Sue; Hyland, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Habitat mapping and characterization has been defined as a high-priority management issue for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS), especially for poorly known deep-sea habitats that may be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. As a result, a team of scientists from OCNMS, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and other partnering institutions initiated a series of surveys to assess the distribution of deep-sea coral/sponge assemblages within the sanctuary and to look for evidence of potential anthropogenic impacts in these critical habitats. Initial results indicated that remotely delineating areas of hard bottom substrate through acoustic sensing could be a useful tool to increase the efficiency and success of subsequent ROV-based surveys of the associated deep-sea fauna. Accordingly, side scan sonar surveys were conducted in May 2004, June 2005, and April 2006 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur II to: (1) obtain additional imagery of the seafloor for broader habitat-mapping coverage of sanctuary waters, and (2) help delineate suitable deep-sea coral-sponge habitat, in areas of both high and low commercial-fishing activities, to serve as sites for surveying-in more detail using an ROV on subsequent cruises, Several regions of the sea floor throughout the OCNMS were surveyed and mosaicked at 1-meter pixel resolution. Imagery from the side scan sonar mapping efforts was integrated with other complementary data from a towed camera sled, ROVs, sedentary samples, and bathymetry records to describe geological and biological (where possible) aspects of habitat. Using a hierarchical deep-water marine benthic classification scheme (Greene et al. 1999), we created a preliminary map of various habitat polygon features for use in a geographical information system (GIS). This report provides a description of the mapping and groundtruthing efforts as well as results of the image classification procedure for each of the areas surveyed.

  11. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships...

  12. 32 CFR 705.23 - Guest cruises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guest cruises. 705.23 Section 705.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.23 Guest cruises. (a) General policy. (1) The embarkation of civilian guests in Navy ships...

  13. Physicochemical variations in atmospheric aerosols recorded at sea onboard the Atlantic-Mediterranean 2008 Scholar Ship cruise (Part II): Natural versus anthropogenic influences revealed by PM 10 trace element geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Teresa; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Bhatia, Ravinder; Spiro, Baruch; Hanvey, Melanie; Gibbons, Wes

    2010-07-01

    The geochemistry of PM 10 filter samples collected at sea during the Scholar Ship Atlantic-Mediterranean 2008 research cruise reveals a constantly changing compositional mix of pollutants into the marine atmosphere. Source apportionment modelling using Positive Matrix Factorization identifies North African desert dust, sea spray, secondary inorganic aerosols, metalliferous carbon, and V-Ni-bearing combustion particles as the main PM 10 factors/sources. The least contaminated samples show an upper continental crust composition (UCC)-normalised geochemistry influenced by seawater chemistry, with marked depletions in Rb, Th and the lighter lanthanoid elements, whereas the arrival of desert dust intrusions imposes a more upper crustal signature enriched in "geological" elements such as Si, Al, Ti, Rb, Li and Sc. Superimposed on these natural background aerosol loadings are anthropogenic metal aerosols (e.g. Cu, Zn, Pb, V, and Mn) which allow identification of pollution sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, metalliferous industries, and urban-industrial ports. A particularly sensitive tracer is La/Ce, which rises in response to contamination from coastal FCC oil refineries. The Scholar Ship database allows us to recognise seaborne pollution sourced from NW Africa, the Cape Verde and Canary islands, and European cities and industrial complexes, plumes which in extreme cases can produce a downwind deterioration in marine air quality comparable to that seen in many cities, and can persist hundreds of kilometres from land.

  14. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  15. Icebreaking ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Antarctic Program will have a new ship for working in polar waters by early 1992. It will be the first U.S. ship with icebreaking capability dedicated to scientific research. The Polar Duke, currently leased by the National Science Foundation, which manages the program, is ice-strengthened but cannot break ice.NSF announced in February that an $83.8-million contract for construction and 10-year lease of the 900-m ship had been signed with Edison Chouest Offshore, Inc., of Galliano, La. The design calls for a crew of 22, support for the research of 37 scientists for cruises as long as 75 days, a helicopter landing deck and housing and maintenance for two 4-passenger helicopters. The ship will have two propellers with three diesel engines driving each; the six engines can generate 11,070 horsepower. While it is not a true icebreaker, the ship will be able to break ice as thick as a meter at a speed of 3 knots

  16. Physicochemical variations in atmospheric aerosols recorded at sea onboard the Atlantic-Mediterranean 2008 Scholar Ship cruise (Part I): Particle mass concentrations, size ratios, and main chemical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Bhatia, Ravinder; Spiro, Baruch; Hanvey, Melanie

    2010-07-01

    We report on ambient atmospheric aerosols present at sea during the Atlantic-Mediterranean voyage of Oceanic II (The Scholar Ship) in spring 2008. A record was obtained of hourly PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 particle size fraction concentrations and 24-h filter samples for chemical analysis which allowed for comparison between levels of crustal particles, sea spray, total carbon, and secondary inorganic aerosols. On-board monitoring was continuous from the equatorial Atlantic to the Straits of Gibraltar, across the Mediterranean to Istanbul, and back via Lisbon to the English Channel. Initially clean air in the open Atlantic registered PM 10 levels <10 μg m -3 but became progressively polluted by increasingly coarse PM as the ship approached land. Away from major port cities, the main sources of atmospheric contamination identified were dust intrusions from North Africa (NAF), smoke plumes from biomass burning in sub-Saharan Africa and Russia, industrial sulphate clouds and other regional pollution sources transported from Europe, sea spray during rough seas, and plumes emanating from islands. Under dry NAF intrusions PM 10 daily mean levels averaged 40-60 μg m -3 (30-40 μg m -3 PM 2.5; c. 20 μg m -3 PM 1), peaking briefly to >120 μg m -3 (hourly mean) when the ship passed through curtains of higher dust concentrations amassed at the frontal edge of the dust cloud. PM 1/PM 10 ratios ranged from very low during desert dust intrusions (0.3-0.4) to very high during anthropogenic pollution plume events (0.8-1).

  17. Project PROBE Leg I - Report and archive of multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter , CTD/XBT and GPS navigation data collected during USGS Cruise 02051 (NOAA Cruise RB0208) Puerto Rico Trench September 24, 2002 to September 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Worley, Charles R.; Smith, Shep; Stepka, Thomas; Williams, Glynn F.

    2006-01-01

    On September 24-30, 2002, six days of scientific surveying to map a section of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) took place aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Ron Brown. The cruise was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data were collected over an area of about 25,000 sq. km of the Puerto Rico trench and its vicinity at water depths of 4000-8400 m. Weather conditions during the entire survey were good; there were light to moderate winds and 1-2 foot swells experiencing minor chop. The roll and pitch of the ship's interaction with the ocean were not conspicuous. Cruise participants included personnel from USGS, NOAA, and University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center. The cruise resulted in the discovery of a major active strike-slip fault system close to the trench, submarine slides on the descending North American tectonic plate, and an extinct mud volcano, which was cut by the strike-slip fault system. Another strike-slip fault system closer to Puerto Rico that was previously considered to accommodate much of the relative plate motion appears to be inactive. The seaward continuation of the Mona Rift, a zone of extension between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic that generated a devastating tsunami in 1918, was mapped for the first time.

  18. Archive of single-beam bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 07CCT01 nearshore of Fort Massachusetts and within Camille Cut, West and East Ship Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, B.J.; Hansen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) is composed of a series of barrier islands along the Mississippi - Alabama coastline. Historically these islands have undergone long-term shoreline change. The devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 prompted questions about the stability of the barrier islands and their potential response to future storm impacts. Additionally, there was concern from the National Park Service (NPS) about the preservation of the historical Fort Massachusetts, located on West Ship Island. During the early 1900s, Ship Island was an individual island. In 1969 Hurricane Camille breached Ship Island, widening the cut and splitting it into what is now known as West Ship Island and East Ship Island. In July of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was able to provide the NPS with a small bathymetric survey of Camille Cut using high-resolution single-beam bathymetry. This provided GUIS with a post-Katrina assessment of the bathymetry in Camille Cut and along the northern shoreline directly in front of Fort Massachusetts. Ultimately, this survey became an initial bathymetry dataset toward a larger USGS effort included in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project (http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/). This report serves as an archive of the processed single-beam bathymetry. Data products herein include gridded and interpolated digital depth surfaces and x,y,z data products. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, geographic information system (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for description of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique

  19. BENCAL Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather; Silulwane, Nonkqubela; Engel, Hermann; Aiken, James; Fishwick, James; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Morel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the South African Fisheries Research Ship (FRS) Africana during an ocean color calibration and validation cruise in the Benguela upwelling ecosystem (BEN-CAL), 4-17 October 2002. The cruise, denoted Afncana voyage 170, was staged in the southern Benguela between Cape Town and the Orange River within the region 14-18.5 deg E,29-34 deg S, with 15 scientists participat- ing from seven different international organizations. Uniquely in October 2002, four high-precision ocean color sensors were operational, and these included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). SeaWiFS imagery was transmitted daily to the ship to assist in choosing the vessel's course and selecting stations for bio-optical deployments. There were four primary objectives of the cruise. The first was to conduct bio-optical measurements with above- and in-water optical instruments to vicariously calibrate the satellite sensors. The second was to interrelate diverse measurements of the apparent optical properties (AOPs) at satellite sensor wavelengths with inherent optical properties (IOPs) and bio-optically active constituents of seawater such as particles, pigments, and dissolved compounds. The third was to determine the interrelationships between optical properties, phytoplankton pigment composition, photosynthetic rates, and primary production, while the fourth objective was to collect samples for a second pigment round-robin intercalibration experiment. Weather conditions were generally very favorable, and a range of hyperspectral and fixed wavelength AOP instruments were deployed during daylight hours. Various IOP instruments were used to determine the absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering properties of particulate matter and dissolved substances, while

  20. The next generation of ship-to-shore networking from research vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S.; Coleman, D. F.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    As mobile satellite technology has slowly become more readily available over the last decade, an always-online culture aboard research vessels has expanded dramatically and been limited by cost. During the past few years, several science projects have funded additional bandwidth for real-time video outreach and bulk data exchanges between the research vessel and shore. These types of operations are becoming more common throughout the fleet, where nearly every cruise could benefit by having additional bandwidth. Increasing demands for Internet connectivity while at sea, whether for science operations, educational outreach, or other technical communications, will require changes to the research fleet's cyberinfrastructure. With the next generation of satellite technology poised to dramatically drop in price and increase in capacity, now is the time to shape ship-to-shore/shore-to-ship communications for the future.

  1. Improved Tracking of Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Ed; Sathyendranath, Shubha; de Leeuw, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Every year, several hundred ocean research cruises are conducted by academic institutions and government agencies worldwide, with major expenditures of finances and human resources. Ships may be in the same ocean area at the same time without prior knowledge of one another's activities, missing opportunities for joint work. Some ships go to sea with empty berths, which might have been filled if scientists from other institutions or countries had known about the availability of space. Many scientists using in situ instruments have missed opportunities to deploy them in seldom visited parts of the ocean because the scientists did not realize a ship was going to that area, and opportunities for ``sea truthing'' of satellite observations in remote regions are missed.

  2. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Revision Meeting for VSP Operations Manual and Construction Guidelines 2015 VSP Annual Meeting and Revision Meetings, ... Swimming Pools and Whirlpool Spas 7.0 Food Safety 8.0 Integrated Pest Management 9.0 Housekeeping ...

  3. Determination of oceanic ozone deposition by ship-borne eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariteau, L.; Helmig, D.; Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Hueber, J.; Lang, E. K.

    2009-08-01

    A fast response ozone analyzer based on the ozone-nitric oxide chemiluminescence method was integrated into the NOAA-ESRL flux system to achieve the first ship-borne, direct ozone flux measurements over the open ocean. Air was collected from an inlet at 18 m height over the ocean surface mounted to the bow-jackstaff and via a 30 m-long sampling line to the ozone instrument on the ship deck. A "puff" system was used for accurate and regular determination of the sample transport time (lag) between the inlet and the chemical analyzer. A Nafion-membrane dryer facilitated removal of fast water vapor fluctuations, which eliminated the need for quenching and density correction of the ozone signal. The sampling-analyzer system was found to have a ~0.25-0.40 s response time at a sensitivity of ~2800 counts s-1 per ppbv of ozone. Quality control and data filtering procedures for eliminating data that did not meet measurement requirements were critically evaluated. The new ozone flux system was deployed during several cruises aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, and evaluated using results obtained during several research cruises off the coasts of the North and South America continents.

  4. [The hospital ship Jutlandia].

    PubMed

    Winge, M

    1996-01-01

    The Danish contribution to the United Nations action during the Korean War (1950-52) was the hospital ship "Jutlandia". The motorvessel Jutlandia - 8.500 tons - was built by the Nakskov Shipyard in 1934, and was rebuilt in three months at the same shipyard to a modern hospital ship with 300 beds, 3 operating theatres, a dental clinic, an x-ray department etc. The crew and the hospital staff consisted approximately each of 100 persons. Jutlandia sailed for Korea on Jan. 23. 1951 and the expedition ended in Copenhagen on Oct. 16. 1953. On the first two cruises the ship was stationed at Pusan. During the first period mostly as an "evacuation sick-bay" and during the second period the ship was opened for Korean military and civil patients, and extensive help was given to the local population on shore. While in Denmark between the second and third cruise a helicopter deck was installed and the operating theatre for neuro-surgery was changed to an opthalmic clinic. This time the ship was stationed at the Bay of Ichon so close to the front, that the wounded could be admitted directly from the advanced dressing stations. On the return journeys to Europe patients were sailed to their home countries. Commodore Kai Hammerich was in charge of the expedition and captain Christen Kondrup was in charge of the ship, throughout the whole expedition. PMID:11625136

  5. 2008 Joint United States-Canadian program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Healy--Cruise HLY0806

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Arctic Beaufort Sea aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter USCGC Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) in the Arctic Ocean in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St- Laurent. The science parties on the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the USGS (Healy), and the GSC and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew included marine mammal and Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. The joint survey proved an unqualified success. The Healy collected 5,528 km of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (38,806 km2) and CHIRP subbottom profile data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements. The Louis acquired 2,817 km of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection-profile data along 12 continuous lines, as well as 35 sonobuoy refraction stations and accompanying single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection profile data of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. Equipment failure rate of the seismic equipment gear aboard the Louis was greatly improved with the advantage of having a leading icebreaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led the Healy, resulting in much improved quality of the swath bathymetry and CHIRP sub-bottom data in comparison with data collected by the Healy in the lead or working alone. Ancillary science objectives, including ice observations, deployment

  6. First extended validation of satellite microwave liquid water path with ship-based observations of marine low clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painemal, David; Greenwald, Thomas; Cadeddu, Maria; Minnis, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We present the first extended validation of satellite microwave (MW) liquid water path (LWP) for low nonprecipitating clouds, from four operational sensors, against ship-borne observations from a three-channel MW radiometer collected along ship transects over the northeast Pacific during May-August 2013. Satellite MW retrievals have an overall correlation of 0.84 with ship observations and a bias of 9.3 g/m2. The bias for broken cloud scenes increases linearly with water vapor path and remains below 17.7 g/m2. In contrast, satellite MW LWP is unbiased in overcast scenes with correlations up to 0.91, demonstrating that the retrievals are accurate and reliable under these conditions. Satellite MW retrievals produce a diurnal cycle amplitude consistent with ship-based observations (33 g/m2). Observations taken aboard extended ship cruises to evaluate not only satellite MW LWP but also LWP derived from visible/infrared sensors offer a new way to validate this important property over vast oceanic regions.

  7. 29 CFR 1918.67 - Notifying the ship's officers before using certain equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bringing aboard ship internal combustion or electric powered tools, equipment or vehicles. (b) The employer shall also notify the officer in charge of the vessel before using the ship's electric power for the operation of any electric tools or equipment....

  8. 29 CFR 1918.67 - Notifying the ship's officers before using certain equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bringing aboard ship internal combustion or electric powered tools, equipment or vehicles. (b) The employer shall also notify the officer in charge of the vessel before using the ship's electric power for the operation of any electric tools or equipment....

  9. 29 CFR 1918.67 - Notifying the ship's officers before using certain equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bringing aboard ship internal combustion or electric powered tools, equipment or vehicles. (b) The employer shall also notify the officer in charge of the vessel before using the ship's electric power for the operation of any electric tools or equipment....

  10. 29 CFR 1918.67 - Notifying the ship's officers before using certain equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bringing aboard ship internal combustion or electric powered tools, equipment or vehicles. (b) The employer shall also notify the officer in charge of the vessel before using the ship's electric power for the operation of any electric tools or equipment....

  11. Determination of oceanic ozone deposition by ship-borne eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariteau, L.; Helmig, D.; Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Hueber, J.; Lang, E. K.

    2010-04-01

    A fast response ozone analyzer based on the ozone-nitric oxide chemiluminescence method was integrated into the NOAA-ESRL flux system to achieve the first ship-borne, direct ozone flux measurements over the open ocean. Air was collected from an inlet at 18 m height over the ocean surface mounted to the bow-jackstaff and via a 30 m-long sampling line to the ozone instrument on the ship deck. A "puff" system was used for accurate and regular determination of the sample transport time (lag) between the inlet and the chemical analyzer. A Nafion-membrane dryer facilitated removal of fast water vapor fluctuations, which eliminated the need for quenching and density correction of the ozone signal. The sampling-analyzer system was found to have a ~0.25-0.40 s response time at a sensitivity of ~2800 counts s-1 per ppbv of ozone. Quality control and data filtering procedures for eliminating data that did not meet measurement requirements were critically evaluated. The new ozone flux system was deployed aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, and evaluated using results obtained during several research cruises off the coasts of the North and South America continents, yielding ozone deposition velocities (mean ± standard error) ranging from 0.009±0.001 cm s-1 to 0.24±0.020 cm s-1.

  12. Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Yang, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. PMID:25617776

  13. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT03 offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from East Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama, April 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Gibson, James N.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected aboard the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) SV Irvington, a 56-foot (ft) Kvichak Marine Industries, Inc., catamaran (fig. 2). Side scan sonar and multibeam bathymetry data were collected simultaneously along the tracklines. The side scan sonar towfish was towed off the starboard side just slightly behind the vessel, close to the seafloor. The multibeam transducer was attached to a retractable strut-arm lowered between the catamaran hulls. Navigation was acquired with an Applanix POS MV and differentially corrected using the broadcast signal from a local National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) beacon. See the digital FACS equipment log for details about the acquisition equipment used. Raw datasets were stored digitally and processed using HYPACK Inc., HYSWEEP software at the USACE Mobile, Ala., District office. For more information on processing refer to the Equipment and Processing page. Chirp seismic data were also collected during this survey and are archived separately.

  14. Bionetics Company technician preparing to remove rats from shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Bionetics Company technician in Hanger L at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, is preparing to remove 5 rats from their shipping container. They will fly aboard the shuttle Challenger in the Spacelab module.

  15. Supersonic Cruise Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, F. Edward

    1985-01-01

    The history and status of supersonic cruise research is covered. The early research efforts of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and efforts during the B-70 and SST phase are included. Technological progress made during the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research and Variable Cycle Engine programs are presented. While emphasis is on NASA's contributions to supersonic cruise research in the U.S., also noted are developments in England, France, and Russia. Written in nontechnical language, this book presents the most critical technology issues and research findings.

  16. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  17. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  18. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  19. 46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills. (a) Material for abandon-ship training must be aboard each vessel. The material must consist of a manual of one or...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.67 - Notifying the ship's officers before using certain equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notifying the ship's officers before using certain... Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.67 Notifying the ship's officers before... bringing aboard ship internal combustion or electric powered tools, equipment or vehicles. (b) The...

  1. Cruise Missile Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Williams International's F107 fanjet engine is used in two types of cruise missiles, Navy-sponsored Tomahawk and the Air Force AGM-86B Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). Engine produces about 600 pounds thrust, is one foot in diameter and weighs only 141 pounds. Design was aided by use of a COSMIC program in calculating airflows in engine's internal ducting, resulting in a more efficient engine with increased thrust and reduced fuel consumption.

  2. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  3. Cosmic Rays with Portable Geiger Counters: From Sea Level to Airplane Cruise Altitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive…

  4. Men and Women in Ships: Preconceptions of the Crews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greebler, Carol S.; And Others

    Preintegration attitudes and expectations of 1,936 men and 346 women assigned to six Navy ships were measured before the women reported aboard, through the administration of gender-specific versions of the "Navy in Transition" questionnaire. An additional 483 men assigned to a ship not scheduled for integration completed the questionnaire for…

  5. Determination of sea surface height from moving ships with dynamic corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinking, J.; Härting, A.; Bastos, L.

    2012-11-01

    With the growing global efforts to estimate the influence of civilization on the climate change it would be desirable to survey sea surface heights (SSH) not only by remote sensing techniques like satellite altimetry or (GNSS) Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry but also by direct and in-situ measurements in the open ocean. In recent years different groups attempted to determine SSH by ship-based GNSS observations. Due to recent advances in kinematic GNSS (PPP) Precise Point Positioning analysis it is already possible to derive GNSS antenna heights with a quality of a few centimeters. Therefore it is foreseeable that this technique will be used more intensively in the future, with obvious advantages in sea positioning. For the determination of actual SSH from GNSS-derived antenna heights aboard seagoing vessels some essential hydrostatic and hydrodynamic corrections must be considered in addition to ocean dynamics and related corrections. Systematic influences of ship dynamics were intensively analyzed and sophisticated techniques were developed at the Jade University during the last decades to precisely estimate mandatory corrections. In this paper we will describe the required analyses and demonstrate their application by presenting a case study from an experiment on a cruise vessel carried out in March 2011 in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Core descriptions, core photographs, physical property logs and surface textural data of sediment cores recovered from the continental shelf of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary during the research cruises M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97-MB

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orzech, Kevin M.; Dahl, Wendy E.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the 1992 creation of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a multiyear investigation of the Sanctuary continental margin. As part of the investigative effort, this report summarizes the shipboard procedures, subsequent laboratory analyses, and data results from three seafloor sampling cruises conducted on the continental shelf between Monterey peninsula, CA and San Francisco, CA. The cruises were conducted in 1995 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur (M-1-95-MB) and in 1995 and 1997 aboard the R/V Point Sur (P-2-95-MB and P-1-97-MB). Scientists and representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), and the San Jose State University Moss Landing Marine Laboratory (SJSU-MLML) supported the research effort. In this report we present sediment descriptions, sediment textural data, physical property logs, station metadata, and photographs of subcores from a total of three hundred and eighty four sample stations. At these sites either a box corer, MultiCore™r, grab sampler or a combination of these sampling devices were used to collect the sea floor sediments. The report is presented in an interactive web-based format with each mapped core station linked to the corresponding description and photo, and to a spreadsheet of surface texture and other sampling data.

  7. SHIP: the Seafarers Health Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Urner, C J

    1987-06-01

    The Seafarers Health Improvement Program (SHIP) was initiated in 1978 by the United States Public Health Service to improve the health status of seafarers, their health environment, medical care and safety aboard ship, and communication between parties responsible for the health and safety of American seafarers. The program is a collaborative effort of representatives of the maritime industry, physicians, and concerned governmental agencies. Principal achievements of SHIP include establishment of Entry Level Standards and Retention Guidelines for seafarers, development of the Seafarer Emergency Medical Training Program, and initiation of a program making medical records available on board. PMID:3612327

  8. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  9. Ship-based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements in the Atlantic Ocean, Comparison with Satellite Retrievals and GOCART Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Sakerin, S.; Kabanov, D.; Slutsker, I.; Remer, L. A.; Kahn, R.; Ignatov, A.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Mishchenko, M.; Liu, L.; Kucsera, T. L.; Giles, D.; Eck, T. F.; Torres, O.; Kopelevich, O.

    2005-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth measurements were made in October -December 2004 aboard of R/V Akademik Sergey Vavilov. The cruise area included the Atlantic transect from North Sea to Cape Town and then a crossing in the South Atlantic to Ushuaia, Argentina. The hand-held Microtops II sunphotometer was used to acquire 314 series of measurements spanning 38 days. The sunphotometer was pre-calibrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center against a master sun/sky radiometer instrument of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The direct sun measurements were acquired in five spectral channels: 340, 440, 675, 870 and 940 nm. To retrieve aerosol optical depths we applied AERONET processing algorithm (Version 2) to the raw data. Aerosol optical depth values were close to background oceanic conditions (0.04-0.08) in the open oceanic areas not influenced by continental sources. Spectral dependence can be described as almost neutral (Angstrom parameter was less than 0.6), especially in the Southern Atlantic. A notable latitudinal variability of optical depth was observed between 15N and 21S, which was associated with the aerosol transport from Africa. Correlations between optical depth and meteorological parameters were considered and comparison between ship-based measurements and AERONET sites along the cruise track was made. Aerosol optical depths were compared to the global transport model (GOCART) simulations and satellite retrievals from MODIS, MISR, and AVHRR.

  10. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  11. Dispelling myths about verification of sea-launched cruise missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N. ); Ride, S.K. ); Townsend, J.S. )

    1989-11-10

    It is widely believed that an arms control limit on nuclear-armed sea-launched cruise missiles would be nearly impossible to verify. Among the reasons usually given are: these weapons are small, built in nondistinctive industrial facilities, deployed on a variety of ships and submarines, and difficult to distinguish from their conventionally armed counterparts. In this article, it is argued that the covert production and deployment of nuclear-armed sea-launched cruise missiles would not be so straightforward. A specific arms control proposed is described, namely a total ban on nuclear-armed sea-launched cruise missiles. This proposal is used to illustrate how an effective verification scheme might be constructed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  13. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  14. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  15. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  16. 47 CFR 80.53 - Application for a portable ship station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for a portable ship station license... a portable ship station license. The Commission may grant a license permitting operation of a portable ship station aboard different vessels of the United States....

  17. Atmospheric mercury in the marine boundary layer along a cruise path from Shanghai, China to Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chonghuan; Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang

    2010-05-01

    The total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were performed using an automatic Mercury Vapor Analyze (model 2537B) aboard the Chinese research vessel (R/V) XueLong during the 24th China Antarctic Research Expedition from Shanghai, China to Prydz Bay, Antarctica in 2007. TGM ranged between 0.302 and 4.496 ng m -3 with an average of 1.536 ± 0.785 ng m -3 over the entire period. Geographically, TGM in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere along the cruise path were 1.746 ± 0.513 and 1.471 ± 0.842 ng m -3 in average, respectively. Higher TGM concentrations were observed in the coastal regions outside the polar region due primarily to air masses transported from the adjacent mainland reflecting the contribution from anthropogenic sources. The pronounced episode was recorded when ship passed through Sunda straits, which should be ascribed to the volcano plume and/or biomass burning contamination. In the maritime Antarctic TGM level was in agreement with the values by land-based observation, presenting a diurnal cycle with the maximum around midday and minimum at night. Atmospheric mercury destruction events dominated by the oxidation of atmospheric Hg 0 were apparently observed in this region.

  18. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  19. Remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 above the Atlantic from aboard the research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappenbach, F.; Bertleff, M.; Julian, K.; Hase, F.; Gisi, M.; Butz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global measurements of the column average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) are of great interest for inferring information on sources and sinks of these two major anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Satellite remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 is an emerging tool which promises to supplement the traditional ground-based in-situ sampling approach by vast data coverage. The usefulness of XCO2 and XCH4measured by satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2, however, crucially depends on precision and accuracy. Therefore, validation by ground-based remote sensing observations is of major importance. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has been designed to meet these validation needs. It covers a few tens of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers operating at very high spectral resolution. Most of these instruments are located on continental regions especially in the northern hemisphere. However, oceanic regions are sparsely validated. In the framework of the development of a robust, small and versatile spectrometer for harsh environments, we operated two instruments, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EM27/SUN by Bruker) and a custom-built grating spectrometer aboard the German research vessel Polarstern. Here, we will present and discuss instrument performance as well as the retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 mixing ratios along the ship track from Capetown (SA) to Bremerhaven (GER) during the 5-week cruise in March 2014. We assess the usefulness of the dataset for validating GOSAT ocean glint observations.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry measurements from the 1992 ASTEX/MAGE Cruise, May 30, 1992 through July 21, 1992, Cruise Number 91-126. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Carsey, T.P.; Farmer, M.L.; Fischer, C.J.; Mendez, A.; Pszenny, A.A.

    1994-10-01

    The report describes the results of the 1992 ASTEX/MAGE cruise aboard the NOAA R/V MALCOLM BALDRIGE. The cruise was designed to support research sponsored by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program under: (1) the Marine Sulfur and Climate (MS&C) component of the Atmosphere and Land-Surface Processes Core Project, and (2) the Radiatively Important Trace Species (RITS) component of the Atmospheric Chemistry Core Project. Chemical and meteorological measurements obtained on the cruise include reduced sulfur gases, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and peroxyacetyl nitrate, rawinsondes, aerosol chemistry, microwave radiometry, vertical wind profiles, heat and water momentum flux, non-methane hydrocarbons, trace metals, aerosol size distributions, aerosol physical properties, and surface water chlorophyll. The report contains a brief description of the experimental apparatus and procedures employed, plus graphic and tabular presentations of the data sets, for most of the data from AOML/OCD investigators.

  1. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Die adaptive Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung (ACC, Adaptive Cruise Control) ist eine Weiterentwicklung der konventionellen Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung, die eine konstante Fahrgeschwindigkeit einstellt. ACC überwacht mittels eines Radarsensors den Bereich vor dem Fahrzeug und passt die Geschwindigkeit den Gegebenheiten an. ACC reagiert auf langsamer vorausfahrende oder einscherende Fahrzeuge mit einer Reduzierung der Geschwindigkeit, sodass der vorgeschriebene Mindestabstand zum vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug nicht unterschritten wird. Hierzu greift ACC in Antrieb und Bremse ein. Sobald das vorausfahrende Fahrzeug beschleunigt oder die Spur verlässt, regelt ACC die Geschwindigkeit wieder auf die vorgegebene Sollgeschwindigkeit ein (Bild 1). ACC steht somit für eine Geschwindigkeitsregelung, die sich dem vorausfahrenden Verkehr anpasst.

  2. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  3. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  4. 77 FR 50511 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Register on November 24, 1987 (52 FR 45019). HHS/CDC began collecting fees on March 1, 1988. This notice... factors were established in the fee schedule published in the Federal Register on July 17, 1987 (52 FR 27060). The fee schedule was most recently published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2012 (77...

  5. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... the Federal Register on November 24, 1987 (52 FR 45019). CDC began collecting fees on March 1, 1988... proposed fee schedule published in the Federal Register on July 17, 1987 (52 FR 27060). The fee schedule was most recently published in the Federal Register on November 26, 2008 (73 FR 72053). The...

  6. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 24, 1987 (52 FR 45019). HHS/CDC began collecting fees on March... Federal Register on July 17, 1987 (52 FR 27060). The fee schedule was most recently published in the Federal Register on August 21, 2012 (77 FR 50511). The size and cost factors for FY 2014 are presented...

  7. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Beene, D.E. Jr.; Keane, M.P.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages.

  8. Putrid gums and 'dead men's cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-12-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymouth in June. This is at odds with Lind's account and suggests an antisickness official culture, which may have contributed to the neglect of his work. PMID:14645616

  9. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.

    2001-01-11

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access the data are provided.

  10. Remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 above the Atlantic from aboard the research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Bertleff, Marco; Hase, Frank; Butz, Andrè

    2015-04-01

    Global measurements of the column average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) are of great interest for inferring information on sources and sinks of these two major anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Satellite remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 is an emerging tool which promises to supplement the traditional ground-based in-situ sampling approach by vast data coverage. The usefulness of XCO2 and XCH4 measured by satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2, however, crucially depends on precision and accuracy. Therefore, validation by ground-based remote sensing observations is of major importance. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has been designed to meet these validation needs. It covers a few tens of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers operating at very high spectral resolution. Most of these instruments are located on continental regions especially in the northern hemisphere. However, oceanic regions are sparsely validated. In the framework of the development of a robust, small and versatile spectrometer for harsh environments and mobile applications, we operated two instruments, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EM27/SUN by Bruker) and a custom-built grating spectrometer aboard the German research vessel Polarstern. Both instruments are modified such, that the solar tracking system can compensate for the ships movement. Here, we will present and discuss instrument performance of the EM27/SUN instrument and the solar tracking device. The retrieved north to south gradient of XCO2 and XCH4 mixing ratios along the ship track from Capetown (SA) to Bremerhaven (GER) during the 5-week cruise in March 2014 will be presented and discussed. We assess the usefulness of the dataset for validating GOSAT ocean glint observations as well as an comparison with the global CO2 and CH4 model data.

  11. Cosmic rays with portable Geiger counters: from sea level to airplane cruise altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive air showers induced by high-energy primary protons in the atmosphere were also carried out, involving undergraduate and graduate teaching levels.

  12. CMO: Cruise Metadata Organizer for JAMSTEC Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Vanroosebeke, A.; Kitayama, T.

    2011-12-01

    JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences manages and distributes a wide variety of observational data and samples obtained from JAMSTEC research vessels and deep sea submersibles. Generally, metadata are essential to identify data and samples were obtained. In JAMSTEC, cruise metadata include cruise information such as cruise ID, name of vessel, research theme, and diving information such as dive number, name of submersible and position of diving point. They are submitted by chief scientists of research cruises in the Microsoft Excel° spreadsheet format, and registered into a data management database to confirm receipt of observational data files, cruise summaries, and cruise reports. The cruise metadata are also published via "JAMSTEC Data Site for Research Cruises" within two months after end of cruise. Furthermore, these metadata are distributed with observational data, images and samples via several data and sample distribution websites after a publication moratorium period. However, there are two operational issues in the metadata publishing process. One is that duplication efforts and asynchronous metadata across multiple distribution websites due to manual metadata entry into individual websites by administrators. The other is that differential data types or representation of metadata in each website. To solve those problems, we have developed a cruise metadata organizer (CMO) which allows cruise metadata to be connected from the data management database to several distribution websites. CMO is comprised of three components: an Extensible Markup Language (XML) database, an Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software, and a web-based interface. The XML database is used because of its flexibility for any change of metadata. Daily differential uptake of metadata from the data management database to the XML database is automatically processed via the EAI software. Some metadata are entered into the XML database using the web

  13. Texas Teacher at Sea on the BOLIVAR Project Geophysical Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelan, M.; Sullivan, S.; Ellins, K.

    2004-12-01

    UTIG provides K-12 teachers with research experiences in field programs that involve UTIG scientists. I am a 6th-9th grade science teacher in Van Vleck, Texas and in April 2004 I sailed to the southeastern Caribbean aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing as a member of the BOLIVAR Project alongside scientists from the U.S. and Venezuela. Our goal was collect seismic data to image the crust and mantle beneath the Caribbean as part of a study of the tectonic processes accompanying different stages of the Caribbean arc/South America continental collision process. Throughout the 52-day cruise I worked as a watch stander, interpreted newly collected seismic reflection data, helped deploy the streamer, maintained a cruise blog (a chronological journal weblog documenting personal thoughts about my experience), spoke with students in Texas with the telephone on loan from Iridium Satellite Solutions, and responded to email inquiries from shore-based students. It was hard work, but most importantly, a voyage of discovery. With guidance from scientists and GK-12 Fellows at UTIG, I am using my experience and the data collected as the basis for K-12 curriculum resources, including learning activities and a video documentary. Support for my participation and post-cruise activities was provided by the NSF and the Trull Foundation in Texas. If given the opportunity to do this again, I would, without reservation!

  14. Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between "cruising" (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior…

  15. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  16. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  17. Staying Healthy on a Cruise

    MedlinePlus

    ... get the most out of your cruise vacation. Zika Travel Information The 2016 Olympics in Brazil, Reggae ... the summer is full of great international celebrations! Zika has been reported in many popular event destinations ...

  18. A study of aircraft cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.

    1986-01-01

    The long range aircraft cruise problem is analyzed using a model intermediate in complexity between energy model and point mass model. It is shown that this formulation imbeds the classical steady state cruise as the central member along with several other oscillatory extremals. The oscillatory cruise trajectories are shown to exist if the Hessian of the function QD/VT with respect to altitude and airspeed is positive definite. An expression for predicting the frequency of oscillation is developed. Qualitative effects of increasing the vehicle thrust and improving the L/D are discussed. Numerical results for two fighter aircraft and a transport aircraft are given. While oscillatory cruise mode exists for the two fighter aircraft, steady state cruise at full throttle is found to be optimal for the transport aircraft. A second variation analysis to bring out the reason for fuel savings is developed. It is shown that whenever the Hessian of the function QD/VT is positive definite, the second variation will be zero along the classical steady state cruise arc, indicating that a neighboring extremal is competitive. Comparisons with the previous point mass and energy modeled results are given.

  19. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  20. Shipping Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  1. Gemini 9-A astronauts welcomed aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan (right) receive a warm welcome as they arrive aboard the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. John C. Stonesifer, with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, stands next to microphone at left. The Gemini 9 spacecraft can be seen in the right background of the view.

  2. All Aboard the "Titanic": Character Journals Are Just the Tip of the Iceberg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a 7th-grade reading class used character journals to explore the sailing and the sinking of the "Titanic." Describes how the students took ownership of their research and enjoyed reading and writing about actual events as they became a passenger or crew member aboard the "Titanic," explored the ship, experienced the sinking, wrote an…

  3. Comparison of Hygroscopicity, Volatility, and Mixing State of Submicrometer Particles between Cruises over the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gibaek; Cho, Hee-Joo; Seo, Arom; Kim, Dohyung; Gim, Yeontae; Lee, Bang Yong; Yoon, Young Jun; Park, Kihong

    2015-10-20

    Ship-borne measurements of ambient aerosols were conducted during an 11 937 km cruise over the Arctic Ocean (cruise 1) and the Pacific Ocean (cruise 2). A frequent nucleation event was observed during cruise 1 under marine influence, and the abundant organic matter resulting from the strong biological activity in the ocean could contribute to the formation of new particles and their growth to a detectable size. Concentrations of particle mass and black carbon increased with increasing continental influence from polluted areas. During cruise 1, multiple peaks of hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of 1.1-1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 were found, and higher amounts of volatile organic species existed in the particles compared to that during cruise 2, which is consistent with the greater availability of volatile organic species caused by the strong oceanic biological activity (cruise 1). Internal mixtures of volatile and nonhygroscopic organic species, nonvolatile and less-hygroscopic organic species, and nonvolatile and hygroscopic nss-sulfate with varying fractions can be assumed to constitute the submicrometer particles. On the basis of elemental composition and morphology, the submicrometer particles were classified into C-rich mixture, S-rich mixture, C/S-rich mixture, Na-rich mixture, C/P-rich mixture, and mineral-rich mixture. Consistently, the fraction of biological particles (i.e., P-containing particles) increased when the ship traveled along a strongly biologically active area. PMID:26389581

  4. Imaging sprites aboard TARANIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Grosjean, Olivier

    TLE (Transient Luminous Event) is the generic name for phenomena which occur over thundercloud from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere (20 to 100 km-height). They are called sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets . . . Each class of phenomenon has their own properties: duration, vertical and horizontal extension, delay after their parent lightning. They are mainly observed from ground since 1990 and from space since 2004 with the ISUAL experiment. All these observations have been done pointing at the limb. We propose an experiment, to image and characterize TLEs and lightning from space, which novelty is looking at the nadir. This concept was tested by the CEA with the Lightning and Sprite Observations on board the International Space Station from 2001 to 2004. The advantage of this point of view is that other radiations (as gamma-rays, electron beams, or electrostatic field) emitted mainly vertically and simultaneously to TLE or lightning can be observed with the same satellite, but the difficulty is how the superimposed light from lightning and TLE can be differentiate. Taking account this constraint and other ones due to satellite accommodation, we define a set of sensors allowing the detection, the localisation and the characterisation of lightning and TLE. Our studies show that two cameras and four photometers are necessary to reach those objectives. This experiment, called MCP for MicroCameras and Photometers, will be aboard TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites) which is a microsatellite project of the CNES Myriade program with a launch planned in 2011. The photometer set will be provided by a Japanese team joining Hokkaido and Tohoku Universities and ISAS/JAXA. In this talk, we will present the main scientific goals of MCP. Need requirement studies (particularly radiometric analysis including sensor trade-off) will be described. We will finish describing the actual development status of the sensors.

  5. Six cyclopic ships with the death of one of them.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-09-01

    Given the knowledge of cyclopic humans and animals and their lethal nature, and given the negative way in which the cyclops is portrayed in mythology and in art, it is unusual that six naval ships--four English and two American--were named "Cyclops." However, there are also important positive attributes of the Cyclopes in Greek mythology, which explain the reasons the ships were given this name. One ship, the USS "Cyclops," with 306 men aboard, was lost at sea in the "Bermuda Triangle" in 1918 without a trace and no wreckage has ever been found. PMID:20856016

  6. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Álvarez, M.; Civitarese, G.

    2013-03-01

    Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objectives of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (ship.org/"target="_blank">http://www.go-ship.org/) was collected. The measurements include; salinity and temperature (CTD), an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6), Helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon to through the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  7. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Álvarez, M.; Civitarese, G.; McNichol, A. P.; Key, R. M.

    2013-07-01

    Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objective of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (ship.org/"target="_blank">http://www.go-ship.org/) was collected. The measurements include salinity and temperature (CTD), an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6), helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon through to the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  9. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  10. Cruise report for a seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Mississippi Canyon region, northern Gulf of Mexico; cruise M1-98-GM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan K.; Hart, Patrick E.; Pecher, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    During the cruise about 850 km of multichannel and single-channel seismic data were recorded. Seismic measurements at nine ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) stations were recorded for several of the multichannel tracklines (see Fig. 3 in report). The following report describes the field operations and equipment systems employed, gives two examples of ship-board seismic records, and outlines a few preliminary results.

  11. The Acid Horizon Cruise: Expanding scientific outreach by crowd-funding a film project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    During a cruise in April - May, 2014 on the R/V Atlantis with the DSV Alvin to study ocean acidification in the Gulf of Mexico, we carried out a number of outreach efforts, the most significant of which was filming a documentary. The documentary is about the impact of ocean acidification, but is told as a personal story and extends well beyond the cruise itself. This documentary was an independent effort supported entirely by a Kickstarter crowd-funding campaign that ran from Nov - Dec, 2013. The campaign attracted over 200 donors and was ultimately successful in raising the funds necessary to bring the film crew on board. By involving so many people in the funding of the project, we attracted a core audience for the outreach efforts during the cruise. These efforts included daily posts on various social media sites, both personal and scientific, as well as exclusive "sneak peeks" of the film for the Kickstarter backers. In addition, live interactions from the cruise included an interview with public radio from the submersible, and a public seminar from the back deck of the ship. All of these efforts resulted in the development of an audience that remains engaged in the progress of the science and the film, long after the cruise has concluded.

  12. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, and environmental factors of the supersonic cruise aircraft are discussed. Other topics include airframe structures and materials, systems integration, and economics.

  13. Expedition Seven Launched Aboard Soyez Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Destined for the International Space Station (ISS), a Soyez TMA-1 spacecraft launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 26, 2003. Aboard are Expedition Seven crew members, cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, and Astronaut Edward T. Lu, Expedition Seven NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer. Expedition Six crew members returned to Earth aboard the Russian spacecraft after a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS. Photo credit: NASA/Scott Andrews

  14. ISS Update: Science Aboard Kounotori3

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Pete Hasbrook, associate program scientist, about the experiments traveling to the International Space Station aboard the H-II Transfer Vehicle...

  15. The Speciation and Solubility of Aerosol Iron and Aluminum in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Results From the 2002 NSF/IOC Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. S.; Landing, W. M.; Resing, J.; Lebon, G. T.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the 2002 NSF/IOC cruise in the northwest Pacific, we collected separate 10-hour aerosol samples during both the day and night aboard the R/V Melville leaving Osaka, Japan on May 1, 2002 and arriving in Honolulu, HI on June 5, 2002. The goal of this research was to measure the solubility and speciation of Fe and Al in Asian continental dust. Four replicate samples were collected using an automatic sector-controlled aerosol sampling system that collected only when the wind was \\pm90o off the bow of the ship and exceeded 0.5 m/sec. The aerosols were collected on 47 mm PCTE and polypropylene filters for roughly 10-hour periods, filtering as much as 35 m3 of air through each filter. The filters were changed twice each day for a total of 60 samples. The filters were quickly leached with 100 mL of either freshly collected 0.2μm filtered surface seawater at natural pH or 100 mL of unacidified ultrapure water. Seawater filtrates were analyzed for soluble Fe(II) using the FeLume chemiluminescent system. These samples were also analyzed for total soluble Fe using the ICP-MS isotope dilution method upon returning to FSU. The ultrapure water filtrate samples were frozen until they could be analyzed at FSU for major anions using ion chromotography. A replicate PCTE filter was analyzed for total Fe (and other elements) using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence at the NOAA/PMEL laboratory. Soluble total aerosol Fe concentrations ranged from 8-130 pmol/m3 of filtered air. The concentrations of soluble Fe(II) ranged from 0.35-95 pmol/m3 and total soluble Al ranged from 20-600 pmol/m3. We will also compare total Fe and Al solubilities in seawater and ultrapure water.

  16. Appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.; Badea, G. V.; Frumuşanu, G.

    2015-11-01

    The ship may be viewed as a living environment associated with two industrial environments, one corresponding to the transport industry and other one to the processing, services, or other specific type of industry developed aboard. Each environment has its own energy system and changes energy with the other two. Nowadays, the appraisal and regulation of the ship energy performance is based on the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). Its definition covers the three mentioned systems, without distinction between them. This paper addresses the assessment and regulation of the ship energy performance, bearing in mind that, by far, the main purpose is to increase the level of performance by selecting, from the available measures of performance improvement, those that are the most effective. The paper highlights the EEDI shortcomings, explaining that they appear mainly due the fact that this index covers a couple of energy systems that are far too different (though these energy systems are intimately interpenetrated).

  17. Cruise performance and range prediction reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torenbeek, Egbert

    1997-05-01

    A unified analytical treatment of the cruise performance of subsonic transport aircraft is derived, valid for gas turbine powerplant installations: turboprop, turbojet and turbofan powered aircraft. Different from the classical treatment the present article deals with compressibility effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Analytical criteria are derived for optimum cruise lift coefficient and Mach number, with and without constraints on the altitude and engine rating. A simple alternative to the Bréguet range equation is presented which applies to several practical cruising flight techniques: flight at constant altitude and Mach number and stepped cruise/climb. A practical non-iterative procedure for computing mission and reserve fuel loads in the preliminary design stage is proposed.

  18. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  19. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  20. Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between “cruising” (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior to walking, amassing several weeks of experience with both skills. Study 2 showed that cruising infants perceive affordances for locomotion over an adjustable gap in a handrail used for manual support, but despite weeks of cruising experience, cruisers are largely oblivious to the dangers of gaps in the floor beneath their feet. Study 3 replicated the floor-gap findings for infants taking their first independent walking steps, and showed that new walkers also misperceive affordances for locomoting between gaps in a handrail. The findings suggest that weeks of cruising do not teach infants a basic fact about walking: the necessity of a floor to support their body. Moreover, this research demonstrated that developmental milestones that are temporally contiguous and structurally similar might have important functional discontinuities. PMID:21399716

  1. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  2. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logging System Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.

    2010-12-01

    Data gathered aboard research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. The ultimate vision of R2R is to assist in transforming the academic fleet into an integrated global observing system. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project is the development of a shipboard scientific event logging system that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. The event log application will use new and existing components to generate a digital text file with a fleet-wide agreed upon format. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the ingestion of these data into oceanographic repositories and subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. An event logger application, based on ELOG, has been developed and is being tested by scientists at sea. An important aspect of this project is the development of a controlled vocabulary and ontology for documenting the scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise. The controlled vocabulary development is being influenced by similar efforts in other communities. In addition, a Web application is being developed for oceanographers to use to pre-configure the R2R event logger application with vocabulary terms and entry forms appropriate to the specific needs of their upcoming research cruise. Results and lessons learned from the R2R event logger

  3. Apollo 8 Capsule Hoisted Onto Recovery Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Apollo 8 Capsule being hoisted onto the recovery ship following splashdown on December 27, 1968. The first manned Apollo mission to escape Earth's gravity and travel to the lunar vicinity, the Saturn V, SA-503, Apollo 8 mission liftoff occurred seven days prior, on December 21, 1968. Aboard were astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Frank Borman, commander. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  4. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  5. Real-world emissions of inland ships on the Grand Canal, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Mingliang; Ding, Yan; Ge, Yunshan; Yu, Linxiao; Yin, Hang; Ye, Wentao; Liang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    Ship emissions are widely recognized as a relevant source of the total air pollution and have a remarkable impact on air quality of the sea, territorial waters and coastal areas. To assess this impact, various emission models have been developed to calculate the emission inventory of ship based on ship activity data. However, few studies in China have collected the emission factors of local ship which are decisive factors in accurate assessment of ship emission inventory. This study intends to obtain emission data of inland ships on the Grand Canal of China by conducting on-board emission tests. We measured CO, HC NOx and PM emission from 7 inland ships of different engine powers, and derive distance-based and fuel-based emission factors on the basis of the cruise and manoeuvring (including port departure and port arrival) operating modes. The results show that average distance-based emission factors of CO, HC and PM for manoeuvring mode are higher than those for cruise mode. For NOx, average distance-based emission factors for cruise mode are higher than those for port arrival mode but lower than those for port departure mode. Particular number (PN) distribution analysis indicates that larger amounts of small size PM (Dp < 0.01 μm) appeared on manoeuvring mode, which can affect regional air quality and human health. The average fuel-based emission factor of NOx in this study is 1.4-4.3 times higher than those in on-board studies. When compared with estimated Tier 1 standard limit (in unit of g kg-1 fuel), NOx in this study is nearly twice of Tier 1. The higher NOx emission indicates that stricter emission strategies and policies should be implemented to control ship emission in China. It is noticeable that distance-based emission factors of four pollutants are higher with the increase of engine loads.

  6. Ship-based remote sensing observations of clouds and aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Wolf, Veronika; Pietsch, Alexandra; Engelmann, Ronny; Macke, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Within the framework of the OCEANET project, ship-based remote sensing observations of the atmosphere above the Atlantic Ocean have been performed on board of the German research vessels Polarstern and Meteor. Since 2007, twelve cruises took place, mostly between Bremerhaven (Germany) and Cape Town (South Africa) or Punta Arenas (Chile), respectively. In 2014 and 2015, two additional cruises will be performed. The goal of these ship-based measurements is a better understanding of water vapor, cloud and aerosol interaction over the open sea where data are scarce. The project was designed to measure the full atmospheric energy budget in different climate zones, including exchange processes at the sea surface. The main instrumentation on all cruises consisted of a passive microwave radiometer, a full sky imager, sun photometer, lidar ceilometer and broadband solar and infrared radiation measurements. In addition a multi wavelength Raman lidar (PollyXT) was on board of six cruises. Spectral solar radiance and irradiance observations have been performed on four cruises. With this dataset, a variety of topics can be addressed. This presentation will focus on marine stratocumulus clouds which are widespread over oceans and still pose a large uncertainty for determining the Earth's energy budget. Detailed studies for the northern trade wind zone off the West African coast will be presented. The emphasis lies on stratocumulus cloud properties, such as frequency, size, variability, liquid water content as well as their impact on surface radiation. Additionally, the influence of Saharan dust on the cloud occurrence will be addressed. Dust outbreaks over the ship could be observed in several years, including also at a cruise from the Caribbean Sea to Cape Verde in 2013. Furthermore, we will give a statistical overview of the meridional distribution of atmospheric water vapour and clouds over the Atlantic Ocean. With six years of measurements, always at the same time of the

  7. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  8. [Psychopathology service on ships].

    PubMed

    Nowosielski, Radosław; Mazurek, Tomasz; Florkowski, Antoni

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific engineering services and suitability of candidates for the psychophysical performance. Navy ships are equipped with equipment and weapons are controlled by electronic devices ship and crew. Advanced technology puts high demands on operator. For the ship's staff are recruited soldiers of the psychophysical characteristics predisposing to this kind of action. The paper uses personal experience to work in military units of the Navy, and data from the literature. Terms of sailing ships off the summer season are defined as difficult. The crew during a combat mission felt the risks associated with movements of the ship in difficult meteorological conditions, and associated with the implementation of the task. The development of ship's technical equipment, working in isolated groups, functioning within a limited space, noise, vibration, electromagnetic waves heighten the emotional burden on crew members. Military service on Navy ships require high psycho-physical predisposition, resistance to stress. The crucial factor is proper selection among the candidates based on psychiatric and psychological counseling for military and medical jurisprudence. Also plays a significant role for training doctors and specialists in psychoprophylaxy of military units in the field of mental hygiene. PMID:20642117

  9. Robust predictive cruise control for commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junell, Jaime; Tumer, Kagan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we explore learning-based predictive cruise control and the impact of this technology on increasing fuel efficiency for commercial trucks. Traditional cruise control is wasteful when maintaining a constant velocity over rolling hills. Predictive cruise control (PCC) is able to look ahead at future road conditions and solve for a cost-effective course of action. Model- based controllers have been implemented in this field but cannot accommodate many complexities of a dynamic environment which includes changing road and vehicle conditions. In this work, we focus on incorporating a learner into an already successful model- based predictive cruise controller in order to improve its performance. We explore back propagating neural networks to predict future errors then take actions to prevent said errors from occurring. The results show that this approach improves the model based PCC by up to 60% under certain conditions. In addition, we explore the benefits of classifier ensembles to further improve the gains due to intelligent cruise control.

  10. The ship as laboratory: making space for field science at sea.

    PubMed

    Adler, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Expanding upon the model of vessels of exploration as scientific instruments first proposed by Richard Sorrenson, this essay examines the changing nature of the ship as scientific space on expedition vessels during the late nineteenth century. Particular attention is paid to the expedition of H.M.S. Challenger (1872-1876) as a turning point in the design of shipboard spaces that established a place for scientists at sea and gave scientific legitimacy to the new science of oceanography. There was a progressive development in research vessel design from "ship as instrument" to "ship as laboratory" and changing spatial practices aboard these vessels were paralleled by changes in shipboard culture. I suggest that the "ship as laboratory" has now in turn been supplanted by a new model, the "ship as invisible technician", as oceanographic research vessels deploy remote-sensing equipment and gather data that are no longer analyzed on board. PMID:24122291

  11. Education and Outreach in NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program: An Example From a Gulf of Alaska Alvin Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C.; Keller, R.; Keener-Chavis, P.; Doenges, S.; Fisk, M.; Duncan, R.; Guilderson, T.; Shirley, T.

    2002-12-01

    with undergraduate and graduate students at their respective institutions. A production team from the National Geographic Channel also joined the expedition, and will use cruise footage to produce several segments for their program. A port call in Kodiak, Alaska, provided an opportunity for local students, teachers, fishing and conservation representatives, and elected officials to come aboard the R/V Atlantis and view the Alvin and the science made possible by this expedition. Many of the outreach opportunities developed through the Gulf of Alaska cruise can be duplicated on other research cruises, and all major OE expeditions include many of these initiatives, as do some of the minor expeditions. Details can be found on the NOAA Ocean Explorer website at http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov.

  12. Columbus ships at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    On the 500th arniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World, replicas of his three ships sailed past the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) while the space shuttle Columbia sat poised for lift off.

  13. When propfans cruise, will LDN 65 fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Fred; Dickerson, William

    1990-01-01

    The type and extent of response that may be expected from the persons exposed to the noise of propfans cruising overhead is examined. The cruise mode is of particular interest because it appears that it is in this mode that the propfan airplane noise differs substantially from the noise of present jet-powered airplanes. Early test data on propfan engines suggests that noise levels on the ground under the flight track of commercial propfan transports may approach 65 decibels. To explore the reaction of the exposed population to repeated noise levels of this magnitude, it may be helpful to review some of the pertinent literature on the effects of environmental noise.

  14. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER REMOVED FROM SHIPPING CONTAINER IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers and technicians from Jet Propulsion Laboratory remove the Mars Pathfinder lander from its shipping container, still covered in protective wrapping. Pictured from L-R, Linda Robeck, Jerry Gutierrez, Lorraine Garcia, Chuck Foehlinger of JPL. The arrival of the spacecraft at KSC from Pasadena, CA occurred on Aug. 13, 1996. Launch of Mars Pathfinder aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket will occur from Pad B at Complex 17 on Dec. 2.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container test operations at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Ground crews look on as a crane lifts the 11,500 pound aluminum cap from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container in front of the Multiuse Mission Support Equipment (MMSE) Building at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC workers continue to test and checkout the container which will be used to transport the 43 foot long, 14 foot diameter telescope from Lockheed in Sunnyvale, California to KSC next year. The telescope is scheduled for launch aboard the space shuttle in November 1988. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-87PC-502.

  17. Providing Student Health Services at Sea: A Survey of Chief Complaints Onboard a Maritime Academy Training Ship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kue, Ricky; Cukor, Jeffrey; Fredrickson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the epidemiology of infirmary chief complaints aboard a collegiate maritime training ship. Participants: They assessed patients (N = 646 visits) evaluated by the "USTS Enterprise" medical department during a 44-day sea term from January to February 2007. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of…

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Small quantities of fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and regulations in this.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and... or certification. Fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers that are so taken aboard such a carrier must...

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Small quantities of fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and regulations in this.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and... or certification. Fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers that are so taken aboard such a carrier must...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Small quantities of fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and regulations in this.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and... or certification. Fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers that are so taken aboard such a carrier must...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Small quantities of fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and regulations in this.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and... or certification. Fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers that are so taken aboard such a carrier must...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Small quantities of fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and regulations in this.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and... or certification. Fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers that are so taken aboard such a carrier must...

  3. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  4. Inorganic and Organic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (4 June-11 August, 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-08-30

    This report presents methods and analytical and quality control procedures for nutrient, oxygen, and inorganic carbon system parameters performed during the A16N_2003a cruise, which took place from June 4 to August 11, 2003 aboard NOAA Ship R/V Ronald H. Brown under auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first hydrographic leg (June 19–July 10) was from Reykjavik, Iceland, to Funchal, Madeira, Portugal along the 20°W meridian, and the second leg (July 15–August 11) continued operations from Funchal, Portugal to Natal, Brazil, on a track southward and ending at 6°S, 25°W. The research was the first in a decadal series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from up to 34 depths at 150 stations. The data presented in this report includes the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), phosphate (PO4), silicate (SiO4), and dissolved oxygen (O2). The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16N_2003a data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  5. Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Compo, G. P.; Spadin, R.; Allan, R.; Adam, W.

    2011-03-01

    Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2011) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a subset of the data are corrected, close agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature notwithstanding a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements from ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3-0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5-0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. The results

  6. Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Compo, G. P.; Spadin, R.; Allan, R.; Adam, W.

    2010-11-01

    Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2010) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a correction to a subset of data, a good agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature except for a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements form ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3-0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5-0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. However, more work

  7. Measuring SO2 ship emissions with an ultraviolet imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years fast-sampling ultraviolet (UV) imaging cameras have been developed for use in measuring SO2 emissions from industrial sources (e.g. power plants; typical emission rates ~ 1-10 kg s-1) and natural sources (e.g. volcanoes; typical emission rates ~ 10-100 kg s-1). Generally, measurements have been made from sources rich in SO2 with high concentrations and emission rates. In this work, for the first time, a UV camera has been used to measure the much lower concentrations and emission rates of SO2 (typical emission rates ~ 0.01-0.1 kg s-1) in the plumes from moving and stationary ships. Some innovations and trade-offs have been made so that estimates of the emission rates and path concentrations can be retrieved in real time. Field experiments were conducted at Kongsfjord in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, where SO2 emissions from cruise ships were made, and at the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, measuring emissions from more than 10 different container and cargo ships. In all cases SO2 path concentrations could be estimated and emission rates determined by measuring ship plume speeds simultaneously using the camera, or by using surface wind speed data from an independent source. Accuracies were compromised in some cases because of the presence of particulates in some ship emissions and the restriction of single-filter UV imagery, a requirement for fast-sampling (> 10 Hz) from a single camera. Despite the ease of use and ability to determine SO2 emission rates from the UV camera system, the limitation in accuracy and precision suggest that the system may only be used under rather ideal circumstances and that currently the technology needs further development to serve as a method to monitor ship emissions for regulatory purposes. A dual-camera system or a single, dual-filter camera is required in order to properly correct for the effects of particulates in ship plumes.

  8. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  9. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  10. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  11. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  12. Simulators for Safer Shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Each year one ship out of every five afloat collides with another vessel, rams a dock, or runs a ground. CAORF (Computer Aided Operations Research Facility), designed and built by Sperry Rand Corporation, incorporates technology developed in a wide variety of aerospace simulation and technical training programs. CAORF can be set up to duplicate the exact handling qualities of any vessel under various conditions of wind, tide and current. Currently a dozen different ships can be "plugged in." Bridge instrumentation is typical of modern shipboard equipment including radar, internal and external c.ommunications and new collision avoidance systems. From repetitive operation of simulated ships, MarAd is building a valuable data base for improving marine safety.

  13. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  14. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  15. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  16. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  17. Apollo 13 crew arrive on prime recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Rear Admiral Donald C. Davis, Commanding Officer of Task Force 130, the Pacific Recovery Forces for the Manned Spacecraft Missions, welcomes the Apollo 13 crew aboard the prime recovery ship U.S.S. Iwo Jima following splashdown and recovery operations in the South Pacific. The crewmen (from left) Astronauts Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot; John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot; and James A. Lovell Jr., commander, were transported by helicopter to the ship following a smooth splashdown only about four miles from the Iwo Jima. The Apollo 13 spacecraft splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970.

  18. STS-44 Earth observation of ships in Florida harbor taken with M88-1 ESC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of ships in a Florida harbor. Mission Specialist (MS) Mario Runco, Jr conducting Military Man in Space M88-1 experiment, Maritime Observation Experiments in Space (MOSES), captured this scene of at least one ship and that of several smaller vessels in a Florida harbor. Runco used the electronic still camera (ESC). ESC photography is a new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitze an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  19. Microscopic characterization of individual particles from multicomponent ship exhaust.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga; Kireeva, Elena; Persiantseva, Natalia; Timofeev, Mikhail; Bladt, Henrike; Ivleva, Natalia P; Niessner, Reinhard; Moldanová, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Particles sampled from the main and auxiliary ship diesel engine exhausts during a measurement campaign aboard a cargo ship are studied by SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. Cluster analysis (CA) is applied to characterize the particles by separating them into distinct groups of similar morphology and chemical composition, representative of the particle types in the exhaust from the main and auxiliary engines. Raman microspectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography provide the criteria for the clustering of a large data set of individual particles. To identify chemical and morphological features of heavy and distillate fuel oil-derived PM emissions, micromarkers discriminating between the different types of emitted particles are proposed. These micromarkers could enable the classification of multicomponent aerosols according to a source type. This characterization of complex multicomponent aerosols emitted by ship diesel engines improves the quantification of the contribution of shipping to ambient air particulates, and can help to identify a source type in apportionment studies. PMID:23090431

  20. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Interplanetary Cruise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung-Han; Graat, Eric; Halsell, Allen; Highsmith, Dolan; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Demcak, Stuart; Higa, Earl; Mottinger, Neil; Jah, Moriba

    2007-01-01

    Carrying six science instruments and three engineering payloads, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the first mission in a low Mars orbit to characterize the surface, subsurface, and atmospheric properties with unprecedented detail. After a seven-month interplanetary cruise, MRO arrived at Mars executing a 1.0 km/s Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver. MRO achieved a 430 km periapsis altitude with the final orbit solution indicating that only 10 km was attributable to navigation prediction error. With the last interplanetary maneuver performed four months before MOI, this was a significant accomplishment. This paper describes the navigation analyses and results during the 210-day interplanetary cruise. As of August 2007 MRO has returned more than 18 Terabits of scientific data in support of the objectives set by the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). The robust and exceptional interplanetary navigation performance paved the way for a successful MRO mission.

  1. Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Tech Challenge Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis James R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief overview of the research underway in the Cruise Efficiency -- Propulsion technical challenge area of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics project. The research involves both computational and experimental efforts in the areas of Advanced Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wide Operability Fan and Compressors, Advanced Nozzle Concepts and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The work consists of both internal NASA research and external efforts funded through the NASA Research Announcement process.

  2. Cruise-based Multi-factorial Investigation of the Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Pelagic Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. R.; Tyrell, T.

    2012-12-01

    The pelagic ecosystem is a critical component of the earth's biosphere and biogeochemistry. It is also, however, a complex and in many respects poorly understood system. In consequence predicting the likely impact of ocean acidification on the pelagic realm is problematic and predicting the possible secondary biogeochemical effects of these impacts is "challenging". Nonetheless there is a major societal need to predict these impacts and outcomes. Within the UK Ocean Acidification Programme our consortium is tasked with "improving the understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on surface ocean biology, community structure, biogeochemistry and on feedbacks to the climate." To ensure complimentarity with other programmes we have adopted a cruise-based approach. Two cruises have been undertaken; Cruise D366 in summer 2011 around the north west european shelf and Cruise JR271 summer 2012 to the Arctic Ocean. A final cruise, to the Antarctic will be undertaken in January/February 2013. On each cruise we are combining extensive environmental observations, with deck-board incubation experiments. The environmental observations are being made with both continuous sampling techniques and CTD sampling. The cruise tracks have been designed to cross environmental gradients in ocean chemistry and especially in carbonate chemistry. The objective here is to produce a high quality matrix of multiple environmental parameters including fully characterised carbonate chemistry (pH, CO2, DIC and alkalinity are all measured), nutrient chemistry, trace elements, climatically active gases, and TEP, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and biocalcification. The biocalcification studies include microfabric study of pteropods, in situ calcification rates and integrated morphometric and assemblage composition analysis of coccolithophores. The incubation experiments are being conducted using a dedicated culture facility constructed in a shipping-container lab. This allows large

  3. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  4. Can bubbles sink ships?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueschen, Michael A.

    2010-02-01

    I investigate the interplay between the buoyancy force and the upwelling (or drag) force which act on a floating object when bubbles are rising through a body of water. Bubbles reduce the buoyant force by reducing the density of the water, but if they entrain an upwelling flow of water as they rise, they can produce a large upward drag force on the floating object. In an upwelling flow, our model ship (density=0.94 g/cm3) floats in a foam whose density is only 0.75 g/cm3. Comparing results with and without upwelling currents is an interesting demonstration and has real-world applications to ships in the ocean.

  5. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  6. Effect of ship bow overhang on water shipping for ship advancing in regular head waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmansour, Abdeljalil; Hamoudi, Benameur; Adjlout, Lahouari

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  7. Naval ship recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino García, I.; Zölzer, U.

    2012-09-01

    Object recognition is a very interesting task with multiple applications and for that reason it has been dealt with very intensively in the last years. In particular, the application to naval ship pictures may facilitate the work of the coastguards or the navy. However, this type of images entails some difficulties due to their specific environment. Water reflects the light and as a consequence, some areas may presumably show different brightness and color. Waves from wind or moving ships pose a problem due to the additional edges that they produce. The camouflage of ships in the military context is also an issue to take into account. Therefore, it is difficult to propose a simple method that is valid for every image. A discussion about which techniques may solve these problems is presented and finally a combined solution based on contour recognition is suggested. Test images are preprocessed by histogram stretching. Then, the Canny method is applied to the image and to the reference contour in order to obtain not only their edges, but also their respective orientations. The problem of recognizing the reference contour within the detected edges is addressed by making use of the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT).

  8. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  9. 76 FR 15216 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 4833). We received no comments on the proposed rule, either through the electronic... published July 1 (68 FR 39315) and October 22, 2003 (68 FR 60515), months after the final rule establishing 33 CFR 165.1108 was published on January 8, 2003 (68 FR 1005). The Coast Guard issued a...

  10. 77 FR 65621 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... determine the exact time and date of these zones via Broadcast Notice to Mariners, or via visual.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36955). Previously, temporary security zones had...

  11. 75 FR 82243 - Security Zones; Moored Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...: Documents indicated in this preamble as being available in the docket are part of docket USCG-2010-1129 and are available online by going to http://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2010-1129 in...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District... (619) 683-6495 or on VHF-FM channel 16 (156.8 MHz) to seek permission to transit the area....

  13. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach or designated anchorages within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Federal Breakwaters. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not entry into or remain... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: All navigable...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach or designated anchorages within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Federal Breakwaters. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not entry into or remain... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: All navigable...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach or designated anchorages within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Federal Breakwaters. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not entry into or remain... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: All navigable...

  16. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  17. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  18. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  19. A study of altitude-constrained supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, David C.; Martin, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of restricting maximum cruise altitude on the mission performance of two supersonic transport concepts across a selection of cruise Mach numbers is studied. Results indicate that a trapezoidal wing concept can be competitive with an arrow wing depending on the altitude and Mach number constraints imposed. The higher wing loading of trapezoidal wing configurations gives them an appreciably lower average cruise altitude than the lower wing loading of the arrow wing configurations, and this advantage increases as the maximum allowable cruise altitude is reduced.

  20. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training Ship. 310.4 Section 310.4 Shipping MARITIME... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.4 Training Ship. The Administration may furnish a Training Ship, if such is available, to any School. Training Ships which may...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  3. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training Ship. 310.4 Section 310.4 Shipping MARITIME... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.4 Training Ship. The Administration may furnish a Training Ship, if such is available, to any School. Training Ships which may...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  6. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training Ship. 310.4 Section 310.4 Shipping MARITIME... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.4 Training Ship. The Administration may furnish a Training Ship, if such is available, to any School. Training Ships which may...

  7. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training Ship. 310.4 Section 310.4 Shipping MARITIME... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.4 Training Ship. The Administration may furnish a Training Ship, if such is available, to any School. Training Ships which may...

  8. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training Ship. 310.4 Section 310.4 Shipping MARITIME... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.4 Training Ship. The Administration may furnish a Training Ship, if such is available, to any School. Training Ships which may...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  10. Synfuel production ship

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, M.J.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a ship for producing gasoline while sailing. The ship consists of: 1.) a top deck; 2.) absorption venturi towers arranged in a multiple row and column orientation and mounted along an extended area of the deck and inclined toward the bow to capture air in an ellipsoid tapered air stream tube as the ship moves forward; 3.) means for delivering NaOH solution to the towers; means for forming droplets of NaOH solution and directing the droplets to pass through air, in the towers, thus causing CO/sub 2/ in the air to be absorbed by the solution for which results in a carbonate solution of sodium bicarbonate/hypo carbonate; 4.) means for communicating with the droplet forming means for receiving the carbonate solution and combining Cl/sub 2/ for stripping CO/sub 2/ as a first by-product from the carbonate solution and NaCl/NaOCI as a second by-product; 5.) means connected to the stripping for transferring the CO/sub 2/ to a methanol converter; 6.) electrolysis means for disassociating H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ from water provided to it; 7.) means connected to the electrolysis mechanism for transferring the H/sub 2/ to the methanol converter; 8.) a hydrocarbon synthesizer connected to an outlet of the methanol converter for converting methanol to gasoline; 9.) a boiler connected to the stripping for separating O/sub 2/ from the NaCl/NaOCI solution resulting in a NaCl solution; 10.) a chlor-alkali cell convertor connected to the boiler for converting the NaCl solution to (a) Cl/sub 2/ which is recycled, and (b) NaOH solution which is re-introduced to the NaOH droplet forming means; 11.) a nuclear reactor for generating steam; 12.) output for delivering the electrical power.

  11. Phytoplankton and Bacterial Assemblages in Ballast Water of U.S. Military Ships as a Function of Port of Origin, Voyage Time, and Ocean Exchange Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We characterized the physical/chemical conditions and the algal and bacterial assemblages in ballast water from 62 ballast tanks aboard 28 ships operated by the U.S. Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration, sampled at 9 ports on the U.S. West Coast and 4 ports on the U.S. East Coast...

  12. Volume 35, AMT-1 Cruise Report and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Robins, David B.; Bale, Anthony J.; Moore, Gerald F.; Rees, Nigel W.; Gallienne, Christopher P.; Westbrooke, Anthony G.; Maranon, Emilio; Spooner, William H.; Laney, Samuel R.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) 'James Clark Ross' during the irst Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-1), 21 September to 24 October 1995. The ship sailed from Grimsby (England) for Montevideo (Uruguay) and then continued on to Stanley (Falkland Islands). The primary objective of the AMT program is to investigate basic biological processes in the open Atlantic Ocean over very broad spatial scales. For AMT-1, the meridional range covered was approximately 50 deg N to 50 deg S or nearly 8,000 nmi. The measurements to be taken during the AMT cruises are fundamental for the calibration, validation, and continuing understanding of remotely sensed observations of biological oceanography. They are also important for understanding plankton community structure over latitudinal scales and the role of the world ocean in global carbon cycles. During AMT-1 a variety of instruments were used to map the physical, chemical, and biological structure of the upper 200 m of the water column. Ocean color measurements were made using state-of-the-art sensors, whose calibration was traceable to the highest international standards. New advances in fluorometry were used to measure photosynthetic activity, which was then used to further interpret primary productivity. A unique set of samples and data were collected for the planktonic assemblages that vary throughout the range of the transect. These data will yield new interpretations on community composition and their role in carbon cycling. While the various provinces of the Atlantic Ocean were being crossed, the partial pressure of CO2 was related to biological productivity. This comparison revealed the areas of drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and how these areas relate to the surrounding biological productivity. These data, plus the measurements of light attenuation and phytoplankton optical properties, will be used as a primary input for basin-scale biological productivity models to help

  13. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  14. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses.

  15. Considerations of a ship defense with a pulsed COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, K.

    2015-10-01

    Ship defense system with a pulsed COIL (Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser) has been considered. One of the greatest threats for battle ships and carriers in warfare are supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs). A countermeasure is considered to be a supersonic RAM (Rolling Airframe Missile) at first. A gun-type CIWS (Close-In Weapon System) should be used as the last line of defense. However since an ASCM can be detected at only 30-50km away due to radar horizon, a speed-of-light weapon is desirable as the first defense especially if the ASCM flies at >Mach 6. Our previous report explained several advantages of a giant pulse from a chemical oxygen laser (COL) to shoot down supersonic aircrafts. Since the first defense has the target distance of ~30km, the use of COIL is better considering its beam having high transmissivity in air. Therefore efficient operation of a giant-pulsed COIL has been investigated with rate-equation simulations. The simulation results indicate that efficient single-pass amplification can be expected. Also a design example of a giant-pulsed COIL MOPA (master oscillator and power amplifier) system has been shown, in which the output energy can be increased without limit.

  16. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  17. Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Lang, E. K.; Bariteau, L.; Boylan, P.; Fairall, C. W.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hare, J. E.; Hueber, J.; Pallandt, M.

    2012-02-01

    A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vesselRonald Brownduring 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of Mexico, the southern as well as northern Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the persistent stratus cloud region off Chile in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These experiments resulted in the first ship-borne open-ocean ozone flux measurement records. The median of 10 min oceanic ozone deposition velocity (vd) results from a combined ˜ 1700 h of observations ranged from 0.009 to 0.034 cm s-1. For the Gulf of Mexico cruise (Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)) the median vd (interquartile range) was 0.034 (0.009-0.065) cm s-1 (total number of 10 min measurement intervals, Nf = 1953). For the STRATUS cruise off the Chilean coast, the median vd was 0.009 (0.004-0.037) cm s-1 (Nf = 1336). For the cruise from the Gulf of Mexico and up the eastern U.S. coast (Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise (GOMECC)) a combined value of 0.018 (0.006-0.045) cm s-1 (Nf = 1784) was obtained (from 0.019 (-0.014-0.043) cm s-1, Nf = 663 in the Gulf of Mexico, and 0.018 (-0.004-0.045) cm s-1, Nf = 1121 in the North Atlantic region). The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), the Southern Ocean and northeastern Atlantic cruises, respectively, resulted in median ozone vd of 0.009 (-0.005-0.026) cm s-1 (Nf = 2745) and 0.020 (-0.003-0.044) cms-1 (Nf = 1147). These directly measured ozone deposition values are at the lower end of previously reported data in the literature (0.01-0.12 cm s-1) for ocean water. Data illustrate a positive correlation (increase) of the oceanic ozone uptake rate with wind speed, albeit the behavior of the relationship appears to differ during these cruises. The encountered wide range of meteorological and ocean

  18. Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smother, Anthony William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

  19. Heavy Cosmic Ray Measurement Aboard Spacelab-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Krause, J.; Fischer, E.; Enge, W.

    1985-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 plastic track detectors was exposed to cosmic radiation during the 10 days mission aboard Spacelab-1. A part of the stack was rotated one revolution within 7 days. The impact time of most of the particles was correlated with the orbit position of the shuttle and thus with geomagnetic field parameters. The analysis of heavy particles with charge Z greater than or equal to 6 in the energy range 50-150 MeV per nucleon with special emphasis on geomagnetically forbidden particles is reported.

  20. Cruise missiles should not stop START

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipis, K.

    1988-11-01

    A method for verifying a cruise-missile agreement that would be acceptable to the military, industrial, and intelligence communities in both nations must be as unintrusive as possible, while remaining immune to cheating of any significance. This is the goal of the technical solutions outlined here. The elements of a verification regime described do not require routine, intrusive, on-site visits to naval vessels, aircraft, air bases, or weapons magazines where missiles may be stored. They do not interfere with the operational readiness of the missiles, and they protect legitimate military secrets of the inspected nation. If supported by competent national technical means of verification such as those both sides already employ, with a small number of on-site challenge inspections, a combination of technical solutions and procedures such as these could be effective. They would adequately safeguard the national security and sovereignty of the participating nations while providing policymakers with the option of a treaty that limits the number of long-range nuclear cruise missiles or eliminates them completely. As discussed, there are problems that remain to be addressed, but they should not be allowed to block a U.S.-Soviet agreement significantly reducing strategic nuclear arsenals.

  1. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 2; AMT-5 Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Aiken, James; Cummings, Denise G.; Gibb, Stuart W.; Rees, Nigel W.; Woodd-Walker, Rachel; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Woolfenden, James; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril D.; Suggett, David J.; Wood, Peter; Donlon, Craig; Gonzalez-Benitez, Natalia; Huskin, Ignacio; Quevedo, Mario; Barciela-Fernandez, Rosa; deVargas, Colomban; McKee, Connor

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) James Clark Ross (JCR) during the fifth Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-5), 14 September to 17 October 1997. There are three objectives of the AMT Program. The first is to derive an improved understanding of the links between biogeochemical processes, biogenic gas exchange, air-sea interactions, and the effects on, and responses of, oceanic ecosystems to climate change. The second is to investigate the functional roles of biological particles and processes that influence ocean color in ecosystem dynamics. The Program relates directly to algorithm development and the validation of remotely-sensed observations of ocean color. Because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument achieved operational status during the cruise (on 18 September), AMT-5 was designated the SeaWiFS Atlantic Characterization Experiment (SeaACE) and was the only major research cruise involved in the validation of SeaWiFS data during the first 100 days of operations. The third objective involved the near-real time reporting of in situ light and pigment observations to the SeaWiFS Project, so the performance of the satellite sensor could be determined.

  2. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  3. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  4. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  5. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  6. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  7. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a) The treatment of water aboard conveyances shall be approved by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs if... treatment of water upon investigations made by representatives of State departments of health or of...

  8. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE RELATED OPERATIONS §...

  9. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE RELATED OPERATIONS §...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

  11. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  12. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  13. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  14. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  15. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  16. In the O&C Building, the P3 truss, an ISS segment, is revealed inside its shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, cranes lift the top of the shipping container containing the port-side P3 truss, a segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The truss is scheduled to be added to the ISS on mission STS-115 in 2002 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The second port truss segment, P3 will be attached to the first port truss segment (P1).

  17. Structural design of supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The major efforts leading to an efficient structural design include: (1) the analysis methods used to improve the structural model optimization and compare the structural concepts, (2) the analysis and description of the fail-safe, crack growth, and residual strength studies and tests, (3) baseline structural trade studies to determine optimum structural weights including effects of geometry changes, strength, fail-safety, aeroelastics and flutter, 6AL-4V annealed titanium in structural efficiency after 70,000 hours at temperature, (5) the study of three structural models for aircraft at 2.0 Mach, 2.2 Mach, and 2.4 Mach cruise speeds, (6) the study of many structural concepts to determine their weight efficiencies; and (7) the determination of the requirements for large-scale structural development testing.

  18. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a Roman candle, the exhaust from the Boeing Delta II rocket with the Mars Polar Lander aboard lights up the clouds as it hurtles skyward. The rocket was launched at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  19. Effect of Ship Wake on Glint Ocean Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudyal, R.; Gatebe, C. K.; Wilcox, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    During the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), the NASA P-3B aircraft flew over the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California to characterize primarily the emissions from cargo ships, which are largely unknown and are thought to contribute to air quality problems in California. This experiment provides a golden opportunity to study ocean glint, particularly the effect of ship wake on glint ocean reflectance using measurements made by the NASA’s Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) instrument aboard the P-3B. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) has been used to acquire spectral BRDF of the ocean, sea ice, snow, tundra, savanna, smoke, vegetation, desert, salt pans, and clouds, and played a key role in the ARCTAS deployment in spring and summer of 2008. This airborne sensor has a wide aperture of 190°, an instantaneous Field of View of 1°, and can capture the full BRDF, including the hotspot under low sun angle conditions commonly found in the Arctic. The instrument was developed for low- to medium-altitude aircraft and can be used to obtain data with varying spatial resolutions that are important for addressing upscaling needs for satellite validation. The instrument has a unique ability to measure almost simultaneously, both downwelling and upwelling radiance at 14 narrow spectral bands located in the atmospheric window regions of the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. When combined with simultaneous airborne measurements of sun/sky radiance, the CAR sky radiance measurements provide information on aerosol (size distribution, single scattering albedo, refractive index) both above and below the aircraft. We show from the CAR measurements that glint reflectance increases by as much as 50% in some bands due to the presence of the ship wake. Since glint contributes a significant fraction of the ocean albedo (>70%), this effect, especially in an area with large concentration of ships, could lead to large

  20. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  1. An assessment of the ship drag penalty arising from light calcareous tubeworm fouling.

    PubMed

    Monty, J P; Dogan, E; Hanson, R; Scardino, A J; Ganapathisubramani, B; Hutchins, N

    2016-01-01

    A test coupon coated with light calcareous tubeworm fouling was scanned, scaled and reproduced for wind-tunnel testing to determine the equivalent sand grain roughness ks. It was found that this surface had a ks = 0.325 mm, substantially less than the previously reported values for light calcareous fouling. This result was used to predict the drag on a fouled full scale ship. To achieve this, a modified method for predicting the total drag of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), such as that on the hull of a ship, is presented. The method numerically integrates the skin friction over the length of the boundary layer, assuming an analytical form for the mean velocity profile of the TBL. The velocity profile contains the roughness (fouling) information, such that the prediction requires only an input of ks, the free-stream velocity (ship speed), the kinematic viscosity and the length of the boundary layer (the hull length). Using the equivalent sandgrain roughness height determined from experiments, a FFG-7 Oliver Perry class frigate is predicted to experience a 23% increase in total resistance at cruise, if its hull is coated in light calcareous tubeworm fouling. A similarly fouled very large crude carrier would experience a 34% increase in total resistance at cruise. PMID:26958740

  2. [Comparative study of the proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia aboard a satellite and aboard a stratospheric balloon].

    PubMed

    Tixador, R; Richoilley, G; Gasset, G; Planel, H

    1982-05-17

    A possible effect of cosmic rays on cell proliferation was investigated in cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia during a stratospheric balloon flight, with the techniques already used for the CYTOS experiments, performed aboard the orbital station Salyut 6. The results show that the stimulating effect of space on cell proliferation, reported in the CYTOS experiments, also occurs in the balloon flight. The respective roles of cosmic rays and weightlessness in the biological response are discussed. PMID:6814711

  3. Polarization Effects Aboard the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Jason; Young, Martin; Dubovitsky, Serge; Dorsky, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    For precision displacement measurements, laser metrology is currently one of the most accurate measurements. Often, the measurement is located some distance away from the laser source, and as a result, stringent requirements are placed on the laser delivery system with respect to the state of polarization. Such is the case with the fiber distribution assembly (FDA) that is slated to fly aboard the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) next decade. This system utilizes a concatenated array of couplers, polarizers and lengthy runs of polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber to distribute linearly-polarized light from a single laser to fourteen different optical metrology measurement points throughout the spacecraft. Optical power fluctuations at the point of measurement can be traced back to the polarization extinction ration (PER) of the concatenated components, in conjunction with the rate of change in phase difference of the light along the slow and fast axes of the PM fiber.

  4. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  5. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A Research Cruise Prototype Event Logging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Dorsk, A.

    2009-12-01

    Data gathered aboard research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) represent an important component of the overall oceanographic data collection. The nascent Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to basic shipboard data and ultimately reduce the work required to provide that access. The ultimate vision of R2R is to assist in transforming the academic fleet into an integrated global observing system. One of the coordinated subprojects within the R2R project is development of a shipboard, scientific event logging system that would incorporate best practice guidelines, a metadata schema and new and existing applications to generate a scientific sampling event log in the form of a digital text file. A cruise event logging system enables researchers to record digitally all scientific sampling events and assign a unique event identifier to each entry. Decades of work conducted within large coordinated ocean research programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC, WOCE and RIDGE) have shown that creation of a shipboard sampling event log can facilitate greatly the subsequent integration of data sets from individual investigators. A prototype event logger application, based on ELOG, has been developed and tested and results and lessons learned from this development effort will be shared.

  7. Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GAP) aboard the Small Solar Power Sail Demonstrator IKAROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Gunji, Shuichi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sakashita, Tomonori; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Toukairin, Noriyuki; Kodama, Yoshiki; Kubo, Shin; Ikaros Demonstration Team

    2011-06-01

    The small solar-power sail demonstrator ``IKAROS'' is a Japanese engineering verification spacecraft launched by the H-IIA rocket on 2010 May 21 at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tanegashima Space Center. IKAROS has a 20 m diameter sail, which is made of a thin polyimide membrane. The sail converts the solar radiation-pressure into the propulsion force of IKAROS, and accelerates the spacecraft. The Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GAP) aboard IKAROS is the first polarimeter specifically designed to measure the polarization of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) from space, and will do so in the cruising phase of the IKAROS mission. GAP is a modest detector of 3.8 kg in weight and 17 cm in size with an energy range of between 50-300 keV. The GAP detector is now a member of the interplanetary network (IPN) for determining the GRB direction. The detection principle of gamma-ray polarization is the anisotropy of the Compton scattering. Coincidence between the central plastic Compton scattering medium and discrete CsI detectors distributed around the sides of the plastic defines the Compton-scattering angle, which is expected to show an angular dependence if polarization is present in a given GRB. In this paper, we present the GAP detector and its ground-based and onboard calibrations.

  8. Long-range nuclear cruise missiles and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.N.; Postol, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles are highly accurate and are capable of reaching most targets within the United States and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) from launch points beyond their borders. Neither the United States nor the CIS has air surveillance systems capable of providing reliable warning against cruise missiles. Thus it is possible that a small-scale cruise missile attack could go entirely undetected until the nuclear weapons arrived over their targets. Such an attack could destroy the other country's entire strategic bomber force on the ground and severely damage its strategic command and control system, perhaps to the point of endangering the ability of its ICBM force to be launched on warning. This capability makes long-range nuclear cruise missiles potentially one of the most destabilizing of all nuclear weapons.

  9. Galileo post-Gaspra cruise and Earth-2 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Andrews, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This article documents DSN support for the Galileo cruise after the Oct. 1991 encounter with the asteroid Gaspra. This article also details the Earth-2 encounter and the special non-DSN support provided during the Earth-2 closest approach.

  10. Pig shipping container test sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E. Jr.

    1995-01-13

    This test plan outlines testing of the integrity of the pig shipping container. It is divided into four sections: (1) drop test requirements; (2) test preparations; (3) perform drop test; and (4) post-test examination.

  11. Primary particles in ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  12. Bridge-based sensing of NOx and SO2 emissions from ocean-going ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel A.; Bria, Carmen R. M.

    2016-07-01

    As emissions from nonroad mobile sources face increased regulatory scrutiny, a surprisingly few number of real-world, in-use measurements exist for these sources. This paper reports the first use of an open-path Remote Sensing Device (RSD) to measure emissions from ocean-going ships, including cruise ships. This noninvasive technique measured NOx and SO2 emission factors from 16 individually identified ocean-going ships as they passed under the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver, B.C. and their exhaust plumes passed through the sensing beam of the RSD on a bridge directly above. Ship NOx emissions generally agreed with previous studies showing no emissions trends across vessel type. Ship SO2 emissions were reasonable based on expected Environmental Control Area fuel sulfur requirements and corresponded to 0.4-2.4% sulfur in the fuels. This method's specificity of individual vessel SO2 measurements suggests that this technique could be used as a tool to detect high sulfur fuel use in vessels.

  13. Cabin cruising altitudes for regular transport aircraft.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    The adverse physiological effects of flight, caused by ascent to altitude and its associated reduction in barometric pressure, have been known since the first manned balloon flights in the 19th century. It soon became apparent that the way to protect the occupant of an aircraft from the effects of ascent to altitude was to enclose either the individual, or the cabin, in a sealed or pressurized environment. Of primary concern in commercial airline transport operations is the selection of a suitable cabin pressurization schedule that assures adequate oxygen partial pressures for all intended occupants. For the past several decades, 8000 ft has been accepted as the maximum operational cabin pressure altitude in the airline industry. More recent research findings on the physiological and psycho-physiological effects of mild hypoxia have provided cause for renewed discussion of the "acceptability" of a maximum cabin cruise altitude of 8000 ft; however, we did not find sufficient scientific data to recommend a change in the cabin altitude of transport category aircraft. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) should support further research to evaluate the safety, performance and comfort of occupants at altitudes between 5000 and 10,000 ft. PMID:18457303

  14. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  15. Several specific and nonspecific responses of the human and animal body to ship noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markaryan, S. S.; Volkov, S. S.; Sysoyev, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of noise on cargo boats on a long voyage differs considerably from the effect of noise in factories and in service industries. The peculiarities of the effect of round-the-clock noises at sea at 55 to 85 decibels, typical for cargo boats, were studied in white rats in the laboratory and aboard ship (each of the experiments lasted three months) and in young naval cadets and experienced seamen on voyages lasting one, two, and three months. The findings helped to derive health standards for maximum admissible noise level at sea.

  16. Noise and exposure of personnel aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Erlend; Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Moen, Bente E; Gjestland, Truls; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-03-01

    Despite awareness of noise aboard vessels at sea, few studies have reported measured noise levels aboard ships. This study aimed to describe the noise levels aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN), and to assess the noise exposure of personnel aboard RNoN vessels. In 2012/2013 noise measurements were conducted aboard 14 RNoN vessels from four different vessel classes (frigates, coastal corvettes, mine vessels, and coast guard vessels) which were included in this study. Mean and median A-weighted noise levels (L p,A) in decibel (dB(A)) were calculated for different locations in each vessel class. The noise exposure of RNoN personnel was assessed by dosimeter measurements, and with a task-based (TB) strategy. The TB strategy used means of area measured noise levels in locations and the personnel's mean reported time spent in the respective locations to estimate the exposure. Area measurements of noise during sailing with typical operating modes, showed that for all vessel classes the noise levels were high in engine rooms with median L p,A ranging from 86.4 to 105.3 dB(A). In all the other locations the vessel class with the highest noise levels (coastal corvettes) had a median L p,A ranging from 71.7 to 95.0 dB(A), while the vessel class with the lowest noise levels (coast guard vessels) had a median L p,A ranging from 41.5 to 57.8 dB(A). For all vessel classes the engineers and electricians had amongst the highest 24-hour noise exposure (L p,A,24h), both before and after adjusting for estimated use of hearing protective devices (L p,A,24h > 67.3 dB(A)). The vessel class with the highest personnel exposure levels (coastal corvettes) had L p,A,24h ranging from 76.6 to 79.3 dB(A). The vessel class with the lowest personnel exposure levels (coast guard vessels) had an L p,A,24h ranging from 47.4 to 67.3 dB(A). In general, the dosimeter measurements gave higher exposure levels than those estimated with the TB strategy. All vessel classes, except the coast

  17. Accurate mobile remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 latitudinal transects from aboard a research vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappenbach, F.; Bertleff, M.; Kostinek, J.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Razinger, M.; Butz, A.

    2015-07-01

    A portable Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), model EM27/SUN, is deployed onboard the research vessel Polarstern to measure the column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) by means of direct sunlight absorption spectrometry. We report on technical developments as well as data calibration and reduction measures required to achieve the targeted accuracy of fractions of a percent in retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 while operating the instrument under field conditions onboard the moving platform during a six week cruise through the Atlantic from Cape Town (South Africa, 34° S, 18° E) to Bremerhaven (Germany, 54° N, 19° E). We demonstrate that our solar tracker typically achieves a tracking precision of better than 0.05° toward the center of the sun throughout the ship cruise which facilitates accurate XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals even under harsh ambient wind conditions. We define several quality filters that screen spectra e.g. when the field-of-view is partially obstructed by ship structures or when the lines-of-sight cross the ship exhaust plume. The measurements in clean oceanic air, can be used to characterize a spurious airmass dependency. After the campaign, deployment of the spectrometer side-by-side the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) instrument at Karlsruhe, Germany, allows for determining a calibration factor that makes the entire campaign record traceable to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. Comparisons to observations of the GOSAT satellite and concentration fields modeled by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) within the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) demonstrate that the observational setup is well suited to provide validation opportunities above the ocean and along interhemispheric transects.

  18. Accurate mobile remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 latitudinal transects from aboard a research vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappenbach, F.; Bertleff, M.; Kostinek, J.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Razinger, M.; Butz, A.

    2015-12-01

    A portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), model EM27/SUN, was deployed onboard the research vessel Polarstern to measure the column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) by means of direct sunlight absorption spectrometry. We report on technical developments as well as data calibration and reduction measures required to achieve the targeted accuracy of fractions of a percent in retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 while operating the instrument under field conditions onboard the moving platform during a 6-week cruise on the Atlantic from Cape Town (South Africa, 34° S, 18° E; 5 March 2014) to Bremerhaven (Germany, 54° N, 19° E; 14 April 2014). We demonstrate that our solar tracker typically achieved a tracking precision of better than 0.05° toward the center of the sun throughout the ship cruise which facilitates accurate XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals even under harsh ambient wind conditions. We define several quality filters that screen spectra, e.g., when the field of view was partially obstructed by ship structures or when the lines-of-sight crossed the ship exhaust plume. The measurements in clean oceanic air, can be used to characterize a spurious air-mass dependency. After the campaign, deployment of the spectrometer alongside the TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) instrument at Karlsruhe, Germany, allowed for determining a calibration factor that makes the entire campaign record traceable to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards. Comparisons to observations of the GOSAT satellite and concentration fields modeled by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) demonstrate that the observational setup is well suited to provide validation opportunities above the ocean and along interhemispheric transects.

  19. Math Model for Naval Ship Handling Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golovcsenko, Igor V.

    The report describes the math model for an experimental ship handling trainer. The training task is that of a replenishment operation at sea. The model includes equations for ship dynamics of a destroyer, propeller-engine response times, ship separation, interaction effects between supply ship and destroyer, and outputs to a visual display system.…

  20. Naval threat countermeasure simulator and the IR_CRUISE_missiles models for the generation of infrared (IR) videos of maritime targets and background for input into advanced imaging IR seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taczak, Thomas M.; Dries, John W.; Gover, Robert E.; Snapp, Mary Ann; Williams, Elmer F.; Cahill, Colin P.

    2002-07-01

    A new hardware-in-the-loop modeling technique was developed at the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for the evaluation of IR countermeasures against advanced IR imaging anti-ship cruise missiles. The research efforts involved the creation of tools to generate accurate IR imagery and synthesize video to inject in to real-world threat simulators. A validation study was conducted to verify the accuracy and limitations of the techniques that were developed.

  1. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    PubMed

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous. PMID:11973852

  2. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  3. Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of emissions from ships' propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Julián; Durán-Grados, Vanesa; Hampel, Miriam; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Large ships, particularly container ships, tankers, bulk carriers and cruise ships are significant individual contributors to air pollution. The European Environment Agency recognizes that air pollution in Europe is a local, regional and transborder problem caused by the emission of specific pollutants, which either directly or through chemical reactions lead to negative impacts, such as damage to human health and ecosystems. In the Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament emissions from ships are mentioned explicitly in the list of pressures and impacts that should be reduced or minimized to maintain or obtain a good ecological status. While SOx and NOx contribute mainly to ocean and soil acidification and climate change, PM (particularly ultrafine particles in the range of nanoparticles) has the potential to act more directly on human and ecosystem health. Thus, in terms of risk assessment, one of the most dangerous atmospheric aerosols for environmental and human health is in the size range of nanoparticles. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out on the effects of the fraction that ends up in the water column and to which aquatic and sediment-dwelling organisms are exposed. Therefore, an integrated environmental risk assessment of the effects of emissions from oceangoing ships including the aquatic compartment is necessary. Research should focus on the quantitative and qualitative determination of pollutant emissions from ships and their distribution and fate. This will include the in situ measurement of emissions in ships in order to derive realistic emission factors, and the application of atmospheric and oceanographic transportation and chemistry models. PMID:24522089

  4. Ship waves and lee waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharman, R. D.; Wurtele, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamics analogous to those of surface ship waves on water of finite depth are noted for the three-dimensional trapped lee wave modes produced by an isolated obstacle in a stratified fluid. This vertical trapping of wave energy is modeled by uniform upstream flow and stratification, bounded above by a rigid lid, and by a semiinfinite fluid of uniform stability whose wind velocity increases exponentially with height, representing the atmosphere. While formal asymptotic solutions are produced, limited quantitative usefulness is obtained through them because of the limitations of the approximations and the infinity of modes in the solution. Time-dependent numerical models are accordingly developed for both surface ship waves and internal and atmospheric ship waves, yielding a variety of results.

  5. CruiseViewer: SIOExplorer Graphical Interface to Metadata and Archives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, D. W.; Helly, J. J.; Miller, S. P.; Chase, A.; Clark, D.

    2002-12-01

    We are introducing "CruiseViewer" as a prototype graphical interface for the SIOExplorer digital library project, part of the overall NSF National Science Digital Library (NSDL) effort. When complete, CruiseViewer will provide access to nearly 800 cruises, as well as 100 years of documents and images from the archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). The project emphasizes data object accessibility, a rich metadata format, efficient uploading methods and interoperability with other digital libraries. The primary function of CruiseViewer is to provide a human interface to the metadata database and to storage systems filled with archival data. The system schema is based on the concept of an "arbitrary digital object" (ADO). Arbitrary in that if the object can be stored on a computer system then SIOExplore can manage it. Common examples are a multibeam swath bathymetry file, a .pdf cruise report, or a tar file containing all the processing scripts used on a cruise. We require a metadata file for every ADO in an ascii "metadata interchange format" (MIF), which has proven to be highly useful for operability and extensibility. Bulk ADO storage is managed using the Storage Resource Broker, SRB, data handling middleware developed at the San Diego Supercomputer Center that centralizes management and access to distributed storage devices. MIF metadata are harvested from several sources and housed in a relational (Oracle) database. For CruiseViewer, cgi scripts resident on an Apache server are the primary communication and service request handling tools. Along with the CruiseViewer java application, users can query, access and download objects via a separate method that operates through standard web browsers, http://sioexplorer.ucsd.edu. Both provide the functionability to query and view object metadata, and select and download ADOs. For the CruiseViewer application Java 2D is used to add a geo-referencing feature that allows users to select basemap images

  6. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  7. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

    2000-08-01

    Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

  8. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  9. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  11. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  12. PM10 source apportionment applying PMF and chemical tracer analysis to ship-borne measurements in the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, M. C.; Brotto, P.; Calzolai, G.; Cassola, F.; Cavalli, F.; Fermo, P.; Hjorth, J.; Massabò, D.; Nava, S.; Piazzalunga, A.; Schembari, C.; Prati, P.

    2016-01-01

    A PM10 sampling campaign was carried out on board the cruise ship Costa Concordia during three weeks in summer 2011. The ship route was Civitavecchia-Savona-Barcelona-Palma de Mallorca-Malta (Valletta)-Palermo-Civitavecchia. The PM10 composition was measured and utilized to identify and characterize the main PM10 sources along the ship route through receptor modelling, making use of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) algorithm. A particular attention was given to the emissions related to heavy fuel oil combustion by ships, which is known to be also an important source of secondary sulphate aerosol. Five aerosol sources were resolved by the PMF analysis. The primary contribution of ship emissions to PM10 turned out to be (12 ± 4)%, while secondary ammonium sulphate contributed by (35 ± 5)%. Approximately, 60% of the total sulphate was identified as secondary aerosol while about 20% was attributed to heavy oil combustion in ship engines. The measured concentrations of methanesulphonic acid (MSA) indicated a relevant contribution to the observed sulphate loading by biogenic sulphate, formed by the atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emitted by marine phytoplankton.

  13. In situ measurements of IO and reactive iodine aboard the RV Sonne during SHIVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Dwayne; Walker, Hannah; Ingham, Trevor; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wittrock, Folker

    2013-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are emitted from the oceans by marine species such as macroalgae and phytoplankton and contribute to halogen loading in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project combined ship-borne, aircraft-based and ground-based measurements in and over the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea, and around the coast of Malaysian Borneo. In this paper we present measurements of IO radicals in coastal and open ocean regions made onboard the German research vessel RV Sonne in November 2011 between Singapore and Manila, via the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo (South China Sea) and the Sulu Sea. In situ measurements of IO were made on 12 days by the University of Leeds laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument, with a detection limit of 0.3 pptv for a 30 minute averaging period. The cruise average IO concentration was found to be 1.2 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 2.4 pptv in the middle of the Sulu Sea, an area known for high biological activity. Only a weak diurnal profile was observed, with IO detected above the detection limit on 10 out of the 11 nights when the LIF instrument was operational. Measurements of IO at night in the open ocean have not previously been reported and indicate the presence of gas phase or heterogeneous mechanisms that recycle iodine species without requiring light. There was reasonable agreement for IO concentrations measured by the University of Leeds LIF and the University of Bremen MAX-DOAS instruments, for which a comparison will be presented. I2, ICl and HOI were measured by the University of Mainz using a coupled diffusion denuder system followed by analysis using gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectroscopy, with a detection of 0.17 pptv for 30 mins (I2). The cruise average I2 concentration was found to be 2.0 pptv, with a maximum concentration observed during one night of 12.7 pptv on the northern coast

  14. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Mukai, H.; Machida, T.; Tohjima, Y.

    2011-11-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv) and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3-5 years. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  15. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Mukai, H.; Machida, T.; Tohjima, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States, from Japan to Canada, and from Japan to Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv) and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards (CO balanced with purified air at ppmv levels) during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3-5 yr. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  16. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  17. Some design considerations for supersonic cruise mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    A mixed compression inlet designed for supersonic cruise has very demanding requirements for high total pressure recovery and low bleed and cowl drag. However, since the optimum inlet for supersonic cruise performance may have other undesirable characteristics, it is necessary to establish trade-offs between inlet performance and other inlet characteristics. Some of these trade-offs between the amount of internal compression, aerodynamic performance and angle-of-attack tolerance are reviewed. Techniques for analysis of boundary layer control and subsonic diffuser flow are discussed.

  18. Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM): A Cruise Missile Guidance Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Joe P.

    1980-12-01

    The Cruise Missile is guided by an inertial guidance system aided by an updating technique called Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). Chance-Vought first proposed the terrain correlation technique in the late 1950's. Since that time TERCOM has evolved into a reliable, accurate, all weather, day and night method of position fixing and updating for cruise missiles. A brief history of TERCOM development will be presented giving results where possible. A description of TERCOM and how is works will be discussed. A snapshot of the present TERCOM status and future planned developments will be addressed.

  19. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  20. Cassini - Huygens maneuver experience : cruise and arrival at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Troy; Buffington, Brent; Hahn, Yungsun; Strange, Nathan; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan was launched in 1997. It is an international effort to study the Saturnian system. Cassini-Huygens' interplanetary cruise delivered the spacecraft to Saturn in 2004. It also made use of many propulsive maneuvers, both statistical and deterministic. Maneuver-related analysis and performance for latter half of cruise is reported. The system has performed more accurately than the pre-launch expectations and requirements. Additionally, some maneuvers have already been skipped, saving propellant and flight team effort. Analysis of historical execution error data is presented.

  1. Performance and benefits of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of four years research on technology are synthesized in an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft design. Comparisons are presented with the former United States SST and the British-French Concorde, including aerodynamic efficiency, propulsion efficiency, weight efficiency, and community noise. Selected trade study results are presented on the subjects of design cruise Mach number, engine cycle selection, and noise suppression. The critical issue of program timing is addressed and some observations made regarding the impact that timing has on engine selection and minimization of program risk.

  2. Medical doctors as the captain of a ship: an analysis of medical students’ book reports on Joseph Conrad’s “Lord Jim”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol) and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad’s novel “Lord Jim.” The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad’s “Lord Jim.” Methods: Participants included 49 third-year medical students. Their book reports were analyzed. Results: If placed in the same situation as the character of Jim, 24 students of the 49 respondents answered that they would stay with the passengers, while 18 students indicated they would escape from the ship with the crew. Most of the students thought the role of a doctor in the medical field was like that of a ‘captain.’ The medical students reported that they wanted to be a doctor who is responsible for his or her patients, highly moral, warm-hearted, honest, and with high self-esteem. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that “Lord Jim” induced the virtue of ‘responsibility’ from the medical students. Consequently, “Lord Jim” could be good teaching material for medical humanities. PMID:25417908

  3. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  4. Measuring SO2 ship emissions with an ultra-violet imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A. J.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few years fast-sampling ultra-violet (UV) imaging cameras have been developed for use in measuring SO2 emissions from industrial sources (e.g. power plants; typical fluxes ~1-10 kg s-1) and natural sources (e.g. volcanoes; typical fluxes ~10-100 kg s-1). Generally, measurements have been made from sources rich in SO2 with high concentrations and fluxes. In this work, for the first time, a UV camera has been used to measure the much lower concentrations and fluxes of SO2 (typical fluxes ~0.01-0.1 kg s-1) in the plumes from moving and stationary ships. Some innovations and trade-offs have been made so that estimates of the fluxes and path concentrations can be retrieved in real-time. Field experiments were conducted at Kongsfjord in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, where emissions from cruise ships were made, and at the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, measuring emissions from more than 10 different container and cargo ships. In all cases SO2 path concentrations could be estimated and fluxes determined by measuring ship plume speeds simultaneously using the camera, or by using surface wind speed data from an independent source. Accuracies were compromised in some cases because of the presence of particulates in some ship emissions and the restriction of single-filter UV imagery, a requirement for fast-sampling (>10 Hz) from a single camera. Typical accuracies ranged from 10-30% in path concentration and 10-40% in flux estimation. Despite the ease of use and ability to determine SO2 fluxes from the UV camera system, the limitation in accuracy and precision suggest that the system may only be used under rather ideal circumstances and that currently the technology needs further development to serve as a method to monitor ship emissions for regulatory purposes.

  5. Application of powered-lift concepts for improved cruise efficiency of long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Fournier, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies conducted to explore the use of powered lift concepts for improved low speed performance of long range subsonic and supersonic cruise vehicles are summarized. It is indicated that powered lift can provide significant improvements in low speed performance, as well as substantial increases in cruise efficiency and range for both subsonic and supersonic cruise configurations.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide in the marine boundary layer over the South Atlantic during the OOMPH cruise in March 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H.; Pozzer, A.; Schmitt, T.; Jöckel, P.; Klippel, T.; Taraborrelli, D.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-06-01

    In the OOMPH (Ocean Organics Modifying Particles in both Hemispheres) project a ship measurement cruise took place in the late austral summer from 01 to 23 March 2007. The French research vessel Marion Dufresne sailed from Punta Arenas, Chile (70.85° W, 53.12° S), to Réunion island (55.36° E, 21.06° S) across the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone were performed and are compared to simulations with the atmospheric chemistry global circulation model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). The model generally reproduces the measured trace gas levels, but it underestimates hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios at high wind speeds, indicating too-strong dry deposition to the ocean surface. An interesting feature during the cruise is a strong increase of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone shortly after midnight off the west coast of Africa due to an increase in the boundary layer height, leading to downward transport from the free troposphere, which is qualitatively reproduced by the model.

  7. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  8. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... person receiving a shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image... reasonable times and locations. For a hazardous waste, each shipping paper copy must be retained for...

  9. How To Improve You Shipping and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how two universities improved their shipping and receiving operations and cut costs. Examples from the University of Texas at Dallas and John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, illustrate how they established greater shipping and receiving department efficiencies. (GR)

  10. Reconstructing 3-D Ship Motion for Synthetic Aperture Sonar Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, D. R.; Chadwell, C. D.; Sandwell, D.

    2004-12-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of coherent ping-to-ping processing of multibeam sonar data for high-resolution mapping and change detection in the deep ocean. Theoretical calculations suggest that standard multibeam resolution can be improved from 100 m to ~10 m through coherent summation of pings similar to synthetic aperture radar image formation. A requirement for coherent summation of pings is to correct the phase of the return echoes to an accuracy of ~3 cm at a sampling rate of ~10 Hz. In September of 2003, we conducted a seagoing experiment aboard R/V Revelle to test these ideas. Three geodetic-quality GPS receivers were deployed to recover 3-D ship motion to an accuracy of +- 3cm at a 1 Hz sampling rate [Chadwell and Bock, GRL, 2001]. Additionally, inertial navigation data (INS) from fiber-optic gyroscopes and pendulum-type accelerometers were collected at a 10 Hz rate. Independent measurements of ship orientation (yaw, pitch, and roll) from the GPS and INS show agreement to an RMS accuracy of better than 0.1 degree. Because inertial navigation hardware is susceptible to drift, these measurements were combined with the GPS to achieve both high accuracy and high sampling rate. To preserve the short-timescale accuracy of the INS and the long-timescale accuracy of the GPS measurements, time-filtered differences between the GPS and INS were subtracted from the INS integrated linear velocities. An optimal filter length of 25 s was chosen to force the RMS difference between the GPS and the integrated INS to be on the order of the accuracy of the GPS measurements. This analysis provides an upper bound on 3-D ship motion accuracy. Additionally, errors in the attitude can translate to the projections of motion for individual hydrophones. With lever arms on the order of 5m, these errors will likely be ~1mm. Based on these analyses, we expect to achieve the 3-cm accuracy requirement. Using full-resolution hydrophone data collected by a SIMRAD EM/120 echo sounder

  11. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  12. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  13. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  14. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  15. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  16. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  17. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  18. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  19. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  20. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  1. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  2. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26...

  3. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  4. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  5. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by highway unless that person has received a shipping...

  6. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  7. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  8. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  9. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  10. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  11. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  12. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  13. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  14. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  15. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  16. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  17. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and Cruise Missile Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the 1983 controversy over cruise missile testing by the United States over Canadian air space, this article provides the text of an open letter to the people and an interview by Prime Minister Trudeau. Parenthetical comments inserted by the author point out contradiction contained in the two documents. (JDH)

  18. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  19. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  20. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  1. The NASA research program on propulsion for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives and status of the propulsion portion of a program aimed at advancing the technology and establishing a data base appropriate for the possible future development of supersonic cruise aircraft are reviewed. Research related to exhaust nozzles, combustors, and inlets that is covered by the noise, pollution, and dynamics programs is described.

  2. 6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 18801890. VIEW OF STEAMPOWERED CRUISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1880-1890. VIEW OF STEAM-POWERED CRUISE BOAT FROM MAPLEWOOD PARK ON CLARK'S MILL POND. (Original in possession of the Erie County Historical Society.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  3. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  4. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5’-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for ...

  5. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  6. Optical influence of ship wakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Lewis, Marlon; Bissett, W Paul; Johnson, Bruce; Kohler, Dave

    2004-05-20

    The optical variations observed within ship wakes are largely due to the generation of copious amounts of air bubbles in the upper ocean, a fraction of which accumulate as foam at the surface, where they release scavenged surfactants. Field experiments were conducted to test previous theoretical predictions of the variations in optical properties that result from bubble injection in the surface ocean. Variations in remote-sensing reflectance and size distribution of bubbles within the ship-wake zone were determined in three different optical water types: the clear equatorial Pacific Ocean, moderately turbid coastal waters, and very turbid coastal waters, the latter two of which were offshore of New Jersey. Bubbles introduced by moving vessels increased the backscattering in all cases, which in turn enhanced the reflectance over the entire visible and infrared wave bands. The elevated reflectance had different spectral characteristics in the three locations. The color of ship wakes appears greener in the open ocean, whereas little change in color was observed in near-coastal turbid waters, consistent with predictions. Colorless themselves, bubbles increase the reflected radiance and change the color of the ocean in a way that depends on the spectral backscattering and absorption of the undisturbed background waters. For remote observation from aircraft or satellite, the foam and added surfactants further enhance the reflectance to a degree dependent on the illumination and the viewing geometry. PMID:15176201

  7. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  8. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)" to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  9. 76 FR 60853 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft. OMB Number: 1651-0058. Form Number: None. Abstract:...

  10. The U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect: Big Science at sea on large ships with every berth filled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Cutter, G. A.; Anderson, R. F.; Jenkins, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the International GEOTRACES program is to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and to establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. This goal is being met by determining global ocean distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes - including their concentration, chemical speciation and physical form - and to evaluate the sources, sinks, and internal cycling of these species to characterize more completely the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating their distributions. On October 15, 2010, the R/V Knorr departed Lisbon for the first US GEOTRACES transect. Following thruster failure, the cruise was terminated early in the Cape Verde Islands. It resumed the following November 5, 2011 departing Woods Hole followed by a one day port stop at Bermuda and ended in the Cape Verde Islands on Dec. 11. The ship had a full scientific complement on both legs (32 scientists; more wished to participate) and the decks were completely filled with specialized vans, water storage pallet boxes, and sampling equipment sufficient to take care of the requirements of 50 PIs. We occupied 34 stations, collected over 17,000 water samples ranging from 30mL to 20L. Specially outfitted in-situ McLane pumps were used to collect large volume particulate chemistry and radionuclide samples at 16 depths from 22 stations. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by sector-selective automated equipment. Apart from 3 shallow stations canceled due to weather or shiptime, we collected everything as planned. We will present preliminary findings from the cruise to illustrate how a well-designed, large, multi-investigator project can pack more power in its punch than a comparable complement of smaller cruises with fewer PIs. Although some types of science at sea may shift to drifters, gliders, and AUVs deployed by smaller ships, major biogeochemical

  11. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  12. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  13. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  14. Description of the TC 125 aboard the Mercury simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two distinct phases of the TC.125 aboard the Mercury Simulator were described to pilots at a meeting in 1979. A three hour "hand on" phase, during which the pilot learns to use the system, and second; a two hour evaluation phase, during which the pilot analyzes the TC.125 and pratices making typical approaches are presented.

  15. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. 1240.90 Section 1240.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use...

  16. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  17. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  18. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  19. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  20. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  1. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  2. Cruise report for P1-13-LA, U.S. Geological Survey gas hydrates research cruise, R/V Pelican April 18 to May 3, 2013, deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Hart, Patrick E.; Ruppel, Carolyn; O'Brien, Thomas; Baldwin, Wayne; White, Jenny; Moore, Eric; Dal Ferro, Pete; Lemmond, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey led a seismic acquisition cruise in the Gulf of Mexico from April 18 to May 3, 2013, with the objectives of (1) achieving improved imaging and characterization at two established gas hydrate study sites, and (2) refining geophysical methods for gas hydrate characterization in other locations. We conducted this acquisition aboard the R/V Pelican, and used a pair of 105/105-cubic-inch generator/injector air guns to provide seismic energy that we recorded using a 450-meter 72-channel digital hydrophone streamer and 25 multicomponent ocean-bottom seismometers. In the area of lease block Green Canyon 955, we deployed 21 ocean-bottom seismometers and acquired approximately 400 kilometers of high-resolution two-dimensional streamer seismic data in a grid with line spacing as small as 50 meters and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 kilometers and diverse azimuths for the ocean-bottom seismometers. In the area of lease block Walker Ridge 313, we deployed 25 ocean-bottom seismometers and acquired approximately 450 kilometers of streamer seismic data in a grid pattern with line spacing as small as 250 meters and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 kilometers for the ocean-bottom seismometers. The data acquisition effort was conducted safely and met the scientific objectives.

  3. Predicting ship fuel consumption: Update. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrady, D.A.; Smyth, G.K.; Vassian, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report is concerned with the prediction of ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of predicted and actual fuel use data, the standard error of the estimate, and plots of actual and fitted data are given for 22 classes of Navy ships.

  4. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  5. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  6. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  7. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  8. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  9. IR susceptibility of naval ships using ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.

    2010-04-01

    Methods of analysing the signature and susceptibility of naval platforms to infrared detection are described. An unclassified ShipIR destroyer model is used to illustrate the primary sources of infrared signature and detection: the exhaust system, solar-heating, and operating climate. The basic detection algorithm used by the Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) component of ShipIR is described and used to analyse the effectiveness of various stealth technologies: stack suppression, low solar absorptive (LSA) paints, and Active Hull Cooling (AHC). Standard marine climate statistics are used to determine a minimum (5%), average (50%) and maximum (95%) signature condition for each operating region. The change in detection range of two wave-band sensors (3-5μm, 8-12 μm) operating at different altitudes (10m, 270m) in each of four climatic conditions is used to assess the effectiveness of each stealth solution, providing a more integral approach to infrared stealth design. These tools and methods form the basis on which future platform designs are being evaluated.

  10. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander clears Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, after launch at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  11. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Silhouetted against the gray sky, a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle with NASA's Mars Polar Lander lifts off from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station, at 3:21:10 p.m. EST. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  12. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amid clouds of exhaust and into a gray-clouded sky , a Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern- most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98 missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  13. The Boeing Delta II rocket with Mars Polar Lander aboard lifts off at Pad 17B, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Boeing Delta II expendable launch vehicle lifts off with NASA's Mars Polar Lander into a cloud-covered sky at 3:21:10 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Station. The lander is a solar-powered spacecraft designed to touch down on the Martian surface near the northern-most boundary of the south polar cap, which consists of carbon dioxide ice. The lander will study the polar water cycle, frosts, water vapor, condensates and dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is equipped with a robotic arm to dig beneath the layered terrain at the polar cap. In addition, Deep Space 2 microprobes, developed by NASA's New Millennium Program, are installed on the lander's cruise stage. After crashing into the planet's surface, they will conduct two days of soil and water experiments up to 1 meter (3 feet) below the Martian surface, testing new technologies for future planetary descent probes. The lander is the second spacecraft to be launched in a pair of Mars Surveyor '98missions. The first is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which was launched aboard a Delta II rocket from Launch Complex 17A on Dec. 11, 1998.

  14. Aircraft measurements of bromine monoxide, iodine monoxide, and glyoxal profiles in the tropics: comparison with ship-based and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Campos, T. L.; Coburn, S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Dix, B.; Koenig, T. K.; Ortega, I.; Pierce, B. R.; Reeves, M.; Sinreich, R.; Wang, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Romashkin, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO), and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O) and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4) were measured by the CU Airborne Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument, in situ aerosol size distributions by an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), and in situ H2O by Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL). Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO) as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO) project. We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD) measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols, and find O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 5% with Mie calculations of extinction profiles constrained by UHSAS. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise), and to test the robustness of BrO, IO, and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01), and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ Cavity Enhanced- and MAX-DOAS. Inside the marine boundary layer (MBL) no BrO was detected (smaller than 0.5 pptv), and 0.2-0.55 pptv IO and 32-36 pptv glyoxal were observed. The near surface concentrations agree within 20% (IO) and 10% (glyoxal) between ship and aircraft. The BrO concentration strongly

  15. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  16. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  17. Cruise ships and bush medicine: Globalization on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua and effects on the health of Creole women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma McKim; Steeves, Richard; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Global health research into the relationship between health, economic inequalities, and globalization is necessary to address increasing health disparities in low income countries. Nicaragua has high levels of poverty and extreme poverty when compared with other Central and South American Countries. Design Photovoice and ethnographic research methods were used to explore health experiences of Creole women in Bluefields, Nicaragua and the intersections between culture, socioeconomic status, and gender. Sample Twelve Creole women participants, ages 18–45. Measurements After initial focus groups, participants used disposable cameras to document health experiences. Follow up interviews were conducted about the meaning of each photo. Participants then selected photos to be included in a city-wide photoshow. Results In initial focus groups, participants described great distress over changes they perceived in Creole culture and how these changes affect the health of the next generation. Participants related most of these changes to the economy and globalization. Photos taken were primarily of aspects of Creole culture, including household practices and traditional remedies from Creole culture. Conclusions Findings on the relationships between culture, disease and community-identified health risks in this minority population can help healthcare providers and public health policy makers develop and sustain culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:24766610

  18. 33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.839 Section...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving safety zones are established around...

  19. 33 CFR 165.839 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.839 Section...; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi River and Southwest Pass, moving safety zones are established around...

  20. [Noise-related occupational risk aboard fishing vessels: considerations on prevention and the protection of exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Bolognini, S; Fenga, C

    2004-01-01

    Recent legislation regarding the safety of workers aboard fishing vessels requires the appointment by ship owners of a Reference Physician in charge of health surveillance, preventive inspections and related tasks. As maritime workers, especially fishermen, have always been excluded from legal protection of occupational health, there are no exhaustive data on the incidence of their occupational disease. Several epidemiological studies of fishermen have evidenced a high prevalence and incidence of occupational conditions, among which noise-related hypoacousia. We report data of a phonometric survey conducted aboard six fishing vessels carrying a crew of less than six fishing in the mid-Adriatic. Measurements were performed during fishing and navigation aboard five vessels fitted with a fixed-pitch propeller and during fishing only aboard one vessel fitted with an controllable pitch propeller. Measurements were conducted: 1) in the engine rooms; 2) in the work area on deck; 3) at the winch; 4) in the wheelhouse; 5) in the mess-room and kitchen; 6) in the sleeping quarters. Results show that the equivalent sound pressure level in the engine rooms consistently exceeded 90 dBA on all vessels. The speed of the vessels fitted with the fixed-pitch propeller is 3-4 knots in the fishing phase and around 10 knots during navigation to and from the fishing grounds; noise emission is lower with the former regimen because of the smaller number of engine revolutions per minute. Our survey demonstrated considerably different noise levels in the various areas of vessels. One key element in workers' exposure, the tasks assigned and the environmental working conditions is of course the type of fishing in which the vessel is engaged. Further phonometric studies are required to assess the daily level of exposure per crew member, which represents the reference for the noise-related risk of each subject. Knowledge of the sound pressure levels in the work environment and the length of

  1. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  6. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  7. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-09-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This holds particularly within the planetary boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1, comparable to the measurement error of standard radiosondes. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  8. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-11-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne Doppler measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This held true particularly within the atmospheric boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of vertical winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1. The comparison of lidar-measured wind and radio soundings gives a mean bias of 0.3 m s-1 (2°) and a mean standard deviation of 1.1 m s-1 (12°) for wind speed (wind direction). The agreement for wind direction degrades with height. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover: Launch, Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, James K.; Manning, Robert M.; Adler, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Project was an ambitious effort to land two highly capable rovers on Mars and concurrently explore the Martian surface for three months each. Launched in June and July of 2003, cruise operations were conducted through January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing on January 25. The prime mission for the second rover ended on April 27, 2004. This paper will provide an overview of the launch, cruise, and landing phases of the mission, including the engineering and science objectives and challenges involved in the selection and targeting of the landing sites, as well as the excitement and challenges of atmospheric entry, descent and landing execution.

  10. Minimum energy, liquid hydrogen supersonic cruise vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential was examined of hydrogen-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing energy expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid hydrogen for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and energy utilization.

  11. [MORBIDITY OF SUBMARINE CREW SAILORS IN LONG-DISTANCE CRUISES].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Burtsev, N N; Bondarenko N V; Khamidullina, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity among the personnel of a Kola-based (beyond the Arctic circle) atomic (ASM) and diesel-powered (DSM) submarines in the course of long-distance cruises in different waters of the world ocean was studied. Statistics was collected from the reports of submarine medical officers since 1969. Levels and causes of morbidity were analyzed. According to the data of many years' observations, within the structure of primary diseases of military contractors on cruises the leading place has been occupied by respiratory disorders followed by skin and subcutaneous fat problems, and digestive diseases. Incidence of chronic diseases among ASM and DSM personnel was evaluated. The authors raise the issue of dental care quality provided to submariners. PMID:26554134

  12. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  13. Shipping Cask Design Review Analysis.

    1998-01-04

    Version 01 SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer based system of computer programs and databases for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads, and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations (1983) and Regulatory Guides published by the NRC in 1977more » and 1978. The system is composed of a series of menus and input entry cask analysis, and output display programs. An analysis is performed by preparing the necessary input data and then selecting the appropriate analysis: impact, thermal (heat transfer), thermally-induced stress, or pressure-induced stress. All data are entered through input screens with descriptive data requests, and, where possible, default values are provided. Output (i.e., impact force, moment and sheer time histories; impact animation; thermal/stress geometry and thermal/stress element outlines; temperature distributions as isocontours or profiles; and temperature time histories) is displayed graphically and can also be printed.« less

  14. Environmental effects of an aircraft at cruise: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararaman, N.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the calculations of ozone change due to high altitude aircraft is critically reviewed and important areas of uncertainty identified. Laboratory determinations of chemical reaction rates and modeling refinements show that the effect of cruise altitude emissions on stratospheric ozone has changed from one of ozone decrease to one of slight increase. It is concluded that the uncertainties in the present understanding of the effects of high altitude aircraft are such as to warrant continued studies.

  15. Overview of NASA's Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The research in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Propulsion (SCE-P) Technical Challenge area of NASA's Supersonics project is discussed. The research in SCE-P is being performed to enable efficient supersonic flight over land. Research elements in this area include: Advance Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wider Operability Fan and Compressor, Advanced Nozzle Concepts, and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The research under each of these elements is briefly discussed.

  16. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, ED; Nicholson, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 General Dynamics demonstrated an AR&D system for members of the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware derived from the Cruise Missile and Centaur avionics systems. The object of this proof of concept demonstration was to show that all the accuracy, reliability, and operational requirements established for a spacecraft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed AR&D system.

  17. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-09-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black carbon

  18. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  19. Forcing the Navy to Sell Cigarettes on Ships: How the Tobacco Industry and Politicians Torpedoed Navy Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships’ stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces. PMID:21233435

  20. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  1. Crewmen of the Gemini 7 spacecraft arrive aboard aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., (left), pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, are shown just after they arrived aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Greeting the astronauts are Donald Stullken (at Lovell's right), Recovery Operations Branch, Landing and Recovery Division; Dr. Howard Minners (standing beside Borman), Flight Medicine Branch, Cneter Medical Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, and Bennett James (standing behind Borman), a NASA Public Affairs Officer.

  2. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L.-J. Sally

    2008-01-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Concentrations aboard school buses (21 μg/m3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 μg/m3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics. PMID:18985175

  3. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  4. Study of balloon and thermal control material degradation aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letton, Alan; Rock, Neil I.; Williams, Kevin D.; Strganac, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The initial results of analysis performed on a number of polymeric materials which were exposed aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are discussed. These materials include two typical high altitude balloon films (a polyester and a polyethylene) and silver-backed Teflon from thermal control blanket samples. The techniques used for characterizing changes in mechanical properties, chemical structure and surface morphology include Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  5. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  7. Ship-Track Clouds, Aerosol, and Ship Dynamic Effects; A Climate Perspective from Ship-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.

    1998-10-13

    Ship-track clouds are marine boundary layer clouds that form behind ocean ships and are observed from satellites in the visible and near infrared. Ship-track clouds provide a rare opportunity to connect aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) emissions and observable changes in marine stratiform clouds. A very small change in the reflectivity of these eastern Pacific and Atlantic clouds (about 4%) provides a climate feedback of similar magnitude to doubling CO{sub 2} (increasing cloud reflectivity corresponds to global cooling). The Department of Energy sponsored research from 1991 to 1995 to study ship-track clouds including two ocean-based experiments in the summers of 1991 and 1994. These experiments showed that ship-track cloud properties were often more complex those related to a reduction of droplet size with an increase in number associated with increasing CCN from the ship's plume. The clouds showed evidence of morphological changes more likely to be associated with cloud dynamic effects either initiated by the increased CCN or directly by the ship's heat output or turbulent air wake. The fact that marine stratiform clouds, that are susceptible to ship track formation, are starved for both CCN and convective turbulence complicates the separation of the two effects.

  8. Emissions from International Shipping in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J. J.; Winebrake, J. J.; Gold, M.; Harder, S.

    2008-12-01

    Studies assessing the potential impacts of international shipping on climate and air pollution demonstrate that ships contribute significantly to global climate change and health impacts through emission of GHGs and raised the potential for disproportionate impacts from shipping in the Arctic region. We present an activity- based model inventory of emissions of CO2, BC, NOx, SOx, PM, and CO for shipping in the Arctic. We estimate emissions for a particular "vessel-trip" or "voyage" based on Arctic shipping data collected by the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment for 2004. The detailed voyage data provided for our inventory effort included some 3800 ship trips, represent some 2.6 million km of ship voyages (range 2.0 to 3.9 million km, or 1.1 to 2.1 million nautical miles), and nearly 15,000 voyage days for 2004; this is equivalent to less than 500 transoceanic voyages, compared to many tens of thousands transoceanic voyages per year to major ports around the world. In 2004, the top five vessel types, bulk carrier, general cargo, fishing, government vessels, and containerships, account for nearly 80 percent of total emissions. Preliminary results show CO2 emissions from shipping in the Arctic to be approximately 2.3 Tg CO2 per yr. Given that total CO2 emissions from international shipping globally are about 1000 Tg CO2 per yr, Arctic contributions would amount to less than 0.25 percent of total ship emissions. Relative to total CO2 emissions from all sources, the contributions of Arctic shipping are on the order of one-hundredth of one percent (0.006-0.008 percent). BC emissions from Arctic shipping, on a mass basis alone (estimated here to be ~600 tonnes /year), may have limited independent impact on global climate change compared to other sources, but could have significant regional impacts. More concerning may be micro-scale emissions (e.g., at harbor or in port) which could affect local air pollution or ecosystems, depending on regional conditions. Pollutants

  9. Shipping, Ships and Waterways: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit is designed to increase familiarity with various types of ships and purposes for different varieties of marine vessels. It seeks to increase familiarity with routes of ocean shipping and the effect of ocean conditions such as currents upon shipping route patterns. A discussion treats the uses of various navigation…

  10. Optimized parameters for fluorescence-based verification of ballast water exchange by ships.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathleen R; Ruiz, Gregory M; Dunsmuir, William T M; Waite, T David

    2006-04-01

    Mid-ocean ballast water exchange is mandatory for ships discharging foreign ballast in US territorial waters in order to reduce the risk of biological invasions. However, a reliable tool for determining whether the procedure took place is lacking. We investigated chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence as a tracer of mid-ocean exchange on nine research cruises out of Asia, Europe, and the USA, focusing on challenging source conditions (high salinity, low CDOM). Using parallel factor analysis, we identified nine independent fluorescent components present in varying concentrations in the ocean and in ballast water. One component was sufficient for predicting the coastal vs oceanic source of most ballast water samples. Across nine cruises, thresholds (1.7 and 0.7 ppb quinine sulfate equivalent units) at two fixed wavelength pairs (lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 320/414 and 370/496 nm, respectively) discriminated coastal from oceanic ballast water in > 95% of samples (N = 514). Our results suggest that single- and dual-channel fluorometers could be optimized for verifying ballast water exchange. PMID:16646474

  11. Mother ship and physical agents collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Budulas, Peter P.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that investigates the feasibility of developing a collaboration architecture between small physical agents and a mother ship. This incudes the distribution of planning, perception, mobility, processing and communications requirements between the mother ship and the agents. Small physical agents of the future will be virtually everywhere on the battlefield of the 21st century. A mother ship that is coupled to a team of small collaborating physical agents (conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); logistics; sentry; and communications relay) will be used to build a completely effective and mission capable intelligent system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the smaller agents. The mother ship also establishes a robust communications network between the agents and is the primary information disseminating and receiving point to the external world. Because of its global knowledge and processing power, the mother ship does the high-level control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. This high level control and interaction between the mother ship and its agents (including inter agent collaboration) will be software agent architecture based. The mother ship incorporates multi-resolution battlefield visualization and analysis technology, which aids in mission planning and sensor fusion.

  12. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  13. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  14. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  15. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  16. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Except for a hazardous waste, the certification is not required for shipments to be transported entirely... shipping paper required by this section must retain a copy or an electronic image thereof, that is... locations. For a hazardous waste, the shipping paper copy must be retained for three years after...

  17. A life-saving device for ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converti, P.

    1985-01-01

    A life-saving device is described which can be used on either ships or airplanes. The device consists of an airtight container for passengers equipped with elements needed for survival (oxygen, food, medicines, etc.), an energy source, and a parachute. This device can be ejected from the plane or ship when an emergency arises.

  18. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  19. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  20. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  1. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  2. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  3. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  4. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  5. All-weather ice information system for Alaskan arctic coastal shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.; Jirberg, R. J.; Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Chase, T. L.; Kramarchuk, I.; Nagy, L. A.; Hanlon, R. A.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A near real-time ice information system designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope is described. The system utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures showing the type, areal distribution and concentration of ice cover were developed. In order to guide vessel operational movements, near real-time SLAR image data were transmitted directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images developed in Cleveland were subsequently facsimile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in ice forecasting and also as a demonstration back to Barrow via the Communications Technology Satellite.

  6. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-03-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference from a factor of 1.5 to two orders of magnitude. Despite these large discrepancies in existing ship emission inventories for air pollutants very little has been done to evaluate their consistency with atmospheric measurements at open sea. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black

  7. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  8. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  9. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  10. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  12. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  13. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  14. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  15. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  16. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  19. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  20. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  4. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  5. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  6. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  7. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  8. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  9. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  10. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  11. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  13. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  15. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  16. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  17. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  18. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  20. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at ABS... requirements in this subpart. The American Bureau of Shipping is authorized to place the official seal of...